Sample records for reduced abuse potential

  1. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)


    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.


    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evalu...

  2. Child Abuse Potential and Authoritarianism. (United States)

    Robitaille, Joanne; And Others


    Examined the relationship between child abuse, as measured by the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory, and authoritarianism, as measured by the Public Opinion Scale (POS). Results indicated a nonsignificant relationship between abuse scores and authoritarianism. However, significant relationships were found betwen the CAP abuse factor rigidity…

  3. Drug abuse potential evaluation in animals. (United States)

    Balster, R L


    Animal laboratory studies can provide useful information concerning the potential of drugs for abuse. Over the past 50 years, methods have been developed for use with animal subjects which allow the evaluation of pharmacological properties of drugs which are particularly relevant to their abuse. The methods for preclinical drug abuse liability testing are reviewed under six heading: (1) establishment of the degree of pharmacological equivalence to known drugs of abuse, (2) drug discrimination studies, (3) tests of tolerance and cross-tolerance, (4) tests of physical dependence capacity, (5) drug self-administration tests of reinforcing effects, and (6) evaluation of toxicity and performance impairment at self-administered doses. Preclinical studies can be helpful early in drug development to select lead compounds with low abuse potential for further study. In the case of new or already marketed medications, animal testing can often compliment and extend abuse liability evaluation in human subjects. The results of abuse potential evaluation studies can be useful in making decisions about the possible need for regulation under national and international drug laws, and thus play an important role in drug abuse prevention. PMID:1786486

  4. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse. (United States)


    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food...Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug Administration will inform the...

  5. 75 FR 9401 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Grants To Reduce Alcohol Abuse... (United States)


    ...Information; Grants To Reduce Alcohol Abuse; Notice Inviting Applications...and effective programs to reduce alcohol abuse in secondary schools. Priority...applications that meet this priority. Alcohol Abuse Reduction. This priority...

  6. Abuse (United States)

    ... ways to stop. Back Continue What Are the Effects of Abuse? When people are abused, it can affect every ... report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can ...

  7. Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine


    Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.


    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

  8. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.


    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  9. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija


    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  10. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development. (United States)

    Kelley, Susan J.


    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  11. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard


    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. PMID:24145397

  12. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability (United States)


    ...supervision. If a drug has abuse potential, the Secretary...for scheduling to the Drug Enforcement Administration...described in Title 21 United States Code (U.S.C...scientific evaluation of the abuse potential of a drug for HHS, in...

  13. Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments. (United States)

    Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A


    Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

  14. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.


    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  15. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Saini, Michael; Wu, Meng-Jia; MacFadden, Robert


    Objectives: The Internet has created a new communication tool, particularly for young people whose use of electronic communication is exploding worldwide. While there are many benefits that result from electronic-based communication, the Internet is concurrently a potential site for abuse and victimization. Methods: This paper systematically…

  16. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors (United States)

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin


    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  17. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M


    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  18. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M


    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  19. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul


    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. PMID:24331549

  20. Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth. (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P


    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships. PMID:23148553

  1. Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Kathrine C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative attractiveness of 14 opioid analgesic products. Methods First, the concept of attractiveness was empirically defined with a group of prescription opioid abusers and experts in opioid abuse using a process called Concept Mapping. Abuse liability consisted of two components: factors intrinsic to the drug formulation (e.g., speed of onset, duration and factors extrinsic to drug formulation (e.g., availability, availability of alternatives, cost. A 17-item Opioid Attractiveness Scale (OAS was constructed, focusing on factors intrinsic to the drug product. Results A total of 144 individuals participated in tests of validity and reliability. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's ? = 0.85–0.94. Drug rankings based on OAS scores achieved good inter-rater agreement (Kendall's W 0.37, p Conclusion An initial examination of the psychometric properties of the OAS suggests that it is a valid and reliable scale. The OAS may be useful in providing important guidance on product features that are attractive to potential abusers.

  2. Elder abuse through a prism of perceptions : perspectives of potential witnesses


    Erlingsson, Christen


    The overall aim of this thesis was to deepen understanding of elder abuse (EA) by exploring and comparing perceptions held by experts, older persons, representatives of potential support organizations, and family members. Experts’ perspectives (I) were examined through risk indicators and screening questions (a) located in EA literature and (b) selected by an international Delphi panel. Risk indicators most commonly found in the literature or selected by the panel were compiled into consens...

  3. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion? (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.


    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  4. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast, which would be performed at the same time as standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy, is a breast conserving estrogen-receptor-independent option that may have the potential to significantly decrease the disturbingly high second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast of long-term breast cancer survivors.

  5. Pathways for practice and policy to reduce adolescent alcohol abuse: interpretations from a qualitative study. (United States)

    Coleman, Lester M; Cater, Suzanne


    This paper highlights pathways for practice and policy to reduce alcohol abuse among adolescents aged 14-17 years. These pathways have been generated following a qualitative study in England that explored adolescents' motivations for binge drinking and the associated outcomes. There are three distinct pathways under consideration. Firstly, the research clearly evidences the close link between binge drinking and an array of risky outcomes, thus supporting policies that tackle generic risk taking (such as Youth Development Programmes). Secondly, given the widely reported positive motivations for binge drinking, adopting a harm-minimisation approach may be more appropriate than promoting abstinence. This harm-minimisation approach can build on strategies reported by adolescents (such as drinking in groups) and consider safer, more supervised venues for adolescent drinking. Thirdly, this study highlights key risk groups, which would arguably be in greater need of harm-minimisation strategies. These were adolescents who drank primarily for the 'buzz', and also those younger age groups (particularly 14 and 15-year-olds) whose drinking was mostly confined to unsupervised, often outdoor locations. This was in contrast to slightly older age groups who, although illegally, were often able to access licensed premises which exerted more control over their drinking. The paper closes by referencing some of the wider policy issues, which must be taken into consideration when attempting to change the culture of binge drinking in England. These include issues surrounding the advertising and marketing of alcohol, the provision of alcohol education in schools and the promotion of alternative, safer activities for adolescents. PMID:16639857

  6. Child Discipline and Physical Abuse in Immigrant Latino Families: Reducing Violence and Misunderstandings. (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson


    This article examines common areas of misunderstanding between professionals and low-income Latino families concerning issues of physical abuse. It argues that low-income immigrant children deserve the same protection from harsh physical punishment as all other children. (Contains 57 references.) (GCP)

  7. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential (United States)

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail


    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  8. Effects of seven drugs of abuse on action potential repolarisation in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres. (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert D; Turner, Simon R; Cooper, Graham J; Tattersall, John E H


    Seven drugs of abuse have been examined for effects on the action potential in sheep isolated cardiac Purkinje fibres. Phencyclidine (5 microM) induced a significant increase (30.7%) in action potential duration at 90% repolarisation (APD(90)). Similarly, 10 microM 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') induced a significant increase in APD(90) of 12.1%. Although Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (0.1 microM) induced a small, but statistically significant, 4.8% increase in APD(90), no effects were observed at 0.01 or 1 microM. Cocaethylene (10 microM) induced a significant shortening of APD(90) (-23.8%). Cocaine (up to 1 microM), (+)-methamphetamine ('Speed'; up to 5 microM), and the heroin metabolite, morphine (up to 5 microM), had no statistically significant effects. The possible significance of these findings is discussed in the context of other recognised cardiac effects of the tested drugs. PMID:15792777

  9. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  10. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse. (United States)

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A


    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  11. Acute mental disturbance caused by synthetic cannabinoid: a potential emerging substance of abuse in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Tung, C K; Chiang, T P; Lam, M


    Synthetic cannabinoids are hybrid herbal/chemical products which mimic the effects of cannabis. They are usually marketed as incense or 'herbal smoking blend', and best known by the brand names 'K2' and 'Spice'. Their popularity among recreational drug abusers has grown rapidly due to their easy availability, relatively low cost, non-detection by conventional drug tests, and ease of concealing their use from family and authorities. They took Europe and later North America by storm in the late 2000s, yet limited medical literature exists detailing their adverse effects. They began to emerge in the Hong Kong drug scene in 2009. We report on a man who developed acute mental disturbance after 4 weeks of daily K2 abuse. This is the first case report of mental disorder caused by synthetic cannabinoid abuse in a Chinese. PMID:22447803

  12. Do Research Intermediaries Reduce Perceived Coercion to Enter Research Trials Among Criminally Involved Substance Abusers?


    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.


    We examined the efficacy of including a research intermediary (RI) during the consent process in reducing participants’ perceptions of coercion to enroll in a research study. Eighty-four drug court clients being recruited into an ongoing study were randomized to receive a standard informed consent process alone (standard condition) or with an RI (intermediary condition). Before obtaining consent, RIs met with clients individually to discuss remaining concerns. Findings provided preliminary ...

  13. Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

  14. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane


    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based". There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) to M(5)). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knock-out mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M(1)-M(5) receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS.

  15. The Use of a Vibrator to Reduce Self-Abusive Behaviors in a Mentally and Sensorially Handicapped Individual. (United States)

    Fischer, Margaret

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of an electric vibrator on the deceleration and/or extinction of 10 self abusive and aberrant behaviors in a profoundly retarded, nonambulatory 25 year old female who could not hear, see, or speak. At the end of 41 twenty minute sessions, seven of the target behaviors approached extinction and three were…

  16. Trimethylangelicin reduces IL-8 transcription and potentiates CFTR function. (United States)

    Tamanini, Anna; Borgatti, Monica; Finotti, Alessia; Piccagli, Laura; Bezzerri, Valentino; Favia, Maria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Francesco; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Fabbri, Enrica; Mancini, Irene; Nicolis, Elena; Casavola, Valeria; Cabrini, Giulio; Gambari, Roberto


    Chronic inflammatory response in the airway tract of patients affected by cystic fibrosis is characterized by an excessive recruitment of neutrophils to the bronchial lumina, driven by the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. We previously found that 5-methoxypsoralen reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription in bronchial epithelial cell lines, with an IC(50) of 10 ?M (Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bezzerri V, Bianchi N, Mazzon M, Mancini I, Giri MG, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G. Int Immunopharmacol 9: 1411-1422, 2009). Here, we extended the investigation to analogs of 5-methoxypsoralen, and we found that the most potent effect is obtained with 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), which inhibits P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription at nanomolar concentration in IB3-1, CuFi-1, CFBE41o-, and Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell lines. Analysis of phosphoproteins involved in proinflammatory transmembrane signaling evidenced that TMA reduces the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase-1 and AKT2/3, which we found indeed involved in P. aeruginosa-dependent activation of IL-8 gene transcription by testing the effect of pharmacological inhibitors. In addition, we found a docking site of TMA into NF-?B by in silico analysis, whereas inhibition of the NF-?B/DNA interactions in vitro by EMSA was observed at high concentrations (10 mM TMA). To further understand whether NF-?B pathway should be considered a target of TMA, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed, and we observed that TMA (100 nM) preincubated in whole living cells reduced the interaction of NF-?B with the promoter of IL-8 gene. These results suggest that TMA could inhibit IL-8 gene transcription mainly by intervening on driving the recruitment of activated transcription factors on IL-8 gene promoter, as demonstrated here for NF-?B. Although the complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TMA deserves further investigation, an activity of TMA on phosphorylating pathways was already demonstrated by our study. Finally, since psoralens have been shown to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated chloride transport, TMA was tested and found to potentiate CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. In conclusion, TMA is a dual-acting compound reducing excessive IL-8 expression and potentiating CFTR function. PMID:21148790

  17. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations


    Turk, Dennis C.; O’connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.


    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many ...

  18. Inhalant abuse


    Baydala, L.


    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic...

  19. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO2 emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significan and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation. However, the trees have to be grown on good sites; otherwise long rotations could be better options for broad-leaved stands. In coniferous stands, a shortened rotation period resulted in lower carbon stocks than a prolonged rotation period, but the amount of residues that could substitute fossil fuel increased with a shorter rotation. However, annual rates of carbon accumulation in biomass might decline in both short- and long-rotation stands in the future. If so, carbon sequestration in biomass would not be the best option. In a long-term perspective, wood products could have high potential to reduce net CO2 emissions, since wood can replace energy-intensive materials like cement, plastics and aluminium. Intensively managed forests (e.g. fertilized forests or shortened rotation lengths) could contribute more to reductions in CO2 emissions than current forest management. Using forest products (i.e. wood products and biofuel) is probably more important than storing carbon in biomass and soil, but it is necessary to conserve the existing stocks. Intensive forest management and increased use of biomass may, however, conflict with environmental quality objectives

  20. Potential for reducing air pollution from oil refineries. (United States)

    Karbassi, A R; Abbasspour, M; Sekhavatjou, M S; Ziviyar, F; Saeedi, M


    Islamic Republic of Iran has to invest 95 billion US$ for her new oil refineries to the year 2045. At present, the emission factors for CO(2), NO( x ) and SO(2) are 3.5, 4.2 and 119 times higher than British refineries, respectively. In order to have a sustainable development in Iranian oil refineries, the government has to set emission factors of European Community as her goal. At present CO(2) per Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in the country is about 2.7 kg CO(2) as 1995's USD value that should be reduced to 1.25 kg CO(2)/GDP in the year 2015. Total capital investment for such reduction is estimated at 346 million USD which is equal to 23 USD/ton of CO(2). It is evident that mitigation of funds set by Clean Development Mechanism (3 to 7 USD/tons of CO(2)) is well below the actual capital investment needs. Present survey shows that energy efficiency promotion potential in all nine Iranian oil refineries is about 165,677 MWh/year through utilization of more efficient pumps and compressors. Better management of boilers in all nine refineries will lead to a saving of 273 million m(3) of natural gas per year. PMID:18066676

  1. A Review of the Child Abuse Literature. (United States)

    Lee, Jeannine

    The paper presents a review of the literature on physical child abuse. Aspects covered include the history of child abuse, incidence and statistics, definitions, improved reporting and detection systems, the physician's role, informing the public, child abuse theories, potential for abuse in the parent, the child's own contribution to his or her…

  2. Financial Abuse (United States)

    Financial Abuse Elder financial abuse spans a broad spectrum of conduct, including: Taking money or property Forging an older person's signature Getting an ... false pretence, or dishonest acts or statements for financial gain Telemarketing scams. Perpetrators call victims and use ...

  3. Physical Abuse (United States)

    Physical Abuse Physical abuse is physical force or violence that results in bodily injury, pain, or impairment. ... or clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns ...

  4. The abuse potential of oxethazaine: effects of oxethazaine on drug-seeking behavior and analysis of its metabolites in plasma and hair in animal models. (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Yeun; You, In-Jee; Kim, Min-Jung; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jang, Moon-Hee; Oh, Seung-Min; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon


    Oxethazaine, an over-the-counter (OTC) antacid, is a precursor of phentermine, which is the most abused anorectic by methamphetamine users in Korea. However, no studies have investigated the abuse potential of oxethazaine. Therefore, we examined and compared the consequences of oxethazaine and phentermine treatment on animal models of conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration. Furthermore, oxethazaine and its metabolites in rat plasma were monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after oxethazaine administration, and compared with phentermine itself after phentermine administration to clarify the relationship between phentermine production by oxethazaine ingestion and the possible oxethazaine dependence. Oxethazaine metabolites were also determined by LC-MS/MS in rat hair after oxethazaine administration to investigate the possibility of phentermine detection in hair from oxethazaine abusers. In the behavioral experiment, phentermine (3mg/kg) produced CPP in mice while oxethazaine (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) did not. Moreover, phentermine (0.25mg/kg/infusion) was self-administered by rats at 80% of free-feeding weight, whereas oxethazaine was not. In the analytical study, mephentermine and phentermine, both oxethazaine metabolites, were detected below the limit of quantitation or not detected in both plasma and hair from rats that had ingested oxethazaine (10mg/kg, single dose or for 2weeks). On the other hand, phentermine was detected in plasma and hair samples from rats that had ingested phentermine (10mg/kg, single dose or for 2weeks). Consequently, phentermine induced significant rewarding effects, but oxethazaine did not. Presumably, either oxethazaine does not have any abuse potential or oxethazaine metabolism to phentermine does not result in a pharmacologically active level of psychostimulant in the body. Furthermore, phentermine was not a major metabolite in hair obtained from oxethazaine abusers, which should make it possible to differentiate between chronic oxethazaine and phentermine users. PMID:23402942

  5. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse (United States)

    ... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

  6. Early Detection of Child Abuse


    Shearman, J. K.


    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  7. Inhalant abuse. (United States)

    Baydala, L


    Inhalant abuse - also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging - is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  8. What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse? (United States)

    ... lost the ability to manage his or her finances. Arranging for trustworthy people to help can reduce ... services include: Shelters Counseling for victims and abusers Crisis lines Support groups Services for Abusers Some situations ...

  9. Vaccines for Drug Abuse


    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.


    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...

  10. Potential options to reduce GHG [greenhouse gases] emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M. [Ministry of Energy and Mines, Caracas (Venezuela). Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources


    This paper presents a summary of the technologies and practices that could be implemented in Venezuela in order to contribute to both climate change mitigation and national development efforts. The mitigation analysis concentrates on options to reduce COsub(2) emissions generated from the energy sector and land-use change. From the mitigation options analyzed for the energy sector it was determined that the most effective are those in the transportation sector (switching to larger capacity vehicles, reduced private vehicle share, and switching fuels for public transportation from gasoline to natural gas), both in terms of contribution to emissions reduction and costs. Regarding the options for industry, boilers conversion from liquids to natural gas show negative cost, but to a considerably lower extent than for the transportation sector. Efficiency improvements of natural gas boilers, which presents close to zero cost, is more effective in reducing emissions than boiler conversion. Increase in hydro power generation is the alternative with the highest total cost but it is very effective in reducing emissions. An analysis of the barriers to mitigation options implementation shows that in the energy sector, low energy prices represent the main barrier to any mitigation program. Another important limitation to mitigation strategies implementation is the lack of institutional capacity and legal instruments for developing the mitigation measures. (author)

  11. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)


    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  12. Assessing the Genetic Potential of Uncultivated Sulfate Reducing Bacteria


    Schreiber, Lars


    The anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate (AOM) removes more than 90% of the methane produced in marine sediments. The process is mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Previous studies focusing on the archaeal part of ANME/SRB consortia yielded as yet only a fragmentary understanding of this process. Additionally, whereas ANME clades have been repeatedly studied with respect to phylogeny, key genes, and genomic capabilities...

  13. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.


    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  14. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products


    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.


    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical...

  15. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides play a role in drug abuse and are potential therapeutic targets


    Kuhar, Michael J.; Jaworski, Jason N.; Hubert, George W.; Philpot, Kelly B.; Dominguez, Geraldina


    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides (55 to 102 and 62 to 102) are neurotransmitters with important roles in a number of physiologic processes. They have a role in drug abuse by virtue of the fact that they are modulators of mesolimbic function. Key findings supporting a role in drug abuse are as follows. First, high densities of CART-containing nerve terminals are localized in mesolimbic areas. Second, CART 55 to 102 blunts some of the behavioral effects of cocaine a...

  16. Potential of glyburide to reduce intracerebral edema in brain metastases. (United States)

    Boggs, Drexell Hunter; Simard, J Marc; Steven, Andrew; Mehta, Minesh P


    Metastatic disease to the brain results in significant morbidity because of edema in the central nervous system. Current anti-edema therapies are either expensive or result in unwanted long-term side effects. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1) is a transmembrane protein that, when activated in the central nervous system, allows for unregulated sodium influx into cells, a process that has been linked to cytotoxic edema formation in ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and, most recently, brain metastases. In this focused review, we explore preclinical data linking Sur1 channel formation to development of edema and reference evidence suggesting that the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug glyburide (a Sur1 inhibitor) is an inexpensive and well-tolerated agent that can be clinically tested to reduce or prevent malignancy and/or treatment-associated edema. PMID:24552576

  17. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices (United States)

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.


    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  18. Child Abuse. (United States)

    Starr, Raymond H.


    Reviews definitions, causal hypotheses, research, and information regarding incidence and treatment of child abuse. Discusses problems with screening, including poor validity of the measures utilized to predict abuse, invasion of family privacy, and the absence of adequate treatment and prevention programs. (GC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  20. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MSE, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF eir specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  1. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)


    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  2. Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats


    Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak


    Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

  3. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging cansocietal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  4. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry


    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  5. Inhibition of CREB activity in the dorsal portion of the striatum potentiates behavioral responses to drugs of abuse


    StefaniaFasano; ChristopherPittenger


    The striatum participates in multiple forms of behavioral adaptation, including habit formation, other forms of procedural memory, and short- and long-term responses to drugs of abuse. The cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in various forms of behavioral plasticity, but its role in the dorsal portion of the striatum-has been little explored. We previously showed that in transgenic mice in which CREB function is inhibited in t...

  6. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity. (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel


    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pintroduction of adult interpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (p<.001 and p=.002, respectively), and the model showed a good fit across multiple indices. Finally, weight-related teasing was a significant moderator in the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. PMID:24412223

  7. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  8. The Community Pulling Together: A Tribal Community-University Partnership Project to Reduce Substance Abuse and Promote Good Health in a Reservation Tribal Community


    Thomas, Lisa R.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin Lw; Austin, Lisette; Marlatt, G. Alan


    Alcohol and drug abuse are major areas of concern for many American Indian/Alaska Native communities. Research on these problems has often been less than successful, in part because many researchers are not sensitive to the culture and traditions of the tribes and communities with which they are working. They also often fail to incorporate tribal customs, traditions, and values into the interventions developed to deal with substance abuse. We describe the use of Community-Based Participatory ...

  9. Twins abused by their father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  10. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail:; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)


    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.

  11. Combining a reactive potential with a harmonic approximation for molecular dynamics simulation of failure: construction of a reduced potential (United States)

    Tejada, I. G.; Brochard, L.; Stoltz, G.; Legoll, F.; Lelièvre, T.; Cancès, E.


    Molecular dynamics is a simulation technique that can be used to study failure in solids, provided the inter-atomic potential energy is able to account for the complex mechanisms at failure. Reactive potentials fitted on ab initio results or on experimental values have the ability to adapt to any complex atomic arrangement and, therefore, are suited to simulate failure. But the complexity of these potentials, together with the size of the systems considered, make simulations computationally expensive. In order to improve the efficiency of numerical simulations, simpler harmonic potentials can be used instead of complex reactive potentials in the regions where the system is close to its ground state and a harmonic approximation reasonably fits the actual reactive potential. However the validity and precision of such an approach has not been investigated in detail yet. We present here a methodology for constructing a reduced potential and combining it with the reactive one. We also report some important features of crack propagation that may be affected by the coupling of reactive and reduced potentials. As an illustrative case, we model a crystalline two-dimensional material (graphene) with a reactive empirical bond-order potential (REBO) or with harmonic potentials made of bond and angle springs that are designed to reproduce the second order approximation of REBO in the ground state. We analyze the consistency of this approximation by comparing the mechanical behavior and the phonon spectra of systems modeled with these potentials. These tests reveal when the anharmonicity effects appear. As anharmonic effects originate from strain, stress or temperature, the latter quantities are the basis for establishing coupling criteria for on the fly substitution in large simulations.

  12. Capacidade discriminante do inventário de potencial de abuso na infância: dados numa amostra de progenitores portugueses / Discriminant ability of the child abuse potential inventory: data from a sample of Portuguese parents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Manuela, Calheiros; Eunice, Magalhães; Patrício, Costa.


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar a capacidade discriminante do Inventário de Potencial de Abuso na Infância (CAP), numa amostra de 641 progenitores portugueses. Trinta e sete por cento da amostra é constituída por progenitores maltratantes sinalizados às Comissões de Proteção de Crianças e Joven [...] s e avaliados através do Questionário de Avaliação do Mau Trato, Negligência e Abuso Sexual. Os resultados indicaram que os progenitores maltratantes reportam valores significativamente superiores na Escala de Abuso e em todas as suas dimensões. Do ponto de vista da capacidade discriminante, a função da Escala de Abuso Global classificou corretamente 79,9% e a função das subdimensões da Escala classificou corretamente 83,3% dos casos. Estes resultados revelam a potencialidade do instrumento na identificação de situações de potencial abuso na infância no contexto português. Abstract in english This study aims to test discriminant ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) in a sample of 641 Portuguese parents. Thirty-seven percent of the sample is composed by abusive parents reported to the Comissions for the Protection of Children and Young People and evaluated by an assessment [...] questionnaire of maltreatment, neglect and sexual abuse. Abusive parents showed significantly higher scores on the Abuse Scale and in all of its dimensions. Considering the discriminant analysis, the Abuse Scale correctly classified 79.9% of the cases and the function of sub dimensions correctly classified 83.3% of the cases. These results reveal the capacity of CAP in identifying cases of potential child abuse in the Portuguese context.

  13. The Relative Abuse Liability of Oral Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Hydromorphone Assessed in Prescription Opioid Abusers


    Walsh, Sharon L.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Holtman, Joseph R.


    Abuse of prescription opioids has risen precipitously in the United States. Few controlled comparisons of the abuse liability of the most commonly abused opioids have been conducted. This outpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential and potency of oral oxycodone (10, 20 & 40 mg), hydrocodone (15, 30 & 45 mg), hydromorphone (10, 17.5 & 25 mg) and placebo. Healthy adult volunteers (n=9) with sporadic pres...

  14. Elder Abuse (United States)

    ... may have additional worries. Many put their own financial future on hold when they give up paying jobs ... service agencies can help with emotional, legal, and financial problems. If you ... Is the Long-Term Effect of Abuse? Most physical wounds heal in ...

  15. Abusive Relationships (United States)

    ... Dating Abuse Hotline: 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-SAFE (1-800-799-7233) Previous Next: Survival Tips Written by the CYWH and YMH Staff at Children's Hospital Boston Updated: 3/24/2015 Looking for ...

  16. Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity. (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo


    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors. PMID:25024177

  17. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans EA


    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Evans, Maria A Sullivan Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Background: Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI” and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine” in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results: A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous. Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion: The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and implemented. Keywords: antidepressant, prescription, misuse, abuse, nonmedical use, dependence, addiction

  18. New drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth


    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  19. Oxytocin Reduces Background Anxiety in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm: Peripheral vs Central Administration


    Ayers, Luke W.; Missig, Galen; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B.


    Oxytocin is known to have anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects. Using a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats, we previously demonstrated that subcutaneously administered oxytocin suppressed acoustic startle following fear conditioning compared with startle before fear conditioning (termed background anxiety), but did not have an effect on cue-specific fear-potentiated startle. The findings suggest oxytocin reduces background anxiety, an anxious state not directly related to cue-specific ...

  20. Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intima Alrimawi


    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

  1. A therapeutic dose of zolpidem has limited abuse-like effects in drug-naïve females: A pilot study


    Licata, Stephanie C.; Penetar, David M.; Dunlap, Steven; Lukas, Scott E.


    Zolpidem has abuse potential, particularly among individuals with histories of drug abuse. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross over pilot study investigated the subjective effects of zolpidem (10 mg) in drug-naïve females. Over the course of a 5-h period vital signs were monitored and a series of computerized questionnaires were administered. Results indicate that zolpidem engendered subjective effects characteristic of hypnotic drugs, but reduced ratings of drug liking, willing to ...

  2. Evaluating on-line high purity water oxidizing-reducing potential analysis for boiler feedwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Vickie G. [Honeywell Field Solutions, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Conditioned boiler feedwater was analyzed with a unique flowing-junction oxidizing-reducing potential (ORP) analyzer in comparison with dissolved oxygen and other parameters. Two different fossil plant boiler chemistries were utilized in the evaluation. Correlations were drawn between ORP, dissolved oxygen, and hydrazine levels to determine the usefulness of this ORP analysis for corrosion control. (orig.)

  3. Risk management in tianeptine abuse in Turkey: a national experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nedim durmus


    Conclusion: Although tianeptine has several advantages compared with tricyclic antidepressants, it should be carefully observed for abuse potential especially in patients with the history of dependence or abuse of any drug or alcohol.

  4. Reducing the mixed waste potential at Comanche Peak building a mixed waste prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas Utilities Comanche Peak Station has developed an effective program to reduce hazardous waste generation and reduce the potential to generate mixed low-level waste. A small group task team was chartered to streamline the process for evaluating all chemical and consumable products used at Comanche Peak. By identifying hazardous waste producing chemical and consumable products before they arrive on site, use strategies, disposal information, and other restrictions are developed to reduce the likelihood that a mixed waste will be created. Some hazardous waste producing products are no longer allowed into the radiation controlled areas, thus eliminating the potential for creating a mixed waste from those products. Distinctive labels supply basic usage restrictions to plant workers

  5. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yokohari


    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  7. Drug abuse first aid (United States)

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  8. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects


    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.


    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  9. A dipole polarizable potential for reduced and doped CeO2 obtained from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO2. We use a dipole polarizable potential (DIPPIM: the dipole polarizable ion model) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of density functional theory calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO2 and by comparing them against experimental values. The values for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) are within 10-15% of the experimental ones, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic scale properties of CeO2 in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size limitations.

  10. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt? (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W


    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N?O], methane [CH?], and carbon dioxide [CO?]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N?O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N?O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. PMID:21869517

  11. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse. (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J


    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7 % of the sample, and 67 % was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8 % of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  12. An Empirical Evaluation Of The Potential Of Public E-Procurement To Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Neupane


    Full Text Available One of the significant potential benefits of e-procurement technology is reducing opportunities for corruption in public procurement processes. The authors identified anti-corruption capabilities of e-procurement through an extensive literature review and a theoretical model representing the impact of three latent variables: monopoly of power, information asymmetry, and transparency and accountability upon the dependent variable, the intent-to-adopt e-procurement. This research was guided by the Principal-Agent theory and collected the perceptions of 46 government officers of the potential of public e-procurement to reduce corruption in public procurement processes. Results were analysed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM approach. The findings suggest that the intent-to-adopt e-procurement has a positive and significant relationship with the independent variables that might inform developing countries in strategies to combat corruption in public procurement.

  13. Blind, deaf, and dumb: why elder abuse goes unidentified. (United States)

    Stark, Sharon W


    Elder abuse is a growing public health concern that affects elders regardless of residence, socioeconomic status, or geographic locale. Elder abuse includes acts of physical, psychological, verbal, and financial abuses as well as abandonment and neglect. Elder abuse has the potential to occur in multiple settings, whether in the home, rehabilitation centers, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and/or senior day care centers. Children, family members, friends, and formal caregivers are prospective perpetrators of elder abuse. Public policy changes are necessary to standardize and delineate guidelines and procedures for the detection and prevention of elder abuse in the future. PMID:22055900

  14. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology


    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas


    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evalu...

  15. A dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential


    Adams, David H.


    A dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential is derived which sheds light on the determinant's dependence on these quantities. This is done via a partial zeta regularisation, formally applying a general formula for the zeta-determinant of a differential operator in one variable with operator-valued coefficients. The resulting expression generalises the known one for the free fermion determinant, obtained via ...

  16. Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya


    Thorlakson Tannis; Neufeldt Henry


    Abstract Subsistence farmers are among the people most vulnerable to current climate variability. Climate models predict that climate change will lead to warmer temperatures, increasing rainfall variability, and increasing severity and frequency of extreme weather events. Agroforestry, or the intentional use of trees in the cropping system, has been proposed by many development practitioners as a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. This study explo...

  17. Reduced Ulcerogenic Potential and Antiarthritic Effect of Chitosan–Naproxen Sodium Complexes


    Ghosh, Pinaki; Bhise, Kiran S.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Bodhankar, S. L.; Kadam, Shivajirao S.


    The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium–chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treate...

  18. Preventive Interventions under Managed Care: Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. Special Report. (United States)

    Dorfman, Sharon L.

    Programs and services that prevent substance abuse and mental health disorders have the potential to lessen an enormous burden of suffering and to reduce both the cost of future treatment and lost productivity at work and home. The availability and accessibility of these interventions to Americans whose health care is provided by managed care…

  19. Amphetamine Dependence and Co-Morbid Alcohol Abuse: Associations to Brain Cortical Thickness


    Jayaram-Lindström Nitya; Hammarberg Anders; Bjerkan Petr S; Lawyer Glenn; Franck Johan; Agartz Ingrid


    Abstract Background Long-term amphetamine and methamphetamine dependence has been linked to cerebral blood perfusion, metabolic, and white matter abnormalities. Several studies have linked methamphetamine abuse to cortical grey matter reduction, though with divergent findings. Few publications investigate unmethylated amphetamine's potential effects on cortical grey matter. This work investigated if amphetamine dependent patients showed reduced cortical grey matter thickness. Subjects were 40...

  20. Potential for reducing air-pollutants while achieving 2 °C global temperature change limit target. (United States)

    Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Akashi, Osamu; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Motoki, Yuko; Hibino, Go


    This study analyzes the potential to reduce air pollutants while achieving the 2 °C global temperature change limit target above pre-industrial levels, by using the bottom-up optimization model, AIM/Enduse[Global]. This study focuses on; 1) estimating mitigation potentials and costs for achieving 2 °C, 2.5 °C, and 3 °C target scenarios, 2) assessing co-benefits of reducing air pollutants such as NOx, SO2, BC, PM, and 3) analyzing features of sectoral attributions in Annex I and Non-Annex I groups of countries. The carbon tax scenario at 50 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 can reduce GHG emissions more than the 3 °C target scenario, but a higher carbon price around 400 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 is required to achieve the 2 °C target scenario. However, there is also a co-benefit of large reduction potential of air pollutants, in the range of 60-80% reductions in 2050 from the reference scenario while achieving the 2 °C target. PMID:25028265

  1. Muscarinic M1 receptor activation reduces maximum upstroke velocity of action potential in mouse right atria. (United States)

    Islam, M A; Nojima, H; Kimura, I


    We investigated whether acetylcholine affects cardiac action potentials through the muscarinic M1 in addition to M2 receptors in spontaneously beating mouse isolated right atria. A conventional glass microelectrode technique was used for the purpose. Acetylcholine (3-10 microM) reduced the maximum upstroke velocity of the action potentials (Vmax), followed by an increase. It shortened action potential duration at 90% repolarization, hyperpolarized the resting membrane and decreased the rate of beating. Atropine (3-100 nM) concentration dependently antagonized these effects of acetylcholine. Pirenzepine (10 and 30 nM), a selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, antagonized acetylcholine (5 microM)-induced reduction of Vmax without affecting other effects of acetylcholine. In addition, pirenzepine (30 nM) induced an immediate and linear acceleration of the VmaX reduced by acetylcholine. In contrast, AF-DX 116 (11(¿2-[(diethylamino)-methyl]-1-piperidyl¿acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6 H-pyridol[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one base, 30-300 nM), a selective muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist, failed to antagonize acetylcholine-induced reduction of Vmax, but abolished its increase. It antagonized the shortening of action potential duration, membrane hyperpolarization and decreased the beating rate. McN-A-343 (4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride, 100 and 300 microM), a muscarinic M1 receptor agonist, reduced Vmax and prolonged action potential duration, while oxotremorine (100-300 nM), a muscarinic M2 receptor agonist, evoked reverse effects. These results suggest that acetylcholine exerts a mixed effect on Vmax, consisting of a reduction and a facilitation, possibly mediated by concurrent activation of muscarinic M1 and M2 receptors, respectively, in isolated right atria of mice. PMID:9652364

  2. Computation of 3-D magnetostatic fields using a reduced scalar potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some improvements to the finite element computation of static magnetic fields in three dimensions using a reduced magnetic scalar potential. New methods are described for obtaining an edge element representation of the rotational part of the magnetic field from a given source current distribution. In the case when the current distribution is not known in advance, a boundary value problem is set up in terms of a current vector potential. An edge element representation of the solution can be directly used in the subsequent magnetostatic calculation. The magnetic field in a D.C. arc furnace is calculated by first determining the current distribution in terms of a current vector potential. A three dimensional problem involving a permanent magnet as well as a coil is solved and the magnetic field in some points is compared with measurement results

  3. Green tea catechins reduced the glycaemic potential of bread: An in vitro digestibility study. (United States)

    Goh, Royston; Gao, Jing; Ananingsih, Victoria K; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Zhou, Weibiao


    Green tea catechins are potent inhibitors of enzymes for carbohydrate digestion. However, the potential of developing low glycaemic index bakery food using green tea extract has not been investigated. Results of this study showed that addition of green tea extract (GTE) at 0.45%, 1%, and 2% concentration levels significantly reduced the glycaemic potential of baked and steamed bread. The average retention levels of catechins in the baked and steamed bread were 75.3-89.5% and 81.4-99.3%, respectively. Bread fortified with 2% GTE showed a significantly lower level of glucose release during the first 90min of pancreatic digestion as well as a lower content of rapidly digested starch (RDS) content. A significantly negative correlation was found between the catechin retention level and the RDS content of bread. The potential of transforming bread into a low GI food using GTE fortification was proven to be promising. PMID:25766819

  4. Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

  5. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse (United States)

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.


    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  6. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)


    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

  7. Child Abuse: Group Treatment for Parents. (United States)

    Otto, Mary L.


    Describes the benefits of group counseling for abusing parents. Suggests that groups structured to maximize peer support and reduce social isolation provide a context in which parents can make changes in cognition and behavior. (Author/JAC)

  8. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse]. (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa


    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different strategies to diagnose and support the victims, namely, systematic denouncement by professionals who suspect this type of abuses, and systematic forensic psychological examination for better valorization of the victim's testimony as well as the veracity of its content. PMID:20350459

  9. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ


    Melissa Thiemi Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf


    Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The...

  10. Interconnection of standard formation heats of metal oxides and reduced ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of the linear dependence between the values of the ?H2980 standard formation heats of metal oxides and reduced ionization potentials Isub(r) is shown. The results have are presented for rare earth oxides, UO2, NpO2, PuO2, WO3, MoO3, Ta2O5, vanadium and niobium oxides. The dependence between the bond length in molecules of oxides and Isub(r) is found. It is established that the Isub(r) can be used as parameters for the estimate of standard heats of chemical compounds formation

  11. A case of drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pacini


    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.

  12. Stability of the minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential with reducible Higgs fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work takes up the problem of finding the absolute minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential for the reducible representation of Higgs fields consisting of the antisymmetric (A) and symmetric (S) traceless second-rank tensors. The stability of the minimum under changes on the potential's parameters is also investigated. Potentials containing S alone, both A and S coupled by a positive semi-definite term are minimized. Eigenstates of the Higgs mass matrix are calculated and related to the behavior of the SO(N)-action. Previous results relying on the absence of pseudo-Goldstone models and a new application of the geometry of the action show that the minimum is stable under small changes of the parameters. It is thus stable in an open region of the full eleven-dimensional parameter space of the most general potential of its kind. The isotropy group of the minimum is found to be either SO(N-p) x SO(p-2) x SO(2) or U({N-p}/2) x U(p/2), and the relative magnitudes of the vacuum expectation values of A and S are not constrained. For SO(10), U(3) x U(2) contains the standard model. One-loop Renormalization Group ?-functions are calculated for all parameters of the model

  13. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi


    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

  14. Options to reduce the environmental impacts of residential buildings in the European Union - Potential and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemry, Francoise; Uihlein, Andreas [Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Edificio Expo, C/Inca Garcilaso 3, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Colodel, Cecilia Makishi; Wittstock, Bastian [LBP Department Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), University of Stuttgart, Hauptstrasse 113, 70771 Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany); Wetzel, Christian; Hasan, Ivana; Niemeier, Sigrid; Frech, Yosrea [CalCon Deutschland AG, Goethestrasse 74, 80336 Muenchen (Germany); Braune, Anna; Kreissig, Johannes; Gallon, Nicole [PE International, Hauptstrasse 111-113, 70771 Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany)


    A typology of buildings representative of the building stock for the EU-25 was developed characterizing 72 building types in terms of their representativity, geographical distribution, size, material composition, and thermal insulation. The life cycle impacts of the building types were calculated for different environmental impact categories both at building and EU-25 level. The use phase of buildings, dominated by the energy demand for heating is by far the most important life cycle phase for existing and new buildings. The environmental impacts were allocated to single building elements. Ventilation, heat losses through roofs and external walls are important for a majority of single- and multi-family houses. Three improvement options were identified: additional roof insulation, additional facade insulation and new sealings to reduce ventilation. The measures yield a significant environmental improvement potential, which, for a majority of the buildings types analyse represent at least 20% compared to the base case. The major improvement potentials at EU-level lie with single-family houses, followed by multi-family houses. Smaller reductions are expected for high-rise buildings due to the smaller share in the overall building stock. For both roof insulation and reduced ventilation, the measures were shown to be economically profitable in a majority of buildings. (author)

  15. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thiemi Kato


    Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6, containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L or not (control, 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear. Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean wear (±se was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

  16. Reduced ulcerogenic potential and antiarthritic effect of chitosan-naproxen sodium complexes. (United States)

    Ghosh, Pinaki; Bhise, Kiran S; Paradkar, Anant R; Bodhankar, S L; Kadam, Shivajirao S


    The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium-chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treated with naproxen 50 mg/kg (p.o.). Thus, the results suggest that the spray-dried naproxen sodium-chitosan complex (NPXF) was not corrosive to the gastric mucosa at high doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (p.o.) under stressful conditions. It is evident from the present investigation that NPXF does not possess any ulcerogenic potential in comparison to naproxen which, under stressful conditions, led to the hypersecretion of HCl, culminating to petichial hemorrhages in the gastric mucosa of the animals. The biphasic pattern was observed in the various arthritic parameters. The rise in paw volume, joint diameter, WBC count, arthritis score, and fall in body weight was significantly ameliorated in the animals treated with NPXF (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o). At the end of the study, slight erythema was visible in the naproxen-treated animals. However, no erythema, redness, or ulcers were visible in the animals treated with NPXF. Thus, the direct compression properties and reduced ulcerogenic activity, combined with the demonstrated solubilizing power and analgesic effect enhancer ability toward the drug, make naproxen sodium-chitosan spray-dried complexes particularly suitable for developing a reduced-dose, fast-release, solid oral dosage form of naproxen. PMID:22711255

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  18. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse. (United States)

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E


    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  19. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  20. Skin manifestations of child abuse


    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin


    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  1. Controversies and challenges of ritual abuse. (United States)

    Valente, S


    Children who have survived ritual abuse have endured physical, psychological, and sexual trauma; brain-washing; and mind-altering drugs. Their trust in adults has been eroded. Their coping strategies include anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation. Although reports of ritual abuse initially seem hard to believe, nurses have a responsibility to detect clues to abuse, diagnose the child's responses, and recognize controversial issues regarding ritual abuse. To evaluate ritual abuse, nurses should avoid interview strategies that influence the child's recall (e.g., coaching, suggestions) and recognize that some reports are discounted as false memories because they emerge from fantasy, distortions, innocent deceptions, false beliefs, lies, or adult coaching. Nurses play an important role in case finding and treatment. They can evaluate clues to ritual abuse to reduce sources of error in assessment, build a child's trust, monitor their own attitudes toward ritual abuse, and intervene to increase self-esteem, empathy, boundary establishment, and coping. Nurses have an important opportunity to detect and begin healing the wounds caused by a child's abuse. PMID:11105292

  2. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  4. Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction (United States)

    ... as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. Beyond its devastating effects on individual health, methamphetamine abuse threatens whole communities, causing new waves of crime, unemployment, child neglect or abuse, and other social ills. A ...

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  6. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melissa Thiemi, Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.


    Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a [...] crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

  7. Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms (United States)

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh


    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481?mWm?2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems. PMID:25531093

  8. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes. (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M


    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m(3); 3h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks. PMID:25549921



    Bano Rubeena; Agarwal V.K; Kalakoti Piyush; Ahmed Nadeem


    The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The proce...

  10. Abuse of prescription drugs.


    Wilford, B. B.


    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  11. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  12. Potential for reducing electricity demand for lighting in households: An exploratory socio-technical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminance data were collected from 18 UK dwellings during 1-week periods in spring 2007, to establish when luminaires were used and to calculate electricity consumption for lighting. Householders were also interviewed about lighting use and choices. The potential for reducing lighting electricity consumption by replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is assessed. Mean weekly electricity consumption for lighting was 3.756 kW h and mean proportion of total electricity consumption used for lighting was 6.55%. It is notable, however, that participants generally expressed high levels of environmental awareness and that electricity consumption figures for less environmentally-aware households may differ. On average, households could have reduced lighting electricity consumption by 50.9% if all incandescent bulbs were replaced with CFLs. Even householders making extensive use of efficient lighting technologies expressed concerns about these technologies' performance, but seemed willing to tolerate perceived shortcomings for environmental reasons. However, the study raises questions about whether people without strong environmental motivations can be convinced that efficient lighting technologies will meet their needs. It also raises questions about the effectiveness of policies phasing out general lighting service incandescent bulbs, as there is a risk that householders may switch to tungsten halogen bulbs rather than low-energy optionss rather than low-energy options

  13. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss. (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L


    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

  14. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H


    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals.

  15. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David


    Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA permit comparable measures among species. We conclude that estimates of AOO based on fine-resolution distribution models are more robust tools for risk assessment than traditional systems, allowing a better understanding of species ranges at habitat level.

  16. Internet abuse in the workplace: new trends in risk management. (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S; Case, Carl J


    This paper empirically examines the effectiveness of emergent risk management practices that attempt to reduce and control employee Internet abuse and its potential for addiction. Over a 6-month period, 50 usable web-administered surveys were collected. Respondents ranged from human resource managers to company presidents. Data were stored in a database management system and analyzed utilizing statistical measures. Implementation levels of Internet use policies, management training, and clinical rehabilitation were examined and their level of perceived effectiveness to deter employee Internet abuse was evaluated. Organizational size and its impact on perceived effectiveness were also examined. This research will assist organizations in implementing effective corporate initiatives to improve employee Internet management practices. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are also explored. PMID:15006175

  17. Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors)

  18. What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakely Tony


    Full Text Available Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP. Consequently the smoking-related mortality burden is higher among these populations. Regarding the gap in mortality between low and high socioeconomic groups, 21% and 11% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking in 1996–99. Regarding the gap in mortality between M?ori and non-M?ori/non-Pacific, 5% and 8% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking. The estimates from both these studies are probably moderate underestimates due to misclassification bias of smoking status. Despite the modest relative contribution of smoking to these gaps, the absolute number of smoking-attributable deaths is sizable and amenable to policy and health sector responses. There is some evidence, from New Zealand and elsewhere, for interventions that reduce smoking by low-income populations and indigenous peoples. These include tobacco taxation, thematically appropriate mass media campaigns, and appropriate smoking cessation support services. But there are as yet untried interventions with major potential. A key one is for a tighter regulatory framework that could rapidly shift the nicotine market towards pharmaceutical-grade nicotine (or smokeless tobacco products and away from smoked tobacco.

  19. The novel gamma secretase inhibitor RO4929097 reduces the tumor initiating potential of melanoma. (United States)

    Huynh, Chanh; Poliseno, Laura; Segura, Miguel F; Medicherla, Ratna; Haimovic, Adele; Menendez, Silvia; Shang, Shulian; Pavlick, Anna; Shao, Yongzhao; Darvishian, Farbod; Boylan, John F; Osman, Iman; Hernando, Eva


    Several reports have demonstrated a role for aberrant NOTCH signaling in melanoma genesis and progression, prompting us to explore if targeting this pathway is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma. We targeted NOTCH signaling using RO4929097, a novel inhibitor of gamma secretase, which is a key component of the enzymatic complex that cleaves and activates NOTCH. The effects of RO4929097 on the oncogenic and stem cell properties of a panel of melanoma cell lines were tested both in vitro and in vivo, using xenograft models. In human primary melanoma cell lines, RO4929097 decreased the levels of NOTCH transcriptional target HES1. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation and impaired ability to form colonies in soft agar and to organize in tridimensional spheres. Moreover, RO4929097 affected the growth of human primary melanoma xenograft in NOD/SCID/IL2gammaR-/- mice and inhibited subsequent tumor formation in a serial xenotransplantation model, suggesting that inhibition of NOTCH signaling suppresses the tumor initiating potential of melanoma cells. In addition, RO4929097 decreased tumor volume and blocked the invasive growth pattern of metastatic melanoma cell lines in vivo. Finally, increased gene expression of NOTCH signaling components correlated with shorter post recurrence survival in metastatic melanoma cases. Our data support NOTCH inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy against melanoma. PMID:21980408

  20. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress : 5 year follow-up of a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points as repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress was found between groups at 1 and 5 year follow-up. Difference in trajectories was found for the two groups (time*treatment group interaction, CR-PTSD, P = 0.012 and GSI, P = 0.021). Level of PTSD symptoms on the CR-PTSD was validated at 5 year follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, ?2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch.

  1. Prescription drug abuse: from epidemiology to public policy. (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D


    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  2. Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse. (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.


    This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

  3. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermertcan Aylin


    Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  4. Does Child Abuse Cause Crime?


    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal


    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  5. Morphine and opioid peptides reduce inhibitory synaptic potentials in hippocampal pyramidal cells in vitro without alteration of membrane potential.


    Siggins, G. R.; Zieglga?nsberger, W.


    We used intracellular recording in the hippocampal slice in vitro to characterize further the mechanisms behind the unusual excitatory action of opiates and opioid peptides on hippocampal pyramidal cells in vivo. No significant effect on resting membrane potential, input resistance, or action potential size in cortical area 1 (CA1) pyramidal cells was observed with morphine sulfate, beta-endorphin, [Met5]enkephalin, or [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin at 1-50 microM. However, in all cells studied, ...

  6. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso / Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.J., Schneider; P., Ardenghi.


    Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópic [...] o. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países. Abstract in english The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA), is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid recept [...] ors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

  7. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora" and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Schneider


    Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA, is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

  8. Childhood abuse and stress generation: the mediational effect of depressogenic cognitive styles. (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Choi, Jimmy Y; Boland, Elaine M; Mastin, Becky M; Alloy, Lauren B


    According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, each uniquely predicted negative dependent events in individuals with a history of depression. The role of negative inferential styles as a potential mediator was also assessed. A sample of 66 adults with a history of depression completed self-report measures of childhood abuse history and negative inferential styles at baseline. The "contextual threat" method was used to assess the occurrence of negative life events over a 4-month prospective follow-up period. Childhood emotional abuse, but not sexual or physical abuse, prospectively predicted greater stress generation. Negative inferential styles mediated this relation. These findings suggest that targeting negative cognitive styles in clinical settings, especially in patients with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may be important for reducing the occurrence of negative life events, thereby possibly decreasing risk for depression recurrence. PMID:23273609


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena


    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  10. Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect


    Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.


    Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed ...

  11. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna


    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  12. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.


    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  13. Physical Activity as a Potential Mechanism Through Which Social Support May Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk


    Fischer Aggarwal, Brooke A.; Liao, Ming; Mosca, Lori


    Social support has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been suggested that the protective effect of social support is mediated through the autonomic nervous system and/or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, but data are sparse, especially in diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pathways through which social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Baseline data from The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Famil...

  14. Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Holly R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important arboviruses of humans and cause significant disease. Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fc? receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. Here we describe results from the development and testing of cross-reactivity reduced DENV-2 DNA vaccine candidates that contain substitutions in immunodominant B cell epitopes of the fusion peptide and domain III of the envelope protein. Results Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. Sera from mice immunized with wild-type, fusion peptide-, or domain III- substitution containing vaccines enhanced heterologous DENV infection in vitro, unlike sera from mice immunized with a vaccine containing a combination of both fusion peptide and domain III substitutions. Passive transfer of immune sera from mice immunized with fusion peptide and domain III substitutions also reduced the development of severe DENV disease in AG129 mice when compared to mice receiving wild type immune sera. Conclusions Reducing cross-reactivity in the envelope glycoprotein of DENV may be an approach to improve the quality of the anti-DENV immune response.

  15. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse. (United States)

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others


    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  16. Intervention with Sexually Abused Children. and The Children's Self-Help Project. (United States)

    Hanson, Graeme; And Others


    Graeme Hanson and Delmer Pascoe describe the San Francisco Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Resource Center, a 24-hour crisis intervention program for sexually abused children based in a pediatric setting. Pnina Tobin describes a primary prevention model to empower children to reduce their vulnerability to abuse. (CT)

  17. Reducing antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of a controlled potential oxidative attack


    Oliveira, Raquel; Marques, Juliana Filipa Gouveia; Bento, M. Fa?tima; Geraldo, M. Dulce; Bettencourt, A. P.


    An analytical method suitable for an antioxidant sensor is presented following the response of these substances to an extensive oxidative attack imposed by electrochemical means. The electrochemical assay simulates the action of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) by means of electrolyses carried out at a potential which is settled at the formal potential of the ROS. The antioxidant activities of trolox and ascorbic, gallic and caffeic acids and of mixtures these antioxidants was estimated fr...

  18. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women


    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.


    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage ...

  19. A study of New York City obstetrics units demonstrates the potential for reducing hospital inpatient capacity. (United States)

    Green, Linda V; Liu, Nan


    Hospitals are under significant pressure from payers to reduce costs. The single largest fixed cost for a hospital is inpatient beds, yet there is significant variation in hospital capacity utilization. We study bed capacity in New York City hospital obstetrics units and find that while many hospitals have an insufficient number of beds to provide timely access to care, overall there is significant excess capacity. Our findings, coupled with current demographic and clinical practice trends, indicate that a large fraction of obstetrics units nationwide could likely reduce their bed capacity while assuring timely access to care, resulting in large savings in capital and staffing costs. Given emerging health care delivery and payment models that will likely decrease demand for other types of hospital beds, our study suggests that data-based methodologies should be used by hospitals and policy makers to identify opportunities for reducing excess bed capacity in other inpatient units as well. PMID:25701578

  20. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.


    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  1. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention. (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.


    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  2. Abuse of Our Children: The Socio-Political Context. (United States)

    Zigler, Edward; Anderson, Elaine


    Addresses corporal punishment in schools as a policy issue, regarding every manifestation as either abusive or potentially so. Discusses the history of physical punishment in schools, reviews current sentiment toward its use, considers policies in other countries, and examines disciplinary alternatives and child abuse prevention methods.…

  3. Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

  4. The relative abuse liability of oral oxycodone, hydrocodone and hydromorphone assessed in prescription opioid abusers. (United States)

    Walsh, Sharon L; Nuzzo, Paul A; Lofwall, Michelle R; Holtman, Joseph R


    Abuse of prescription opioids has risen precipitously in the United States. Few controlled comparisons of the abuse liability of the most commonly abused opioids have been conducted. This outpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential and potency of oral oxycodone (10, 20 and 40 mg), hydrocodone (15, 30 and 45 mg), hydromorphone (10, 17.5 and 25mg) and placebo. Healthy adult volunteers (n=9) with sporadic prescription opioid abuse participated in 11 experimental sessions (6.5h in duration) conducted in a hospital setting. All three opioids produced a typical mu opioid agonist profile of subjective (increased ratings of liking, good effects, high and opiate symptoms), observer-rated, and physiological effects (miosis, modest respiratory depression, exophoria and decrements in visual threshold discrimination) that were generally dose-related. Valid relative potency assays revealed that oxycodone was roughly equipotent to or slightly more potent than hydrocodone. Hydromorphone was only modestly more potent (less than two-fold) than either hydrocodone or oxycodone, which is inconsistent with prior estimates arising from analgesic studies. These data suggest that the abuse liability profile and relative potency of these three commonly used opioids do not differ substantially from one another and suggest that analgesic potencies may not accurately reflect relative differences in abuse liability of prescription opioids. PMID:18606504

  5. Reduced dimensionality quantum dynamics of Cl + CH4 --> HCl + CH3 on an ab initio potential.


    Banks, St; Clary, Dc


    We study the reaction Cl + CH(4)--> HCl + CH(3) using a 2-D potential energy surface obtained by fitting a double Morse analytical function to high level (CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ)ab initio data. Dynamics simulations are performed in hyperspherical coordinates with the close-coupled equations being solved using R-matrix propagation. Quantum contributions from spectator modes are included via a harmonic zero-point correction to the ab initio data prior to fitting the potential. This is the...

  6. Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy


    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas


    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

  7. The unaccounted yet abundant nitrous oxide-reducing microbial community: a potential nitrous oxide sink. (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Graf, Daniel R H; Bru, David; Philippot, Laurent; Hallin, Sara


    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a major radiative forcing and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas emitted from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It can be transformed to nitrogen gas (N(2)) by bacteria and archaea harboring the N(2)O reductase (N(2)OR), which is the only known N(2)O sink in the biosphere. Despite its crucial role in mitigating N(2)O emissions, knowledge of the N(2)OR in the environment remains limited. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the nosZ gene coding the N(2)OR in genomes retrieved from public databases. The resulting phylogeny revealed two distinct clades of nosZ, with one unaccounted for in studies investigating N(2)O-reducing communities. Examination of N(2)OR structural elements not considered in the phylogeny revealed that the two clades differ in their signal peptides, indicating differences in the translocation pathway of the N(2)OR across the membrane. Sequencing of environmental clones of the previously undetected nosZ lineage in various environments showed that it is widespread and diverse. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate that this clade was most often at least as abundant as the other, thereby more than doubling the known extent of the overall N(2)O-reducing community in the environment. Furthermore, we observed that the relative abundance of nosZ from either clade varied among habitat types and environmental conditions. Our results indicate a physiological dichotomy in the diversity of N(2)O-reducing microorganisms, which might be of importance for understanding the relationship between the diversity of N(2)O-reducing microorganisms and N(2)O reduction in different ecosystems. PMID:23151640

  8. Vitamin E blended UHMWPE has the potential to reduce bacterial adhesive ability


    Cuffini, Annamaria; Costa, Luigi; Boffano, Michele; Brach Del Prever, Elena Maria; Banche, Giuliana; Bracco, Pierangiola; Bistolfi, Alessandro; Allizond, Valeria


    Biomaterial-associated infection (BAI), a clinical significant problem often resulting in the implant septic failure, is initiated by the bacterial adhesion, mainly by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the material of choice in total joint replacement for many years; reducing the adhesion of S. epidermidis to the polymer could be a means to decrease infection. This interdisciplinary study examined the adhesion of 2 ATCC and one clinical str...

  9. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.


    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  10. Reduced numbers of switched memory B cells with high terminal differentiation potential in Down syndrome. (United States)

    Carsetti, Rita; Valentini, Diletta; Marcellini, Valentina; Scarsella, Marco; Marasco, Emiliano; Giustini, Ferruccio; Bartuli, Andrea; Villani, Alberto; Ugazio, Alberto G


    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have increased susceptibility to infections and a high frequency of leukemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that immunodeficiency and immune dysfunction are integral parts of the syndrome. A reduction in B-cell numbers has been reported, associated with moderate immunodeficiency and normal immunoglobulin levels. Here, we compared B-cell populations of 19 children with DS with those in healthy age-matched controls. We found that all steps of peripheral B-cell development are altered in DS, with a more severe defect during the later stages of B-cell development. Transitional and mature-naïve B-cell numbers are reduced by 50% whereas switched memory B cells represent 10-15% of the numbers in age-matched controls. Serum IgM levels were slightly reduced, but all other immunoglobulin isotypes were in the normal range. The frequency of switched memory B cells specific for vaccine antigens was significantly lower in affected children than in their equivalently vaccinated siblings. In vitro switched memory B cells of patients with DS have an increased ability to differentiate into antibody-forming cells in response to TLR9 signals. Tailored vaccination schedules increasing the number of switched memory B cells may improve protection and reduce the risk of death from infection in DS. PMID:25472482

  11. A dipole polarizable potential for reduced and doped CeO{sub 2} obtained from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbano, Mario; Watson, Graeme W [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Marrocchelli, Dario; Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Tuller, Harry L [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Norberg, Stefan T [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Hull, Stephen [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Madden, Paul A, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)


    In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO{sub 2}. We use a dipole polarizable potential (DIPPIM: the dipole polarizable ion model) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of density functional theory calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO{sub 2} and by comparing them against experimental values. The values for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) are within 10-15% of the experimental ones, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic scale properties of CeO{sub 2} in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size limitations.

  12. Use of different organic wastes in reducing the potential leaching of propanil, isoxaben, cadusafos and pencycuron through the soil. (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Vela, Nuria; Navarro, Simón


    In this study, we examined the effect of four different organic wastes (OW)-composted sheep manure (CSM), spent coffee grounds (SCG), composted pine bark (CPB) and coir (CR)-on the potential groundwater pollution of propanil and isoxaben (herbicides), cadusafos (insecticide) and pencycuron (fungicide) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, leaching studies were conducted using disturbed soil columns filled with a clay loam soil (Hipercalcic calcisol). The addition of organic matter (OM) drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of agro-industrial and composted OW in reducing the groundwater pollution by pesticide drainage. PMID:24901963

  13. Elder abuse forensic centers. (United States)

    Schneider, Diana Cafaro; Mosqueda, Laura; Falk, Erika; Huba, George J


    Elder abuse forensic centers present a new model of multidisciplinary collaboration on elder abuse cases. The "clients" of a forensic center are Adult Protective Services (APS), law enforcement, and the Long-term Care Ombudsman. Centers take the basic multidisciplinary team model and add a geriatrician and a psychologist. Additionally, forensic center team members make home visits with APS and others for the purposes of conducting psychological or medical evaluations, lessening the burden of multiple interviews for the alleged abuse victims, and gathering evidence for possible prosecution. The challenges and successes of the four California forensic center teams are discussed. PMID:20711913

  14. Domestic Abuse and Child Health


    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra


    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  15. Ionization potentials and electron affinities from reduced density matrix functional theory


    Zarkadoula, E. N.; Sharma, S.; Dewhurst, J. K.; Gross, E. K. U.; Lathiotakis, N. N.


    In the recent work of S. Sharma \\emph{et al.}, ( arxiv:0912.1118), a single-electron spectrum associated with the natural orbitals was defined as the derivative of the total energy with respect to the occupation numbers at half filling for the orbital of interest. This idea reproduces the bands of various periodic systems using the appropriate functional quite accurately. In the present work we apply this approximation to the calculation of the ionization potential...

  16. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss


    Siikama?ki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.


    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions....

  17. Oxytocin Reduces Background Anxiety in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm


    Missig, Galen; Ayers, Luke W.; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B.


    Oxytocin reportedly decreases anxious feelings in humans and may therefore have therapeutic value for anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD patients have exaggerated startle responses, a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats may have face validity as an animal model to examine the efficacy of oxytocin in treating these symptoms. Oxytocin (0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0??g, subcutaneously) was given either 30?min before fear conditioning, immediately after fe...

  18. Methionine aminopeptidase-2 blockade reduces chronic collagen-induced arthritis: potential role for angiogenesis inhibition.


    Bainbridge, J; Madden, L.; Essex, D.; Binks, M.; Malhotra, R.; Paleolog, Em


    The enzyme methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2) is thought to play an important function in human endothelial cell proliferation, and as such provides a valuable target in both inflammation and cancer. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased synovial vascularity, and hence is a potential therapeutic target for angiogenesis inhibitors. We examined the use of PPI-2458, a selective non-reversible inhibitor of MetAP-2, in disease models of RA, namely...

  19. Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 (TRPC1) Reduces Calcium Permeability in Heteromeric Channel Complexes


    Storch, Ursula; Forst, Anna-lena; Philipp, Maximilian; Gudermann, Thomas; Mederos Y Schnitzler, Michael


    Specific biological roles of the classical transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) are still largely elusive. To investigate the function of TRPC1 proteins in cell physiology, we studied heterologously expressed TRPC1 channels and found that recombinant TRPC1 subunits do not form functional homomeric channels. Instead, by electrophysiological analysis TRPC1 was shown to form functional heteromeric, receptor-operated channel complexes with TRPC3, -4, -5, -6, and -7 indicating that TRPC1...

  20. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

  1. Reduced chromosomal puffing in Chironomus tentans as a biomarker for potentially genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentivegna, C.S. (Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Cooper, K.R. (Rutgers, The State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology)


    Chromosomal puffing in the salivary glands of larval Chironomus tentans was developed as a biomarker for genotoxic substances. Reduced chromosomal puffing was considered an indication of decreased RNA synthesis. Third- or fourth-instar larvae were exposed to test chemicals in an artificial substrate under static conditions. Chromosomes from glands of individual larvae were stained with methyl green and pyronin Y. The widths of Balbiani rings 1 and 2 were measured. Three carcinogens with different mechanisms of action were tested, benzo[a] pyrene(BaP), actinomycin D(Act D), and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Puff size was statistically reduced by all three chemicals with varying potency. Lowest-observable-effect levels were 0.5 nmol BaP, 6.0 nmol Act D, and 24443,000 nmol DMN. The degree of response was influenced by exposure time, applied dose, individual sensitivity, and possibly chemical hydrophobicity. Biomarker specificity was determined by testing a weak carcinogen, benzo[e]pyrene(BeP), and an acutely toxic noncarcinogen, naphthalene(NP). The effective dose of BaP was four orders of magnitude higher than that of BaP. Only lethal doses of NP had statistically significant effects on puff size, LD50 = 25,000 nmol. Approximately 40% of the larvae in the laboratory population appeared tolerant to the effects of BaP. Advantages of this biomarker were its association with a known mechanism of action and measurement of the whole-organism integrated response.

  2. The potential for reducing urban air temperatures and energy consumption through vegetative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurn, D.M.; Bretz, S.E.; Huang, B.; Akbari, H.


    A network of 23 weather stations was used to detect existing oases in Southern California. Four stations, separated from one another by 15--25 miles (24--40 km), were closely examined. Data were strongly affected by the distance of the stations from the Pacific Ocean. This and other city-scale effects made the network inadequate for detection of urban oases. We also conducted traverse measurements of temperature and humidity in the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in Los Angeles County on September 8--10, 1993. Near-surface air temperatures over vegetated areas were 1--2{degrees}C lower than background air temperatures. We estimate that vegetation may lower urban temperatures by 1{degrees}C, while the establishment of vegetative canopies may lower local temperatures by an additional 2{degrees}C. An increase in vegetation in residential neighborhoods may reduce peak loads in the Los Angeles area by 0.3 GW, and reduce energy consumption by 0.2 BkWh/year, saving $20 million annually. Large additional savings would result from regional cooling.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  4. The Tailored Activity Program to Reduce Behavioral Symptoms in Individuals With Dementia: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Replication Potential


    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Vause Earland, Tracey; Adel Herge, E.; Chernett, Nancy L.; Piersol, Catherine V.; Burke, Janice P.


    Purpose:?The Tailored Activity Program (TAP) is a home-based occupational therapy intervention shown to reduce behavioral symptoms and caregiver burden in a randomized trial. This article describes TAP, its assessments, acceptability, and replication potential.?Design and Methods:?TAP involves 8 sessions for a period of 4 months. Interventionists identify preserved capabilities, previous roles, habits, and interests of individuals with dementia; develop activities customized to individu...

  5. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital ...

  6. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  7. Report Fraud and Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... whose browsers do not support or have Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) disabled. For a more optimal experience ... t considered fraud or abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can ...

  8. Child abuse - sexual (United States)

    ... minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced or talked into sex or sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling)

  9. Sexual Abuse of Children. (United States)

    Csapo, Marg


    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  10. Report Fraud and Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could not be loaded. The ... websites Notice of Privacy Practices for Original Medicare Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when ...

  11. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quality of life? What is the relationship between alcohol use and spinal cord injuries? How is the rehabilitation process affected by substance abuse? What's your best advice for patients and families ...

  12. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

  13. Report Fraud and Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can help you if you ... covered? Search for covered items Footer Home A federal government website managed by the Centers ...

  14. Report Fraud and Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aren't medically necessary . A complaint about the quality of care you got from a doctor, hospital, ... or abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can help you if ...

  15. Report Fraud and Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices ... Medicare health plans , current page File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Notice of ...

  16. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the ...

  17. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill ...

  18. Abuse during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... hurt your body. This physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, choking, pushing or even pulling your ... my partner threaten me, the baby, my other children or himself? Does my partner blame me for ...

  19. The potential for short-rotation woody crops to reduce US CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) could potentially displace fossil fuels and thus mitigate CO2 buildup in the atmosphere. To determine how much fossil fuel SRWC might displace in the United States and what the associated fossil carbon savings might be, a series of assumptions must be made. These assumptions concern the net SRWC biomass yields per hectare (after losses); the amount of suitable land dedicated to SRWC production; wood conversion efficiencies to electricity or liquid fuels; the energy substitution properties of various fuels; and the amount of fossil fuel used in growing, harvesting, transporting, and converting SRWC biomass. Assuming the current climate, present production, and conversion technologies and considering a conservative estimate of the US land base available for SRWC (14 x 106 ha), it is calculated that SRWC energy could displace 33.2 to 73.1 x 106 Mg of fossil carbon releases, 3-6% of the current annual US emissions. The carbon mitigation potential per unit of land is larger with the substitution of SRWC for coal-based electricity production than for the substitution of SRWC-derived ethanol for gasoline. Assuming current climate, predicted conversion technology advancements, an optimistic estimate of the US land base available for SRWC (28 x 106 ha), and an optimistic average estimate of net SRWC yields (22.4 dry Mg/ha), it is calculate that SRWC energy could displace 148 to 242 x 106 Muld displace 148 to 242 x 106 Mg of annual fossil fuel carbon releases. Under this scenario, the carbon migration potential of SRWC-based electricity production would be equivalent to about 4.4% of current global fossil fuel emissions and 20% of current US fossil fuel emissions. 21 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Vaccines for Cocaine Abuse


    Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.


    Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by ...

  1. Drug Abuse Resistance (United States)

    Mrs. Koyle


    STUDENTS NEED TO BE AWARE OF THE DANGERS OF DRUGS! The following includes helpful ways to learn about drug abuse resistance. Please finish the smoking quiz for class discussion on Friday! If parents would like a helpful resource on how to teach their children to say no to drugs and alcohol. See NIDA for Teens : The Science Behind Drug Abuse Click on the following link ...

  2. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet. (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T


    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. PMID:22633991

  3. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton


    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Anukam


    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

  5. Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock HV


    Full Text Available Hannah V Woodcock,1,2 Philip L Molyneaux,1,3 Toby M Maher1–31Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, 2Centre for Respiratory Research, University College London, 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120 is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF. These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited.Keywords: interstitial lung disease, BIBF 1120, clinical trials, usual interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbation

  6. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents. (United States)

    Sugar, M


    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  7. Synthesis and estimation of calorific value of a structured lipid-potential reduced calorie fat. (United States)

    Kanjilal, S; Prasad, R B; Kaimal, T N; Ghafoorunissa; Rao, S H


    The majority of reduced calorie fats and fat substitutes available today, though similar in texture and flavor to natural fats, contain fatty acids that are not usually present in edible oils and fats and thus do not fully match the chemistry and functions of natural fats. For example, such products do not provide nutritionally important essential fatty acids (EFA). In this investigation, we prepared and evaluated a reduced calorie fat, prepared entirely from natural fats, taking advantage of the fact that long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA), such as behenic acid (22:0), are poorly absorbed. Mustard oil (MO) and sunflower oil (SO) were used as substrates to yield a structured lipid (SL). The product, being derived from a natural vegetable oil, would thus provide EFA, as would a native fat, a feature not provided by the low-calorie fats available in the market. Erucic acid (22:1) was isolated from MO by a lipase (EC reaction. It was then hydrogenated to behenic acid, the ethyl ester of which was subsequently enzymatically transesterified with SO to yield a plastic fat containing about 30-35% behenic acid. Absorption of this fat was studied in Wistar rats. In a preliminary single oral dose experiment, rats were fed equal amounts (2 mL) of SO and the SL. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels were estimated after 1, 2, and 3 h of feeding. The significantly lower concentration of plasma TAG in the 2-h sample, observed in the SL-fed group compared to the SO-fed group (P<0.001), indicated poor absorption of the SL. In order to estimate the calorific value of the SL, we conducted a restricted diet growth experiment over 21 d on weanling Wistar male rats with SO as caloric control. Diets for the test groups were modified by adding 5, 10, and 15% SO for the control groups, and 5 and 10% SL for the experimental groups. Food consumption of the test groups was restricted to 50% of the feed containing 5% SO that had been consumed by the ad libitum group the previous day. Body weights were recorded during the experiment. Calorific value of the SL was estimated by comparing the 21 st-d mean body weight gain of the control group with that of the experimental group. Estimated calorific value of the SL was 5.36 kcal/g. Most of the behenic acid fed was excreted, as indicated by the analysis of the fatty acids of plasma and fecal total lipid. A second growth experiment on ad libitum diet was conducted over 21 d on weanling Wistar male rats to compare the absorption behavior of the SL with that of natural oil. SO (10%) was added to the diet of the control group, and SL (10%) was added to the diet of the experimental group. Feed consumption, as well as body weights, was recorded during the experiment. The growth pattern of the experimental group was identical to that of the control group during the period of study. The mean feed intake (9.8 g/d/rat for the control group vs. 9.9 g/d/rat for the experimental group) indicated good palatability of the product. In conclusion, the enzymatically synthesized SL containing EFA and natural antioxidants has nutritional properties almost identical to those of natural fats, and can be used as a reduced calorie fat. PMID:10580332

  8. Stimulants and Hyperkinesis: Drug Use or Abuse? (United States)

    Cole, Sherwood O.; Moore, Samuel F.


    The use of stimulants in the treatment of hyperkinesis is discussed in terms of: (1) side effects and long-term consequences; (2) drugs as easy solutions to problems; and (3) the potential for abuse and addiction. This paper stresses the need for a more intelligent and restrained use of stimulants than has been practiced. (Author)

  9. The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Current status and evolving role of abuse-deterrent opioids in managing patients with chronic pain. (United States)

    Webster, Lynn; St Marie, Barbara; McCarberg, Bill; Passik, Steven D; Panchal, Sunil J; Voth, Eric


    Opioids are widely used for the treatment of patients with chronic pain; yet, the increase in their abuse, misuse, and diversion is an ongoing focus of regulatory, governmental, and legal scrutiny. As a consequence, clinicians are faced with numerous challenges in an effort to use opioids in appropriate patients with pain while minimizing the potential for opioid abuse, misuse, and diversion. Policies and programs such as state prescription monitoring programs, which have been in existence for decades, are but one attempt to address some of the issues regarding the prescribing of opioids. Another is a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for opioids under consideration by the US Food and Drug Administration. At the clinical level, a universal precautions and risk management package that includes risk assessment and patient monitoring is a recommended approach. This approach can also include the use of abuse-deterrent and abuse-resistant formulations designed to reduce the nonmedical use of opioids. Several of these opioid formulations have been approved or should soon be on the market for use in the United States; however, their role and other questions regarding their use remain unanswered. The authors offer their clinical perspective on several of these key questions. PMID:21823554

  11. Methylglyoxal reduces mitochondrial potential and activates Bax and caspase-3 in neurons: Implications for Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Valls-Comamala, Victòria; Muñoz, Francisco J


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the oxidative stress generated from amyloid ?-peptide (A?) aggregates. It produces protein nitrotyrosination, after the reaction with nitric oxide to form peroxynitrite, being triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) one of the most affected proteins. TPI is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Methylglyoxal (MG) is a by-product of TPI activity whose production is triggered when TPI is nitrotyrosinated. MG is harmful to cells because it glycates proteins. Here we found protein glycation when human neuroblastoma cells were treated with A?. Moreover glycation was also observed when neuroblastoma cells overexpressed mutated TPI where Tyr165 or Tyr209, the two tyrosines close to the catalytic center, were changed by Phe in order to mimic the effect of nitrotyrosination. The pathological relevance of these findings was studied by challenging cells with A? oligomers and MG. A significant decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, one of the first apoptotic events, was obtained. Therefore, increasing concentrations of MG were assayed searching for MG effect in neuronal apoptosis. We found a decrease of the protective Bcl2 and an increase of the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax levels. Our results suggest that MG is triggering apoptosis in neurons and it would play a key role in AD neurodegeneration. PMID:25102327

  12. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M


    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake and qualitatively by light microscopy of histological sections. One-way analyses of variance at the 0.05 level revealed no significant difference in strontium 85 uptake of the different groups, and no qualitative differences in osteoinduction could be detected by light microscopy. Ossicles consisting of bone and bone marrow were seen in the recovered implants of all groups.

  13. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many. (United States)

    Slan, Beverly


    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  14. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

  15. Urate Crystal Induced Inflammation and Joint Pain Are Reduced in Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Deficient Mice – Potential Role for Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 in Gout (United States)

    Moilanen, Lauri J.; Hämäläinen, Mari; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Nieminen, Riina M.; Moilanen, Eeva


    Introduction In gout, monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit intra-articularly and cause painful arthritis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Transient Receptor Poten-tial Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel mediating nociceptive signals and neurogenic in-flammation, is involved in MSU crystal-induced responses in gout by utilizing three experi-mental murine models. Methods The effects of selective pharmacological inhibition (by HC-030031) and genetic depletion of TRPA1 were studied in MSU crystal-induced inflammation and pain by using 1) spontaneous weight-bearing test to assess MSU crystal-induced joint pain, 2) subcutaneous air-pouch model resembling joint inflammation to measure MSU crystal-induced cytokine production and inflammatory cell accumulation, and 3) MSU crystal-induced paw edema to assess acute vascular inflammatory responses and swelling. Results Intra-articularly injected MSU crystals provoked spontaneous weight shift off from the affected limb in wild type but not in TRPA1 knock-out mice referring alleviated joint pain in TRPA1 deficient animals. MSU crystal-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of cytokines MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1beta, MPO, MIP-1alpha and MIP-2 into subcu-taneous air-pouch (resembling joint cavity) was attenuated in TRPA1 deficient mice and in mice treated with the selective TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031 as compared to control animals. Further, HC-030031 treated and TRPA1 deficient mice developed tempered inflammatory edema when MSU crystals were injected into the paw. Conclusions TRPA1 mediates MSU crystal-induced inflammation and pain in experimental models supporting the role of TRPA1 as a potential mediator and a drug target in gout flare. PMID:25658427

  16. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the disulfide-bond reducing potential of hydrogen sulfide. (United States)

    Vasas, Anita; Dóka, Éva; Fábián, István; Nagy, Péter


    The significance of persulfide species in hydrogen sulfide biology is increasingly recognized. However, the molecular mechanisms of their formation remain largely elusive. The obvious pathway of the reduction of biologically abundant disulfide moieties by sulfide was challenged on both thermodynamic and kinetic grounds. Using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), also known as Ellman's reagent) as a model disulfide we conducted a comprehensive kinetic study for its reaction with sulfide. The bimolecular reaction is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant of 889?±?12?M(-1)s(-1) at pH?=?7.4. pH dependence of the rate law revealed that the reaction proceeds via the bisulfide anion species with an initial nucleophilic thiol-disulfide exchange reaction to give 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) and TNB-persulfide with a pH independent second-order rate constant of 1090?±?12?M(-1)s(-1). However, kinetic studies and stoichiometric analyses in a wide range of reactant ratios together with kinetic simulations revealed that it is a multistep process that proceeds via kinetically driven, practically irreversible reactions along the disulfide ? persulfide ? inorganic polysulfides axis. The kinetic model postulated here, which is fully consistent with the experimental data, suggests that the TNB-persulfide is further reduced by sulfide with a second-order rate constant in the range of 5?×?10(3)?-?5?×?10(4)?M(-1)s(-1) at pH?7.4 and eventually yields inorganic polysulfides and TNB. The reactions of cystine and GSSG with sulfide were found to be significantly slower and to occur via more complicated reaction schemes. (1)H NMR studies suggest that these reactions also generate Cys-persulfide and inorganic polysulfide species, but in contrast with DTNB, in consecutive equilibrium processes that are sensitive to changes in the reactant and product ratios. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reaction of disulfides with sulfide is a highly system specific process from both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, which together with the considerable steady-state concentrations of the reactants in biological systems signifies physiological relevance. PMID:25512332

  17. Nerve-evoked constriction of rat tail veins is potentiated and venous diameter is reduced after chronic spinal cord transection. (United States)

    Tripovic, Diana; Al Abed, Amr; Rummery, Nicole M; Johansen, Niloufer J; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A


    Despite reduced sympathetic activity below the level of a spinal cord injury (SCI), venoconstriction during autonomic dysreflexia increases venous return to the heart. Here, contractions of isometrically mounted tail veins from rats with spinal transection at T4 performed 8?-?10 weeks earlier are compared with those from sham-operated rats. After SCI, lumen diameter was reduced by ?30% and the contractions evoked by electrical stimulation of the perivascular axons were larger than control. This augmentation of neurovascular transmission was not associated with enhanced sensitivity to ?-adrenoceptor agonists or to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) although contractions to depolarization with K(+) were larger after SCI. The percentage reduction in nerve-evoked contraction after SCI produced by the ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (10?nM) was unchanged but that by the ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (0.1??M) was reduced. The relative contribution of P2-purinoceptors to nerve-evoked contractions after ?-adrenoceptor blockade, revealed by adding suramin (0.1?mM), was unchanged. The greater depolarization-induced contraction and the reduced contribution of ?(2)-adrenoceptors to nerve-evoked contraction suggest that changes in the venous smooth muscle underlie the potentiation of neurovascular transmission after SCI. Furthermore, the smaller lumen diameter after SCI will increase the pressure that the veins exert on the luminal contents when they are neurally activated. PMID:21222499

  18. Dose-reducing strategies in combination offers substantial potential benefits to females requiring X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, using an adult anthropomorphic phantom, aimed to establish an optimised technique for ladies of child-bearing age undergoing antero-posterior (AP) pelvis and AP and lateral lumbar spine examinations. Phase one of the work involved introducing the following dose-reducing measures individually: increased kVp, increased focus-film distances, a carbon fibre cassette, a faster film/screen combination. The second phase established an optimised technique based on a combination of the parameters listed above. Radiation dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters and image quality was evaluated using anatomical criteria. All dose-reducing methods were compared with a standard technique, currently being used in a Dublin hospital. The results demonstrated that the optimised procedure reduced effective dose by 77, 62 and 66% for AP pelvis and AP and lateral lumbar spine respectively (p < 0.05) compared with the standard technique, with no significant changes in image quality. Dose-reducing measures used in combination offer substantial potential for optimisation of radiological procedures. (authors)

  19. Substance abuse and prostitution. (United States)

    Silbert, M H; Pines, A M; Lynch, T


    A study of 200 street prostitutes documented a high prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse in their family of origin, during the drift into prostitution and as part of prostitution. Additionally, the study documented a high prevalence of substance abuse among the child molesters and rapists of the subjects. The existence of a relationship between substance abuse and prostitution in and of itself does not imply causality. It is not clear whether substance abuse is one of the factors that pushed these women into prostitution (as noted earlier, 55% of the subjects reported being addicted prior to their prostitution involvement) or whether it was prostitution that caused their drug involvement (30% became addicted following and 15% concurrently with their prostitution involvement). Most likely, both prostitution and substance abuse are the behavioral translations of these women's endless cycles of victimization and severely disturbed backgrounds, as well as an expression of the self-destructive pull, the sense of hopelessness, helplessness, negative self-concept and psychological paralysis reported by almost every subject in the study. PMID:7143150

  20. Abused Kids Not Destined to Be Abusive Parents, Study Finds (United States)

    ... Campbell agreed. "If we want to work on child abuse prevention, we need to better understand the perpetrators of abuse," she said. "My experience is that very few parents who abuse their ... pediatrics, child protection and family health, University of Utah, Salt ...

  1. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness (United States)

    Arokach, Ami


    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  2. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction (United States)

    ... of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, ... Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drugged Driving ...

  3. Primary Prevention of Child Abuse. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mindy S.; Reppucci, N. Dickon


    Discusses primary prevention of child abuse, child injury, substance abuse with children and adolescents, and school maladjustment. Describes methods of prevention research with children, action approaches to primary prevention, and a school-based divorce intervention program. (MCF)

  4. Economic Conditions and Child Abuse


    Lindo, Jason M.; Schaller, Jessamyn; Hansen, Benjamin


    Although a huge literature spanning several disciplines documents an association between poverty and child abuse, researchers have not found persuasive evidence that economic downturns increase abuse, despite their impacts on family income. In this paper, we address this seeming contradiction. Using county-level child abuse data spanning 1996 to 2009 from the California Department of Justice, we estimate the extent to which a county's reported abuse rate diverges from its trend when its econo...

  5. Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania. (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna


    Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design. PMID:23926908

  6. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy. (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.


    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  7. Tumor-targeted prodrug ICT2588 demonstrates therapeutic activity against solid tumors and reduced potential for cardiovascular toxicity. (United States)

    Gill, Jason H; Loadman, Paul M; Shnyder, Steven D; Cooper, Patricia; Atkinson, Jennifer M; Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Patterson, Laurence H; Falconer, Robert A


    Development of therapeutic strategies for tumor-selective delivery of therapeutics through exploitation of the proteolytic tumor phenotype has significant scope for improvement of cancer treatment. ICT2588 is a peptide-conjugated prodrug of the vascular disrupting agent (VDA) azademethylcolchicine developed to be selectively hydrolyzed by matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) within the tumor. In this report, we extend our previous proof-of-concept studies and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of this agent against models of human colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancer. In all tumor types, ICT2588 was superior to azademethylcolchicine and was greater or comparable to standard clinically used agents for the respective tumor type. Prodrug activation in clinical human lung tumor homogenates relative to stability in human plasma and liver was observed, supporting clinical translation potential. A major limiting factor to the clinical value of VDAs is their inherent cardiovascular toxicity. No increase in plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels, an indicator of systemic vascular dysfunction and acute cardiovascular toxicity, was detected with ICT2588, thereby supporting the tumor-selective activation and reduced potential of ICT2588 to cause cardiovascular toxicity. Our findings reinforce the improved therapeutic index and tumor-selective approach offered by ICT2588 and this nanotherapeutic approach. PMID:24641451

  8. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL


    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  9. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics ...

  10. Sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Ay?in Ta?ar


    Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

  11. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse: Rationale, Methods, and Findings


    Fals-stewart, William; O’farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.


    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...

  12. Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.


    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  13. Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola


    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  14. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann


    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  15. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive resand Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  16. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt


    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

  17. Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components. (United States)

    Bauer, Eva; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Verstegen, Martin W A; Mosenthin, Rainer


    The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids, participate in the regulation of intestinal gene expression. However, nutrients may also escape digestion by mammalian enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These nutrients can be used by the microflora, resulting in the production of bacterial metabolites, for example, SCFA, which may affect intestinal gene expression indirectly. The present review provides an insight on possible effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression, as it may occur post-weaning. Detailed knowledge on effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression may help to understand weaning-associated intestinal dysfunctions and diseases. Examples are given of intestinal genes which may be altered in their expression due to supply with specific nutrients. In that way, gene expression could be modulated by dietary means, thereby acting as a potential therapeutic tool. This could be achieved, for example, by influencing genes coding for digestive or absorptive proteins, thus optimising digestive function and metabolism, but also with regard to immune response, or by influencing proliferative processes, thereby enhancing mucosal repair. This would be of special interest when designing a diet to overcome weaning-associated problems. PMID:21914250

  18. Drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, and AIDS. Dual and triple diagnosis.


    Batki, S. L.


    Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders commonly occur together. This form of dual diagnosis is notable because it complicates assessment and makes treatment more difficult for both psychiatric and drug abuse problems. Drugs can cause psychiatric disorders and can also be used as an attempt to "cure" them by self-medication. The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users has added a third potential clinical problem, that of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, to t...

  19. Inside the alkalinity engine: the role of electron donors in the organomineralization potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Gallagher, K L; Kading, T J; Braissant, O; Dupraz, C; Visscher, P T


    Mineral precipitation in microbial mats may have been the key to their preservation as fossil stromatolites, potentially documenting evidence of the earliest life on Earth. Two factors that contribute to carbonate mineral precipitation are the saturation index (SI) and the presence of nucleation sites. Both of these can be influenced by micro-organisms, which can either alter SI through their metabolisms, or produce and consume organic substances such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that can affect nucleation. It is the balance of individual metabolisms within the mat community that determines the pH and the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, thereby potentially increasing the alkalinity and consequently the SI. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are an important component of this 'alkalinity engine.' The activity of SRB often peaks in layers where CaCO(3) precipitates, and mineral precipitation has been demonstrated in SRB cultures; however, the effect of their metabolism on the alkalinity engine and actual contribution to mineral precipitation is the subject of controversy. Here, we show through culture experiments, theoretical calculations, and geochemical modeling studies that the pH, alkalinity, and organomineralization potential will vary depending on the type of electron donor. Specifically, hydrogen and formate can increase the pH, but electron donors like lactate and ethanol, and to a lesser extent glycolate, decrease the pH. The implication of this for the lithification of mats is that the combination of processes supplying electron donors and the utilization of these compounds by SRB may be critical to promoting mineral precipitation. PMID:22925453

  20. Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary cat saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on microbial populations in the rumen indicated that 15% of Leucaena and Fliricidia; 20% of Sapindus and A. pintoi as well as 40% of S. aterrimum, affect negatively the protozoa population in the rumen. Gliricidia reduced this population from 45.71 to 2.57 x 105 cel/mL. Enterolobium, however, increased the number and activity of the cellulolytic fungus and total viable bacteria, although it did not exert defaunating effect, at least, under the experimental conditions in which the studies were conducted. The inclusion of 10 % of Tithonia decreased the methanogenic bacteria and increased the cellulolytic bacteria, but to reduce the protozoa population level of 20 % level was necessary. The defaunating effect observed with some plants could be due to that it was found a quadratic relationship between the content of condensed tannins and the population of ruminal protozoa. The results of methane production in relation to inclusion of 25% of foliages of S. saponaria, M. alba and Trichantera using P. purpureum as a pasture base, indicated that this foliages reduced methane production, significantly, in similar proportions to respect to pasture. Trichantera inhibit methane emissions in 41 % respect to Pennisetum (7,01 vs. 16.96 g/kg DM, respectively). The results suggest that the secondary compounds found in plants can to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and also reduce the methanogenic bacteria when the adequate levels in the diet are utilized. The use of tree and shrubs, as strategies of supplementation is an adequate option to reduce methane production and improve the animal nutrition of ruminants. (author)

  1. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batri?evi? Ana


    Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

  2. Crime and Substance Abuse (United States)

    This activity, developed by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, asks students to use geographical information systems (GIS) to examine the correlations between crime and substance abuse. On this site, visitors will find links to the web-based GIS viewer needed to see and manipulate the data (there are links to the viewer on many servers) and to a student version of the activity which has complete instructions and questions for students to answer.

  3. Synthetic cathinone abuse


    Capriola M


    Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone a...

  4. Substance abuse in women. (United States)

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T


    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. PMID:20385341

  5. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  6. The potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: Buildings sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is used in buildings to provide a variety of services to users such as lighting, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and electricity for electronics and other equipment. In the US building energy consumption accounts for nearly one third of total primary energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions. The cost for these energy services, or end-uses, was over $200 billion in 1997. This paper summarizes a detailed assessment of the achievable cost-effective potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 in the US residential and commercial buildings sector based on the preliminary results of a study completed by the authors for the US Department of Energy (LBNL, ORNL, ANL, NREL, and PNNL, 1997). The authors analysis shows that substantial reductions in future greenhouse gas emissions can be realized through the use of more energy-efficient technologies and processes at a net reduction in the total cost of energy services. In an efficiency scenario, in which renewed efforts are undertaken to promote energy efficiency through enhanced public and private-sector R and D and market transformation activities, energy use drops by 1.9 quadrillion Btu (5%) from business-as-usual (BAU) levels and carbon emissions decline by 25 MtC (4%) from BAU forecasted levels. This represents a savings of $18 billion in fuel costs in 2010, which is purchased with an annualized incremental cost of $7 billion in efficiency improvements. In a high efficiency/low carimprovements. In a high efficiency/low carbon scenario, which reflects an even greater commitment to reduce carbon emissions, results in 4.0 quads (11%) less energy use and 91 MtC (16%) fewer carbon emissions than the BAU scenario in 2010. This high efficiency/low carbon scenario represents a savings of $33 billion in fuel costs in 2010 resulting from an annualized incremental expenditure of $14 billion on efficiency improvements

  7. Emotional event-related potentials are larger to figures than scenes but are similarly reduced by inattention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordström Henrik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In research on event-related potentials (ERP to emotional pictures, greater attention to emotional than neutral stimuli (i.e., motivated attention is commonly indexed by two difference waves between emotional and neutral stimuli: the early posterior negativity (EPN and the late positive potential (LPP. Evidence suggests that if attention is directed away from the pictures, then the emotional effects on EPN and LPP are eliminated. However, a few studies have found residual, emotional effects on EPN and LPP. In these studies, pictures were shown at fixation, and picture composition was that of simple figures rather than that of complex scenes. Because figures elicit larger LPP than do scenes, figures might capture and hold attention more strongly than do scenes. Here, we showed negative and neutral pictures of figures and scenes and tested first, whether emotional effects are larger to figures than scenes for both EPN and LPP, and second, whether emotional effects on EPN and LPP are reduced less for unattended figures than scenes. Results Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes. When pictures were unattended, emotional effects on EPN increased for scenes but tended to decrease for figures, whereas emotional effects on LPP decreased similarly for figures and scenes. Conclusions Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes, but these effects did not resist manipulations of attention more strongly for figures than scenes. These findings imply that the emotional content captures attention more strongly for figures than scenes, but that the emotional content does not hold attention more strongly for figures than scenes.

  8. Potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection may reduce the atherogenic index of plasma in Chinese men. (United States)

    Shen, Shi-Wei; Lu, Yun; Li, Feng; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yao, Wei-Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ya-Ping; Ling, Wang; Qi, Hua-Jin; Tong, Da-Xin


    The major purpose of this study was to assess the association between the potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Among 1597 men aged ?45years who received health examinations and lived in previous schistosomiasis-endemic regions of China, 465 patients with previous schistosome infection were selected as study subjects, and 1132 subjects formed the control group. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured and compared between the previous schistosome infection and control groups. The Atherogenic Index of Plasma, triglycerides, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly lower in the previous schistosome infection group than in the control group (all P values <0.001), whereas high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly higher in the previous schistosome infection group (P<0.001). In the Atherogenic Index of Plasma quartiles (Q1-Q4), the percentages of subjects with previous schistosome infection were 55.89% (Q1), 25.44% (Q2), 16.33% (Q3), and 18.8% (Q4), respectively (?(2)=139.86, P<0.001). A logistic regression analysis based on previous schistosome infection as the independent variable and Atherogenic Index of Plasma as the dependent variable revealed that previous schistosome infection was significantly negatively correlated with Atherogenic Index of Plasma (odds ratio=0.583, 95% confidence interval: 0.440-0.772, P<0.001) after adjustment for body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure and uric acid, suggesting that previous schistosome infection is an independent factor associated with Atherogenic Index of Plasma. The potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection may reduce the Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Chinese men. However, further studies are required to investigate the protective human immune response against schistosome infections. The development of a schistosomiasis vaccine may effectively prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25683374

  9. Substance abuse and oral health


    Zyl, Andre W.


    Substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is on the increase in most countries and claims the lives of millions every year. Substance abuse may involve licit and illicit drugs, with licit substances claiming more lives than illicit drugs. Illicit substance abuse is on the increase, especially with new drugs emerging on the world market every year. These new drugs appear faster than scientific studies can keep pace in determining their possible detrimental influences on health. Many abu...

  10. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  11. Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B


    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400

  12. Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... engage in prostitution or in the production of child pornography. In seven States, the definition of sexual abuse ... abuse, or child abuse, a reportable offense (including child pornography, child prostitution, or incest), or neglect that appears ...

  13. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  14. Activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 reduces ultraviolet B-induced prostaglandin E2 production in keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a member of the TRP family, and is activated at temperatures below 22degC, or by cooling compounds such as menthol. In this study, it was found that a new role of TRPM8 activation on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an inflammatory cytokine and dendritogenesis stimulator of normal human melanocytes. Normal human keratinocytes were pretreated with menthol or incubated at 22degC for TRPM8 activation before ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. To examine the specificity between TRPM8 activation and PGE2 release, we inhibited TRPM8 with the antagonist (capsazepine), or introduced TRPM8 siRNA for a gene silencing experiment. UV-B irradiation significantly induced PGE2 release in normal human keratinocytes. Interestingly, activation of TRPM8 at 22degC or with menthol inhibited UV-B-induced PGE2 release. The effect of the TRPM8 agonist was completely blocked by pretreatment with the TRPM8 antagonist, capsazepine. When TRPM8 expression was suppressed by siRNA, UV-B irradiation still upregulated PGE2 in keratinocytes, but pretreatment of menthol or low temperature did not inhibit UV-B-induced PGE2. In conclusion, the activation of TRPM8 inhibits UV-B-induced PGE2 production in keratinocytes, and the activation of TRPM8 may reduce inflammatory responses in skin. (author)

  15. The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

  16. Analysis of the Sequence and Phenotype of Drosophila Sex combs reduced Alleles Reveals Potential Functions of Conserved Protein Motifs of the Sex combs reduced Protein


    Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Percival-smith, Anthony


    The Drosophila Hox gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is required for patterning the larval and adult, labial and prothoracic segments. Fifteen Scr alleles were sequenced and the phenotypes analyzed in detail. Six null alleles were nonsense mutations (Scr2, Scr4, Scr11, Scr13, Scr13A, and Scr16) and one was an intragenic deletion (Scr17). Five hypomorphic alleles were missense mutations (Scr1, Scr3, Scr5, Scr6, and Scr8) and one was a small protein deletion (Scr15). Protein sequence changes were ...

  17. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood. (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick


    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

  18. Luteolin reduces the invasive potential of malignant melanoma cells by targeting ?3 integrin and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (United States)

    Ruan, Jun-shan; Liu, Yu-ping; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Ling-geng; Fan, Fang-tian; Shen, Cun-si; Wang, Ai-yun; Zheng, Shi-zhong; Wang, Shao-ming; Lu, Yin


    Aim: To investigate whether luteolin, a highly prevalent flavonoid, reverses the effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo and to determine the mechanisms underlying this reversal. Methods: Murine malignant melanoma B16F10 cells were exposed to 1% O2 for 24 h. Cellular mobility and adhesion were assessed using Boyden chamber transwell assay and cell adhesion assay, respectively. EMT-related proteins, such as E-cadherin and N-cadherin, were examined using Western blotting. Female C57BL/6 mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were injected with B16F10 cells (1×106 cells in 0.2 mL per mouse) via the lateral tail vein. The mice were treated with luteolin (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip) daily for 23 d. On the 23rd day after tumor injection, the mice were sacrificed, and the lungs were collected, and metastatic foci in the lung surfaces were photographed. Tissue sections were analyzed with immunohistochemistry and HE staining. Results: Hypoxia changed the morphology of B16F10 cells in vitro from the cobblestone-like to mesenchymal-like strips, which was accompanied by increased cellular adhesion and invasion. Luteolin (5?50 ?mol/L) suppressed the hypoxia-induced changes in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hypoxia significantly decreased the expression of E-cadherin while increased the expression of N-cadherin in the cells (indicating the occurrence of EMT-like transformation), which was reversed by luteolin (5 ?mol/L). In B16F10 cells, luteolin up-regulated E-cadherin at least partly via inhibiting the ?3 integrin/FAK signal pathway. In experimental metastasis model mice, treatment with luteolin (10 or 20 mg/kg) reduced metastatic colonization in the lungs by 50%. Furthermore, the treatment increased the expression of E-cadherin while reduced the expression of vimentin and ?3 integrin in the tumor tissues. Conclusion: Luteolin inhibits the hypoxia-induced EMT in malignant melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via the regulation of ?3 integrin, suggesting that luteolin may be applied as a potential anticancer chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:22983392

  19. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners: Breaking the Drug-Crime Cycle among Parole Violators. (United States)

    Stohr, Mary K.; Hemmens, Craig; Baune, Diane; Dayley, Jed; Gornik, Mark; Kjaer, Kirstin; Noon, Cindy

    This Research for Practice examines the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) program at the South Idaho Correctional Institution. The program targets parole-violating inmates with substance abuse problems in an effort to reduce recidivism. Researchers conducted a 15-month evaluation of the program's process to identify strengths and…

  20. The potential benefit of swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce swallowing dysfunction: An in silico planning comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To apply recently developed predictive models for swallowing dysfunction to compare the predicted probabilities of swallowing dysfunction for standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (ST-IMRT) and swallowing sparing IMRT (SW-IMRT). Materials and methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients who previously underwent radiotherapy for the bilateral neck were selected for this study. For each patient, ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were created. ST-IMRT treatment plan optimisation aimed at obtaining adequate target volume coverage and sparing of the parotid and submandibular glands as much as possible. Objectives for SW-IMRT were similar, with additional objectives to spare the organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SWOARs). Dose-volume data with ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT and normal tissue complication probabilities for physician-rated and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated with recently developed predictive models. Results: All plans had adequate target volume coverage and dose to critical organs was within accepted limits. Sparing of parotid glands was similar for ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT. With SW-IMRT, the mean dose to the various SWOARs was reduced. Absolute dose values and dose reductions with SW-IMRT differed per patient and per SWOAR and depended on N stage and tumour location. The mean reduction in predicted physician-rated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was G) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was 9% (range, 3–20%). Mean reductions of the probability of patient-rated moderate to severe complaints with regard to the swallowing of solid food, soft food, liquid food and choking when swallowing were 8%, 2%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Conclusions: New predictive models for swallowing dysfunction were applied to show potential reductions in physician and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction with IMRT that was specifically optimised to spare SWOARs.

  1. Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. A Study in Computer Abuse. (United States)

    Caulfield Inst. of Technology (Australia).

    Computer abuse is examined as both a general issue and as a specific problem. A statistical profile of computer crime lists distribution by country of reported cases, by industry of occurrence, and by amount of monetary loss. The characteristics of computer abuse are described along with the important categories of such crimes. Factors inhibiting…

  3. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema


    Golwala, Harsh


    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  4. Child neglect and emotional abuse (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... 37. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Welfare ... Abuse and Neglect. Available at: ...

  5. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse]. (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián


    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(10), 383-392. PMID:25726766

  6. Drug Abuse among Military Offenders. (United States)

    Ratliff, Bascom W.; Eads, Jerry


    A survey of military offenders' drug abuse histories, both prior to and after entry on active duty, was conducted at the United States Army Retraining Brigade in the fall of 1975. Results indicate that a substantial number of trainees began to abuse drugs prior to entering the military. (Author)

  7. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. (United States)

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D


    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  8. 76 FR 10038 - Determination That a Demonstration Needle Exchange Program Would be Effective in Reducing Drug... (United States)


    ...effective in reducing drug abuse and the risk that the...individuals who inject illicit drugs and there is ample evidence...Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19, 247-252...studies that document injection reductions for drug...

  9. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar


    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  10. alcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  11. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review. (United States)

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle


    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  12. Professional decision making on elder abuse: systematic narrative review. (United States)

    Killick, Campbell; Taylor, Brian J


    Social work and health care professionals internationally are recognizing the need to understand and respond to the abuse of older people. Policy and guidance have identified processes but definitions of key concepts remain problematic, and the literature suggests that practitioners and agencies have little insight or guidance for decision making. Nine bibliographic databases were searched for studies on professional decision making regarding abuse of older people. Relevant studies retrieved were appraised for quality using explicit criteria. The findings of the 19 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were synthesised using a structured narrative approach. Common themes identified were abuse factors, situational factors, and broader contextual factors. Abuse factors relating to risk levels and client vulnerability were central; age, gender, and health status were considered as key indicators of vulnerability. The opinion of adult protection workers about the potential effectiveness of their intervention was a factor in deciding about responding to alleged or suspected abuse. Professionals struggled with complex ethical dilemmas created by elder abuse, particularly when the victim did not want an investigation. Making objective judgements was difficult when faced with complex family and contextual factors. A structured approach to narrative synthesis of a diverse range of studies retrieved through an explicit search and inclusion process provided a useful summary of key issues for practice and identified gaps in the research literature. PMID:19827326

  13. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor abuse: a critical review. (United States)

    Lowe, Gregory; Costabile, Raymond


    Abuse of sildenafil has been reported since its introduction in 1999 and commonly documented in combination with illicit drugs among men and women of all ages. Increased risks of sexually transmissible diseases including HIV have been associated with sildenafil use in men who have sex with men. Recognizing the abuse potential of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5), we aim to summarize the current knowledge of this abuse. An investigation of EMBASE, PubMed, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, MedWatch, and search engines was performed to evaluate information regarding sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil abuse. The EMBASE search provided 46 articles fitting the search criteria and evaluation led to 21 separate publications with specific information regarding PDE5 abuse. A PubMed search found 10 additional publications. MedWatch reported 44 separate warnings since 2000, most of which reported contamination of herbal products with active drug components. Few reports of abuse were among the 14,818 reports in the FDA AERS for sildenafil. A search for "internet drug store" revealed 6.4 million hits and of 7000 internet pharmacies identified by the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites Program (VIPPS) only 4% were in proper compliance. The role internet pharmacies play in counterfeit PDE5 or abuse is not well documented; however based on easy access, direct patient marketing, and low advertised cost it is likely this role is underreported. Currently the best recommendation for providers is to recognize the possibility of abuse and to educate patients on risks of this behavior. PMID:21696344

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual abuse in a national sample of Swedish seventeen-year-old boys and girls. (United States)

    Edgardh, K; Ormstad, K


    The aims of this study, which was part of a survey on adolescent sexual behaviour, were to investigate adolescents' experience of child sexual abuse and to present possible abuse-related problems. Representative samples of 2% of Sweden's 17-y-old male and female students and school non-attenders were selected in a two-step procedure. In all, 1943 students and 210 school non-attenders answered a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, distributed by school nurses. Six out of 170 questions dealt with personal experiences of child sexual abuse, i.e. age at onset, frequency of abuse and relationship to the offender. Peer abuse was excluded by the definitions used. The overall response rate was 92.2% for students and 44.2% for school dropouts. Among male and female students, 3.1% and 11.2%, respectively, acknowledged sexual abuse, 2.3% and 7.1%, respectively, when exhibitionism was excluded. Mean age at onset was 9.1 y (SD 4.3) for boys and 9.0 y (SD 3.9) for girls; 1.2% of the boys and 3.1% of the girls reported abusive oral, vaginal and/or anal intercourse. Suicide attempts or other acts of self-harm were reported by 33.3% of the male students reporting abuse and by 5.1% (p abused, and by 30.4% of the abused student girls compared to 9.1% of the non-abused (p abused than non-abused girls (p abuse. Of the abused girls, 49% reported abusive vaginal intercourse and 64% reported self-destructive behaviour or suicide attempts. No abused boys and few abused girls had confided in a teacher, health professional or social worker. Results from the student sample should be interpreted as markers of "minimum prevalence", as female school non-attenders report significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse. Potential high-risk groups are better included in prevalence investigations of child sexual abuse. The fact that so few adolescents confided in "professionals" about the abuse, despite having severe symptoms and signs of distress, underlines the need to address sexual abuse when recording the social, medical and psychiatric histories of adolescents. PMID:10772279

  15. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.


    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive

  16. Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy? (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca


    Considers whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might be susceptible to biases that reflect the larger sociocultural context. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that…

  17. Limited Agulhas Leakage as a potential trigger for reduced AMOC intensity before the onset of Heinrich events (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Knorr, G.; Zahn, R.


    Interocean exchange of heat and salt around South Africa - the so called 'Agulhas Leakage' - is thought to be a key link in the maintenance of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). It takes place at the Agulhas Retroflection, largely by the intermittent shedding of enormous rings that penetrate into the South Atlantic Ocean. Recent palaeoceanographic studies suggest that variability in the latitudinal position of the subtropical front (STF) in the Southern Ocean, acts as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas retroflection and moreover, that a variable northward migration of the STF potentially modulated the severity of glacial periods by altering the amount of Agulhas leakage with consequences for the AMOC. Here we present a high-resolution record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from the southern Agulhas Plateau (sediment core MD02-2588, 41'19,90 S and 25'49,70 E, 2907 m water depth) covering the last 350,000 years. We find distinct millennial-scale events with high abundances of IRD. These IRD events are indicators for a northward shift of the Southern Ocean frontal system, thereby allowing sufficient cooling and iceberg survivability as far north as the Agulhas Plateau. Our proxy record suggests significant millennial scale variability of the frontal movements throughout the last three glacial cycles. Largest IRD peaks occur during marine isotope stage 8 (~300,000 years BP) and hence during a period for which an extreme northward shift in the STF has been identified previously. We compare our IRD record with records of millennial scale climate variability in the North Atlantic after careful synchronization of individual age models using benthic oxygen isotopes. In general, IRD peaks recorded on the Agulhas Plateau occur during globally cold conditions but in anti-phase with coldest events (Heinrich events) in the North Atlantic, which systematically occur at the culmination of large reductions in AMOC. This observation is in line with the concept of a bipolar seesaw behaviour of the glacial Atlantic. As IRD peaks recorded in MD02-2588 tend to precede IRD peaks in the North Atlantic they lend credence to the emerging viewwe speculate that the events in the South may have been active in triggering a reduced AMOC intensity that has been observed to occur before the onset of ice rafting events in the North. A reduced salt export into the Atlantic ocean associated with the southern IRD events may have augmented the destabilization of AMOC activity in the North Atlantic triggering feedbacks in that region, such as basin-wide subsurface warming, increased basal melt rates under an ice shelves fronting the Laurentide Ice Sheet, subsequent collapse allowing ice flow surges and eventually iceberg and freshwater discharge into the Labrador Sea that further amplified weakening of the AMOC.

  18. Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 ± 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 ± 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 ± 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 ± 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 ± 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 ± 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 ± 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 ± 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 ± 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 ± 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of orse homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  19. Potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying / Potencial de adjuvantes para redução da deriva em pulverizações agrícolas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rone B. de, Oliveira; Ulisses R., Antuniassi; Alisson A. B., Mota; Rodolfo G., Chechetto.


    Full Text Available A redução da deriva das pulverizações agrícolas continua sendo um dos maiores desafios da agricultura brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de adjuvantes dos grupos surfatantes, redutores de deriva, óleos minerais e óleos vegetais para a redução da deriva em pulverizações agr [...] ícolas. O experimento quantificou a deriva de pulverizações realizadas com 18 adjuvantes em diferentes concentrações, em solução aquosa, sob condições controladas em túnel de vento. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicatas, com pontas de pulverização Teejet XR8003 VK, pressão de 200 kPa e gotas médias. As soluções pulverizadas foram marcadas com corante Azul Brilhante a 0,6% (m v-1). A deriva foi coletada por meio de fios de polietileno posicionados transversalmente ao fluxo de ar, a diferentes distâncias da ponta e alturas do piso do túnel. A solução de lavagem de cada fio foi processada por meio de espectrofotometria para a quantificação dos depósitos. Os adjuvantes dos grupos funcionais óleos minerais e redutores de deriva proporcionaram valores menores de deriva em comparação com os surfatantes e a água. Os resultados de laboratório indicam que a seleção de produtos e de concentrações adequadas pode reduzir significativamente o risco de deriva nas pulverizações agrícolas. Entretanto, os melhores resultados obtidos em laboratório deverão ser validados com os produtos que irão constituir as caldas de pulverização em condições de campo no futuro. Abstract in english The reduction of pesticide spraying drift is still one of the major challenges in Brazilian agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of different adjuvant products, such as surfactants, drift retardants, mineral oil and vegetable oil for reducing drift in agricultural sprayin [...] g. The experiment consisted of quantifying drift of sprayings of 18 adjuvants dissolved in water under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Tests were performed in triplicates with spraying nozzles type Teejet XR8003 VK, pressure of 200kPa and medium drops. Solutions sprayed were marked with Brilliant Blue dye at 0.6% (m v-1). The drift was collected using polyethylene strips transversally fixed along the tunnel at different distances from the nozzle and different heights from the bottom part of the tunnel. Drift deposits were evaluated by spectrophotometry in order to quantify deposits. The adjuvants from chemical groups of mineral oil and drift retardant resulted in lower values of drift in comparison with surfactants and water. The results obtained in laboratory show that the selection of appropriate class and concentration of adjuvants can significantly decrease the risk of drift in agricultural spraying. However, the best results obtained in laboratory should be validated with pesticide under field conditions in the future.

  20. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David


    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  1. Ritual Abuse and Counseling: A Survey. (United States)

    Zoslocki, Linda

    Ritual abuse consists of mental, physical, sexual, and psychological abuse motivated by religious reasons, out of anger and stress, or inflicted on victims for reasons unknown. Little is now being done to educate and train school counselors on ritual abuse and its signs. This paper offers a literature review of ritual abuse and the results of a…

  2. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse. (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie


    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)



    Miles, M. T.; Cottey, E.; Cottey, A.; Stefanski, C.; Carlson, C. G.


    To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RP) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na+ - K+ pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na+]i in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na+]i of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibe...

  4. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis


    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  5. Abuse in the exercise of copyright:Is Mexico ready to use compulsory licensing as a remedy? :The potential of copyright exclusivity to affect competition and the readiness of competition law tools in Mexico to bring balance


    Trevino, Carlos Alberto Vela


    This thesis deals with Compulsory Licences, both as a limitation provided by IP law and as a remedy provided by competition law. It focus on how such remedy have been provided by the European Commission as a solution to bring to an end the abusive use of copyright by copyright holders enjoying a dominant position. It further explores if such European development represents an option for developing countries and if Mexico is prepared to benefit from such development.The First Chapter presents...

  6. Waste Management Options and Their Potential to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Lithuania and Sweden


    Didjurgyte, Rasa


    This Master thesis connects two interrelated environmental issues – climate change and waste management. Both have been under discussion for few decades and are currently two of the top priorities on EU’s environmental agenda. The goal of this thesis is to find out in what ways waste management in Lithuania and Sweden can contribute towards reducing global warming and how the release of greenhouse gases could be reduced. Four different material flows – food, metal, plastic, and paper an...

  7. Child maltreatment, abuse and neglect in a Nigerian adolescent boy, the common but unheard menace: A case report form Southwest, Nigeria


    Uzodimma, Chinyere C.; Ogundeyi, Morufat M.; Dedeke, Florence I.; Olasunkanmi Owolabi


    Child abuse is a global problem. It includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that result in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity. Child abuse and neglect are common in Nigeria, yet poorly reported. We herein report a case of child abuse and neglect in a 14-year-old boy, complicated by severe malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus infection and gross under achievement of ed...

  8. Resources for Fighting the Spread of Narcotics Abuse among Students (United States)

    Vasil'ev, I. A.


    Survey data on the problem of drug abuse in Russia show a high level of awareness of the issue among young people. To reduce the level of drug use in Russia, a comprehensive, focused, and coordinated program involving representatives of official state and social institutions, as well as institutions of civil society, is needed. Combining their…

  9. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and... (United States)


    ...of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute...the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory...National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  10. Substance Abuse in the Military (United States)

    ... in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2013 Members of ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco ...



    Ananth, Jambur; Swartz, J. Randolph; Gadasally, Rangaswamy; Burgoyne, Karl


    Abuse of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is not common but there are a few cases of addiction in the literature. Most of these patients had an additional diagnosis, either history of past drug abuse or personality disorder and MAOI withdrawal symptoms have been reported. We encountered three patients who received MAOI under psychiatric care. They were all self medicated by increasing the doses on their own, experienced euphoria and visited various physicians to obtain MAOI prescriptions and mani...

  12. Child abuse in Setswana folktales


    Malimabe-ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Kobus; Maree, J. G.; Molepo, Maisha M.; Alexander, Daleen


    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed, serve to perpetuate pre-modern societal beliefs. Ideally speaking, citizens should probably be educated about the possible negative impact of that p...

  13. Personality development after physical abuse.


    Oates, R. K.


    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  14. Effectiveness of Role Play on Knowledge of Adolescents Regarding Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomimol Lucy Thomas,


    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to assess the level of knowledge of adolescents regarding substance abuse, to find the effectiveness of role play on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescents, to find out the association of knowledge scores of adolescents regarding substance abuse with selected socio demographic variables. Material and Methods: A quasi experimental, one group pre-test post-test design with evaluative approach was adopted for this study. The study was conducted at Krishna Charitable Trust’s English Medium School and Junior College, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Simple random sampling with lottery method was used for selecting the 60 subjects from VIIIth, IXth and Xth class. On the 1st day a structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge on substance abuse and role play was conducted followed by post test on the 7thday. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The mean and standard deviation of the knowledge scores of the subjects in pre test was 11.51 + 3.55 which increased in post test after role play to 17.5 + 2.89. The paired ‘t’ test value were 15.363 (p < 0.0001 showing a significant increase in knowledge regarding substance abuse. There was an association between type of family and general information on substance abuse, education of father with commonly abused substances and the total score on substance abuse, education of mother with commonly abused substances and prevention and management of substance abuse and number of children in the family was associated with general information on substance abuse after role play. Conclusion: The study showed that the role play on substance abuse was effective in improving the knowledge of adolescents and thus helps them to understand the harmful effects of substance abuse and to take necessary methods to control it.

  15. Role of Natural Helpers in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Ballew, Julius R.


    Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)

  16. Corporal Punishment in the Schools--Discipline or Abuse? (United States)

    Friedman, David B.

    Corporal punishment is one teacher-child interaction harmful to children. Corporal punishment inhibits learning, interferes with the accomplishment of each of the important developmental tasks of children and their teachers, and has the potential for physical harm to the child. Corporal punishment should be considered as child abuse and prohibited…

  17. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.


    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…

  18. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence


    Özlem Karaku?


    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abu...

  19. Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review. (United States)

    Varga, Matthew D


    Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses. PMID:22694135

  20. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

  1. Potential improvement in rice seedling establishment and weed suppression in reduced-input systems using osmotically pre-conditioned seed (United States)

    Asian indica rice cultivars have exhibited suppression potential against barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in drill-seeded, flood-irrigated production systems in the U.S. However, the degree of weed suppression has been inconsistent, and is dependent on environmental and production factors whi...

  2. Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components


    Bauer, E.; Metzler-zebeli, B. U.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Mosenthin, R.


    The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty...

  3. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

  4. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas


    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

  6. nfluence of reducing and oxidizing compounds and of the redox potential of the medium on the biomass of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Breb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gumi?ski


    Full Text Available The influence was investigated of several concentrations of the reducing agents: cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, pyracatechol and of the oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K4Cr2O7 and H2O2 on the total dry weight increment and that of protein with reference to redox potential changes of the medium in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures. The culture was run in a photothermostat. It was found that the reducing compounds had as a rule a stimulating influence under 24-h illumdnation, whereas the oxidilzing agents gave the same effect when a period of 7-h darkness was applied within 24 h.

  7. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. PMID:20971410

  8. The cognitive impact of sexual abuse and PTSD in children: a neuropsychological study. (United States)

    Barrera, Mauricio; Calderón, Liliana; Bell, Vaughan


    Sexual abuse is known to have an impact on both child and adult mental health, but the neuropsychological basis of this effect is still largely unknown. This study compared neuropsychological test results from a group of 76 children, 13 of them sexual abuse victims with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, 26 victims of sexual abuse who showed no symptoms post-traumatic stress disorder, and 37 controls. The groups were matched by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educational level. Child sexual abuse was associated with reduced ability to inhibit automatic responses measured by the Stroop test regardless of post-traumatic stress disorder status. These findings indicate possible attentional inhibition difficulties in child victims of sexual abuse, which may help explain psychopathology associated with the experience. PMID:23924174

  9. A longitudinal twin study of effects of adolescent alcohol abuse on the neurophysiology of attention and orienting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Sini M; Ahveninen, Jyrki


    Long-term functional brain effects of adolescent alcohol abuse remain uncertain, partially because of difficulties in distinguishing inherited deficits from neuronal effects of ethanol and by confounds associated with alcohol abuse, especially nicotine exposure. We conducted a longitudinal twin study to determine neurocognitive effects of adolescent alcohol abuse, as measured with the auditory event-related potential (ERP) component P3, a putative marker of genetic vulnerability to alcoholism.

  10. Biotin Deficiency Reduces Expression of SLC19A3, a Potential Biotin Transporter, in Leukocytes from Human Blood12


    Vlasova, Tatyana I.; Stratton, Shawna L.; Wells, Amanda M.; Mock, Nell I.; Mock, Donald M.


    In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate c...

  11. Low quantal content of the endplate potential reduces safety factor for neuromuscular transmission in the diaphragm of the newborn rat. (United States)

    Wareham, A C; Morton, R H; Meakin, G H


    We have used phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations from rats aged 11-28 days to determine the electrophysiological basis of the three-fold increase in sensitivity of the neonatal neuromuscular junction to non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs. The mean resting membrane potential (RMP) of intact muscle fibres at 19-21 degrees C increased from -67.1 (SEM 0.6) mV at 11 days to -75.8 (0.06) mV at 28 days. Over the same age range the mean size of miniature endplate potentials (MEPP) decreased from 1.7 (0.1) mV to 1.4 (0.03) mV, and the threshold depolarization to produce a muscle action potential increased from 6.8 (0.4) mV to 9.5 (0.6) mV. The quantal content of the evoked endplate potential (EPP) calculated from EPP and MEPP measured in cut muscle fibres was only 6.6 (0.9) at 11 days, but this increased to 21.1 (2.3) at 21 days. As a result of the low quantal content of the EPP, the safety factor for neuromuscular transmission was only 1.7 at 11 days, compared with 2.8 at 20 days. A safety factor of 1.7 in the youngest rats indicates that block of only about 40% of postjunctional acetylcholine receptors would result in failure of neuromuscular transmission. Hence, a low quantal content of EPP, leading to a low safety factor for neuromuscular transmission, probably underlies the increased sensitivity to non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs of young rats and, by inference, human neonates. PMID:8110574

  12. Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps


    Cooper, Samuel J. G.; Joe Dowsett; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Mcmanus, Marcelle C.; Rogers, John G.


    This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with elec...

  13. Inflammation reduces mechanical thresholds in a population of transient receptor potential channel A1-expressing nociceptors in the rat


    Dunham, James P.; Kelly, Sara; Donaldson, Lucy F.


    Inflammatory hypersensitivity is characterized by behavioural reductions in withdrawal thresholds to noxious stimuli. Although cutaneous primary afferent neurones are known to have lowered thermal thresholds in inflammation, whether their mechanical thresholds are altered remains controversial. The transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) is a receptor localized to putative nociceptive neurones and is implicated in mechanical and thermal nociception. Herein, we examined changes in the ...

  14. The use of filters to reduce the potential ?-energy due to radon daughters in the cabs of mining vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the performance of filters for use in ventilation systems and describes an experiment performed in an inactive stope in an operating uranium mine in France. A series of truck engine air filters were used, designed to remove dust in the tens of microns range with an efficiency of about 5-20. They were chosen because they were designed from the outset to operate under the conditions of shock and vibration likely to be encountered in a mine. It was concluded that the use of the Liebherr filter will reduce the working level in the machine cab by a factor of two. (U.K.)

  15. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations


    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney


    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures a...

  16. Set-up of a multivariate approach based on serum biomarkers as an alternative strategy for the screening evaluation of the potential abuse of growth promoters in veal calves. (United States)

    Pirro, Valentina; Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Gardini, Giulia; Badino, Paola; Nebbia, Carlo


    A chemometric class modelling strategy (unequal dispersed classes - UNEQ) was applied for the first time as a possible screening method to monitor the abuse of growth promoters in veal calves. Five serum biomarkers, known to reflect the exposure to classes of compounds illegally used as growth promoters, were determined from 50 untreated animals in order to design a model of controls, representing veal calves reared under good, safe and highly standardised breeding conditions. The class modelling was applied to 421 commercially bred veal calves to separate them into 'compliant' and 'non-compliant' with respect to the modelled controls. Part of the non-compliant animals underwent further histological and chemical examinations to confirm the presence of either alterations in target tissues or traces of illegal substances commonly administered for growth-promoting purposes. Overall, the congruence between the histological or chemical methods and the UNEQ non-compliant outcomes was approximately 58%, likely underestimated due to the blindness nature of this examination. Further research is needed to confirm the validity of the UNEQ model in terms of sensitivity in recognising untreated animals as compliant to the controls, and specificity in revealing deviations from ideal breeding conditions, for example due to the abuse of growth promoters. PMID:25730172

  17. Individual differences in emotional memory: adult attachment and long-term memory for child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Edelstein, Robin S; Ghetti, Simona; Quas, Jodi A; Goodman, Gail S; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Redlich, Allison D; Cordón, Ingrid M


    In the present study, attachment-related differences in long-term memory for a highly emotional life event, child sexual abuse (CSA), were investigated. Participants were 102 documented CSA victims whose cases were referred for prosecution approximately 14 years earlier. Consistent with the proposal that avoidant individuals defensively regulate the processing of potentially distressing information (Bowlby, 1980), attachment avoidance was negatively associated with memory for particularly severe CSA incidents. This finding was not mediated by the extent to which participants reported talking about the abuse after it occurred, although post abuse discussion did enhance long-term memory. In addition, accuracy was positively associated with maternal support following the abuse and extent of CSA-related legal involvement. Attachment anxiety was unrelated to memory accuracy, regardless of abuse severity. Implications of the findings for theories of avoidant defensive strategies and emotional memory are discussed. PMID:16207772

  18. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO3. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  19. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.


    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  20. Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood. (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatyana I; Stratton, Shawna L; Wells, Amanda M; Mock, Nell I; Mock, Donald M


    In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate carboxylase (PC); acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoforms A (ACCA) and B (ACCB); holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS); biotinidase; and 2 potential biotin transporters: sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) and solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3). For 7 subjects who successfully completed the study, the abundance of the specific mRNAs was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR at d 0 and 28. At d 28, SLC19A3 expression had decreased to 33% of d 0 (P ACCA, ACCB, HCS, biotinidase, and SMVT decreased to approximately 80% of d 0 (P < 0.05). Expression of the MCCB and PCCB chains that do not carry the biotin-binding motif did not change significantly; we speculate that expression of the biotin-binding chains of biotin-dependent carboxylases is more responsive to biotin status changes. These data provide evidence that expression of SLC19A3 is a relatively sensitive indicator of marginal biotin deficiency. PMID:15623830

  1. Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging cerebral GABAA receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of self-help methods to reduce potential exposure to radiological contamination after a large-scale radiological release. (United States)

    Snyder, Emily; Drake, John; Cardarelli, John; Hall, Kathy; Szabo, Jeff; Demmer, Rick; Lindberg, Michael; Riggs, Karen; James, Ryan


    After the release of radioactive materials from a large radiological dispersal device (e.g., dirty bomb), improvised nuclear detonation, or nuclear power plant accident, up to hundreds of square miles may be contaminated. A portion of this area will be evacuated; however, people living in the portion that is not evacuated yet is still contaminated with low-levels of radioactive contamination will be asking for ways they can reduce their exposure. Whether cleaning activities can significantly reduce exposure is not fully understood. In this effort, the ability of cleaning activities to remove cesium (137Cs) was studied. The removal efficacy of cleaning with a commercial product, Simple Green®, was compared to cleaning with water for hard surfaces typically seen in residences. The removal efficacy of laundering fabric material surfaces was also determined for a range of conditions (e.g., fabric material type, wash temperature). During these studies, assessments of the implications of these activities (e.g., cross-contamination, resulting waste streams) were also completed. Simple Green and water were effective for removing 137Cs from plastic laminate and vinyl flooring (93.4-96.8%) but were not effective for removing 137Cs from painted wallboard and wood (7.3-68.1%). It was also determined that there was no significant difference between the two cleaners on all of the surfaces, except plastic laminate, for which Simple Green was slightly more effective. Laundering was effective for removing 137Cs contamination from polyester and cotton swatches and cotton comforters (up to 96.8% in the single swatch testing). PMID:25068960

  3. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families. (United States)

    Davis, Norris; And Others


    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  4. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Substance Abuse or Dependence Zloupotreba opojnih sredstava ili ...

  5. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser. (United States)

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others


    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  6. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) (United States)

    ... names, including inflicted traumatic brain injury and shaken impact syndrome. All of these names mean the same thing: an injury to a child's brain as a result of child abuse. Abusive head trauma (AHT) can be caused by ...

  7. JAMA Patient Page: Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (United States)

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism A buse of alcohol is ... each other by sharing personal experiences and advice. Alcohol abuse is a pattern of drinking that is ...

  8. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognmo Kamilla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well.

  9. Potential for Woody Bioenergy Crops Grown on Marginal Lands in the US Midwest to Reduce Carbon Emissions (United States)

    Sahajpal, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Zhang, X.


    While cellulosic biofuels are widely considered to be a low carbon energy source for the future, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and future biofuel systems is needed to assess their utility in meeting US energy and food needs without exacerbating environmental harm. To assess the carbon emission reduction potential of cellulosic biofuels, we need to identify lands that are initially not storing large quantities of carbon in soil and vegetation but are capable of producing abundant biomass with limited management inputs, and accurately model forest production rates and associated input requirements. Here we present modeled results for carbon emission reduction potential and cellulosic ethanol production of woody bioenergy crops replacing existing native prairie vegetation grown on marginal lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands are selected based on soil properties describing use limitation, and are extracted from the SSURGO (Soil Survey Geographic) database. Yield estimates for existing native prairie vegetation on marginal lands modeled using the process-based field-scale model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) amount to ~ 6.7±2.0 Mg ha-1. To model woody bioenergy crops, the individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model ED (Ecosystem Demography) is initialized with the soil organic carbon stocks estimated at the end of the EPIC simulation. Four woody bioenergy crops: willow, southern pine, eucalyptus and poplar are parameterized in ED. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters and drivers is conducted to explore the range of carbon emission reduction possible with variation in woody bioenergy crop types, spatial and temporal resolution. We hypothesize that growing cellulosic crops on these marginal lands can provide significant water quality, biodiversity and GHG emissions mitigation benefits, without accruing additional carbon costs from the displacement of food and feed production.

  10. Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions


    Lindell, Charlotta


    This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

  11. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.


    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  12. Potential new sources of wheat curl mite resistance in wheat to prevent the spread of yield-reducing pathogens. (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly; Miller, Adam D; Hoffmann, Ary A; Larkin, Philip


    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae), is a major pest in cropping regions of the world and is recognised as the primary vector of several yield-reducing pathogens, primarily affecting wheat. Management of WCM is complicated due to several aspects of the mite's biology and ecology; however, commercially viable mite resistant wheat varieties may offer practical long-term management options. Unfortunately, mite populations have adapted to previously identified sources of resistance, highlighting the need for further sources of resistance and the value of stacking different resistances to give greater degrees and longevity of control. In this study we assessed the susceptibility of 42 wheat-derived genotypes to mite population growth using a new experimental method that overcomes methodological limitations of previous studies. Experimental wheat lines included a variety of wheat genotypes, related Triticeae species, wheat-alien chromosome amphiploids, and chromosome addition or substitution lines. From these we identify new promising sources of WCM resistance associated with Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. ponticum and Hordeum marinum chromosomes. More specifically we identify group 1J and 5J chromosomes of the L3 and L5 wheat-Th. intermedium addition lines as new sources of resistance that could be exploited to transfer resistance onto homoeologous wheat chromosomes. This study offers new methods for reliable in situ estimations of mite abundance on cereal plants, and new sources of WCM resistance that may assist management of WCM and associated viruses in wheat. PMID:24705793

  13. The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Mike [The UK' s National Nuclear Laboratory, Preston Laboratory, Preston, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)


    The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

  14. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein


    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:22855041

  15. The potential for energy efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: The industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an assessment of the possible contribution that an invigorated effort to move energy efficient technology which is commercially available, or near commercialization, into the market could make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the US industrial sector by 2010. It presents preliminary results from the industrial sector chapter of a larger study being undertaken by the Dept. of Energy. The authors begin with some background information on their approach to the assessment and how that approach is shaped by the complexities of the US industrial sector and the limitations of the available analytical tools for this sector. They then describe the results of their model-based scenario analysis through the year 2010. They summarize examples of the types of technologies that, were they to come into widespread use in the US industrial sector in the near term, would achieve the model scenario results, acknowledging that widespread adoption of these technologies would require the appropriate policies (e.g., accelerated R and D, fiscal incentives and market conditions)

  16. Phencyclidine abuse mimicking head injury. (United States)

    Corales, R L; Maull, K I; Becker, D P


    Phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP) is a psychoactive drug that in small doses produces agitation, excitement, and disorientation, but in larger doses results in stupor, convulsions, coma, and death. Two accident victims under the effects of phencyclidine were in coma. A history of phencyclidine abuse was not initially available in either instance. Head injury was suspected in both patients, although their neurological symptoms suggested a state of sensory blockade. Phencyclidine abuse should be considered in all patients with atypical coma despite a clear history of trauma. PMID:7373800

  17. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006


    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  18. Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes. (United States)

    Salend, Elyse; And Others


    Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

  19. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse (United States)

    ... schools to obtain a "high." What are the effects of inhalant abuse? Sniffing can cause sickness and death. For example, ... openly and stressing the devastating consequences of inhalant abuse, you can help prevent a tragedy. If you suspect your child or someone you know is an inhalant abuser, ...

  20. Multiorgan dysfunction related to chronic ketamine abuse


    Pappachan, Joseph M.; Raj, Binu; Thomas, Sebastian; Hanna, Fahmy W.


    Ketamine abuse is being increasingly reported worldwide. The drug can produce a dissociative state and hallucinations, making ketamine a favorite recreational agent among drug addicts. Chronic ketamine abuse can damage many organs, including the brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. We report a patient with chronic ketamine abuse who presented with severe cachexia, upper gastrointestinal involvement, hepatobiliary dysfunction, and acute kidney injury.

  1. Parents Who Abuse: What Are They Thinking? (United States)

    Seng, Alexandra C.; Prinz, Ronald J.


    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered…

  2. Adderall abuse in Texas, 1998-2004. (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B


    Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of Adderall abuse calls received by several poison control centers in Texas during 1998-2004. Drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of all Adderall exposure calls, 12% involved abuse. The number of drug abuse calls received per year increased during the first part of 7-yr period but then declined. Male patients accounted for almost 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 69% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 66% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than nonabuse calls to involve exposures at another residence (6% vs. 3%), school (22% vs. 5%) and public areas (2% vs. 0.4%). Drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to be managed outside of a health care facility (18% vs. 51%) and to be classified as no adverse effect (23% vs. 48%). Adderall abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Adderall abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and involve more serious medical outcomes. PMID:17365619

  3. Attachment Theory and Child Abuse: Some Cautions. (United States)

    Olafson, Erna


    Presents a response to Bolen's article, "Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?" (this issue). Heralds the article as a welcome addition to the child abuse field and further explores the issues pertaining to attachment theory and child abuse. (GCP)

  4. Abuse of dominance in the airport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Paula e Oliveira


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of the Competition Law in dealing the abuse of dominance in the European airport sector. Starting with discussion of whether airports are natural monopolies or may face real competition, it is followed by an analysis of special features about the sector and a comparison between the policies of the European Union Member States. It is found that above the variety of regulatory frameworks, scarce capacity issues and public subsidies, the EU Competition Law stands as a universal mechanism to protect customers from the abuse of the airports´ dominant position. However, in reviewing the case law it concludes that EU Competition Law has been rarely enforced in the sector, which seems to be the result not only of the lack of incentives for airports to explore their dominant position but also of the risk of reducing the revenues generated from their commercial activities. Another possible reason is related to the fact that some airlines have shown that airport switching can be a credible threat. Finally, it follows the agreement that competition is a “first best” policy which provides the firms with the strongest incentives to give consumers what they need in terms of price and quality. In the airport sector, it can be a good instrument against a regulator that has been acting in the interests of the national airline or even be part of a liberalization process.

  5. Novel experimental result contradicts conventional pinning theory; record-high J {sub c} obtained by reducing the pinning potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandini, A. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States) and Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)]. E-mail:; Weinstein, R. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, R. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, D. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Mayes, B. [Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)


    Scores of work have suggested that the pinning potential energy, U {sub p}, should be maximized to achieve high critical current density, J {sub c}. This has led several researchers to believe that the highest J {sub c} could only be achieved by means of continuous columnar defects, CCPCs, because they provide the largest U {sub p}. We now present the surprising experimental result that, in clear contrast with the conventional belief, J {sub c} for discontinuous pinning is much higher than for continuous. For example, in melt-textured YBCO we obtained a record-high J {sub c} {approx} 275 kA/cm{sup 2}, at B = 1 T and T = 77 K, using discontinuous multiple-in-line-damage, MILD. Our data contrary to conventional pinning theories indicate that J {sub c} does not depend primarily on U {sub p}, but on the simultaneous optimization of three factors: the loss in current percolation, the reduction in T {sub c}, and U {sub p}. In conclusion the maximum J {sub c} in YBCO, at 10 K < T < 88 K and up to 8 T, is obtained for MILD pinning centers with a fractional length along the sample thickness of only 0.2-0.3, whereas CCPCs have fractional length of 1.

  6. Ethosuximide reduces allodynia and hyperalgesia and potentiates morphine effects in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain. (United States)

    Hamidi, Gholam Ali; Ramezani, Mehdi Honarkar; Arani, Meysam Noorani; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Mesdaghinia, Azam; Banafshe, Hamid Reza


    Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and treatment of neuropathic pain remains a challenge. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ethosuximide, an anti-epileptic and relatively selective T-type calcium blocker and morphine, a prototypical opioid in the behavioral responses following the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. Experiments were performed on eight groups (n=8) of male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-280 g). The animals were injected with saline, ethosuximide (100, 200, 300 mg/kg), morphine (4 mg/kg), and a combination of morphine (4 mg/kg) plus ethosuximide (100mg/kg, i.p.). The cold-and mechano-allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured prior to surgery (the day 0) and 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days post surgery. Ethosuximide and morphine significantly decreased cold and mechano allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. However, the co-administration of both drugs seems to be more effective than the ethosuximide or morphine alone on cold and mechano allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia .Our results suggest that ethosuximide block tactile and thermal hypersensitivity after the CCI model, also, ethosuximide potentiates the analgesic effects of morphine in neuropathic pain conditions and behavioral responses. PMID:22134003

  7. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

  8. Reduced repair of potentially lethal radiation damage in glutathione synthetase-deficient human fibroblasts after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a human fibroblast strain deficient in glutathione synthetase and a related proficient control strain, the role of glutathione (GSH) in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) has been investigated in determining survival by plating cells immediately or 24 h after irradiation. After oxic or hypoxic irradiation, both cell strains repair radiation-induced damage. However, under hypoxic conditions, the proficient cells repair PLD as well as under oxic conditions while the deficient cells repair less PLD after irradiation under hypoxic than under oxic conditions. Therefore, the oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) for proficient cells is similar whether the cells are plated immediately or 24 h later (2.0 and 2.13, respectively). In contrast, the o.e.r. for deficient cells is lower when the cells are plated 24 h after irradiation than when they are plated immediately thereafter (1.16 as compared to 1.55). The results indicate that GSH is involved in PLD repair and, in particular, in the repair of damage induced by radiation delivered under hypoxic conditions. (author)

  9. Sunscreen abuse for intentional sun exposure. (United States)

    Autier, P


    Skin cancer is caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) and the sun is the main source of this radiation. Sunscreens were initially formulated to prevent sunburns; laboratory studies later revealed that in rodents they could reduce UV-induced skin cancer which resembles human squamous cell carcinoma. Three randomized trials in older adults showed the ability of sunscreens to moderately reduce the occurrence of solar keratoses and of squamous cell carcinoma. However, no effect was observed for basal cell carcinoma. There is no animal model for human melanoma and observational studies often found sunscreen use associated with a higher risk of nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. These higher risks were found when sun exposure appeared to be intentional, that is, with the desire to acquire a tan, a healthy look or simply to spend as long as possible in the sun with as much skin exposed as possible. Three randomized trials showed that sunscreen use by sun sensitive subjects engaging in intentional sun exposure could increase the duration of exposure without decreasing sunburn occurrence. This increased duration could be the reason why melanoma risk is increased when sunscreen is used. Hence, sunscreen abuse may extend sun exposure duration thus allowing sun exposure behaviours that would not be possible otherwise. Advertising for sunscreens and labeling of sunscreen bottles should inform consumers of the carcinogenic hazards associated with sunscreen abuse. It would be good to use a personal UV dosimeter which would give an alert when one's individual sunburn threshold in the absence of sunscreen use is nearing. The combination of sunscreen and a UV dosimeter may be an option for reducing the melanoma risk among sun worshippers. PMID:19775356

  10. Preliminary study of potential energy savings within business and industry by reducing over-harmonies; Forundersoegelse af muligheder for energibesparelser i erhvervslivet ved reduktion af overharmoniske stroemme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Kehr, J.M. (ABB A/S, Skovlunde (Denmark)); Hoejte Hansen, H. (Balslev A/S (Denmark))


    Overharmonic currents cause additional losses in the power supply network (lines, transformers) and in motors, which are supplied directly from the network (not motors, which are supplied from frequency converters or rectifiers). The overharmonic currents can be reduced or removed by capacitor banks and active filters. Active filters adjust themselves to the loading conditions and are also reacting on too slow transients and voltage disturbances in the network. Till now there is only little experience with active filters in commercial life. However, there are indications of potential electricity savings up to 10 % in installations with many overharmonic voltages (THDU > 5 %). The extent of harmonic distortions has been measured in 10 firms and has been compared to previous measurements. It is estimated that the voltage distortion, measured in THDU, at least must be 5 or 6 % in order to establish a profitable solution by reducing the harmonics by means of an active filter. In approx 40 % of the cases where the THDU has been measured, it has been estimated on the basis of THDU, current and utilization time that there is a potential of electricity savings by reducing the THDU. The overharmonic currents cause additional current heating losses in directly supplied motors as well as in lines and transformers. In induction motors they also cause current heating losses in the rotor and the 5th, 11th, 17th etc harmonics make a pulsating or reduced torque, which implies further losses. ABB and Comsys, both of which deliver active filters, have calculated electricity savings in some installations equipped with active filters. The direct electricity savings have been estimated at a low per cent in production equipment generally and up to 16 % in some directly supplied induction motors. In addition to the direct electricity savings the filters may also result in increased production capacity as a consequence of fewer breakdowns (the filters improve the voltage quality and provide reduced pulsating motor torques), reduced costs for reactive power and a longer lifetime for production equipment. On the basis of the extent of harmonic distortions in Danish business and industry, our experience with electricity savings with active filters and the electricity consumption in directly supplied motors of approx 7,000 GWh/year, the potential electricity savings by installing active filters are estimated at 30 to 60 GWh/year.

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, SØren; Madsen, Anders


    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct problems are strong predictors of SUD, but not responsible for the entire associated risk between ADHD and SUD. Dopamine is thought to be one of the key neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of both ADHD and SUD. Methylphenidate has the dopamine transporter as its main target and brain circuits modulated by dopamine are involved in the development of addiction. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used pharmacological treatment for ADHD and, although this prescribed drug potentially can be abused, it actually seems to reduce the risk of SUD in patients with ADHD, rather than to increase the risk. Few studies have examined the risk of SUD in females with ADHD and some of them suggest a higher risk of SUD than in males with ADHD. However, more research is needed on these gender differences before any clear conclusions can be drawn.

  12. Damage of zona pellucida reduces the developmental potential and quality of porcine circovirus type 2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. (United States)

    Zhao, Haijing; Ji, Qianqian; Zhao, Guangyin; Song, Zhenwei; Du, Baozhu; Nie, Yu; Chen, Yaosheng; Cong, Peiqing


    The present aimed to study if porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which adhered to zona pellucida (ZP), was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with intact and damaged ZP. Four groups, including uninfected ZP-intact oocytes (UOZI), uninfected ZP-damaged oocytes (UOZD), PCV2-infected ZP-intact oocytes (POZI), and PCV2-infected ZP-damaged oocytes (POZD) were studied. The oocytes were incubated with 1 mL minimum essential medium, containing 3.1 × 10(8) copies of PCV2 DNA for 1 hour. Mechanical procedure of the insertion by microneedle induced injuries to the ZP of porcine oocytes. At the blastocyst stage, the percentage of PCV2-infected embryos and the ratio of viral antigen-positive cells per embryo were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To assess the effect of ZP injury on the developmental competence and quality of porcine PCV2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation, blastocyst formation rates and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were analyzed. Moreover, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency at different developmental stages. The results of indirect immunofluorescence showed that only POZD group presented PCV2-infected embryos and viral-positive cells. The blastocyst rate of POZD group dropped down to approximately half of POZI group's (7.1 ± 1.5 vs. 14.5 ± 3.3). At the blastocyst stage, ZP injury increased apoptotic index of PCV2-infected embryos. The relative expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the two- and four-cell stages (not statistically significant). Compared with the one in POZI group, the ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of the ability to resist apoptosis, was lower in POZD group at the one-cell stage, but higher at the two- and four-cell stages. Expression levels of Oct4 and Nanog associated with pluripotency were lower in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the morula stage (not statistically significant). Noteworthily, the expression of Nanog was significantly lower in POZD group versus POZI group (P PCV2, which attached to ZP, was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with damaged ZP and subsequently reduced the developmental competence and quality of the oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. PMID:25062959

  13. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking


    Ohannessian, Christine Mccauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.


    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  14. Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dastjerdi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

  15. Substance Abuse and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah I.


    Full Text Available Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three juvenile Henry Gurney schools in Malaysia who took part in this exploratory cross-sectional survey research design. A set of questionnaire was constructed by the researcher based on the Aggression Questionnaires (AQ scale. Results showed that the majority of adolescents (95 percent indicated an aggressive behavior of moderate to high level. The result of the study also found that adolescents who have been using heroin (r = 0.016, p <0.05 and morphine drugs (r = 0.181, p <0.05 showed significant correlation with aggressive behavior. The findings provided evidence for the significant role of the goverment to enhance rehabilitation modules for adolescents involved in drug abuse. Education on how to effectively deal with aggressive behavior among adolescents at risk should be emphasized for building positive behavior among adolescents in order to produce potential young generation in the future.

  16. Wilderness Therapy for Abused Women (United States)

    McBride, Dawn Lorraine; Korell, Gabrielle


    This paper describes a wilderness weekend retreat for abused women facilitated by the authors. An overview of wilderness therapy, addressing its historical roots, key theoretical perspectives, as well as issues of emotional and physical safety, is presented. Special emphasis is placed on how to create a wilderness experience that is empowering to…

  17. Sharpened legislation on market abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

  18. Drugs of Abuse and Neurons (United States)

    Dr. Eve


    Learn about how neurons communicate with each other through neurotransmission. Learn how drugs of abuse affect this process. Below each question are links to other web resources. You will need to read several of them to get all the ideas. Write your answers in a separate WORD document and print it. 1) Using these references, make a list of 10 parts of a ...

  19. Q & A on Child Abuse (United States)

    Kirk, Rea


    As an advocate for all students, educators have a legal, moral, and ethical responsibility for identifying and reporting child abuse. One of the most difficult tasks a teacher may face is also one of the most important a teacher can do. If a teacher knows what to look for and what to do, he or she can help a child heal physically and emotionally.…

  20. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics. (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.


    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  1. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping (United States)

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.


    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  2. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Han, Dae Sang; Park, Su Bin; Chae, Jangwoo; Kim, Ji Man; Kwak, Jeonghun


    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 ? sq?1) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks.

  3. Does drug abuse alter microglial phenotype and cell turnover in the context of advancing HIV infection? (United States)

    Anthony, I C; Ramage, S N; Carnie, F W; Simmonds, P; Bell, J E


    The aim of this study was to test the effects of drug abuse, in particular opiate abuse, on the phenotype and turnover of microglial cells within the brain in the context of advancing HIV infection. Basal ganglia and hippocampus sections were studied in 51 cases divided into six groups: HIV-negative normal controls, HIV-negative drug abusers, AIDS nondrug abusers, AIDS drug abusers, HIV encephalitis (HIVE) nondrug abusers and HIVE drug abusers. None of the cases studied had received highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Microglial phenotypes were defined using CD14, CD16, CD68 and major histocompatibility class II (MHC II). Microglial turnover was assessed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) (DNA damage), BAX (proapoptotic marker), Fas (CD95) (proapoptotic), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (proliferation and DNA repair), Ki-67 (cell proliferation) and BCL-2 (antiapoptosis). We find increased expression of MHC II and CD16 in response to drug abuse. We also noted increased levels of TUNEL positivity in drug abusers compared to nondrug abusers, although conversely we found lower levels of BAX in those who had abused drugs. We find no evidence of microglial proliferation in any of our study groups, including HIVE, although HIV infection leads to increased expression of CD16, CD68 and MHC II. CD14 expression was restricted to perivascular microglia in all groups (including normal controls) apart from the two HIVE groups where some but not all cases also showed parenchymal expression of CD14. In contrast, CD16 was found in parenchymal microglia in all groups. Using high-pressure antigen retrieval and tyramide signal amplification, we find moderately high levels of CD16 expression in the parenchyma of normal brains which is not normally observed using standard avidin/biotin complex (ABC) techniques. This suggests that a low basal expression of CD16 occurs in many resident microglial cells which may potentially be upregulated in HIV-infected individuals. From these data, we suggest that not all the CD16+ parenchymal cells detected in AIDS brains (using ABC) represent influx of monocyte lineage cells from the blood. Finally the increased expression of MHC II and CD68 detected in drug abusers with HIVE compared to nondrug abusers with HIVE suggests that the combination of drug abuse and HIV infection has a greater deleterious effect on the brain than either individual insult on its own. PMID:15885069

  4. Childhood sexual abuse in women with bulimia. (United States)

    Bulik, C M; Sullivan, P F; Rorty, M


    In a study of the family environments and psychiatric histories of 35 bulimic women, the authors found that 12 (34.3%) of the 35 women had been sexually abused or had a sister who had been sexually abused. That rate is comparable to estimates from other studies of women with eating disorders and of female psychiatric patients, but is apparently higher than the rate found in the general population. Bulimic women from families in which sexual abuse occurred were more likely than bulimic women with no personal or family history of sexual abuse to have a personal history of major depression, relatives who abused drugs, and a disturbed family environment. The presence of bulimia should alert clinicians to screen for concomitant depression, suicidality, and substance abuse as well as the possibility of severe, if hidden, familial pathology and environmental disruption including sexual abuse, parental psychopathology, and character deficits. PMID:2600064

  5. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program. (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S


    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed. PMID:11525346

  6. Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We audited a paper mill in China to reduce its energy use and CO2 emissions. ? The energy use and CO2 emissions of the mill and each paper machine are presented. ? The energy saving potential for the paper machine is estimated at 8–37%. ? The energy saving potential is 967.8 TJ, equal to 14.4% of the mill’s energy use. ? The CO2 reduction potential is 93,453 tonnes CO2 for the studied paper mill. -- Abstract: The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the audit period.

  7. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties. (United States)

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana


    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

  8. Understanding the neurobiology, assessment, and treatment of substances of abuse and dependence: a guide for the critical care nurse. (United States)

    Genung, Vanessa


    What do I as a critical care nurse do? Nurses, by virtue of being trained in health promotion, and also because they interact with patients, families, and communities, have firsthand opportunities to play an active role in practicing primary prevention. To avoid the first occurrence of substance abuse, assess community need, assess facility needs, and identify potential risk. Identify the magnitude of the problem. Intervene early with the youth and at-risk populations. Refer patients and their families to mental health specialists. Provide education to patients, families, communities. To reduce occurrences of substance abuse, practicing secondary prevention requires prompt action in the earliest moments of recognizing a problem and directing patients to early intervention and rehabilitation. Screening your patients, providing brief education, and prompt referral constitutes early intervention. To retard the progress of the disease, practice tertiary prevention by providing education, counseling, and support to the afflicted in achieving and maintaining sobriety through medication compliance and rehabilitative group and counseling work. The goal of intervention in the lives of substance abusers is to stop drug use, avoid relapse, and sustain recovery. After years of research, NIDA has identified 13 fundamental principles to effective drug abuse treatment. 1. Addiction is a complex but treatable disease that affects brain function and behavior. 2. No single treatment is appropriate for everyone. 3. Treatment needs to be readily available. 4. Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her drug abuse. 5. Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical. 6. Counseling--individual and/or group--and other behavioral therapies are the most commonly used forms of drug abuse treatment. 7. Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients, especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies. 8. An individual's treatment and services plan must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure it meets his or her changing needs. 9. Many drug-addicted individuals also have other mental disorders that need treatment. 10. Medically assisted detoxification in the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long-term drug abuse. 11. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective. 12. Drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously, because lapses during treatment do occur. 13. Treatment programs should assess patients for the presence of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases, as well as provide targeted risk-reduction counseling to help patients modify or change behaviors that place them at risk of contracting or spreading infectious diseases. To truly impact this disease, there needs to be improvement in the identification of risk factors and early identification and early intervention with children and adolescents. The future of neuroscience is in objective brain scans and genetic testing. Out of these approaches can come more objective measures of addiction and dependence using brain scans and genetic testing. These measures would potentially allow for the development of vaccines for specific drugs of abuse and dependence, as well as increasingly selective and effective pharmacologic approaches for treatment and a new consensus on standard of care for substance dependence. PMID:22405717

  9. Interpretation of Oral Fluid Tests for Drugs of Abuse


    Cone, Edward J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.


    Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse offers significant advantages over urine as a test matrix. Collection can be performed under direct observation with reduced risk of adulteration and substitution. Drugs generally appear in oral fluid by passive diffusion from blood, but also may be deposited in the oral cavity during oral, smoked, and intranasal administration. Drug metabolites also can be detected in oral fluid. Unlike urine testing, there may be a close correspondence between drug and ...

  10. Modest abuse-related subjective effects of zolpidem in drug-naïve volunteers


    Licata, Stephanie C.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Maclean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.


    Recent case reports suggest that the short-acting benzodiazepine-like hypnotic zolpidem may have abuse potential among individuals who have no personal history of abusing drugs or alcohol, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for treating insomnia. The present study recruited drug-naïve volunteers to assess the subjective effects of multiple doses of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg) administered in a within-subject double-blind design. Participants (n=11) answered computerized qu...

  11. The Long-term Health Outcomes of Childhood Abuse: An Overview and a Call to Action


    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly


    While the association between abuse in childhood and adverse adult health outcomes is well established, this link is infrequently acknowledged in the general medical literature. This paper has 2 purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of child abuse on mental and physical health including some of the potential pathways, and (2) to call for collaborative action among clinicians, psychosocial and biomedical researchers, social service agencies, crimina...

  12. Intimate partner violence/abuse and depressive symptoms among female healthcare workers: Longitudinal findings


    Flair, Lareina N. La; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.


    Intimate partner violence and abuse (IPV/A) have been shown to have a major impact on mental health functioning. This study assessed the longitudinal association between recent IPV/A and depressive symptoms in order to identify potential targets for preventive interventions for women. Random effects models were used to examine four waves of data collected at 6-month intervals from a cohort of 1438 female healthcare workers. Recent IPV/A (e.g., sexual and physical violence, psychological abuse...

  13. Mediating the Effects of Drug Abuse: The Role of Narp in Synaptic Plasticity


    Reti, Irving M.; Blouin, Ashley M.; Worley, Paul F.; Holland, Peter C.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Baraban, Jay M.


    There has been remarkable progress in deciphering the molecular mechanisms that mediate synaptic plasticity. Advances have stimulated interest in determining whether these plasticity mechanisms also mediate the long-lasting behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse. The observation that drugs of abuse, such as cocaine or morphine, can elicit robust immediate early gene (IEG) responses similar to those induced by long-term potentiation stimulation has provided important support for this hyp...

  14. Manipulation and abuse on social media

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Emilio


    The computer science research community has became increasingly interested in the study of social media due to their pervasiveness in the everyday life of millions of individuals. Methodological questions and technical challenges abound as more and more data from social platforms become available for analysis. This data deluge not only yields the unprecedented opportunity to unravel questions about online individuals' behavior at scale, but also allows to explore the potential perils that the massive adoption of social media brings to our society. These communication channels provide plenty of incentives (both economical and social) and opportunities for abuse. As social media activity became increasingly intertwined with the events in the offline world, individuals and organizations have found ways to exploit these platforms to spread misinformation, to attack and smear others, or to deceive and manipulate. During crises, social media have been effectively used for emergency response, but fear-mongering acti...

  15. Synthetic cannabinoids as drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Ashton, John C


    In the last decade a number of products have appeared in various countries that contain synthetic cannabinoids. This article reviews the history of the sale of these drugs, and the evidence that they contain synthetic cannabinoids. The biochemistry of the synthetic cannabinoids identified thus far is discussed, including a discussion of chemical structures and biochemical targets. The cannabinoid receptor targets for these drugs are discussed, as well as other possible targets such as serotonin receptors. Evidence for the abuse potential of these drugs is reviewed. The toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids and cannabinoid products is reviewed and compared to that of the phytocannabinoid ?9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). As cannabinoids are a structurally diverse class of drugs, it is concluded that synthetic cannabinoids should be classified by biological activity rather than by structure, and that if this isn't done, novel synthetic cannabinoids will continue to emerge that fall outside of current regulatory classification models. PMID:22530798

  16. Sexual abuse: a worst crime against children. (United States)

    In the Philippines, reported incidences of child sexual abuse have increased by more than 1000% in 7 years, leading experts to fear that as many as a third of all children will experience sexual abuse by age 18. Most reported cases involve fathers who abused daughters (71%), followed by uncles who abused nieces (13%) and grandfathers who abused granddaughters (6%). Fathers are at risk of abusing their daughters if they were themselves victimized by incest, if they are sexually insecure, if they are unable to maintain an intimate relationship with an adult, or if they abuse drugs or alcohol. In some cases, eldest daughters allow themselves to be raped to protect younger sisters or to keep their fathers from leaving their mothers for another woman. The peak age for incest to be initiated is when the victim is 9-12 years old. For their own protection, children must be taught to discriminate between sexual abuse and affection. Many parents, however, are uncomfortable discussing sexual abuse with their children or avoid the topic to protect their innocence. Very young children must be taught that they can speak up and ask for help, and it must be recognized that abuse can occur in any household, regardless of income level. PMID:12295009

  17. A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Godkin, Michael A.; And Others


    Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

  18. Violence against Native Women in Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini


    Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…

  19. Yeast population dynamics reveal a potential 'collaboration' between Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum for the production of reduced alcohol wines during Shiraz fermentation. (United States)

    Contreras, A; Curtin, C; Varela, C


    The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 was able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration when used in sequential inoculation with a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, different inoculation regimes were explored to study the effect of yeast population dynamics and potential yeast interactions on the metabolism of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 during fermentation of non-sterile Shiraz must. Of all inoculation regimes tested, only ferments inoculated with M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 showed reduced ethanol concentration. Population dynamics revealed the presence of several indigenous yeast species and one of these, Saccharomyces uvarum (AWRI 2846), was able to produce wine with reduced ethanol concentration in sterile conditions. Both strains however, were inhibited when a combination of three non-Saccharomyces strains, Hanseniaspora uvarum AWRI863, Pichia kluyveri AWRI1896 and Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI2845 were inoculated into must, indicating that the microbial community composition might impact on the growth of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI 2846. Our results indicate that mixed cultures of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI2846 enable an additional reduction of wine ethanol concentration compared to the same must fermented with either strain alone. This work thus provides a foundation to develop inoculation regimes for the successful application of non-cerevisiae yeast to the production of wines with reduced alcohol. PMID:25388943

  20. Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth


    Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.


    The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUD) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse – psychiatric medication interactions may be enhanced. Since this type of drug-drug interaction has received little attention in the scientific literature, we conducted a syst...

  1. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants


    Ea, Evans; Ma, Sullivan


    Elizabeth A Evans, Maria A Sullivan Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Background: Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit i...

  2. Stimulant-induced dopamine increases are markedly blunted in active cocaine abusers. (United States)

    Volkow, N D; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D L; Jayne, M; Fowler, J S; Wong, C; Yin, P; Du, C


    Dopamine signaling in nucleus accumbens is essential for cocaine reward. Interestingly, imaging studies have reported blunted dopamine increases in striatum (assessed as reduced binding of [(11)C]raclopride to D2/D3 receptors) in detoxified cocaine abusers. Here, we evaluate whether the blunted dopamine response reflected the effects of detoxification and the lack of cocaine-cues during stimulant exposure. For this purpose we studied 62 participants (43 non-detoxified cocaine abusers and 19 controls) using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (radioligand sensitive to endogenous dopamine) to measure dopamine increases induced by intravenous methylphenidate and in 24 of the cocaine abusers, we also compared dopamine increases when methylphenidate was administered concomitantly with a cocaine cue-video versus a neutral-video. In controls, methylphenidate increased dopamine in dorsal (effect size 1.4; P<0.001) and ventral striatum (location of accumbens) (effect size 0.89; P<0.001), but in cocaine abusers methylphenidate's effects did not differ from placebo and were similar whether cocaine-cues were present or not. In cocaine abusers despite the markedly attenuated dopaminergic effects, the methylphenidate-induced changes in ventral striatum were associated with intense drug craving. Our findings are consistent with markedly reduced signaling through D2 receptors during intoxication in active cocaine abusers regardless of cues exposure, which might contribute to compulsive drug use. PMID:24912491

  3. Prevention of child abuse and neglect in the primary care setting. (United States)

    Nester, C B


    The number of cases of child abuse and neglect has risen steadily since reporting began in the 1960s. Today, child abuse and neglect is a major cause of injury and death in those ages 0 to 5. Studies have identified certain factors that increase the risk of maltreatment. The primary care practitioner is in an ideal position to assess for the presence of risk factors and to provide primary prevention interventions. This article defines child abuse and neglect and reviews its epidemiology; the risk factors of child abuse and neglect are also summarized. The concept of attachment as a theoretical framework is discussed; its significance in the attainment of a positive adjustment to the maternal role should drive the clinician's thought process. Suggested interventions are aimed at strengthening the parent-child relationship, reducing stress, and providing support. A protocol is presented that may be a useful guide for the practitioner. PMID:9778670

  4. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view. (U.K.)

  5. The efficiency of noble metals in reducing the corrosion potential in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors operating under hydrogen water chemistry operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote the effectiveness of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and to achieve a more effective reduction in electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors (BWRs), the technology of noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) was brought into practice about 10 years ago. NMCA aims at enhancing the oxidation of hydrogen on metal surfaces and lowering the concentrations of the oxidants (oxygen and hydrogen peroxide) via recombination with hydrogen on the catalyzed surfaces, and therefore reducing the corrosion potentials of the structural alloys in a BWR primary heat transport circuit. Previous research indicates that the effectiveness of NMCA in combination with a low HWC might be evaluated via model predictions of the hydrogen-to-oxidant molar ratio (MH/O) in the primary coolant circuit. If the MH/O at a certain location is calculated to be greater than 2, it is justified that the NMCA would be effective in reducing the ECP to much below the critical potential for Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC), EIGSCC, of -0.23 VSHE. However, this statement is true only when the recombination efficiency of hydrogen with oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide at the location of interest is 100%. Otherwise, significant amounts of oxidants may still be present, even with a stoichiometric MH/O of greater than 2. With the aid of a computer model DEMACE, we explored the im computer model DEMACE, we explored the impact of incomplete recombination and found that the ECP might be reduced under given circumstances, but not to a great extent, and might remain well above EIGSCC. Accordingly, considerable caution should be exercised upon using the MH/O as a sole indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of NMCA with low HWC as a means of mitigating IGSCC in a BWR. An important finding of this study is that it is necessary to quantify the recombination efficiencies of hydrogen with oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide on the noble metal treated stainless steel surfaces in order to qualify the use of MH/O as an indicator for NMCA effectiveness in the primary coolant circuit of a BWR. (author)

  6. Substance abuse and oral health: an overview. (United States)

    van Zyl, A W


    Substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is on the increase in most countries and claims the lives of millions every year. Substance abuse may involve licit and illicit drugs, with licit substances claiming more lives than illicit drugs. Illicit substance abuse is on the increase, especially with new drugs emerging on the world market every year. These new drugs appear faster than scientific studies can keep pace in determining their possible detrimental influences on health. Many abused drugs do have oral health complications. For this reason, it is important for dentists to have a thorough knowledge of the oral environment to be able to detect any abnormalities, regardless of what the underlying cause may be. Due to the nature of illicit substance abuse, reliable information and science is hard to come by. This overview will focus on the direct consequences for oral health, whilst acknowledging that substance abuse may also have direct and indirect influences on general health. PMID:24741841

  7. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E


    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child?s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  8. Abuse-Deterrent Formulations, an Evolving Technology Against the Abuse and Misuse of Opioid Analgesics


    Schaeffer, Tammi


    The increased use of opioid pain medication has been mirrored by the increased misuse and abuse of these drugs. As part of a multidisciplinary approach to this epidemic, pharmaceutical companies, with the encouragement of the Food and Drug Administration, have increased the development of abuse-deterrent formulations. While all have the goal of treating pain while mitigating misuse and abuse, there are different technologies utilized to impart the abuse-deterrent properties. The goal of this ...

  9. The Drug Abuse Treatment Gap: Recent Estimates


    Woodward, Albert; Epstein, Joan; Gfroerer, Joseph; Melnick, Daniel; Thoreson, Richard; Willson, Douglas


    There is a widely acknowledged problem of drug abuse in the United States, but there is no widely accepted estimate of the number who need treatment for drug abuse. In this article, the authors present new estimates of the numbers of persons in this country who need and receive treatment. These estimates are derived from improved definitions and statistical estimating methods applied to the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). There are two separate estimates (based on severity) o...

  10. Abuse in health care : a concept analysis


    Bru?ggemann, Adrianus Jelmer; Wijma, Barbro; Swahnberg, Katarina


    Aims and objectives:? To analyse the concept of abuse in health care. This analysis also covers how abuse in health care is different from the related concepts of medical error, patient satisfaction and personal identity threat. Background:? Abuse in health care is an emerging concept in need of a clear analysis and definition. At the same time, boundaries to the related concepts are not demarcated. Design:? Concept analysis as developed by Walker and Avant. Method:? The databases Cum...

  11. The effects of child sexual abuse


    Macintyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan


    A substantial body of empirical evidence now shows that child sexual abuse has profound effects on the psychological adjustment of children (Kendall-Tackett, Williams & Finkelhor, 1993) and these effects in some instances continue on into adulthood (Beitchman, Zucker, Hood, Da Costa & Akman, 1991). A wide range of factors mediate the impact of abuse on adjustment (Spacarelli, 1994). In this chapter the impact of sexual abuse on children and adults will be addressed with refe...

  12. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite


    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  13. Multiorgan dysfunction related to chronic ketamine abuse. (United States)

    Pappachan, Joseph M; Raj, Binu; Thomas, Sebastian; Hanna, Fahmy W


    Ketamine abuse is being increasingly reported worldwide. The drug can produce a dissociative state and hallucinations, making ketamine a favorite recreational agent among drug addicts. Chronic ketamine abuse can damage many organs, including the brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. We report a patient with chronic ketamine abuse who presented with severe cachexia, upper gastrointestinal involvement, hepatobiliary dysfunction, and acute kidney injury. PMID:24982568


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS


    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  15. Increasing medical burden of child abuse.


    Sharma, A.; Sunderland, R.


    During the decade January 1976 to December 1985, as a result of increased public awareness, the numbers of reported (but not proved) cases of abuse to children living in South Birmingham increased thirty-fold; the incidence of detected and proved cases of abuse increased fourfold. The increase was principally due to bruises, scalds, and neglect. The numbers of serious fractures and brain injuries did not increase. The first case of sexual abuse was reported in 1981 and this was followed by a ...

  16. Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potgieter W


    Full Text Available Wilna Potgieter, Caroline Selma Samuels, Jacques Renè SnymanDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South AfricaPurpose: The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D, is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1 endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD and 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID medication.Methods and patients: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary.Results: In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P?0.05 in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%, discomfort (54%, and pain (56%. Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant. This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P?0.05 of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist.Conclusion: Absorbatox is a nonabsorbable aluminosilicate with potential gastroprotective benefits as it protected against ENGORD symptoms and NSAID-induced gastric events. The exact mechanism of action is not clear but may be due to its binding to hydrogen ions and biologically active amines and nitrates.Keywords: cation exchanger, gastro-protective agent, endoscopy, zeolite

  17. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003. (United States)

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  18. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Acehan


    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

  19. Current legal responses to elder abuse. (United States)

    Buka, Paul; Sookhoo, Dave


    Abstract.? In this paper, legal provisions for dealing with elder abuse in social or healthcare settings will be considered. The need for such measures for detection and management of elder abuse will be highlighted. Interventions should take into account elderly victims' vulnerability, which may be due to physical and/or psychological dependence. The effectiveness of current interventions is limited due to a lack of cohesion and the absence of a specific legal framework. The term 'vulnerable adults' is broader than 'elder abuse'. It is difficult to estimate the extent of the problem of elder abuse because of the usually intimate settings within which it takes place - this may affect the strength of the evidence. The purpose of this paper is to encourage a debate on the effectiveness of current legal responses to elder abuse. The true figures of the incidence of abuse may never be known. Consequently, in criminal law trials, providing evidence on abuse can be very traumatic and intimidating for a victim because of the circumstances in which it generally takes place. The irony is that the likelihood of a criminal prosecution may be higher in more serious types of abuse where the evidence is overwhelming, on the basis of the res ipsa loquitor (facts speak for themselves) principle. The abuse in question may be domestic or institutional; the effects nevertheless are the same. PMID:20925763

  20. Future directions for social policy and elder abuse: through the looking glass of generational characteristics. (United States)

    Anetzberger, Georgia J; Teaster, Pamela B


    The future directions for social policy and elder abuse are forecast using the characteristics of three contiguous generations: Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Nexters. The results suggest greater potential victimization for the Boomers than previous generations, particularly neglect and exploitation. Gen Xers may experience more self-neglect. Social policy will continue to emphasize the criminalization of elder abuse, reflecting Boomer self-righteousness and severity. Elder abuse victimization will have a medical hue, given the Boomer obsession with health and wellness. Although Gen Xers are less cynical than Boomers, they will be more concerned about their immediate lives and pass the elder abuse policy torch to the Nexters, who will elevate it in deference to the Boomers and in quest for a higher moral order. PMID:20390833

  1. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review


    Kemp, Alison M.; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D. Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R.; Maguire, Sabine


    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types.

  2. Benefits of concurrent syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment participation. (United States)

    Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L; Peirce, Jessica; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K


    Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. This study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (N = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substance abuse treatment over a 4-month observation window and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes. After controlling for baseline differences, SEP registrants enrolled in treatment (n = 113) reported less days of opioid and cocaine use, injection drug use, illegal activities, and incarceration than those not enrolled in treatment (n = 127). For those enrolled in treatment, days of treatment was strongly correlated with each of these outcomes. These findings provide good evidence for a dose-response effect of treatment in syringe exchangers and suggest that substance abuse treatment significantly expands the harm reduction benefits of SEP participation. PMID:21255959

  3. Potentiation of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis by 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin in human leukemia cells involves depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione. (United States)

    Xiao, Guangfen; Tang, Xueyuan; Yao, Chenjiao; Wang, Chenghong


    The novel chrysin analog 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin (BrMC) has been reported to induce apoptosis of various cancer cell lines. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment induces clinical remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. The combination of ATO with other agents has been shown to improve therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo. In this report, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by treatment with ATO alone or in combination with BrMC was studied in U937, HL-60, and Jurkat cells. Our results demonstrated that BrMC cooperated with ATO to induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells. This co-treatment caused mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation and stimulated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as evidenced by cytochrome c release, down-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and Bcl-XL, and up-regulation of Bax. BrMC alone or in combination with ATO, decreased Akt phosphorylation as well as intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and exogenous GSH restored GSH content and attenuated apoptosis induced by co-treatment with ATO plus BrMC. In contrast, the non-thiol antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole and mannitol failed to do so. These findings suggest that GSH depletion explains at least in part the potentiation of ATO-induced apoptosis by BrMC. PMID:21785114

  4. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of... (United States)


    ...Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the...and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. Date: April 11, 2011....

  5. Elder Abuse in the U.S.: Its Nature, Causes and Some Responses. (United States)

    Ageing International, 1985


    Discusses various aspects of elder abuse: characteristics of victims, common forms of abuse, categories of abuse, victim-abuser relationship, characteristics of abusers, practical responses to the problem, and policy implications and research needs. (CT)

  6. Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one

  7. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TØnnesen, H; MØller, Henrik


    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.

  8. Moderating Factors in the Path from Physical Abuse to Attempted Suicide in Adolescents: Application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah


    Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced

  9. L'abus de substances volatiles Volatile substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goullé Jean-Pierre


    Full Text Available Si l'exposition chronique ou accidentelle à des substances volatiles est le plus souvent d'origine professionnelle, elle est plus rarement de nature domestique. Elle est susceptible d'engendrer, en fonction de la nature du produit et de l'intensité de l'exposition, des troubles cliniques variés, voire le décès du sujet. L'inhalation de dérivés volatils, à des fins soit récréatives, soit d'améliorer ses performances sexuelles, ou par détournement d'usage chez un professionnel, peut être à l'origine de conduites toxicophiles. Les utilisateurs sont à la recherche de sensations d'euphorie et d'ébriété, et/ou d'altération des perceptions. Ce type d'abus concerne des molécules volatiles très diverses : hydrocarbures, solvants, dérivés nitrés, gaz anesthésiants, gaz de briquet. La toxicomanie aux solvants (toluène, éther, chloroforme, trichloroéthylène, essence, kérosène, dissolvants, détachants, colles..., est un phénomène en progression chez les adolescents qui constitue un réel problème de santé publique. Il est plus fréquemment rencontré dans les milieux défavorisés. Quant à l'inhalation de dérivés nitrés autorisés ou non (nitrites d'amyle ou pentyle, d'isopropyle, de butyle disponibles en sex-shop ou sur le net, celle-ci connaît un certain succès notamment dans le milieu homosexuel en raison des propriétés myorelaxantes de ces dérivés, considérés aussi comme aphrodisiaques. Leur inhalation peut être responsable de méthémoglobinémie grave. Dans son dernier rapport, l'observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies révèle que la consommation récente de drogues illicites, en dehors du cannabis concerne 7,3 % des jeunes âgés de 17 à 18 ans. Parmi les produits les plus consommés les poppers et les produits à inhaler se classent en cinquième position après l'alcool, le tabac, le cannabis et les médicaments psychotropes. En n'on rencontre des conduites toxicophiles par inhalation de gaz : gaz de briquet chez des adolescents, utilisation de divers aérosols plus consommés pour le gaz propulseur ou le solvant que pour leur contenu. Le détournement d'usage de gaz anesthésiants (protoxyde d'azote, dérivés halogénés pratiqué soit en milieu festif, soit en milieu professionnel doit également être signalé. Après une revue des produits, leur pharmacologie, leur toxicologie clinique et analytique sont successivement envisagés. Des cas réels sont présentés. Chronic or accidental organic volatile substance use occurs mainly during workplace activities and occasionally at home. In cases of symptomatic exposure, clinical features more or less affect different systems, and may be responsible for death. Inhalant misuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile compounds in order to obtain euphoric, disinhibiting, and exciting or sexual results. Workplace volatile substance abuse is also a real medical problem. Fuels, solvents, volatile alkyl nitrites, inhalated anaesthetics, gas lighter uid are common sources of volatile substance abuse. Volatile substance addiction in children has become a social health problem that has been increasing in recent years with toluene, ether, chloroform, trichloroethylene, gasoline, petroleum products, dissolvent, dry cleaning agents, and glues. This addiction is more frequent with the disadvantaged sections of the population. Volatile alkyl nitrites like, isopropyl, and butyl or pentyl nitrite available in the sex-shops or on the Internet, are used for intensifying sexual experience and for their myorelaxant properties, especially by homosexuals. Their use has been associated with methemoglobinemia. In a publication dated March 2005 the Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies (French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Abuse reported that 7.3% of the 17 to 18 year old population , apart from cannabis, have recently used a drug of abuse. After alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and psychotropic drugs, poppers and volatile compounds are the most often used. Gas lighter uid and aerosol propellant

  10. Now It's Personal : On Abusive Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Douglas; Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel


    In this paper, we introduce the concept of abusive game design as an attitude towards creating games – an aesthetic practice that operates as a critique of certain conventionalisms in popular game design wisdom. We emphasize that abusive game design is, at its core, about spotlighting the dialogic relation between player and designer.


    The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...


    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey has been conducted since 1971 and serves as the primary source of information on the prevalence and incidence of illicit drug, al...

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief. (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  14. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.


    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  15. Drug Abuse: A Community College Response. (United States)

    Mellander, Gustavo A.; Hubbard, Gary

    In 1985, the Chancellor of West Valley College met with California Attorney General John Van De Kamp to explore methods by which the community college district could respond to the growing problem of drug abuse. The first step was the establishment of a 15-hour, fee-supported class on drug and alcohol abuse education for adult offenders at the…

  16. Understanding the effects of child abuse. (United States)

    Warner, S L


    Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children. PMID:331392

  17. Child Discipline and Abuse in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Samuda, Garythe M.


    Patterns of child abuse in Hong Kong are described. Noted are difficulties in distinguishing between normal discipline and child abuse. A survey of 100 university students found that physical punishment was used in 95 percent of homes with 46 percent recalling beatings. Few students approved of such severe discipline, however. (Author/DB)

  18. Preventing Elder Abuse by Family Caregivers (United States)

    ... frail older woman was abused by a well-meaning but understandably overstressed caregiver. Some researchers and profession ... neglect and psychological abuse, there has been little research on the relationships between these ... variations in methodology and how caregiving was defined ( Wolf, 1996). An ...

  19. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JC, Marnewick; AW, van Zyl.


    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying a [...] nd dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  20. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness (United States)

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter


    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  1. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam


    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  2. Abdominal injury due to child abuse. (United States)

    Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R

    Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation. PMID:16023514

  3. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.


    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  4. Jurors' Reactions to Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations. (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L.; Diviak, Kathleen R.; Davis, Suzanne L.


    Mock jurors (N=243) rendered judgment about a case involving childhood sexual abuse allegations made with or without allegations of satanic ritual abuse. Although jurors, especially nonreligious jurors, were less likely to believe the satanic ritual allegations than other case details, they were as likely to vote guilty and believe the victim in…

  5. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors (United States)

    Ward, Kelly


    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  6. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana (United States)

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla


    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  7. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers. (United States)

    Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W


    The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker. PMID:24984387

  8. Overturning the diagnosis of child abuse.


    Oates, R. K.


    Three cases, one of bullous impetigo, one of a Mongolian spot, and one of constriction of the toe by a hair, were mistakenly diagnosed as cases of child abuse. The diagnosis of child abuse is not usually simple and requires a careful evaluation of the injuries and the family if cases are not to be either overlooked or overdiagnosed.

  9. Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools. (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…

  10. Efficiencies of fragmentation of glycosaminoglycan chloramides of the extracellular matrix by oxidizing and reducing radicals: potential site-specific targets in inflammation? (United States)

    Sibanda, Sambulelwe; Akeel, Almabrok; Martin, Stephen W; Paterson, Andrew W J; Edge, Ruth; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Parsons, Barry J


    Hypochlorous acid and its conjugate base, hypochlorite ions, produced under inflammatory conditions, may produce chloramides of glycosaminoglycans, these being significant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This may occur through the binding of myeloperoxidase directly to the glycosaminoglycans. The N-Cl group in the chloramides is a potential selective target for both reducing and oxidizing radicals, leading possibly to more efficient and damaging fragmentation of these biopolymers relative to the parent glycosaminoglycans. To investigate the effect of the N-Cl group, we used ionizing radiation to produce quantifiable concentrations of the reducing radicals, hydrated electron and superoxide radical, and also of the oxidizing radicals, hydroxyl, carbonate, and nitrogen dioxide, all of which were reacted with hyaluronan and heparin and their chloramides in this study. PAGE gels calibrated for molecular weight allowed the consequent fragmentation efficiencies of these radicals to be calculated. Hydrated electrons were shown to produce fragmentation efficiencies of 100 and 25% for hyaluronan chloramide (HACl) and heparin chloramide (HepCl), respectively. The role of the sulfate group in heparin in the reduction of fragmentation can be rationalized using mechanisms proposed by M.D. Rees et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.125:13719-13733; 2003), in which the initial formation of an amidyl radical leads rapidly to a C-2 radical on the glucosamine moiety. This is 100% efficient at causing glycosidic bond breakage in HACl but only 25% efficient in HepCl, the role of the sulfate group being to favor the nonfragmentary routes for the C-2 radical. The weaker reducing agent, the superoxide radical, did not cause fragmentation of either HACl or HepCl although kinetic reactivity had been demonstrated in earlier studies. Experiments using the oxidizing radicals, hydroxyl and carbonate, both potential in vivo species, showed significant increases in fragmentation efficiencies for both HACl and HepCl, relative to the parent molecules. The carbonate radical was shown to be involved in site-specific reactions at the N-Cl groups, reacting via abstraction of Cl, to produce the same amidyl radical produced by one-electron reductants such as the hydrated electron. As for the hydrated electrons, the data support fragmentation efficiencies of 100 and 29% for reaction of carbonate radicals at N-Cl for HACl and HepCl, respectively. For the weaker oxidant, nitrogen dioxide, no fragmentation was observed, probably because of a low kinetic reactivity and low reduction potential. It seems likely therefore that the N-Cl group can direct damage to extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan chloramides, which may be produced under inflammatory conditions. The in vivo species, the carbonate radical, is also much more likely to be site-specific in its reactions with such components of the ECM than the hydroxyl radical. PMID:23811111

  11. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Lung tumors are subject to movement due to respiratory motion. Conventionally, a margin is applied to the clinical target volume (CTV) to account for this and other treatment uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique which has two distinct features - deep inspiration which reduces lung density and breath-hold which immobilizes lung tumors. Both properties can potentially reduce the mass of normal lung tissue in the high dose region, thus improving the possibility of dose escalation. Methods and Materials: To study the efficacy of the DIBH technique, CT scans are acquired for each patient under 4 respiration conditions: free-breathing; DIBH; shallow inspiration breath-hold; shallow expiration breath-hold. The free-breathing and DIBH scans are used to generate treatment plans for comparison of standard and DIBH techniques, while the shallow inspiration and expiration scans provide information on the maximum extent of tumor motion under free-breathing conditions. To acquire the breath-hold scans, the patients are brought to reproducible respiration levels using spirometry and slow vital capacity maneuvers. For the treatment plan comparison free-breathing and DIBH planning target volumes (PTVs) are constructed consisting of the CTV plus a margin for setup error and lung tumor motion. For both plans the margin for setup error is the same while the margin for lung tum is the same while the margin for lung tumor motion differs. The margin for organ motion in free-breathing is determined by the maximum tumor excursions in the shallow inspiration and expiration CT scans. For the DIBH, tumor motion is reduced to the extent to which DIBH can be maintained and the margin for any residual tumor motion is determined from repeat fluoroscopic movies, acquired with the patient monitored using spirometry. Three-dimensional treatment plans, generated using apertures based on the free-breathing and DIBH PTVs, are compared to assess the improvement due to target immobilization and reduced lung density. To estimate the role of target immobilization alone, an additional plan is generated using the DIBH PTV, but with the assumption it is surrounded by free-breathing, not deep inspiration, density lung. Results: The results of the study suggest that the DIBH technique can reduce the mass of lung irradiated to high dose, so that the possibility for dose escalation is increased. The relative contribution of reduced lung density and reduced margin for motion vary depending on the tumor size, level of DIBH and extent of tumor motion in free-breathing. An example treatment plan comparison for a typical patient is shown in the figure, which is a cumulative dose mass histogram (DMH) depicting the mass of normal lung tissue receiving at least a certain dose. The lung DMHs shown are for three plans: (A) Free-breathing; (B) Target immobilization only; (C) Target immobilization plus reduced lung density. It is observed that the mass of lung tissue treated to high doses is less for cases B and C. For example, the mass receiving >24.5 Gy is 235 g for free-breathing (A), 180 g for immobilization alone (B) and 150 g for DIBH (C). For this patient, target immobilization alone would allow a dose escalation from 75.6 Gy to 95 Gy for the same level of NTCP as the free-breathing plan, the added effect of reduced density would then enable a further escalation from 95 Gy to 110 Gy. For this study, the measured tumor motions ranged from 5 to 12 mm for free-breathing and 1 to 3 mm for DIBH. For the example shown in the figure the tumor motion was 10 mm and DIBH reproducibility was 3 mm. Additional details on the DIBH technique and results for a group of patients will be presented. Conclusions: Compared to conventional free-breathing treatment the DIBH technique benefits from reduced margins, as a result of the suppressed target motion, as well as a decreased lung density - both contribute to moving normal lung tissue out of the high dose region. With more normal

  12. Principal component regression model applied to dimensionally reduced spectral fluorescent signature for the determination of organic character and THM formation potential of source water. (United States)

    Marhaba, Taha F; Borgaonkar, Ashish D; Punburananon, Krit


    The characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in source water not only is central to the study of precursors to disinfection by-products (DBPs), but can also aid in controlling the discharge of potentially harmful organic chemicals in water bodies. Rapid determination of six DOM fraction concentrations provides an added advantage in understanding the organic character of water in comparison to the measure of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an aggregate parameter typically used by water purveyors. The experimental procedure for DOM isolation and fractionation by ionic resins is lengthy and tedious. Many attempts have been made towards the development of faster and reliable techniques including statistical analysis applied to spectral fluorescent signature (SFS). Fluorescence is a very sensitive technique and works best only at certain wavelengths that are different for different materials. It is therefore difficult to quantify a material using fluorescence technique, especially when the entire fluorescence matrix is considered. To address this difficulty, an innovative two-stage processing technique is developed in this research in order to build an enhanced, more robust empirical model. At stage I, the dimensionality of the input data is reduced by focusing on specific portion of the entire matrix obtained by applying scatter removal, peak analysis, and coefficient of variation (CV) analysis. Then statistical analysis in the form of principal component regression (PCR) follows as stage II. In addition, the same technique is applied to predict trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP). This model provides better sensitivity and accuracy, while maintaining the advantages of the SFS technique for rapid identification and quantification of DOM fractions. PMID:19477070

  13. Recent developments and potentialities for reducing embryo mortality in ruminants: the role of IFN-tau and other cytokines in early pregnancy. (United States)

    Martal, J; Chêne, N; Camous, S; Huynh, L; Lantier, F; Hermier, P; L'Haridon, R; Charpigny, G; Charlier, M; Chaouat, G


    This review considers the potential reduction of embryo mortality in vitro and in vivo in ruminants. Data on cytokines provided by different fields of reproductive immunology and biology were collated. Because of the crucial importance of the local interactions between the embryo and its dam, the expression of growth-factor and cytokine genes was analysed in the embryo proper, trophoblast, oviduct and endometrium by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in sheep and in cattle during the pre- and periimplantation periods. Many deleterious cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and beneficial cytokines, such as transforming growth factor-beta, leukaemia inhibiting factor, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), granulocyte-macrophage CSF, IL-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-tau appeared to be involved in embryo survival in ruminants and other species. Their administration is efficient in a murine experimental model (CBA/J x DBA/2) of embryonic and fetal mortality. For instance, recombinant ovine IFN-tau (roIFN-tau) injected at the moment of implantation drastically reduces embryonic mortality in this model. In ruminants, roIFN-tau and recombinant bovine IFN-tau are very efficient in maintaining progesterone luteal secretion in cyclic animals. The involvement of IFN-tau in the mechanisms of maternal pregnancy recognition are particularly detailed in relation to inhibition of 13,14 dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) pulses and oxytocin uterine receptivity. A synthetic model of the anti-luteolytic effects of IFN-tau on the endometrial cell is proposed. Finally, the particular potential of serum pregnancy-specific proteins (PSPs: PSPB, PSP60, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein) for monitoring embryo survival, with examples given for cattle and sheep is underlined. PMID:9261883

  14. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pompili


    Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.

  15. Reducing activity, glucose metabolism and acid tolerance response of Bacillus cereus grown at various pH and oxydo-reduction potential levels. (United States)

    Le Lay, Julien; Bahloul, Halim; Sérino, Sylvie; Jobin, Michel; Schmitt, Philippe


    Bacillus cereus is a major foodborne bacterial pathogen able to survive a large number of physical-chemical stresses. B. cereus encounters different pH and redox potential (Eh7) levels during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of the combined influence of pH and redox stresses on B. cereus F4430/73 physiology found that B. cereus F4430/73 growth at pH 7.0 at 37 °C had strong reducing capacities, with a total change of 315 mV from an initial redox value of +214 ± 17 mV. The combination of low Eh7 and low pH led to a drastic reduction of growth parameters compared to oxidative Eh7 and neutral pH. Metabolic analysis showed that low pH significantly modifies glucose fermentative metabolism, with changes including decreased production of acid metabolite (acetate, lactate, formate) and increased production of 2,3-butanediol. Low Eh7 slightly enhanced the acid-tolerance response of B. cereus whereas low pH pre-adaptation led to thermal stress cross-protection. These results highlight new mechanisms that bring fresh insight into B. cereus pH and redox stress adaptations. PMID:25475301

  16. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.


    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  17. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.


    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  18. Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet. (United States)

    Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

    Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

  19. Food for thought [on child sexual abuse]. (United States)

    Tan, M


    This article uncovers the hidden side of child rape and sexual abuse in the Philippines. The imposition of the death penalty, however, is not the solution to the problem because, firstly, child abuse often occurs over a prolonged period of time, before a complaint is made; secondly, child abuse cases will not make it to courts unless an adult recognizes the problem; thirdly, victims often keep silent because they know adults will not believe them and will blame them instead; fourthly, many victims keep silent to protect a mentor, especially a relative; finally, child sexual abuse involves authoritarian power relations. Thus, this article suggests preventive measures to prevent incidents from occurring. These are: recognizing that there is a problem, identifying the problem through rigorous research, identifying local risk factors that lead to abuse, and recognizing that children can prevent abuse. No one can heal a sexually abused child; only the victim can do this, given the opportunity and support to move forward on the road toward becoming a survivor. PMID:12349199

  20. International issues in abusive head trauma. (United States)

    Frasier, Lori D; Kelly, Patrick; Al-Eissa, Majid; Otterman, Gabriel J


    In the decades since Dr. John Caffey described a series of children with chronic subdural hematoma and long bone fractures, there has been a substantial increase in the medical recognition of various forms child abuse. In the United States, the term shaken baby syndrome was coined to explain a constellation of injuries assumed to be the result of violent shaking of infants. After improved understanding of the variety of mechanisms that occur when children are abused, abusive head trauma (AHT) has become the recommended terminology. AHT is a more comprehensive term that reflects the brain injuries that children suffer as the result of abuse. AHT continues to include shaking as a mechanism of injury as well as shaking with impact, impact alone, crushing injuries or combinations of several mechanisms. The medical community in the United States has led the way in developing new terminology and research to describe this unique and devastating form of abuse. The globalization of medicine and rapid information transfer has resulted in AHT becoming well-recognized internationally as a form of serious and fatal child abuse. This paper will review the historical basis in the United States for the diagnosis of AHT. We will also review some of the current international issue in epidemiology, diagnosis, legal processes and outcomes in selected countries/regions where child abuse physicians are actively involved in the evaluation of AHT. PMID:25501737

  1. Frequency of childhood abuse in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Zeren


    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

  2. Drug abuse. Its relationship to dental practice. (United States)

    Aston, R


    Drug abuse appears destined to become an exacerbating cultural phenomenon despite intrinsic dangers to the abuser and accelerating costs to society. Dentists cannot afford to ignore the problem or its sequelae either in terms of their personal involvement or in terms of the clinical implications of such a practice for their patients. Abuse of agents, such as opioids and amphetamines, by the dental practitioner leads to devastating personal, social, and professional consequences. The abuser jeopardizes his or her reputation, family relationships, professional practice, and, not uncommonly, his or her very life through accidental overdose of drugs or by suicide. Nitrous oxide abuse is particularly prevalent among dentists and, although producing no psychological dependence, may result in long-term myeloneuropathy and physical disability making continued dental practice impossible. The dentist's responsibilities in this area lie within clinical and social domains. Clinically, the dentist must (1) learn to detect those physical and behavioral signs in patients that are indicators of drug abuse; (2) become familiar with tactics employed by drug abusers to obtain drugs for themselves or for further criminal diversion, and be prepared to defend against such tactics; (3) understand and make clinical allowance for therapeutic complications that may arise in the treatment of drug-abuse patients. The dentist's social role as an informed, concerned, and empathic counselor in matters of drug abuse must be assumed as a personal imperative and not viewed as an intellectual abstraction. Whenever we are made aware of the drug-related devastation or death of a friend, colleague, or student, we discern the immediacy of an ethical responsibility of social dimensions, so eloquently expressed over 350 years ago, by John Donne in his "Devotions XVII": "No man is an island, ... Any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankind; And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for thee". PMID:6589186

  3. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Irene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR% for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%, first birth (32%, bottom four quintiles of average income (14%, oligohydramnios (7%, underweight or hypertension, (6% each, smoking (3% and placental disorder (1%. Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction in absolute SGA inequality for shorter height only. Conclusions Our findings regarding maternal height may indicate trans-generational aetiology for socioeconomic SGA inequalities and/or that adult height influences social mobility. Conditions affecting foetal and childhood growth might be viable targets to reduce absolute socioeconomic SGA inequality in future generations, but more research is needed to determine whether such an approach is appropriate.

  4. Racial differences in HIV/AIDS discussion strategies and sexual risk behaviors among drug-abusing female criminal offenders. (United States)

    Oser, Carrie B; Havens, Jennifer R; Mooney, Jennifer L; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Knudsen, Hannah K; Duvall, Jamieson L; Leukefeld, Carl G


    African-American female inmates are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with heterosexual contact as the primary mode of transmission. This could be the result of racial differences in the strategies used by women to persuade a potential sexual partner to discuss HIV/AIDS and engage in condom use. Data were collected from 336 female inmates as part of the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses indicated that African-American drug-using women were more likely than Whites to use the rational, withdrawal, and persistence approaches to discuss HIV/AIDS with a sexual partner. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify which interpersonal discussion strategies were significant correlates of the number of the times White and African-American participants had unprotected vaginal sex in the 30 days before incarceration. Results from the multivariate model indicate that White women who are more likely to use the rational discussion strategy were 15% less likely to engage in unprotected vaginal sex; however, these findings were not replicated in the African-American sample. Findings add to the literature on racial differences in HIV/AIDS discussion strategies and sexual risk behaviors among drug-abusing female criminal offenders. PMID:19283952

  5. Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep. (United States)

    Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P


    A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

  6. Elder abuse and neglect--"old phenomenon": new directions for research, legislation, and service developments. (2008 Rosalie S. Wolf Memorial Elder Abuse Prevention Award--International Category Lecture). (United States)

    Lowenstein, Ariela


    This article poses the question: Is elder abuse and neglect a social problem, showing that it is. Elder abuse, though, is still the most hidden form of mistreatment and a key to governmental responses to an ageing population. It is an important facet as a family violence problem, an intergenerational concern, as well as a health, justice and human rights issue. Because the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect is so complex and multi-dimensional, it has to be addressed by multi-professional and inter-disciplinary approaches. Raising awareness is a fundamental prevention strategy and an important step in causing changes in attitudes and behaviors. This has been accomplished by INPEA and the article was developed from the lecture given by the author on receiving the International Rosalie Wolf Award from INPEA. The discussion focuses on elder abuse as a product of global ageing, stemming from population ageing, which is consistent with an increased prevalence of abuse of all vulnerable groups, older people among them. It is pointed out that baseline and trend data on the nature and prevalence of senior abuse are crucial to policy responses and the development of appropriate programs and services. Difficulties in assessing the scope of the phenomenon, though, are due to: problems in definitions and methodology, which create difficulties in comparing data from various countries; lack of social and familial awareness; isolation of some elders, especially migrants; elder abuse as a 'hidden issue' that usually occurs in the privacy of the home and is viewed as a family affair; limited access to institutional settings. Difficulties also exist in constructing a unifying research framework in order to study the phenomenon due to a lack of comparison groups, a lack of representative national surveys and difficulties in measurement. There is currently, however, an increase in prevalence and incidence studies from both sides of the Atlantic and especially from Europe. But while prevalence studies provide base-data on numbers, little is known about key conceptual issues for policy, practice and the understanding of different forms of abuse and neglect. Theoretical under-development hampers the collection of systematic cumulative knowledge which is based on universally agreed upon and standardized tools, and reduces the ability to discover unifying themes and their relationship to local idiosyncrasies existing in the field. Additionally, there has been no attempt to develop theoretical knowledge grounded in data from the study of elder abuse itself. The following vehicles for action are, thus, suggested: Developing international, national and regional research agendas and data bases; developing policy and legislation; developing services and interventions and developing educational programs. PMID:19827329

  7. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala


    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  8. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse. (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen


    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

  9. Ethanol induces cell-cycle activity and reduces stem cell diversity to alter both regenerative capacity and differentiation potential of cerebral cortical neuroepithelial precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingling Joseph D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fetal cortical neuroepithelium is a mosaic of distinct progenitor populations that elaborate diverse cellular fates. Ethanol induces apoptosis and interferes with the survival of differentiating neurons. However, we know little about ethanol's effects on neuronal progenitors. We therefore exposed neurosphere cultures from fetal rat cerebral cortex, to varying ethanol concentrations, to examine the impact of ethanol on stem cell fate. Results Ethanol promoted cell cycle progression, increased neurosphere number and increased diversity in neurosphere size, without inducing apoptosis. Unlike controls, dissociated cortical progenitors exposed to ethanol exhibited morphological evidence for asymmetric cell division, and cells derived from ethanol pre-treated neurospheres exhibited decreased proliferation capacity. Ethanol significantly reduced the numbers of cells expressing the stem cell markers CD117, CD133, Sca-1 and ABCG2, without decreasing nestin expression. Furthermore, ethanol-induced neurosphere proliferation was not accompanied by a commensurate increase in telomerase activity. Finally, cells derived from ethanol-pretreated neurospheres exhibited decreased differentiation in response to retinoic acid. Conclusion The reduction in stem cell number along with a transient ethanol-driven increase in cell proliferation, suggests that ethanol promotes stem to blast cell maturation, ultimately depleting the reserve proliferation capacity of neuroepithelial cells. However, the lack of a concomitant change in telomerase activity suggests that neuroepithelial maturation is accompanied by an increased potential for genomic instability. Finally, the cellular phenotype that emerges from ethanol pre-treated, stem cell depleted neurospheres is refractory to additional differentiation stimuli, suggesting that ethanol exposure ablates or delays subsequent neuronal differentiation.

  10. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse: A Multidimensional Assessment of Four Different Forms of Abuse


    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.


    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. M...

  11. Prevalence of Girl child sexual abuse in Maharashtra


    Assistant Professor Rama Pande; Prof. Shubhangi Gavhane


    Child abuse in one form or another, has existed in almost all societies throught the historyhowever, the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is at recent origin. The research on child sexual abuse in india has not received much attention this due to low reporting of cases of abused children. Sexual abuse is use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult. It includes inappropriate touching, exposure to in indecency and pornography, being required to participate sexually...

  12. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders


    Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.


    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...

  13. A review of PCP abuse trends and perceptions.


    Thombs, D. L.


    A critical review of epidemiologic literature on the abuse of phencyclidine (PCP) suggests that current perceptions by the public and among members of the health professions and drug treatment communities about abuse of the drug are distorted. Epidemiologic data indicate that PCP abuse is not widespread in the United States, nor is its abuse prevalent among adolescents. Its abuse has become concentrated among post-high school age, black males in a limited number of cities, especially Washingt...

  14. People who Expect to Enter Psychotherapy are Prone to Believing that They Have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Trauma and Abuse


    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel


    We asked 1004 undergraduates to estimate both the probability that they would enter therapy and the probability that they experienced but could not remember incidents of potentially life threatening childhood traumas or physical and sexual abuse. We found a linear relation between the expectation of entering therapy and the belief that one had, but cannot now remember, childhood trauma and abuse. Thus, individuals who are prone to seek psychotherapy are also prone to accept a suggested memory...

  15. The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path From Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination


    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are fr...

  16. Self-vaccination by methamphetamine glycation products chemically links chronic drug abuse and cardiovascular disease


    Treweek, Jennifer; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Janda, Kim D.


    Methamphetamine abuse is spreading rapidly throughout the United States and is characterized by significant health consequences. The powerfully rewarding effects of methamphetamine are attributed to multiple neuropharmacological actions such as its ability to block plasma membrane transporters of all monoamines, reduce dopamine transporter expression, and inhibit monoamine oxidase activity while increasing tyrosine hydroxylase activity. However, subsequent neuroreceptor changes including mono...

  17. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates (United States)

    DeJong, William


    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  18. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes. (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A


    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components. PMID:25484319

  19. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (United States)


    ... false Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). 550...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program...

  20. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (United States)

    ... guide provides information on the use of medication-assisted treatment for alcoholism and alcohol abuse in clinical ... Next SAMHSA in the News 04/07/15 Suicide Safe App highlighted as "seamless and efficient" in ...

  1. Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Report (United States)

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services's Sixth Triennial Report To Congress On Drug Abuse And Addiction has been placed online. The report provides data on major forms of drug use (including marijuana, cocaine, nicotine, and anabolic steroids), information on links between drug abuse and infectious diseases, and an appendix detailing the types, medical uses, modes of transmission, and "period of detection" for commonly abused drugs. Subtitled "25 Years of Discovery to Advance the Health of the Public, " the report also summarizes National Institute on Drug Abuse research and findings in the areas of neurobiology, genetics, and behavior; treatment advances; drug use, HIV, and other infectious diseases; fetal and childhood development; prevention of drug use and addiction; women's health and gender differences; minority population studies; and outreach and international programs. The above address takes users to table of contents's links to the HTML version of the report; the report can also be downloaded from this page in .pdf format.

  2. Ischial apophyseal fracture in an abused infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a previously healthy 4-month-old who presented to the hospital with leg pain and swelling and no history of trauma. Radiographs demonstrated a comminuted left femur fracture. Given the concern for child abuse, skeletal survey was performed and revealed four vertebral compression deformities. Although abuse was suspected, the possibility of a lytic lesion associated with the femur fracture and multiple spinal abnormalities raised the possibility of an underlying process such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Subsequently 18F-NaF positron emission tomographic (PET) scintigraphy revealed increased tracer activity in the ischium, and MRI confirmed an ischial apophyseal fracture. Pelvic fractures, particularly ischial fractures, are extremely rare in the setting of child abuse. This case report describes the multimodality imaging findings of an ischial fracture in an abused infant. (orig.)

  3. High School Polydrug Users and Abusers. (United States)

    Wright, Loyd S.


    Among 433 high school seniors, 12 percent were determined to be either polydrug users or abusers. Comparisons between nonpolydrug users and polydrug users on family violence, personality traits, psychological characteristics, and behavior are given. (Author/BL)

  4. Sexual abuse in children - what to know (United States)

    ... themselves and seem to have secrets Sexually abused children might have: Bowel control problems, such as soiling themselves (encopresis) Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa) Genital or rectal problems, such as ...

  5. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents (United States)

    ... Starts with Parents Ages & Stages Listen Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Article Body Drugs, including tobacco ... other groups can support what you have started. Prevention Starts With Parents As a parent, you have ...

  6. Taking Measure of Campus Alcohol Abuse. (United States)

    Busteed, Brandon H.


    Discusses the charting of strategic indicators of campus alcohol abuse so that solutions are measurable and effective. Offers examples of indicators that boards can use to judge progress on curbing excessive drinking. (EV)

  7. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (United States)

    ... Time, Wearable Alcohol Biosensor The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... News Release March 10, 2015 NIH-funded scientists identify brain site for stress role in binge alcohol drinking New research supported by the National Institutes ...

  8. Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

  9. Intimate partner sexual violence: a comparison of foreign- versus US-born physically abused Latinas. (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn


    Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed. PMID:23959640

  10. Uncommon drug abuse: An anesthetist dilemma (United States)

    Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Singh, Amanjot; Singh, Gurpreet; Aggarwal, Shobha


    Although mephentermine (Termin) and ephedrine are commonly used drugs for the treatment of hypotension during anesthesia but their abuse have markedly increased, especially in the young population due to its stimulant properties. Here, we report a case of 23-year-old man with a history of chronic mephentermine abuse, posted for Achilles tendon repair under spinal anesthesia. During intraoperative period, spinal induced hypotension showed unusual resistance to ephedrine boluses and was managed by using directly acting vasoconstrictor, that is, phenylephrine.

  11. Reporting of emotional abuse in children


    Turnbull, Allyson Tracy


    Background: There is a growing clinical and research interest into emotional abuse and its detrimental impact on child welfare and development, yet increasing evidence suggests that it remains both under-recognised and under-reported. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and nature of emotional abuse experienced by a random sample of children referred to a multi-agency Child Protection team, located within an NHS board, due to concerns ...

  12. Elderly abuse: risk factors and nursing role. (United States)

    Corbi, Graziamaria; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Ivshina, Evgeniya; Ferrara, Nicola; Solimeno Cipriano, Angela; Campobasso, Carlo Pietro


    Elderly abuse is still a hidden problem, often underestimated. It is much more common than the data available suggest. Unfortunately, the incidence is expected to grow with the progressive increase in the elderly population in the future. The aim was to examine the available literature in the last 5 years to define the state of art on this phenomenon, with particular regard to the nursing role in elderly abuse, focusing on the possible types of mistreatment, the motivations and preventive interventions. Articles published in the last 5 years regarding the mistreatment of the elderly were selected, by using scientifically recognized databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. Several keywords were used for the query among which were: "elderly abuse" and "elderly abuse in nursing home". Moreover, to better understand the entity of the phenomenon, we also searched the corresponding keywords for child abuse. Considering the Scopus database, only 78 out of 1,342 published articles in the last 5 years deal with abuse of the elderly in relation to nursing, representing a very small part (5.81 %) of the considered sample. Comparing the number of articles, the ratio child/elderly is equal to 1/0.04, underlying the poor interest of research on this phenomenon. Moreover, it was observed that elderly abuse in nursing homes is still underreported in both original articles and reviews. Despite the aging of the population, elderly abuse and neglect still remain hidden problems, overlooked and also underestimated in the literature. PMID:25190624

  13. Therapeutic Substance Abuse Treatment for Incarcerated Women


    Finfgeld-connett, Deborah; Johnson, E. Diane


    The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to explicate attributes of optimal therapeutic strategies for treating incarcerated women who have a history of substance abuse. An expansive search of electronic databases for qualitative research reports relating to substance abuse treatment for incarcerated women was conducted. Nine qualitative research reports comprised the sample for this review. Findings from these reports were extracted, placed into a data analysis matrix, coded, an...

  14. Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism


    Kate Miriam Loewenthal


    This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published mate...

  15. Child Sexual Abuse: Fracturing Family Life


    Nelson, Sarah


    Research has shown that childhood sexual abuse can have damaging long-term effects on family life and relationships. Some effects have been widely recognised such as feelings of betrayal and confusion when fathers abuse, or bitterness at mothers who cannot protect. A new qualitative research study with a group of women survivors in Edinburgh, recruited because of their contact with mental health services, has found wide-ranging and subtle effects on family life that endure over the lifecourse...

  16. Uncommon drug abuse: An anesthetist dilemma. (United States)

    Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Singh, Amanjot; Singh, Gurpreet; Aggarwal, Shobha


    Although mephentermine (Termin) and ephedrine are commonly used drugs for the treatment of hypotension during anesthesia but their abuse have markedly increased, especially in the young population due to its stimulant properties. Here, we report a case of 23-year-old man with a history of chronic mephentermine abuse, posted for Achilles tendon repair under spinal anesthesia. During intraoperative period, spinal induced hypotension showed unusual resistance to ephedrine boluses and was managed by using directly acting vasoconstrictor, that is, phenylephrine. PMID:25886435

  17. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.


    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect in India. (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev


    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents. PMID:25465678

  19. Teen dating abuse: recognition and interventions. (United States)

    Freeman, Sally Ann; Rosenbluth, Barri; Cotton, Laura


    Teen dating abuse, also known as teen dating violence, is a significant public health issue. Adolescents with a history of dating abuse may struggle academically and experience increased risk for serious injury or even death. They may engage in risky sexual behavior, substance abuse, and unhealthy dieting and exhibit suicidal behaviors. School nurses may be the first adults that teens confide in when experiencing dating abuse and may lack the knowledge and skills to intervene with teens involved in unhealthy dating relationships. Beginning in 2008, Dell Children s Medical Center in Austin, Texas, partnered with SafePlace (a local nonprofit that serves survivors of sexual and domestic violence) to address dating abuse. This collaboration is part of Start Strong Austin, one of 11 communities nationwide participating in the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships Initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The Start Strong model employs innovative strategies in education, community engagement, policy change, and social marketing to prevent dating abuse before it starts. PMID:23600090

  20. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu


    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  1. Substance abuse and oral health: an overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AW, van Zyl.


    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is on the increase in most countries and claims the lives of millions every year. Substance abuse may involve licit and illicit drugs, with licit substances claiming more lives than illicit drugs. Illicit substance abuse is on the increase, especially wi [...] th new drugs emerging on the world market every year. These new drugs appear faster than scientific studies can keep pace in determining their possible detrimental influences on health. Many abused drugs do have oral health complications. For this reason, it is important for dentists to have a thorough knowledge of the oral environment to be able to detect any abnormalities, regardless of what the underlying cause may be. Due to the nature of illicit substance abuse, reliable information and science is hard to come by. This overview will focus on the direct consequences for oral health, whilst acknowledging that substance abuse may also have direct and indirect influences on general health.

  2. Hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 decreases circulating tumor cells of colorectal cancer patients and reduces metastatic potential of colon cancer cell line through inhibiting platelets activation. (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Yang, Chengxiang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Hanbing; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhao, Zhenlong; Zhang, Zhiming; Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong


    Platelets play an important role in metastasis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). It has been demonstrated that hydroxyethyl starch (HES) inhibits platelets function. However, the effect of HES on CTCs in patients with colorectal cancer remains unclear. We compared the effects of HES 200/0.5 and HES 130/0.4 on CTCs and platelets activation of colorectal patients in this study. Additionally, the effects of HES 200/0.5 or HES 130/0.4 on metastasis ability of colon cancer cell line that stimulated by activated platelets have been explored. In vivo, 90 patients undergoing colorectal cancer radical surgery received randomly 15 mL/kg of HES 200/0.5 (n = 45) or HES 130/0.4 (n = 45) infusion before surgery. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa), CD62P and platelets aggregation rate (PAR) were evaluated pre-, intra- and postoperatively. Cytokeratin-20 (CK-20) mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction before and after surgery. In vitro, colon cancer SW480 cells were incubated with activated platelets in the presence or absence HES 200/0.5 or HES 130/0.4. The metastasis ability of SW480 cells was assessed by Transwell assay. The results showed that CK-20 mRNA positive rate in HES 200/0.5 group after surgery was decreased significantly as compared to group HES 130/0.4 (? (2) = 6.164, P = 0.013). Simultaneously, a more pronounced inhibition of platelets activation was observed in group HES 200/0.5. A positive correlation between platelets activation marker and CK-20 mRNA positive rate was found. In vitro, HES 200/0.5, but not HES 130/0.4, decreased the invasion and migration ability of SW480 cells that induced by activated platelets. Besides, the expression of GPIIb/IIIa, CD62P and PAR was inhibited more strongly in group HES 200/0.5 than those in group HES 130/0.4. In summary, we found that HES 200/0.5 significantly decreased CTCs of patients undergoing colorectal cancer radical surgery as compared to HES 130/0.4, which might be associated with inhibiting platelets activation of HES 200/0.5. Furthermore, HES 200/0.5, but not HES 130/0.4, reduced the metastatic potential of colon cell line stimulated by activated platelets through depressing platelets activation. Modulation of platelets activity may be a novel strategy to minimize the risk of metastasis during surgery. PMID:25832864

  3. Child Sexual Abuse in the United States: Perspectives on Assessment and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Foster


    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse (CSA is a widespread problem the United States as it is in many areas of the world today. CSA can lead to a host of psychological and emotional difficulties and disorders that can cripple some children and youth for a lifetime. In this article the authors discuss the sexual abuse of minors in the United States. Risk factors involved in and potential causes of CSA are discussed. Signs and symptoms of CSA are summarized along with common consequences associated with sexual abuse. Characteristics of sexual perpetrators of children and adolescents are also examined. In addition, the authors discuss the problems children often have in disclosing the abuse, along with the individual, familial and societal challenges involved in reporting incidences of sexual abuse. Some assessment issues and tools associated with CSA are highlighted, and the importance of investigators and clinicians capturing children's narrative descriptions of their abuse, and various methods for doing so, are outlined. Finally, an overview of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT for children is presented, and common challenges for therapists in treating children who have experienced sexual abuse and their families are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  4. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.


    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  5. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion


    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  6. Rape, Statutory Rape, and Child Abuse: Legal Distinctions and Counselor Duties. (United States)

    Mitchell, Clifton W.; Rogers, Reagan E.


    This article explains the legal distinctions between rape, statutory rape, and child abuse and school counselors' obligations related to each. In addition, complicating issues such as cultural differences as well as the potential effect of mandated reporting on counselors' roles are addressed. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)

  7. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  8. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression. (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David


    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. PMID:25012954

  9. Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men. (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy


    This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace. PMID:23695298

  10. Talking about friends, drugs, and change: meanings of friendship in substance abusers' change talk. (United States)

    Sarpavaara, Harri


    This article explores the meanings of substance-abusing clients attach to friendships during motivational treatment sessions in Probation Service. Sessions (98) were videotaped in 12 probation service offices in Finland in 2007 to 2009. By using semiotic framework, this qualitative study examines client's change talk utterance about friendships as a symbolic sign. The findings indicate that the friendships play an important role in the substance-abusing clients' motivation to change and in their treatment outcome. The study suggests that the personal meanings of clients' utterances in motivational treatment sessions could be seen as potential predictors of their future behavior. PMID:24579984

  11. Re-Experiencing Motherhood: Transformation of Relationships Between Formerly Abused Women and Their Children. (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Buchbinder, Eli; Cohen, Rachel


    Little knowledge exists on abused women's experience of motherhood following divorce. This qualitative study examined perspectives of 12 formerly abused Israeli women, using in-depth interviews. Findings revealed how women managed an ongoing dialogue between former motherhood in violence and significant changes in mother-children relationships after years of victimization and emotional concealment. All women were determined to repair the impact of violence on the mother-children bond. Some succeeded, whereas others could not reconcile painful relationships. The study findings suggest that understanding the familial dynamics is essential: mothers' new roles and children's potential reactions in this context. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24838391

  12. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsnack SC


    Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men.Keywords: GENACIS, women, alcohol, substance abuse, international, intervention, prevention

  13. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny


    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  14. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  15. Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Beholder: Lay Perceptions of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse (United States)

    Bornstein, Brian H.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Perry, Andrea R.


    Objective: The purpose was to explore the effects of victim and perpetrator gender, type of abuse, and victim-perpetrator relationship on university students' and non-students' perceptions of different kinds of child abuse. Method: One hundred and ninety-nine participants (including university students and non-student adults) evaluated each of 24…

  16. Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse. (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José


    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133

  17. Abuse-Related Attributions and Perceptions, General Attributions, and Locus of Control in Sexually Abused Girls. (United States)

    Mannarino, Anthony P.; Cohen, Judith A.


    Examines abuse-related attributions and perceptions, general attributions, and locus of control and their psychological impact on sexually abused girls. Seventy-seven subjects and 88 controls were administered the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Locus of Control Scale for Children. Discusses clinical and research implications…

  18. Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up. (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning. PMID:25196178

  19. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases. (United States)

    Jent, Jason F; Eaton, Cyd K; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F; Merrick, Melissa T; Dandes, Susan K


    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals' personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

  20. Current topics in opioid therapy for pain management: addressing the problem of abuse. (United States)

    Casty, Frank E; Wieman, Matthew S; Shusterman, Neil


    Opioids are an established therapy for cancer pain and have become an accepted therapy for chronic noncancer pain. However, increased prescribing of opioids in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in prescription opioid abuse. All opioids have inherent potential for abuse, but gaps in healthcare provider understanding of or adherence to best prescribing practices may facilitate the misdirection of opioids for abuse. To address these concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration has required pharmaceutical manufacturers to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) for prescribers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids and has encouraged research to develop opioid formulations that are less easily abused or less attractive for abuse. The ER/LA opioid REMS require a partnership between the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and healthcare providers to develop educational materials for physicians and patients that are not promotional. This article addresses challenges associated with improving the quality of pain care through support of prescriber education, developing formulations that combine efficacy with tamper-resistant properties, and encouraging collaborative efforts by regulatory bodies, legislators, healthcare providers, and patient advocacy groups to achieve these ends. PMID:23740336