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1

Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.  

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It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330

Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

2014-03-01

2

Cocaine abuse sharply reduced in an effective methadone maintenance program.  

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A comprehensive study of an urban methadone clinic with supervised urine analyses for illicit drugs was conducted over an 18 month period for a 133 patient cohort as they entered or remained in methadone maintenance for narcotic addiction. Overall retention during the study was 85%, with significantly (p methadone doses (mean 67.1 mg +/- 2.1) in those patients still in treatment at the end of the study. Predictably, illicit opioid use was dramatically reduced, to 10% as measured by urine toxicology in the last month of treatment. Moreover, significantly more patients stopped regular cocaine abuse (69%) than started using cocaine (10%, Fisher's exact test, p = .02). Thus, with effective methadone maintenance using adequate dosages, the majority of patients remain in treatment and reduce cocaine abuse as well as illicit opioid use, with implications for public health by reducing the spread of infectious diseases including hepatitis B, C, D and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). PMID:10631964

Borg, L; Broe, D M; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

1999-01-01

3

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey  

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This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

4

Pregabalin's abuse potential: a mini review focusing on the pharmacological profile.  

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Pregabalin, an analogue of the gamma-aminobutyric acid mammalian neurotransmitter and its structurally related compound gabapentin are known as ?2? ligands. They might act as inhibitory modulators of neuronal excitability that reduce ectopic neuronal activation of hyperexcited neurons while normal activation remains unchanged. However, the interaction with Ca²? channel ?2? subunit is not sufficient to account for the broad clinical spectrum of pregabalin effects including the abuse potential. Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of partial epilepsy; generalized anxiety disorder; peripheral and central neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Its prescribing is rapidly increasing and total sales of the drug worldwide reached 4.6 billion US$ in 2012. Since entering widespread clinical use, reports of pregabalin abuse appeared more often, usually involving individuals with a history of abuse of other medications. The purpose of this mini review is to present available published data signaling pregabalin's abuse liability reflecting on the pharmacological characteristics that might enable this agent to trigger addictive behaviors. PMID:24849194

Papazisis, Georgios; Tzachanis, Dimitrios

2014-08-01

5

Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential  

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This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

2007-01-01

6

Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

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Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter volume was inversely correlated with the severity of childhood sexual abuse (r=?.34, p=.008), but not other types of abuse. When the 24 patients with sexual abuse were compared with demographically matched samples of 23 patients without sexual abuse and 26 control subjects, only patients with a history of sexual abuse had reduced total gray matter volume (t(48) = 2.3, p = .03; Cohen’s d = .63). Voxel-based analysis revealed a cluster in the prefrontal cortex where volume was negatively correlated with sexual abuse severity. Voxel based comparison of the three matched groups revealed a similar pattern of results, with widespread reductions in psychosis patients with sexual abuse relative to controls that were not found in psychosis patients without sexual abuse. These findings indicate that some of the variance of gray matter volume in psychotic disorders can be explained by a history of sexual abuse. PMID:23178105

Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

2012-01-01

7

Abuse  

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... hard to make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

8

75 FR 9401 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Grants To Reduce Alcohol Abuse...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EDUCATION Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview...Information; Grants To Reduce Alcohol Abuse; Notice Inviting...effective programs to reduce alcohol abuse in secondary schools...4129 of the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities...meet this priority. Alcohol Abuse Reduction....

2010-03-02

9

Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users.  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasal drug abuse (N?=?27). Active treatments contained oxycodone (30?mg). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., Overall Drug Liking [ODL], Take Drug Again [TDA], and High Visual Analog Scales [VAS]; Subjective Drug Value [SDV]; pupillometry; intranasal irritation), and safety (e.g., adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests) were assessed to 24?hours postdose. Crushed ORF administration yielded reduced oxycodone Cmax and increased Tmax versus crushed OC and Oxy API. Peak effects for pharmacodynamic measures were delayed with ORF (1-2?hours) versus OC and Oxy API (0.5-1?hour). ODL, TDA, High VAS, and SDV Emax values were significantly lower (P???.05) and some intranasal irritation ratings were greater for ORF versus OC and Oxy API. No significant or unexpected safety findings were observed. Compared with OC and Oxy API, intranasally administered ORF was associated with lower and delayed peak plasma concentrations, decreased drug-liking, and decreased intranasal tolerability. This suggests that ORF has a decreased potential for intranasal oxycodone abuse. There were no significant or unexpected safety findings. As is true for all abuse potential studies, epidemiological or other appropriate post-marketing studies are required to assess the impact of the reduction in intranasal oxycodone abuse potential observed in the present study on real-world patterns of ORF misuse, abuse, and diversion. PMID:24243216

Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

2014-04-01

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Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.  

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Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk. PMID:21780538

Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C

2011-01-01

11

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

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Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

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Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth  

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Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

2013-01-01

13

Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators  

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Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

2007-01-01

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Offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use: affective psychopathic personality traits as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions.  

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Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients. PMID:24512943

Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

2014-01-01

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Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors  

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Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

2004-01-01

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Establishing a Short Term Program Component To Build Self-Esteem in a Small Group of Abusive and Potentially Abusive Parents.  

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This practicum was designed to enhance the self-esteem of abusive and potentially abusive parents. A combination of strategies was used to enhance self-esteem and to help parents solve problems in an appropriate manner. The intervention strategy included three objectives: (1) gain the confidence of the participants; (2) use a curriculum that…

Zimmerman, Judith

17

Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.  

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The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

Rodriguez, Christina M

2010-01-01

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A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.  

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Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

2014-10-01

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Intravenous Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Morphine in Recreational Opioid Users: Abuse Potential and Relative Potencies  

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Rationale Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is an increasing public health problem. Intravenous (IV) administration of opioid analgesics intended for oral use is not uncommon, yet little is known about the relative abuse potential of these drugs when administered intravenously to recreational opioid abusers without physical dependence. Methods This inpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential of IV doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine. Nine healthy adult participants reporting recreational opioid use and histories of IV opioid use completed 11 experimental sessions, including one active-dose practice session. IV doses were infused over 5-min and included three identical doses of each opioid (5, 10 and 20 mg/10 ml) and saline placebo. Physiological, subjective and performance effects were collected before and for 6 h after drug administration. Results All three opioids produced prototypical mu agonist effects (e.g., miosis; increased ratings of liking) that were generally dose-related. Pharmacodynamic effects were observed within 5 min of IV administration. Physiological effects were more prolonged than subjective effects for all three drugs. While the magnitude of effects was generally comparable across drugs and qualitatively similar, valid potency assays indicated the following potency relationship: oxycodone > morphine > hydrocodone. Conclusions There were modest potency differences between oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine, but their overall profile of effects was similar, indicating significant abuse potential when administered intravenously. PMID:20665209

Stoops, William W.; Hatton, Kevin W.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

2010-01-01

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Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast, which would be performed at the same time as standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy, is a breast conserving estrogen-receptor-independent option that may have the potential to significantly decrease the disturbingly high second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast of long-term breast cancer survivors.

 
 
 
 
21

Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway  

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Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

2010-01-01

22

Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).  

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"Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

1992-01-01

23

Parent gender, victim gender, and family socioeconomic level influences on the potential reporting by nurses of physical child abuse.  

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In 1974, the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act required reporting of child abuse in all states. Although nurses have since this time been designated as mandated reporters of abuse, only recently have nurses begun to hold positions where they are directly responsible for abuse reporting. This study investigated whether the gender of the victim, the gender of the abusing parent, or the family's socioeconomic level influences the potential reporting of child abuse by nurses. Participants were shown three vignettes of children being admitted to an emergency room with symptoms of possible abuse. When asked if they would or would not report the incident as child abuse, participants indicated they were significantly less apt to report abuse when the victim was female rather than male, and when the family was perceived as being from a middle rather than a low or high socioeconomic background. The implication of this finding is that female children from middle-class backgrounds may be left less protected than others as nurses become more actively involved in child abuse reporting. PMID:1340873

Pillitteri, A; Seidl, A; Smith, C; Stanton, M

1992-01-01

24

The potential for misuse and abuse of medications in ADHD: a review.  

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This article reviews the literature concerning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication misuse, abuse, dependence, diversion, and malingering. The review covers nonmedical use (NMU) of both stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamine) and nonstimulant (?-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine) prescription medications, and provides a discussion on the relevance for ADHD treatment today. The neural basis for ADHD medication mechanisms of action (increased norepinephrine and dopamine signaling) and their neurobiochemical relationship to the abuse potential is explored. Regionally-specific, stimulant-induced elevations in brain dopamine appear to be integral to both efficacy in ADHD and potential for abuse. In addition to the prevalence of misuse and diversion, additional topics discussed include the potential safety concerns associated with NMU of prescription ADHD medications and the cost to payers of prescription drug diversion (eg, increased emergency department visits associated with misuse). The evidence describing the difficulty in detecting malingering for the purpose of illicit access to ADHD medications for subsequent misuse or diversion is also summarized. Moreover, the effect of ADHD medications in patients with comorbid substance use disorder and the controversial potential linkage of stimulant prescription use with subsequent substance use disorder are explored. Overall, the data suggest that ADHD medication misuse and diversion are common health care problems for stimulant medications, with the prevalence believed to be approximately 5% to 10% of high school students and 5% to 35% of college students, depending on the study. Stimulant effectiveness and speed of action are deemed desirable to enhance attention and focus performance for activities like studying, but stimulants are also misused recreationally. Conversely, the data suggest a lack of abuse potential and lack of actual medication misuse for the nonstimulant medications. Although they can be efficacious for the treatment of ADHD, the nonstimulants lack a mechanism of action linked to the abuse potential and they lack the desirable effects (speed of action, stimulant feel) that make stimulants susceptible to NMU. In light of these findings, the data suggest a need for close screening and therapeutic monitoring of ADHD medication use. In addition, nonstimulants might be an appropriate alternative for patients with concern about abuse and physicians concerned with general misuse and diversion. PMID:25295651

Clemow, David B; Walker, Daniel J

2014-09-01

25

The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.  

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Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse. PMID:24825823

Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

2014-07-01

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Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP. “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

Ramona Stone

2010-07-01

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Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.  

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In the reward circuitry of the brain, ?-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) modulate effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of ?7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of ?7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

2013-11-01

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Exercise as a potential treatment for drug abuse: Evidence from preclinical studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs. Until recently, very few studies had examined the causal influences that mediate this relationship, and it was not clear whether exercise was effective at reducing substance use and abuse. In the past few years, several preclinical studies have revealed that exercise reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. These studies have revealed that exercise produces protective effects in procedures designed to model different transitional phases that occur during the development of, and recover from, a substance use disorder (e.g., acquisition, maintenance, escalation, and relapse/reinstatement of drug use. Moreover, recent studies have revealed several behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exercise that may be responsible for its protective effects in these assays. Collectively, these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations.

MarkAndrewSmith

2012-01-01

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Pathways for practice and policy to reduce adolescent alcohol abuse: interpretations from a qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper highlights pathways for practice and policy to reduce alcohol abuse among adolescents aged 14-17 years. These pathways have been generated following a qualitative study in England that explored adolescents' motivations for binge drinking and the associated outcomes. There are three distinct pathways under consideration. Firstly, the research clearly evidences the close link between binge drinking and an array of risky outcomes, thus supporting policies that tackle generic risk taking (such as Youth Development Programmes). Secondly, given the widely reported positive motivations for binge drinking, adopting a harm-minimisation approach may be more appropriate than promoting abstinence. This harm-minimisation approach can build on strategies reported by adolescents (such as drinking in groups) and consider safer, more supervised venues for adolescent drinking. Thirdly, this study highlights key risk groups, which would arguably be in greater need of harm-minimisation strategies. These were adolescents who drank primarily for the 'buzz', and also those younger age groups (particularly 14 and 15-year-olds) whose drinking was mostly confined to unsupervised, often outdoor locations. This was in contrast to slightly older age groups who, although illegally, were often able to access licensed premises which exerted more control over their drinking. The paper closes by referencing some of the wider policy issues, which must be taken into consideration when attempting to change the culture of binge drinking in England. These include issues surrounding the advertising and marketing of alcohol, the provision of alcohol education in schools and the promotion of alternative, safer activities for adolescents. PMID:16639857

Coleman, Lester M; Cater, Suzanne

2006-01-01

30

Developmental Endophenotypes: Indexing Genetic Risk for Substance Abuse with the P300 Brain Event-Related Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Although substance use disorders are heritable, their complexity has made identifying genes underlying their development challenging. Endophenotypes, biologically informed quantitative measures that index genetic risk for a disorder, are being recognized for their potential to assist the search for disorder relevant genes. After outlining criteria for an endophenotype that includes developmental considerations, we review how the brain P300 response serves as an index of genetic risk for substance abuse and related externalizing disorders. The P300 response is highly heritable and associated broadly with characteristics of externalizing disorder, including childhood disruptive disorders, antisociality, and precocious expression of deviant behavior. This association appears to be mediated by shared genetic influences. Prospective studies confirm that reduced P300 amplitude present in youth prior to significant exposure to addictive substances is associated with the subsequent development of substance use disorders. Despite pronounced change in mean level over the course of development, P300 amplitude shows strong rank order stability with repeated assessment through young adulthood. In addition, P300 developmental trajectories based on multiple assessments show very high heritability and may be especially informative as measures of genetic risk. Collectively, these findings provide strong support that P300 amplitude and its change through development reflect genetic vulnerability to substance abuse and related externalizing psychopathology. PMID:22247735

Iacono, William G.; Malone, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

31

Child Discipline and Physical Abuse in Immigrant Latino Families: Reducing Violence and Misunderstandings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines common areas of misunderstanding between professionals and low-income Latino families concerning issues of physical abuse. It argues that low-income immigrant children deserve the same protection from harsh physical punishment as all other children. (Contains 57 references.) (GCP)

Fontes, Lisa Aronson

2002-01-01

32

Predicting child abuse potential: An empirical investigation of two theoretical frameworks  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: 1) Belsky’s (1993) developmental-ecological model and 2) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument (i.e., CAPI) rather than occurrence rates (e.g., reports to child protective services, observations). Results indicated Belsky’s (1993) developmental-ecological model, in which risk markers were organized into three separate conceptual domains, provided a poor fit to the data. In contrast, the cumulative risk model, which included the accumulation of risk markers, was significant in predicting child abuse potential. PMID:20390812

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

2010-01-01

33

Web-based parenting skills to reduce behavior problems following abusive head trauma: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric abusive head trauma causes significant cognitive and behavioral morbidity, yet very few post-acute interventions exist to facilitate long-term recovery. To meet the needs of this vulnerable population, we piloted a web-based intervention with live coaching designed to improve positive parenting and child behavior. The efficacy of this parenting skills intervention was compared with access to Internet resources on brain injury. Participants included seven families (four randomized to the parenting intervention and three randomized to receive Internet resources). Parenting skills were observed and child behavior was rated at baseline and intervention completion. At completion, parents who received the parenting skills intervention showed significantly more positive parenting behaviors and fewer undesirable behaviors during play than parents who received access to Internet resources. Additionally, during play, children in the parenting skills intervention group were more compliant following parent commands than children in the Internet resources group. Lastly, parents who received the parenting intervention reported less intense oppositional and conduct behavior problems in their children post-intervention than did parents in the Internet resources group. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the use of this web-based positive parenting skills intervention to improve parenting skills and child behavior following abusive head trauma. PMID:24844734

Mast, Jennifer E; Antonini, Tanya N; Raj, Stacey P; Oberjohn, Karen S; Cassedy, Amy; Makoroff, Kathi L; Wade, Shari L

2014-09-01

34

Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

2010-01-01

35

Evaluation of the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of a C8-C9 isoparaffin solvent.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that the abuse potential of certain types of inhalants could be evaluated in animals by determining the overlap in their profile of behavioral effects with that of CNS depressant drugs and other depressant-like abused inhalants. For our first attempt in evaluating a solvent with an unknown abuse potential we tested ISOPAR-E. ISOPAR-E is a mixture of predominantly C8-C9 isoparaffinic hydrocarbons that is being used more and more frequently as a solvent in industrial and consumer products, including, but not limited to, typewriter correction fluids. Presently, nothing is known about the potential for abuse of products containing this solvent. In the present studies, we compared the volatility of ISOPAR-E and the abused solvent 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) in our exposure systems. Additionally, five behavioral procedures were conducted in mice to compare the effects of the two compounds. The results demonstrate that: (1) ISOPAR-E was less volatile than TCE; (2) ISOPAR-E produced a somewhat different profile of effects than did TCE as assessed with a functional observational battery; (3) unlike TCE, ISOPAR-E did not affect performance on tests of motor coordination; (4) TCE and ISOPAR-E produced concentration-related decreases in schedule-controlled operant performance with recovery from TCE being somewhat more rapid; (5) ISOPAR-E produced cross dependence in TCE-dependent mice; and (6) both TCE and ISOPAR-E produced substantial levels of ethanol-lever responding in a drug discrimination procedure, although the ethanol-like effects of ISOPAR-E only occurred at response rate decreasing concentrations. Overall, there was a poorer separation of behavioral and lethal concentrations for ISOPAR-E than for TCE. Although a somewhat different profile of behavioral effects was obtained with ISOPAR-E and TCE, we cannot say with certainty if enough similarities exist with abused inhalants to predict that ISOPAR-E would be subject to depressant-like abuse. Nonetheless, the feasibility of preclinical assessment of abuse potential of inhalants was demonstrated. PMID:9250471

Balster, R L; Bowen, S E; Evans, E B; Tokarz, M E

1997-07-01

36

A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

2012-01-01

37

Validation of a reduced Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de examinar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión en español del Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA, se aplicó éste, junto a la Double Standard Scale, la Rape Supportive Attitude Scale y el Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R, a 813 mujeres peruanas distribuidas en tres muestras diferentes: población general (n = 300, mujeres que no habían denunciado abuso (n = 300 y mujeres que habían denunciado abuso (n = 213.Después de poner a prueba mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio siete estructuras factoriales distintas del ISA, este estudio instrumental propone una versión reducida de 19 ítems agrupados en dos subescalas (Abuso no físico y Abuso físico, que obtienen excelentes coeficientes de fiabilidad de consistencia interna (0,93 y 0,89, respectivamente. La puntuación de ambas subescalas correlaciona en sentido positivo con doble moral sexual, actitud favorable hacia la violación y las dimensiones psicopatológicas del SCL-90-R. Asimismo, las puntuaciones en el ISA ponen de manifeesto que las mujeres con menor nivel cultural y ocupaciones laborales menos cualificadas sufren más abuso dentro de la pareja. Se proponen puntos de corte en las puntuaciones para detectar tanto el abuso no físico, como el físico en el contexto de las relaciones de pareja.

Juan Carlos Sierra

2011-01-01

38

Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... find out how!. Apply Now Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse If you are in an abusive relationship or ... Policy and Legislation The New Parent Support Program Domestic Abuse Domestic Abuse Military Reporting Options Domestic Abuse and ...

39

Possible ways of reducing dental erosive potential of acidic beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent consumption of acidic beverages is related to excessive tooth wear, namely dental erosion. Preventive measures may involve reduction or elimination of acidic drink consumption. However, the success of this approach is difficult to achieve as it is highly dependent on patient compliance. Therefore, a practical way of minimizing the erosive potential of popular acidic drinks may be their chemical modification. The aim of this article was to review the different methods of modification and their shortcomings. The available literature demonstrates that the erosive potential of most acidic beverages could be reduced. To date, the effectiveness of soluble calcium salts supplementation is the best established. However, modification can reduce the sensorial quality of the drink and shorten its shelf-life. There is also a need to evaluate the lowest effective and safe dose of the additive. PMID:24912931

Stefa?ski, T; Postek-Stefa?ska, L

2014-09-01

40

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

 
 
 
 
41

METHODS OF REDUCING CORROSION POTENTIAL OF DEMINERALIZED WATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this project are to study the method of obtaining demineralized water by using an ion exchange column type Purolite A200MBO, Purolite C100MBH. Considering the fact that we intend to use this type of water for the production of the steam used in the energetic industry, it is very important that the corrosive potential of water to be highly reduced. We have made chemical determinations for the water that enters in the ion exchange column and for the final water, which is the demineralized water. The results that we obtained emphasize that the corrosive capacity of the water is intensely diminished following this process.

Nicolae Chirila

2012-11-01

42

Validade de Criterio do Inventario de Potencial para Abuso Infantil (CAP) / Criterion Validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) / Validez de Criterio del Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É grande o interesse pelo tema da violência contra a criança, porém são escassas suas formas de avaliação, dificultando o desenvolvimento de intervenções. O Inventário de Potencial de Abuso Infantil (CAP) é considerado eficaz na identificação precoce de pais considerados em risco de agredirem fisica [...] mente seus filhos e uma boa ferramenta para avaliar intervenções na área dos maus-tratos contra crianças e adolescentes. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a validade de critério do Inventário CAP, por meio da comparação de seus resultados entre cuidadores considerados de alto risco para abuso infantil e cuidadores de baixo risco para o abuso infantil. Dois grupos de pais foram participantes, sendo um grupo composto por 20 pais denunciados por agressões físicas e o outro grupo de 20 pais não agressores de igual nível socioeconômico e educacional. Os resultados indicaram que o inventário é capaz de avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos propostos, demonstrando ser um bom instrumento para o trabalho de serviços de proteção à criança epara a avaliação de intervenções e políticas públicas ou pesquisas. Abstract in spanish Existe gran interés en el tema de la violencia contra los niños, pero son raras las formas de evaluación, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de intervenciones.El Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP) se considera eficaz en la identificación temprana de padres considerados en riesgo de agredir físicamen [...] te a sus hijos y buena herramienta para evaluar las intervenciones en el área de abuso contra niños. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la validez de criterio del Inventario CAP, por una comparación de sus resultados con padres de alto riesgo y padres sin riesgo para el abuso contra los niños. Participaron dos grupos: un de 20 padres que habían practicado el abuso físico y otro de 20 no agresores, del mismo nivel socioeconómico y educativo. Los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es capaz de evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos propuestos y ha demostrado ser una buena herramienta para el trabajo de los servicios de protección de la infancia, evaluación de las intervenciones y políticas públicas o de investigación. Abstract in english Even though there is great interest in the field of child abuse, there are few methods to assess it, which hinders the development of interventions. The Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is considered effective in the early identification of parents at risk of physically abusing their children, [...] and a good tool to evaluate interventions in the field of child abuse. This study's objective was to perform the CAP Inventory's criterion validity by comparing the results obtained by caregivers at a high risk of abusing their children with those obtained by caregivers at a low risk for child abuse. Two groups of parents participated in the study: a group of 20 parents reported for physically abusing their children and a group of 20 non-offending parents with the same socio-economic and educational levels. The results indicated the instrument is able to discriminate between the two groups, showing it to be a good tool for use in child protection services, to assess interventions, public policies, and research.

Ana Carolina de Almeida, Patrian; Karyne de Souza Augusto, Rios; Lucia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

2013-04-01

43

Validade de Criterio do Inventario de Potencial para Abuso Infantil (CAP) / Criterion Validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) / Validez de Criterio del Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É grande o interesse pelo tema da violência contra a criança, porém são escassas suas formas de avaliação, dificultando o desenvolvimento de intervenções. O Inventário de Potencial de Abuso Infantil (CAP) é considerado eficaz na identificação precoce de pais considerados em risco de agredirem fisica [...] mente seus filhos e uma boa ferramenta para avaliar intervenções na área dos maus-tratos contra crianças e adolescentes. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a validade de critério do Inventário CAP, por meio da comparação de seus resultados entre cuidadores considerados de alto risco para abuso infantil e cuidadores de baixo risco para o abuso infantil. Dois grupos de pais foram participantes, sendo um grupo composto por 20 pais denunciados por agressões físicas e o outro grupo de 20 pais não agressores de igual nível socioeconômico e educacional. Os resultados indicaram que o inventário é capaz de avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos propostos, demonstrando ser um bom instrumento para o trabalho de serviços de proteção à criança epara a avaliação de intervenções e políticas públicas ou pesquisas. Abstract in spanish Existe gran interés en el tema de la violencia contra los niños, pero son raras las formas de evaluación, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de intervenciones.El Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP) se considera eficaz en la identificación temprana de padres considerados en riesgo de agredir físicamen [...] te a sus hijos y buena herramienta para evaluar las intervenciones en el área de abuso contra niños. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la validez de criterio del Inventario CAP, por una comparación de sus resultados con padres de alto riesgo y padres sin riesgo para el abuso contra los niños. Participaron dos grupos: un de 20 padres que habían practicado el abuso físico y otro de 20 no agresores, del mismo nivel socioeconómico y educativo. Los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es capaz de evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos propuestos y ha demostrado ser una buena herramienta para el trabajo de los servicios de protección de la infancia, evaluación de las intervenciones y políticas públicas o de investigación. Abstract in english Even though there is great interest in the field of child abuse, there are few methods to assess it, which hinders the development of interventions. The Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is considered effective in the early identification of parents at risk of physically abusing their children, [...] and a good tool to evaluate interventions in the field of child abuse. This study's objective was to perform the CAP Inventory's criterion validity by comparing the results obtained by caregivers at a high risk of abusing their children with those obtained by caregivers at a low risk for child abuse. Two groups of parents participated in the study: a group of 20 parents reported for physically abusing their children and a group of 20 non-offending parents with the same socio-economic and educational levels. The results indicated the instrument is able to discriminate between the two groups, showing it to be a good tool for use in child protection services, to assess interventions, public policies, and research.

Ana Carolina de Almeida, Patrian; Karyne de Souza Augusto, Rios; Lucia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

44

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.Methods: Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h, peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h. Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry.Results: There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons, suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically significant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.Keywords: drug abuse, opioid, oxycodone, niacin

Webster LR

2012-08-01

45

Who Owns Child Abuse?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

Gerald Cradock

2014-11-01

46

The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation. However, the trees have to be grown on good sites; otherwise long rotations could be better options for broad-leaved stands. In coniferous stands, a shortened rotation period resulted in lower carbon stocks than a prolonged rotation period, but the amount of residues that could substitute fossil fuel increased with a shorter rotation. However, annual rates of carbon accumulation in biomass might decline in both short- and long-rotation stands in the future. If so, carbon sequestration in biomass would not be the best option. In a long-term perspective, wood products could have high potential to reduce net CO2 emissions, since wood can replace energy-intensive materials like cement, plastics and aluminium. Intensively managed forests (e.g. fertilized forests or shortened rotation lengths) could contribute more to reductions in CO2 emissions than current forest management. Using forest products (i.e. wood products and biofuel) is probably more important than storing carbon in biomass and soil, but it is necessary to conserve the existing stocks. Intensive forest management and increased use of biomass may, however, conflict with environmental quality objectives

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Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB2 ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB2 drugs without CB1 psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB1 receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB2 is mainly expressed in ...

Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-qun

2012-01-01

48

Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. Objective To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. Materials and methods We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Results Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Conclusion Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations. PMID:22825777

Hill, Suvimol C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

49

Estimating prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in one general hospital: an approach to reduce sample selection bias.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence estimates of alcohol abuse or dependence in general hospitals are often limited to single wards, small data collecting periods or insufficient diagnostic procedures. Therefore, the present study aimed to ascertain alcohol abuse or dependence in one general hospital, to compare prevalence data for all the 11 wards and 6 intake months, to establish if screening is sufficient or if a two-step diagnostic procedure is needed, and to determine whether information for an alcohol diagnosis on suspicion is available. A sample of 1309 medical or surgical in-patients were screened by questionnaires or medication for withdrawal, and, if screening-positive, were interviewed with the alcohol section of a standardized psychiatric interview. In screening-negative patients, a diagnosis on suspicion was given if medication to treat withdrawal had been used, or if there was evidence of single criteria of alcohol dependence, somatic disorders from alcohol drinking, raised laboratory parameters on grounds of alcohol drinking or of self-reported high alcohol consumption. Of the medical and surgical in-patients, 20.7 and 16.0% respectively were alcohol abusers or dependents, with a range of prevalence rates of alcohol abuse or dependence among wards of 11.1-32.9% and among intake months between 11.3 and 28.7%. Of the medical department in-patients, 1.9%, and of the surgical in-patients, 2.1%, were screened as false-positive cases. In addition, 5.5% of the medical and 12.0% of the surgical patients were given a diagnosis on suspicion. It is concluded that all general wards and different intake months should be taken into account when estimating prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence in a general hospital. PMID:10528822

John, U; Rumpf, H J; Hapke, U

1999-01-01

50

Psychological Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological Abuse Psychological abuse is the willful infliction of mental or emotional anguish by threat, humiliation, or other verbal or nonverbal ... and expectations play a significant role in how psychological abuse is manifested and how it affects its ...

51

Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

2011-01-01

52

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the risk that the child will develop serious problems as an adult. For additional information see Facts for Families : #4 The Depressed Child #5 Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking ...

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Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

1996-12-31

54

Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use  

Science.gov (United States)

Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

German, John

2006-04-01

55

Comparison of full and reduced potential formulations for low-frequency applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors examine five alternative finite element formulations of magnetostatic problems: (1) full vector potential, (2) reduced vector potential, (3) reduced scalar potential with source integral over all volume, (4) reduced scalar potential with source integral over permeable volumes only, and (5) reduced scalar potential with surface source integral. They show that (3) is more prone to numerical error than the other methods, and that (4) and (5) are competitive in accuracy with (1) and (2) in air regions but are easier to implement in three dimensions. However, all three scalar formulations suffer from cancellation errors in iron regions

56

Inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Despite high levels of substance use disorders in Cape Town, substance abuse treatment utilization is low among people from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. To improve substance abuse treatment utilization, it is important to identify any potential barriers to treatment initiation so that interventions to reduce these barriers can be implemented. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with substance a...

Louw Johann; Myers Bronwyn J; Pasche Sonja C

2010-01-01

57

On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the emerging landscape of cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials evaluating the effects of blood glucose lowering drugs in individuals with type 2 diabetes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that since the promising signals coming from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) no unequivocal benefits have been established for any single therapy thus far. There is an unmet need for introducing an effective pharmacological agent which could target both correlates of glycaemic regulation and CV risk factors, to ameliorate the enormous burden of fatal and non-fatal CV events in diabetic patients. Acarbose, like other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), has been proven to be an effective antidiabetic treatment for decades, but the overall significant impact of this class of drugs on modulating CV risk has only recently been appreciated. Accumulating evidence has shown that apart from its multiple effects on primarily postprandial glucose dysmetabolism, a key component of mechanisms linked to increased incidence of CV events, acarbose therapy also associates with a favorable impact on an array of surrogate markers of CV disease. Data stemming from in vitro testing of human cell lines as well as from preliminary trials in diabetic populations, like the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial, have highlighted - though not undisputed - the potential beneficial effects of the drug on CV morbidity. Large scale trials, like the ongoing Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial, aim at conclusively establishing such a positive effect in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance. In view of its usually acceptable level of side effects that are, if they occur, mostly limited to transient gastrointestinal symptoms, acarbose could well be a strong future player in CV disease secondary prevention. Current discouraging results from many trials of antidiabetic medications to significantly lower CV event rates in diabetic patients, should only draw further attention on alternative glucose lowering agents, among which acarbose is indeed promising. PMID:24742256

Standl, Eberhard; Theodorakis, Michael J; Erbach, Michael; Schnell, Oliver; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-01-01

58

Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

2010-01-01

59

75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability  

Science.gov (United States)

...are developing drug and other medical products with the potential...Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist that office...of a drug to be used under medical supervision. If a drug has...that includes a scientific and medical evaluation of all...

2010-01-27

60

REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

STEBBING P. D.

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sustained release d-amphetamine reduces cocaine but not 'speedball'-seeking in buprenorphine-maintained volunteers: a test of dual-agonist pharmacotherapy for cocaine/heroin polydrug abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine whether oral sustained release d-amphetamine (SR-AMP) reduces cocaine and opioid/cocaine combination ('speedball'-like) seeking in volunteers with current opioid dependence and cocaine dependence. Following outpatient buprenorphine (BUP) 8?mg/day stabilization without SR-AMP, eight participants completed a 3-week in-patient study with continued BUP 8?mg/day maintenance and double-blind ascending SR-AMP weekly doses of 0, 30, and 60?mg/day, respectively. After 3 days (Saturday-Monday) stabilization at each SR-AMP weekly dose (0, 15, or 30?mg administered at 0700 and 1225 each day), on Tuesday-Friday mornings (0900-1200 hours), participants sampled four drug combinations in randomized, counterbalanced order under double-blind, double-dummy (intranasal cocaine and intramuscular hydromorphone) conditions: cocaine (COC 100?mg+saline); hydromorphone (COC 4?mg+HYD 24?mg); 'speedball' (COC 100?mg+HYD 24?mg); and placebo (COC 4?mg+saline). Subjective and physiological effects of these drug combinations were measured. From 1230 to 1530 hours, participants could respond on a choice, 12-trial progressive ratio schedule to earn drug units (1/12th of total morning dose) or money units (US$2). SR-AMP significantly reduced COC, but not HYD or speedball, choices and breakpoints. SR-AMP also significantly reduced COC subjective (eg, abuse-related) effects and did not potentiate COC-induced cardiovascular responses. This study shows the ability of SR-AMP to attenuate COC self-administration, as well as its selectivity, in cocaine/heroin polydrug abusers. Further research is warranted to ascertain whether SR-AMP combined with BUP could be a useful dual-agonist pharmacotherapy. PMID:20881947

Greenwald, Mark K; Lundahl, Leslie H; Steinmiller, Caren L

2010-12-01

62

Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces their usefulness. A detailed alcohol history is therefore recommended. The pathophysiology may include alcohol-induced organ dysfunctions. We demonstrated that subclinical cardiac insufficiency, immune incompetence, and haemostatic imbalance were already present preoperatively. A relation between the various lesions remains to be investigated. The surgical stress response was greater in alcohol abusers, which may further compromise the already dysfunctioning organs, thus leading to the documented increase in postoperative morbidity. Withdrawal from alcohol reverses organic dysfunction in non-surgical patients. Haemostasis normalises after one to four weeks, cardiac function after one month, immune function after two months, and response to external stress after three months. Accordingly, our small randomised investigation has shown that one month of abstinence before surgery improves several organic dysfunctions and reduces postoperative morbidity. We have demonstrated that prevention before surgery is possible. The study has methodological flaws, so further studies are required before final recommendations can be given. However, in the meantime clinical guidelines for alcohol abusers undergoing surgery should include up-to-date patient information and four weeks of abstinence before surgery, in accordance with the evidence-based association, the potential prevention attained by preoperative abstinence, and the best clinical practice. Implementation should be monitored in the clinical databases. In future, all patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect attainable from this multi-modal prevention and fast track surgery should be investigated among the alcohol abusers.

TØnnesen, Hanne

2003-01-01

63

Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces their usefulness. A detailed alcohol history is therefore recommended. The pathophysiology may include alcohol-induced organ dysfunctions. We demonstrated that subclinical cardiac insufficiency, immune incompetence, and haemostatic imbalance were already present preoperatively. A relation between the various lesions remains to be investigated. The surgical stress response was greater in alcohol abusers, which may further compromise the already dysfunctioning organs, thus leading to the documented increase in postoperative morbidity. Withdrawal from alcohol reverses organic dysfunction in non-surgical patients. Haemostasis normalises after one to four weeks, cardiac function after one month, immune function after two months, and response to external stress after three months. Accordingly, our small randomised investigation has shown that one month of abstinence before surgery improves several organic dysfunctions and reduces postoperative morbidity. We have demonstrated that prevention before surgery is possible. The study has methodological flaws, so further studies are required before final recommendations can be given. However, in the meantime clinical guidelines for alcohol abusers undergoing surgery should include up-to-date patient information and four weeks of abstinence before surgery, in accordance with the evidence-based association, the potential prevention attained by preoperative abstinence, and the best clinical practice. Implementation should be monitored in the clinical databases. In future, all patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect attainable from thismulti-modal prevention and fast track surgery should be investigated among the alcohol abusers.

TØnnesen, Hanne

2003-01-01

64

Experimental studies of the abuse potential of d, l-glaucine. 1.5-phosphate in rhesus monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

d-Glaucine is an alkaloid derived from Glaucium flavum, which is as effective as codeine as an antitussive. d, l-Glaucine. 1.5 phosphate is a synthetic compound related to d-glaucine. The ability of d, l-glaucine.1.5 phosphate to maintain responding in rhesus monkeys was assessed in 2 procedures. In the first responding was maintained under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of codeine delivery during daily 3-hr sessions. When d, l-glaucine.1.5 phosphate (0.05-0.4 mg/kg) was substituted for codeine, responding was not maintained. In the second procedure, monkeys given 23-hr/day access to 0.5-1.0 mg/kg under a fixed-ratio schedule did not self-administer d,l-glaucine.1.5 phosphate above saline levels even after a 21-day period of programmed injections. Following the period of programmed injections, there were not signs of opiate withdrawal following the administration of naloxone. These results indicate that the abuse potential of d,l-glaucine.1.5 phosphate is low relative to codeine. PMID:7201142

Schuster, C R; Aigner, T; Johanson, C E; Gieske, T H

1982-05-01

65

Alternative drugs of abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

2014-02-01

66

Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butaney of toluene, acetone and butane

67

Potential of treatment-specific protein biomarker profiles for detection of hormone abuse in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Targeted protein biomarker profiling is suggested as a fast screening approach for detection of illegal hormone treatment in meat production. The advantage of using biomarkers is that they mark the biological response and, thus, are responsive to a panel of substances with similar effects. In a preliminary feasibility study, a 4-plex protein biomarker flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) previously developed for the detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was applied to cattle treated with steroids, such as estradiol, dexamethasone, and prednisolone. Each treatment resulted in a specific plasma biomarker profile for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2, osteocalcin, and anti-rbST antibodies, which could be distinguished from the profile of untreated animals. In summary, the 4-plex biomarker FCIA is, apart from rbST, also capable of detecting treatment with other growth-promoting agents and therefore clearly shows the potential of biomarker profiling as a screening method in veterinary control. It is proposed to perform additional validation studies covering high numbers of treated and untreated animals to support inclusion or adaptation of protein biomarker approaches in future monitoring regulations. PMID:23582010

Ludwig, Susann Katrina Julie; Smits, Nathalie Gabriëlle Esther; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Nielen, Michel Wilhelmus Franciscus

2013-05-15

68

Intelligent use and potential abuse of hormone assays in animal production research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunoassays provide sensitive and specific techniques to measure very low concentrations of hormones in biological fluids. Use of these procedures has provided comprehensive plasma profiles for most hormones and contributed to a better understanding or reproductive function. One future challenge for basic research is the development of new methods to monitor and quantitate target organ response rather than continuing to determine concentrations. In applied or production-oriented projects the difficulties and expenses associated with most hormone assays are usually not justified. One exception is sequential monitoring of plasma or milk progesterone concentrations in twice weekly or weekly samples which can be used to detect the occurrence of sexual maturity, the time of first postpartum ovulation, the true incidence of anoestrus, whether individual females have regular ovarian cycles, and as an early test for pregnancy. Past results indicate that most healthy, adequately fed dairy cows in temperate regions ovulate during the first three or four weeks postpartum. Under intensive management systems the major problem in reproductive management of dairy cattle is oestrus detection. In contrast, many beef cows have not ovulated by 60 days postpartum, so prolonged anoestrus is a serious problem in suckled cows. Very little is known about nutrition, disease or climatic stress effects or interactions on reproductive performance in tropical environments. Regular progesterone concentrations from individual cows, combined with condition scores, management evaluation and breeding plus health records should accurately define the current reproductive performance, potential and problems. Once the major factors limiting reproductive efficiency have been defined, research projects can concentrate on the development of practical solutions. Sequential progesterone assays can then be incorporated into experimental procedures to objectively determine ovarian response. (author)

69

Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

2011-03-01

70

A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)

2010-09-03

71

Drug abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... become popular and available in recent years, including: Ketamine, a substance related to PCP, commonly called "Special ... information on drug abuse If you are seeking treatment of drug abuse for yourself or a family ...

72

Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse is any form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a ... exercise consent. Who are the perpetrators? Perpetrators of sexual abuse include attendants, employees of care facilities, family members ( ...

73

Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

74

Effect of reduced water activity and reduced matric potential on the germination of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in water activity (a(w)) is used as a microbiological hurdle to prevent food spoilage. To minimize the levels of salt and sugar, which are commonly used to reduce a(w), the potential of food structure as a microbiological hurdle needs to be assessed. The concept of matric potential (Psi(m)) is used to measure the effect of food structure on water movement. This study reports the effect of reduced a(w) and reduced Psi(m) on the germination of xerophilic fungi (represented by Eurotium herbariorum) and non-xerophilic fungi (represented by Aspergillus niger) on model glycerol agar media. Germination curves were plotted with the percentage of germinated spores against time. The germination time (t(G)), which is defined as the time at which 50% of the total viable spores have germinated, was estimated using the Gompertz model. Total viable spores was defined as those spores that were able to germinate under the optimum a(w) and Psi(m) conditions for each species, i.e. 0.95 a(w) and 2.5% agar for E. herbariorum and 0.98 a(w) and 2.5% agar for A. niger. As a(w) decreased from 0.90 to 0.85 a(w), t(G) increased significantly for both the xerophilic fungi and non-xerophilic species at equivalent matric potential values. When matric potential was reduced from -12 kPa (2.5% agar) to -38 kPa (12.5% agar), t(G) of A. niger was significantly extended at 0.90 a(w); however, t(G) remained the same for A. niger at 0.85 a(w), and for E. herbariorum at 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90 a(w). This study demonstrated that the germination time for non-xerophilic and xerophilic fungi was extended by reduced a(w), however the effect of reduced Psi(m) was limited. PMID:20231042

Huang, Yang; Begum, Mariam; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

2010-05-30

75

Chronic binge alcohol consumption alters myogenic gene expression and reduces in vitro myogenic differentiation potential of myoblasts from rhesus macaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with skeletal muscle myopathy. Previously, we demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) consumption by rhesus macaques accentuates skeletal muscle wasting at end-stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. A proinflammatory, prooxidative milieu and enhanced ubiquitin proteasome activity were identified as possible mechanisms leading to loss of skeletal muscle. The possibility that impaired regenerative capacity, as reflected by the ability of myoblasts derived from satellite cell (SCs) to differentiate into myotubes has not been examined. We hypothesized that the inflammation and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle from CBA animals impair the differentiation capacity of myoblasts to form new myofibers in in vitro assays. We isolated primary myoblasts from the quadriceps femoris of rhesus macaques that were administered CBA or isocaloric sucrose (SUC) for 19 mo. Proliferation and differentiation potential of cultured myoblasts were examined in vitro. Myoblasts from the CBA group had significantly reduced PAX7, MYOD1, MYOG, MYF5, and MEF2C expression. This was associated with decreased myotube formation as evidenced by Jenner-Giemsa staining and myonuclei fusion index. No significant difference in the proliferative ability, cell cycle distribution, or autophagy was detected between myoblasts isolated from CBA and SUC groups. Together, these results reflect marked dysregulation of myoblast myogenic gene expression and myotube formation, which we interpret as evidence of impaired skeletal muscle regenerative capacity in CBA-administered macaques. The contribution of this mechanism to alcoholic myopathy warrants further investigation. PMID:24671243

Simon, Liz; LeCapitaine, Nicole; Berner, Paul; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Mussell, Jason C; Allerton, Timothy; Primeaux, Stefany D; Dufour, Jason; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J; Cefalu, William; Molina, Patricia E

2014-06-01

76

Child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

77

Child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

Dorst, J.P.

1982-08-01

78

After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

"After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

2008-01-01

79

Potential Biodiversity Benefits from International Programs to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Deforestation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiv...

Siikama?ki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

80

[Child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that in the Netherlands over 100.000 children per year are victims of child abuse. In more than 50% of the cases of physical abuse there is a trauma of the head and neck area. Therefore, it is likely that (without realizing it) dentists are regularly confronted with cases of child abuse. Dentists have an ethical duty to take positive action in cases of suspected child abuse. They may refer the patient to an oral surgeon, consult the family physician or ask the advice of the 'Advies- en Meldpunt Kindermishandeling' (Advice and Report Centre for Child Abuse). The Dutch Dental Association, the Dutch Association of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physiotherapists have signed a formal agreement to promote closer cooperation in identifying child abuse more quickly. PMID:19438074

Allard, R H B; van Merkesteyn, J P R; Baart, J A

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Fetal Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

Kent, Lindsey; And Others

1997-01-01

82

Oxytocin Reduces Background Anxiety in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm: Peripheral vs Central Administration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oxytocin is known to have anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects. Using a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats, we previously demonstrated that subcutaneously administered oxytocin suppressed acoustic startle following fear conditioning compared with startle before fear conditioning (termed background anxiety), but did not have an effect on cue-specific fear-potentiated startle. The findings suggest oxytocin reduces background anxiety, an anxious state not directly related to cue-specific ...

Ayers, Luke W.; Missig, Galen; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

83

Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

2012-01-01

84

[Drugs and drug abusers].  

Science.gov (United States)

DRUG ABUSERS: Drugs are widely used by toxicomaniacs to reproduce drug effects. Drug abusers generally start with psychotrops, but other abuse drug classes. Toxicomanic behavior leads to addictive practices that are difficult to control. BARBITURATES: Both the oral and intravenous routes are used. The expected result is a state of ecstasy with a feeling of comfort. Intoxication may cause respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce physical and psychic dependence. Abuse is not widespread with this class of drugs. BENZODIAZEPINES: Drug abuses widely use benzodiazepines orally or intravenously. They search for a flash effect, with sedation and a feeling of comfort. All benzodiazepines induce physical and psychic dependence. Death may result from combinations leading to respiratory depression. Flunitrazepam is the most widely abused benzodiazepine in France. It induces serious neuropsychic disorders. ANTIDEPRESSANTS: Few are used, mostly at high doses. OPIATES: Administration gives the same effect as heroine injection. Opiates induce physical and psychic dependence. The adverse effects are similar to those of morphine with a higher risk of respiratory depression. AMPHETAMINES: Few are used, either orally or intravenously. They induce a flash with excitation, euphoria, and a period of invincibility. This is followed by a period of depression with risk of suicide. Psychic dependence is high. ANTICHOLINERGIC ANTIPARKINSONIANS: These drugs are well known to abusers for their hallucinatory effect. They induce atropinic adverse effects and physical and psychic dependence. GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE: This anesthetic is used for its euphoria and sedation effects. It may induce falling sickness or coma, with a risk of respiratory depression. KETAMINE: Administered via the intranasal route, ketamine induces a state of indifference. Death has been observed. ANABOLIC AND ANDROGENIC STEROIDS: These drugs are used for their physical and psychic stimulating effect. They induce potentially dangerous adverse effects such as cardiovascular, hepatic, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Clinical signs of addiction and weaning are observed. OTHERS: Several other drug classes are used by abusers, including analgics, beta-adrenergic agents, nasal vasoconstrictors and corticosteroids. PMID:11252979

Schlatter, J; Sitbon, N; Saulnier, J L

2001-02-17

85

Evaluating on-line high purity water oxidizing-reducing potential analysis for boiler feedwater quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conditioned boiler feedwater was analyzed with a unique flowing-junction oxidizing-reducing potential (ORP) analyzer in comparison with dissolved oxygen and other parameters. Two different fossil plant boiler chemistries were utilized in the evaluation. Correlations were drawn between ORP, dissolved oxygen, and hydrazine levels to determine the usefulness of this ORP analysis for corrosion control. (orig.)

Olson, Vickie G. [Honeywell Field Solutions, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2010-02-15

86

Potential Mediating Pathways through Which Sports Participation Relates to Reduced Risk of Suicidal Ideation  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The…

Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J.

2010-01-01

87

The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

Makoto Yokohari

2010-09-01

88

Reducing the mixed waste potential at Comanche Peak building a mixed waste prevention program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texas Utilities Comanche Peak Station has developed an effective program to reduce hazardous waste generation and reduce the potential to generate mixed low-level waste. A small group task team was chartered to streamline the process for evaluating all chemical and consumable products used at Comanche Peak. By identifying hazardous waste producing chemical and consumable products before they arrive on site, use strategies, disposal information, and other restrictions are developed to reduce the likelihood that a mixed waste will be created. Some hazardous waste producing products are no longer allowed into the radiation controlled areas, thus eliminating the potential for creating a mixed waste from those products. Distinctive labels supply basic usage restrictions to plant workers

89

The Many Victims of Substance Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding envi...

Mauro, Tara

2007-01-01

90

A dipole polarizable potential for reduced and doped CeO2 obtained from first principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO2. We use a dipole polarizable potential (DIPPIM: the dipole polarizable ion model) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of density functional theory calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO2 and by comparing them against experimental values. The values for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) are within 10-15% of the experimental ones, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic scale properties of CeO2 in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size limitations.

91

Drug abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

92

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust When Brian and Sarah began dating, her friends were envious. Brian was smart, sensitive, funny, ... harmed by another person. Continue Signs of Abusive Relationships Important warning signs that you may be involved ...

93

Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N?O], methane [CH?], and carbon dioxide [CO?]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N?O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N?O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. PMID:21869517

Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

2011-01-01

94

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

95

Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

96

Computation of 3-D magnetostatic fields using a reduced scalar potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents some improvements to the finite element computation of static magnetic fields in three dimensions using a reduced magnetic scalar potential. New methods are described for obtaining an edge element representation of the rotational part of the magnetic field from a given source current distribution. In the case when the current distribution is not known in advance, a boundary value problem is set up in terms of a current vector potential. An edge element representation of the solution can be directly used in the subsequent magnetostatic calculation. The magnetic field in a D.C. arc furnace is calculated by first determining the current distribution in terms of a current vector potential. A three dimensional problem involving a permanent magnet as well as a coil is solved and the magnetic field in some points is compared with measurement results

97

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17

98

Twins abused by their father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

Celal

2011-12-01

99

Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.

Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: wynne@bnl.gov; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2007-10-15

100

Abuse and Dependence Liability of Benzodiazepine-Type Drugs: GABAA Receptor Modulation and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzodiazepine-type drugs (benzodiazepines and the newer non-benzodiazepines) are similar to older sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as the barbiturates, in that they act at the GABAA receptor (9, 188). Unfortunately, benzodiazepine-type drugs also retain the liability for abuse and dependence associated with the earlier anxiolytics (133, 208). Action at GABAA receptors likely plays a key role in both the therapeutic as well as abuse-related effects of this important class of drugs. While the extent to which therapeutic efficacy and abuse potential can be dissociated is not yet understood fully, the biochemical processes underlying these behavioral effects are even less understood. A more comprehensive understanding of the etiology of benzodiazepine-type drug-induced abuse and dependence is likely to provide information that can inform drug development strategies to help design anxiolytics and hypnotics that have maximum clinical benefit with reduced abuse potential. Thus, this review will explore issues related to the abuse and dependence potential of benzodiazepine-type drugs and the role that GABAA receptors play in this phenomenon. Further, this review will discuss putative intracellular events that may occur as a result of the interaction between benzodiazepine-type drugs and GABAA receptors, and how those events may ultimately give rise to the abuse-related behaviors associated with these drugs. PMID:18295321

Licata, Stephanie C.; Rowlett, James K.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: ? We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. ? We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. ? Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

102

A therapeutic dose of zolpidem has limited abuse-like effects in drug-na?ve females: A pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Zolpidem has abuse potential, particularly among individuals with histories of drug abuse. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross over pilot study investigated the subjective effects of zolpidem (10 mg) in drug-naïve females. Over the course of a 5-h period vital signs were monitored and a series of computerized questionnaires were administered. Results indicate that zolpidem engendered subjective effects characteristic of hypnotic drugs, but reduced ratings of drug liking, willing to take again, and willing to pay for, relative to placebo. Thus, a therapeutic dose of zolpidem may have limited potential for misuse among females who have no experience with drugs of abuse. PMID:18831970

Licata, Stephanie C.; Penetar, David M.; Dunlap, Steven; Lukas, Scott E.

2008-01-01

103

On the potential of various approaches in load analysis to reduce the frequency of sports injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss various approaches used in load analysis with special consideration of whether there is some evidence that these approaches have actually contributed to a reduction of sport injuries and whether these approaches have the theoretical potential to reduce the frequency of injuries at all. Two possible approaches are compared. The 'cause-effect approach' uses the estimation of internal stress. It is proposed that a comparison of the internal stress with the critical stress limits for an anatomical structure of interest may not help to reduce the frequency of injuries for two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the critical stress limits and the internal stress may have significant errors which inhibit possible conclusions. Secondly, the information provided by the comparison of internal stress and critical stress limits was implicitly available in the injury frequencies and no new knowledge has been added. It is proposed that stresses estimated from model calculations can successfully be used to reduce the frequency of injuries if they are compared (comparison technique) with stresses estimated for comparable situations (e.g. shoes with and without orthotics). The 'empirical approach' is based on the assumption that the knowledge of the mechanisms of an injury is not a prerequisite for the reduction of the frequency of injuries. The approach establishes statistical correlations between factors related to injuries on one side and specific injuries or groups of injuries on the other side. This approach has frequently been used in the development of sport shoes. It is speculated that studies using an empirical approach have the potential to actually reduce the frequency of injuries. The conclusive evidence that biomechanical research in load analysis has in fact contributed to a reduction of the frequency of injuries is still missing for both discussed approaches. PMID:2081742

Nigg, B M; Bobbert, M

1990-01-01

104

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6, containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L or not (control, 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear. Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean wear (±se was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-06-01

105

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

106

Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)

107

Reduced ulcerogenic potential and antiarthritic effect of chitosan-naproxen sodium complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium-chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treated with naproxen 50 mg/kg (p.o.). Thus, the results suggest that the spray-dried naproxen sodium-chitosan complex (NPXF) was not corrosive to the gastric mucosa at high doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (p.o.) under stressful conditions. It is evident from the present investigation that NPXF does not possess any ulcerogenic potential in comparison to naproxen which, under stressful conditions, led to the hypersecretion of HCl, culminating to petichial hemorrhages in the gastric mucosa of the animals. The biphasic pattern was observed in the various arthritic parameters. The rise in paw volume, joint diameter, WBC count, arthritis score, and fall in body weight was significantly ameliorated in the animals treated with NPXF (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o). At the end of the study, slight erythema was visible in the naproxen-treated animals. However, no erythema, redness, or ulcers were visible in the animals treated with NPXF. Thus, the direct compression properties and reduced ulcerogenic activity, combined with the demonstrated solubilizing power and analgesic effect enhancer ability toward the drug, make naproxen sodium-chitosan spray-dried complexes particularly suitable for developing a reduced-dose, fast-release, solid oral dosage form of naproxen. PMID:22711255

Ghosh, Pinaki; Bhise, Kiran S; Paradkar, Anant R; Bodhankar, S L; Kadam, Shivajirao S

2012-09-01

108

Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors. PMID:25024177

Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo

2014-07-29

109

Abuse and misuse of antidepressants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elizabeth A Evans, Maria A Sullivan Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Background: Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI” and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine” in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results: A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous. Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion: The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and implemented. Keywords: antidepressant, prescription, misuse, abuse, nonmedical use, dependence, addiction

Evans EA

2014-08-01

110

Child Abuse and Smoking Among Young Women: The Importance of Severity, Accumulation, and Timing  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose We examined the association between severity, accumulation, and timing of abuse in childhood and adolescence and smoking status among young women. Methods Retrospective self-reported childhood abuse was ascertained with the modified Conflict Tactics Scale from 91,286 Nurses Health Study II participants in 2001 (68,505 returned; 75.0% response rate). Childhood abuse was categorized by severity (mile/moderate/severe), type (physical/sexual), and timing (childhood/adolescence). Smoking status during adolescence was reported at baseline (1989). Logistic regression was used to predict smoking initiation by age 14 and smoking status between the ages of 15 and 19. Results A graded association between severity of abuse and early initiation of smoking (by age 14 years) was demonstrated (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7–2.1 for severe physical violence). Young women with both physical and sexual abuse were two times more likely to start smoking by age 14 than were those reporting no abuse (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8–2.3). Although abuse during childhood increased risk for adolescent smoking (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.8–2.1) for those with childhood physical and sexual abuse, inclusion of adolescent physical and sexual abuse (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 2.1–2.4) diminished the impact of childhood abuse (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1–1.2). The degree of familial emotional support was protective against smoking, and reduced the impact of abuse by 40% among those with high emotional support versus those without (p < .0001). Conclusions A strong and graded association was observed between both severity and accumulation of abuse and the risk of early initiation of smoking among girls. Smoking status during late adolescence was more strongly associated with adolescent abuse than childhood abuse. Early smoking onset is associated with both heightened risk for disease in adolescence but also increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Identifying and intervening in potentially modifiable risk factors for smoking onset in young women, such as early-life physical and sexual abuse, and building familial strengths, such as emotional support, may have significant public health implications. PMID:18565438

Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee; Austin, S. Bryn; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Wright, Rosalind J.

2014-01-01

111

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a [...] crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

Melissa Thiemi, Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

112

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a [...] crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

Melissa Thiemi, Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

2012-06-01

113

A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37°C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme ...

Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-guo; Tesmer, John J. G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

2010-01-01

114

Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NOx, 0.07 million tonnes in SOx and 4.1 million tonnes in CO2. These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ? Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. ? We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ? A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ? Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ? Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

115

Potential changes in forest composition could reduce impacts of climate change on boreal wildfires.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is general consensus that wildfires in boreal forests will increase throughout this century in response to more severe and frequent drought conditions induced by climate change. However, prediction models generally assume that the vegetation component will remain static over the next few decades. As deciduous species are less flammable than conifer species, it is reasonable to believe that a potential expansion of deciduous species in boreal forests, either occurring naturally or through landscape management, could offset some of the impacts of climate change on the occurrence of boreal wildfires. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of this offsetting effect through a simulation experiment conducted in eastern boreal North America. Predictions of future fire activity were made using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) with fire behavior indices and ecological niche models as predictor variables so as to take into account the effects of changing climate and tree distribution on fire activity. A regional climate model (RCM) was used for predictions of future fire risk conditions. The experiment was conducted under two tree dispersal scenarios: the status quo scenario, in which the distribution of forest types does not differ from the present one, and the unlimited dispersal scenario, which allows forest types to expand their range to fully occupy their climatic niche. Our results show that future warming will create climate conditions that are more prone to fire occurrence. However, unlimited dispersal of southern restricted deciduous species could reduce the impact of climate change on future fire occurrence. Hence, the use of deciduous species could be a good option for an efficient strategic fire mitigation strategy aimed at reducing fire Propagation in coniferous landscapes and increasing public safety in remote populated areas of eastern boreal Canada under climate change. PMID:23495633

Terrier, Aurélie; Girardin, Martin P; Périé, Catherine; Legendre, Pierre; Bergeron, Yves

2013-01-01

116

Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

Intima Alrimawi

2014-01-01

117

Potential for reducing electricity demand for lighting in households: An exploratory socio-technical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Illuminance data were collected from 18 UK dwellings during 1-week periods in spring 2007, to establish when luminaires were used and to calculate electricity consumption for lighting. Householders were also interviewed about lighting use and choices. The potential for reducing lighting electricity consumption by replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is assessed. Mean weekly electricity consumption for lighting was 3.756 kW h and mean proportion of total electricity consumption used for lighting was 6.55%. It is notable, however, that participants generally expressed high levels of environmental awareness and that electricity consumption figures for less environmentally-aware households may differ. On average, households could have reduced lighting electricity consumption by 50.9% if all incandescent bulbs were replaced with CFLs. Even householders making extensive use of efficient lighting technologies expressed concerns about these technologies' performance, but seemed willing to tolerate perceived shortcomings for environmental reasons. However, the study raises questions about whether people without strong environmental motivations can be convinced that efficient lighting technologies will meet their needs. It also raises questions about the effectiveness of policies phasing out general lighting service incandescent bulbs, as there is a risk that householders may switch to tungsten halogen bulbs rather than low-energy optionss rather than low-energy options

118

Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

McNeill Ann

2009-10-01

119

CCR5 Antagonism by Maraviroc Reduces the Potential for Gastric Cancer Cell Dissemination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) that belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors is exploited by macrophage tropic (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to enter cells. Maraviroc, a small molecule CCR antagonist, is used as a part of combination antiretroviral therapy to treat persons infected by R5 HIV-1. CCR5 is expressed in various cancers, and its level of expression is a negative predictor of patients' survival in gastric cancers. Here, we report MKN45, MKN74, and KATOIII cells, three human gastric cancer cell lines with different stages of differentiation, which express CCR5 as detected by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and its ligand RANTES. In vitro experiments demonstrate that CCR5 antagonism reduces gastric cancer cell migration induced by macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), MIP-1?, and RANTES and adhesion to the ex-planted murine peritoneum. Administration of maraviroc from days 3 to 10 after MKN45 cell inoculation to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice effectively reduced the extent of peritoneal disease and increased survival. Maraviroc treatment also reduced the tumor burden in a xenograft model. Gene expression and RT-PCR analyses revealed that CCR5 antagonism in vivo modulates the expression of genes known for their role in cancer growth including interleukin-10 receptor B; hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET); the homolog of the atypical cadherin gene, FAT1; Nm23-H1; and lymphotoxin ? receptor. In summary, we have shown that CCR5 is mechanistically involved in dissemination of gastric cancer cells, suggesting that small molecule inhibitors of CCR5 might be exploited for their anticancer potential. PMID:24466382

Mencarelli, Andrea; Graziosi, Luigina; Renga, Barbara; Cipriani, Sabrina; D'Amore, Claudio; Francisci, Daniela; Bruno, Angela; Baldelli, Franco; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

2013-12-01

120

Checklist Usage as a Guidance on Read-Back Reducing the Potential Risk of Medication Error  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hospital as a last line of health services shall provide quality service and oriented on patient safety, one responsibility in preventing medication errors. Effective collaboration and communication between the profession needed to achieve patient safety. Read-back is one way of doing effective communication. Before-after study with PDCA TQM approach. The samples were on the medication chart patient medical rd rd records in the 3 week of May (before and the 3 week in July (after 2013. Treatment using the check list, asked for time 2 minutes to read-back by the doctors and nurses after the visit together. Obtained 57 samples (before and 64 samples (after. Before charging 45.54% incomplete medication chart on patient medical records that have the potential risk of medication error to 10.17% after treatment with a read back check list for 10 weeks, with 77.78% based on the achievement of the PDCA TQM approach. Checklist usage as a guidance on Read-back as an effective communication can reduce charging incompleteness drug records on medical records that have the potential risk of medication errors, 45.54% to 10.17%.

Ida Bagus N. Maharjana

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

The potential of fuelwood to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project FEEDS (Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies) has been carried out to analyze possibilities of increasing fuelwood use for five selected European countries in the year 2020, considering environmental, technical and socio-economic aspects. In this paper the effects of increased use of fuelwood on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, are presented. Achievable emission reductions in Sweden range from 6.9 to 17.2 Mt CO2 equivalents, which is equivalent to 12 and 30% of total energy-related GHG emissions in 1995. In Finland a reduction between 5.0 and 10.5 Mt (9 and 18%) is seen to be possible. For France (8.6 and 13.6 Mt; 2 and 4%), Austria (3.7 and 6.2 Mt; 6 and 10%) and Portugal (1.8 and 2.4 Mt; 4 and 6%), relative emission reductions are lower, because of the usable fuelwood potential, but also the market potential in various sectors of the economy are lower. Greatest emission reductions in 2020 are expected in the sectors of individual housing, collective housing (France, Austria and Sweden), tertiary, manufacturing and other industries (Portugal) and district heating (Finland, Sweden). The scenarios indicate that fuelwood has significant yet limited possibilities to reduce total emissions of GHG in the five countries, with the greatest relative reductions in Sweden and Finland. (author)

122

Blockade of TRPM8 activity reduces the invasion potential of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP)-channel family are expressed in cancer cells. One, cold/menthol-sensitive TRPM8, is reportedly an important player in carcinogenesis in human prostate cancer, although its involvement in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unclear. The present immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR results revealed intense TRPM8 expression in two SCC cell lines, HSC3 and HSC4, derived from the human tongue. Menthol, icilin, and a more specific TRPM8 agonist (WS-12) induced non-specific cation currents, with Ca2+ permeability being greater than that of Na+ or K+. The novel TRPM8 antagonist RQ-00203078 (RQ) profoundly reduced such agonist-induced cation currents. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging revealed that menthol induced both intracellular Ca2+ release and store-operated Ca2+ entry, with RQ inhibiting each effect. To assess the possible pathophysiological role of TRPM8 in oral SCC, we performed motility and invasion assays, and gelatin zymography. Menthol augmented the migration and invasion abilities of both HSC3 and HSC4 cells by potentiating MMP-9 activity. RQ suppressed all of these effects. These results may aid understanding of the pathophysiological implications of TRPM8 channels in the oral SCC cells, support TRP proteins as valuable targets for pharmaceutical intervention, and inform the targeting of oral SCC in which the prognosis is poor. PMID:22267123

Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Ikebe, Tetsuro; Yamazaki, Jun

2012-05-01

123

Peer abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

Müjgan

2011-03-01

124

MRT letter: high speed scanning has the potential to increase fluorescence yield and to reduce photobleaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

True confocal microscopy requires point-shaped illumination and detection. To generate an image, a diffraction limited spot is moved over the sample. Single spot scanning has suffered in the past from low image rates; a solution is the employment of very fast scanning devices (resonant scanners) for x-movement. In the process of introducing resonant scanning devices, it was found that both signal yield is improved and bleaching is decreased-in contrary to the assumed performance. This article will show by a simple and well understood model a straightforward explanation for the potential increase of signal yield and decrease in photobleaching. The time that is ruling the dose-rate effects is the effective time; a fluorochrome is illuminated. This time depends on the diameter of the spot that is moved over the sample and the speed at which the spot moves. In essence, the scan process causes a pulsed illumination of the fluorochromes. Various schemes of pulsed illumination are simulated with a fluorescence model. The model includes a dark state, where fluorochromes will exit the fluorescence process and slowly decay back into the ground state. Upon splitting a single dose into two pulses separated by a dark time-reflecting an increased scan speed-the amount of fluorescence emission is increased and bleaching is reduced. These results show a potential increase of fluorescence and a lower photobleaching upon higher scan speed. As illumination during the bleach-phase in a FRAP-experiment is similar to a light pulse, the findings also suggest to critically consider the very beginning of fluorescence recovery in terms of triplet relaxation process that potentially could falsify the measurements. PMID:16878313

Borlinghaus, Rolf T

2006-09-01

125

Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA permit comparable measures among species. We conclude that estimates of AOO based on fine-resolution distribution models are more robust tools for risk assessment than traditional systems, allowing a better understanding of species ranges at habitat level.

Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David

2012-01-01

126

78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

...whether by lifting children toward their full potential...Administration has made addressing child abuse a priority. Since...Reauthorization Act and the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act...progress in stopping child abuse and neglect....

2013-04-04

127

Outpatient drug abuse treatment for Hispanic adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to review the state of the science in evidence-based drug abuse treatments for Hispanic adolescents, highlight scientific opportunities, and offer recommendations to further the field of drug abuse treatment for this population. The article is divided into seven sections: boundaries for this review, drug abuse and associated problems, behavioral treatment, cultural issues in hispanic adolescent behavioral drug abuse treatment, pharmacological treatment, gender differences in treatment, and scientific opportunities/recommendations. Although only one treatment approach, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, has been empirically shown to be efficacious in treating Hispanic adolescent drug abusers, with some modifications other treatments may also have the potential to be efficacious with Hispanic adolescents. Family-based approaches, which typically appear to be most efficacious with adolescents in general, may also have the greatest potential to treat drug abuse in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:16765535

Szapocznik, José; Lopez, Barbara; Prado, Guillermo; Schwartz, Seth J; Pantin, Hilda

2006-09-01

128

Abuse and misuse of antidepressants  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI”) and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine”) in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous). Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and implemented. PMID:25187753

Evans, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Maria A

2014-01-01

129

Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents. PMID:11981294

Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

2002-04-01

130

Substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comorbidity of schizophrenia and substance abuse has attracted increasing attention in the past years, with multiple potential links, including genetic vulnerability, neurobiological aspects, side effects of medications, and psychosocial factors being under discussion. The link between the use of substances and the development of psychoses is demonstrated by the high prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia. Apart from alcohol misuse, substances commonly abused in this patient group...

Winklbaur, Bernadette; Ebner, Nina; Sachs, Gabriele; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele

2006-01-01

131

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

132

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

133

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

134

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

... abuse , including: Alcohol and drug abuse Family troubles Poverty Abusers sometimes have a history of physical or ... for sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis and HIV, and pregnancy in females. These tests can help ...

135

Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors)

136

A survey of teaching and implementation: the veterinarian's role in recognizing and reporting abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many families seeking assistance from domestic violence agencies are known to local humane societies or animal control officials because of previous incidents of animal abuse. This is because pets are often the first victims of family disputes that erupt into violence. Analysis of domestic violence statistics indicates that veterinarians potentially treat hundreds of thousands of abused pets each year. Because veterinarians may be the first or only individuals to have access to abusive family situations, it is it important for veterinarians to be aware of potential signs of abuse of pets and their owners and to be familiar with the mechanisms for reporting suspected incidents of abuse. Thirty-one North American veterinary schools and a sample of large and small animal practitioners in Indiana were surveyed to understand to what degree current veterinary curricula prepare students to recognize abuse of animal patients and human clients and to what extent practitioners recognize and report their suspicions of abuse to appropriate authorities. The data indicate a discrepancy between beliefs about prevalence of abuse and the amount of time spent educating veterinary students to recognize and report that abuse. I hypothesize that: 1) practicing veterinarians are reluctant to report suspicions of domestic family violence directed against animals, children, or spouses for various reasons (e.g., lack of adequate training, fear of litigation, time constraints, fear that violence will escalate, belief that it is not their place to intervene, lack of contact information, fear of losing a client's business); 2) practicing veterinarians (in large and small animal practices) may not be aware that animal patients and human clients may have been abused and being unfamiliar with this diagnosis, are unfamiliar with the mechanism for reporting the abuse, especially when it involves human victims; and 3) veterinary school curricula could be modified so that veterinary students are trained to recognize human and animal abuse, thereby reducing risks to animal patients, other animals in the household, and human clients. I believe that recognition of animal and human abuse is in line with veterinarians' responsibilities to protect animal health, relieve animal suffering, and promote public health. PMID:10434967

Landau, R E

1999-08-01

137

Reducing the potential for conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sources of potential conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities are identified and analyzed. Programs and policies are suggested that could reduce conflict over the siting and operation of such facilities

138

The Potential of Vegetation in Reducing Summer Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of trees and other vegetation to reduce building cooling loads has been recorded in a number of studies but the meso- and microclimate changes producing such savings are not well understood. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to model the effects of landscaping on temperature, humidity, windspeed and solar gain in urban climates using information from existing agricultural and meteorological studies, with particular attention placed on quantifying the effects of plant evapotranspiration. The climate model is then used in conjunction with the DOE-2.1C building simulation program to calculate the net reductions in air-conditioning requirements due to trees and other vegetation.Preliminary results show that an additional 25% increase in the urban tree cover can save 40% of the annual cooling energy use of an average house in Sacramento, and 25% in Phoenix and Lake Charles. If this additional tree cover is located to optimize summer shading, the savings are further increased to more dun 50% in Sacramento and 33% in the other two cities. The calculated savings are minimal for Los Angeles because the base case cooling energy use is small (65 hours) on the assumption that window venting is used whenever possible in lieu of mechanical cooling. There are additional benefits in lowering peak power consumption, where the savings are as much as 34% in Sacramento, 18% in Phoenix, 22% in Lake Charles, and 44% in Los Angeles. Parametric analysis reveals that most of the savings can be attributed to the effects of increased plant evapotranspiration, and only 10% to 30% to shading. The energy penalties of reduced windspeeds are found to be small in all four locations.The preliminary results suggest that while the conservation benefits of planting trees are appreciable at the individual house level, equally dramatic savings can be realized at the urban level through modifications of the urban climate by increasing the total amount of vegetative cover. Such a conservation strategy may be elective in counteracting the summer heat island evident in cities and may improve ambient conditions as well as reduce summertime air-conditioning requirements.

Huang, Y. J.; Akbari, H.; Taha, H.; Rosenfeld, A. H.

1987-09-01

139

Increased Extinction Potential of Insular Fish Populations with Reduced Life History Variation and Low Genetic Diversity  

Science.gov (United States)

Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi), show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species. PMID:25409501

Hellmair, Michael; Kinziger, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

140

Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ? From 1990 to 2008, CO2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ? Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ? The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ? The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ? Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

 
 
 
 
141

Reduced oral ethanol avoidance in mice lacking transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol is a known oral trigeminal stimulant and recent data indicate that these effects are mediated in part by transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). The importance of this receptor in orally mediated ethanol avoidance is presently unknown. Here, we compared orosensory responding to ethanol in TRPV1-deficient and wild type mice in a brief-access paradigm that assesses orosensory influences by measuring immediate licking responses to small stimulus volumes. TRPV1(-/-) and control mice were tested with six concentrations of ethanol (3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 40%), capsaicin (0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mM), sucrose (0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 M), and quinine (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mM) and psychophysical concentration-response functions were generated for each genotype and stimulus. TRPV1 knockouts displayed reduced oral avoidance responses to ethanol regardless of concentration, insensitivity to capsaicin, and little to no difference in sweet or bitter taste responding relative to wild type mice. These data indicate that the TRPV1 channel plays a role in orosensory-mediated ethanol avoidance, but that other receptor mechanisms likely also contribute to aversive oral responses to alcohol. PMID:18839303

Ellingson, Jarrod M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Brasser, Susan M

2009-01-01

142

Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text. PMID:15799598

Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

2004-12-01

143

Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

Pifalo, Terry

2007-01-01

144

Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the ?13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the exception of C16 saturated and a C16 monounsaturated PLFAs in one live microcosm which showed >2 ‰ and >10 ‰ enrichment, respectively, compared to the average ?13C values of the same PLFA in the 13C Killed controlled replicates. Therefore the uptake of CO had minimal effect on the overall biomass and community composition in the system. The 13C labelled bicarbonate anaerobic microcosm experiments showed little to no methane production. The methane detected in the 13C labelled Live experiments were not isotopically enriched in 13C compared to the CH4 in the labelled Killed controlled replicates. Therefore bicarbonate was not used as a substrate for microbial methanogenesis via the CO2 reduction pathway. These results are generally consistent with genomic and metagenomic data, which discovered the potential for a carbon fixation pathway involving carbon monoxide, but little evidence for archaea or methanogenesis in the ultra-basic springs in the Tablelands (Brazelton et al., 2012). Reference: Brazelton WJ, Nelson B, & Schrenk MO (2012) Frontiers in Microbiology 2:1-16.

Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

2013-12-01

145

Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

2012-03-01

146

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration  

Science.gov (United States)

... that reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. For more information about SAMHSA's FY 2015 budget, ... Social Media Connect with SAMHSA Social Media Accounts Resources for ...

147

A case of drug abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.

Matteo Pacini

2013-01-01

148

Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH, were detected in tap water from one sampling point at concentrations of 1.61 and 0.29ngL(-1), respectively. The preliminary human health risk characterization showed that no toxic effects could be expected at the detected concentration level in tap water. The screening level risk assessment showed that MOR, EDDP and the THC metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were present in at least one of the sampling sites in a concentration leading to a Hazard Quotient (HQ) value between 1.0 and 10.0, thus indicating some possible adverse effects. The cumulative HQ or Toxic units (TUs) calculated for each of the groups studied showed that opioids and cannabinoids were present at concentrations high enough to potentially generate some adverse effects on at least one sampling point. PMID:24908641

Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

2014-09-01

149

Low voltage limiters reduce dangerous potential differences; Niederspannungsbegrenzer senken Beruehrungsspannungen. Neue Schutzkonzepte moeglich  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It operation of DC railway systems can occur dangerous potential differences due to the separated earthing systems. All this leads to endangering of persons and has to be avoided by the use of the new developed low voltage limiters. (orig.)

Bluem, K. [Vertrieb Hochspannungsprodukte, ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany)

2006-08-28

150

DRUG ABUSE BY THE TEENAGERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in thecrime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impairjudgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assaultand impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability,addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.With most drug users being in the productive age group of 18-35 years, the loss in terms ofhuman potential is incalculable.

G.S.VENUMADHAVA

2013-05-01

151

Reducing methane emissions from coal mines in China: the potential for coalbed methane development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China`s coalbed methane resources and opportunities for coalbed methane recovery and utilization are assessed. The report also includes an examination of the potential role of coalbed methane in China`s energy economy, and profiles of selected regions with strong coalbed methane potential. It describes the technological advances and experience in coalbed methane development in selected countries which can be considered by the Chinese. Policies to encourage coalbed methane development in China are also discussed.

Sun Maoyuan; Huang Shengchu; Zhu Chao; Li Hongye; Gao Quinchen; Kruger, D.W.; Pilcher, R.C.; Bibler, C.; Lottman-Craigg, L.; Marshall, J.S. [China Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse, Beijing (China)

1995-10-01

152

BIOPULPING AND ITS POTENTIAL TO REDUCE EFFLUENT LOADS FROM BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixed hardwood chips were treated with lignin-degrading fungi to study the effect of fungal pretreatment on bleaching characteristics of kraft pulp. Pretreated wood chips were subjected to reduced active alkali doses in comparison to untreated chips. Comparable results were obtained for pretreated chips with reduced alkali dose as was obtained with higher dose of alkali in case of untreated chips. Fungal treatment made the process more energy-efficient, and 4.8% less chlorine was consumed in comparison to the control process. Pretreatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was responsible for reduction of 4.7% in lignin contents, 14.3% permanganate number, and overall reduction of 15.5 kg/T of Cl2 consumption. The pollution load in terms of COD and BOD at the CD stage was reduced by 32.6% and 41.5% respectively, whereas 12% reduction in AOX compounds was observed in effluent of pretreated pulp.

Ravi Dutt Yadav

2010-02-01

153

Social and legal factors related to drug abuse in the United States and Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is an overview of social and legal differences in the United States and in Japan that are related to patterns of current drug abuse epidemics in these countries. These two nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and take different approaches currently to handling illicit drug marketing and use. Histories of opiate and cocaine abuse in the United States and of stimulant and inhalant abuse in Japan are discussed. The United States has experienced three heroin epidemics in the last three decades; cocaine addiction began to merit national concern by the end of the 1980s. In Japan, the first methamphetamine epidemic began after World War II; it was controlled in the 1950s. The current inhalant epidemic began in the late 1960s and was followed by the second methamphetamine epidemic that began in 1970; both are continuing to the present. The criminal justice system is always given first consideration when assessing societal measures employed to reduce drug use. Legal penalties for illicit drug offenses reflect the societal differences of these two nations with respect to the seriousness of particular types of crimes. Characteristics of the health care system of a nation may also influence patterns of drug abuse, particularly where functions of criminal justice and health care systems overlap. Health care systems in the United States and in Japan are based on different treatment philosophies and patients' expectations; these differences are discussed along with explanations of their potential influence on the epidemiology of drug abuse. PMID:7800780

Greberman, S B; Wada, K

1994-01-01

154

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

155

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

Evrim Aktepe

2009-01-01

156

Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

2013-08-01

157

Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

158

Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

159

Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented. PMID:18344494

Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

2008-08-01

160

Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15  

Science.gov (United States)

The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

Government Accountability Office, 2007

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Identification of highly efficacious glucocorticoid receptor agonists with a potential for reduced clinical bone side effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are described. These compounds contain "diazaindole" moieties and display different transcriptional regulatory profiles in vitro and are considered "dissociated" between gene transrepression and transactivation. The lead optimization effort described in this article focused in particular on limiting the transactivation of genes which result in bone side effects and these were assessed in vitro in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, leading to the identification of (R)-18 and (R)-21. These compounds maintained anti-inflammatory activity in vivo in collagen induced arthritis studies in mouse but had reduced effects on bone relevant parameters compared to the widely used synthetic glucocorticoid prednisolone 2 in vivo. To our knowledge, we are the first to report on selective glucocorticoid ligands with reduced bone loss in a preclinical in vivo model. PMID:24506830

Harcken, Christian; Riether, Doris; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; Betageri, Raj; Ralph, Mark; Emmanuel, Michel; Reeves, Jonathan T; Berry, Angela; Souza, Donald; Nelson, Richard M; Kukulka, Alison; Fadra, Tazmeen N; Zuvela-Jelaska, Ljiljana; Dinallo, Roger; Bentzien, Jörg; Nabozny, Gerald H; Thomson, David S

2014-02-27

162

Vitamin E blended UHMWPE has the potential to reduce bacterial adhesive ability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomaterial-associated infection (BAI), a clinical significant problem often resulting in the implant septic failure, is initiated by the bacterial adhesion, mainly by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the material of choice in total joint replacement for many years; reducing the adhesion of S. epidermidis to the polymer could be a means to decrease infection. This interdisciplinary study examined the adhesion of 2 ATCC and one clinical str...

Cuffini, Annamaria; Costa, Luigi; Boffano, Michele; Brach Del Prever, Elena Maria; Banche, Giuliana; Bracco, Pierangiola; Bistolfi, Alessandro; Allizond, Valeria

2011-01-01

163

Influences on youthful driving behavior and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an organized, comprehensive view of the factors known to influence young drivers' behavior and how those factors might inform interventions to reduce crashes. This effort was done from the perspective of a public health professional, with a background in health behavior and health education, interested in preventing injury and death among young people from motor vehicle crashes. The author's own studies, selected relevant literature, observation, and experience were consid...

Shope, J. T.

2006-01-01

164

The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

2014-02-11

165

Controversies and challenges of ritual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children who have survived ritual abuse have endured physical, psychological, and sexual trauma; brain-washing; and mind-altering drugs. Their trust in adults has been eroded. Their coping strategies include anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation. Although reports of ritual abuse initially seem hard to believe, nurses have a responsibility to detect clues to abuse, diagnose the child's responses, and recognize controversial issues regarding ritual abuse. To evaluate ritual abuse, nurses should avoid interview strategies that influence the child's recall (e.g., coaching, suggestions) and recognize that some reports are discounted as false memories because they emerge from fantasy, distortions, innocent deceptions, false beliefs, lies, or adult coaching. Nurses play an important role in case finding and treatment. They can evaluate clues to ritual abuse to reduce sources of error in assessment, build a child's trust, monitor their own attitudes toward ritual abuse, and intervene to increase self-esteem, empathy, boundary establishment, and coping. Nurses have an important opportunity to detect and begin healing the wounds caused by a child's abuse. PMID:11105292

Valente, S

2000-11-01

166

Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress : 5 year follow-up of a randomized trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points as repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress was found between groups at 1 and 5 year follow-up. Difference in trajectories was found for the two groups (time*treatment group interaction, CR-PTSD, P = 0.012 and GSI, P = 0.021). Level of PTSD symptoms on the CR-PTSD was validated at 5 year follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, ?2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch.

Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids

167

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

168

Prevent Child Abuse America  

Science.gov (United States)

... the important work done by Grandparen?ts! Prevent Child Abuse America, founded in 1972 in Chicago, works to ... Mission Want to find out more about Prevent Child Abuse America? Learn about our mission and our organization . ?? ? ...

169

Child abuse - physical  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical child abuse or non-accidental child trauma refers to fractures and other signs of injury that occur when a ... is hurt in anger. The physical signs of child abuse used to be called battered child syndrome. This ...

170

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

171

Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

172

Potential reconstruction from R-matrix resonance positions and reduced widths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first example is given of numerical reconstruction of the potential shape from the spectral data in the frame of the R-matrix scattering theory using the Bargmann-type analytical solutions. A simple multi-channel model of the inverse problem is proposed for the investigating the convergence of reconstruction procedure for the interaction matrix, which couples the channels. 8 refs.; 5 figs

173

Bruising, coagulation disorder, and physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child protection is a priority, and the medical community has a responsibility to detect cases of abuse and to intervene using the appropriate measures. Bruises are the most common manifestation of physical abuse, although their interpretation can be extremely challenging for paediatricians as the evidence base is limited. As a history of abuse is a strong risk factor for further non-accidental injury, a correct diagnosis is vital. Clearly, the diagnostic process must determine whether an underlying coagulation disorder exists. It is important to realize, however, that the presence of a coagulation deficit does not necessarily exclude abuse. A growing body of evidence suggests that the practice of estimating bruise age is unreliable; therefore, a key factor in diagnosing abuse is the pattern of bruise distribution, which must be linked to the child's history and stage of development. The paediatrician must also consider the combined probabilities of individual bruises being due to abuse. Our scoring system, which uses a Bayesian approach to evaluate these probabilities and assess bruising patterns, is a potentially useful tool for discriminating between abused and non-abused children. We recommend that paediatricians and haematologists should work together to reach a diagnostic consensus that is acceptable in both the clinic and a court of law. PMID:15166933

Sibert, Jo

2004-05-01

174

Potentiation of left ventricular function at a reduced exercise level: Assessment by radionuclide ventriculography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many patients can't maintain peak workload (P) for prolonged imaging. The authors evaluated the effect of a reduced workload following maximal supine bicycle exercise on left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion in 16 pts. with CAD (?50% stenosis in ?1 major coronary artery) and 9 normals who underwent symptom-limited RVG. After acquisition of resting and maximal exercise LAO views, the pts. exercise level was decreased to 60% of the peak workload achieved. A repeat LAO view was then obtained at the reduced workload (post peak) (PP) 4-8 min. after the P. A significant increase in ejection fraction from Peak to PP was seen in the entire patient group, from 62-66% (p<.005). Pts. with CAD increased from 58% to 62% (p<.01), while normals tended to increase from 69% to 73% (p=.16). PP wall motion also tended to improve compared with Peak wall motion in 12 cases studied. PPEF-PEF was not significantly different between patients with CAD and normals. The PPEF-rest EF difference (PPEF-REF) was significantly different at 13.8 in normals and 7 in pts. with CAD (p<.015). The Peak EF-rest EF difference (PEF-REF) was 9.8 in normals and 2.3 in pts. with CAD (p<.02). PPEF-REF, PEF-REF, and the presence of CAD wre correlated with Peak exercise level in watts (r=.56-.68; p=<.03). Thus, the PPEF-REF and PEF-REF were related to both exercise level and presence of CAD in this series. Improved EF occurs with PP workloads in pts. with CAD and tends to occur in normals. Wall motion also tends to improve in both groups. These occurrences must be considered in interpreting RVGs obtained at reduced workloads after Peak exercise has been achieved

175

Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.  

Science.gov (United States)

From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

Kosberg, Jordan I

2014-01-01

176

The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

177

A dipole polarizable potential for reduced and doped CeO{sub 2} obtained from first principles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO{sub 2}. We use a dipole polarizable potential (DIPPIM: the dipole polarizable ion model) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of density functional theory calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO{sub 2} and by comparing them against experimental values. The values for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) are within 10-15% of the experimental ones, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic scale properties of CeO{sub 2} in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size limitations.

Burbano, Mario; Watson, Graeme W [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Marrocchelli, Dario; Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Tuller, Harry L [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Norberg, Stefan T [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Hull, Stephen [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Madden, Paul A, E-mail: dmarrocc@mit.edu, E-mail: watsong@tcd.ie [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

2011-06-29

178

Statins can be the potential therapeutic agents for reducing infection evoked cholangiopathy after liver transplantation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Biliary infection, including bacteria and cytomegalovirus (CMV), can induce inflammatory response and lead to bile duct damage after liver transplantation. This process may involve a major class of pattern recognition receptors-TLRs (Toll-like receptors). Stimulation of these receptors by pathogens (CMV, bacteria, etc.) in bile duct can induce the secretion of a series of cytokines/chemokines mainly via a TLR-2/4-MyD88-dependent pathway. Strategies for prevention and treatment of biliary infection, such as selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and preemptive therapy with gancyclovir and antibiotics are not so satisfactory. Statin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, have special anti-inflammatory abilities. They can inhibit the expression of TLR-4 and TLR-2, and block the signaling pathways of LPS (TLR-2/4), virus-encoded envelope proteins (TLR-2) and HSP70 (TLR-2/4), This process can lead to a reduction of effector cytokines/chemokines. In addition, statins can suppress the replication of CMV by reducing NF-kappaB binding activity. We hypothesized that statins can be useful for reducing infection evoked cholangiopathy after liver transplantation. We provide reliable evidence supporting the hypothesis and offer proposals for future application. PMID:17681704

Wu, Jian; Yu, Pengfei; Hu, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shusen

2008-01-01

179

Reduced and oxidised scytonemin: theoretical protocol for Raman spectroscopic identification of potential key biomolecules for astrobiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scytonemin is an important UV-radiation protective biomolecule synthesised by extremophilic cyanobacteria in stressed terrestrial environments. Scytonemin and its reduced form have been both isolated experimentally and the Raman spectrum for scytonemin has been assigned and characterised experimentally both in extracts and in living extremophilic cyanobacterial colonies. Scytonemin is recognised as a key biomarker molecule for terrestrial organisms in stressed environments. We propose a new, theoretically plausible structure for oxidised scytonemin which has not been mentioned in the literature hitherto. DFT calculations for scytonemin, reduced scytonemin and the new structure modelled and proposed for oxidised scytonemin are reported along with their Raman spectroscopic data and ?max UV-absorption data obtained theoretically. Comparison of the vibrational spectroscopic assignments allows the three forms of scytonemin to be detected and identified and assist not only in the clarification of the major features in the experimentally observed Raman spectral data for the parent scytonemin but also support a protocol proposed for their analytical discrimination. The results of this study provide a basis for the search for molecules of this type in future astrobiological missions of exploration and the search for extinct and extant life terrestrially. PMID:23981417

Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G M

2014-01-01

180

A constrained reduced-dimensionality search algorithm to follow chemical reactions on potential energy surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A constrained reduced-dimensionality algorithm can be used to efficiently locate transition states and products in reactions involving conformational changes. The search path (SP) is constructed stepwise from linear combinations of a small set of manually chosen internal coordinates, namely the predictors. The majority of the internal coordinates, the correctors, are optimized at every step of the SP to minimize the total energy of the system so that the path becomes a minimum energy path connecting products and transition states with the reactants. Problems arise when the set of predictors needs to include weak coordinates, for example, dihedral angles, as well as strong ones such as bond distances. Two principal constraining methods for the weak coordinates are proposed to mend this situation: static and dynamic constraints. Dynamic constraints are automatically activated and revoked depending on the state of the weak coordinates among the predictors, while static ones require preset control factors and act permanently. All these methods enable the successful application (4 reactions are presented involving cyclohexane, alanine dipeptide, trimethylsulfonium chloride, and azafulvene) of the reduced dimensionality method to reactions where the reaction path covers large conformational changes in addition to the formation/breaking of chemical bonds. Dynamic constraints are found to be the most efficient method as they require neither additional information about the geometry of the transition state nor fine tuning of control parameters.

Lankau, Timm; Yu, Chin-Hui

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?; Süleyman Gören

2007-01-01

182

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?

2007-01-01

183

Use of different organic wastes in reducing the potential leaching of propanil, isoxaben, cadusafos and pencycuron through the soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examined the effect of four different organic wastes (OW)-composted sheep manure (CSM), spent coffee grounds (SCG), composted pine bark (CPB) and coir (CR)-on the potential groundwater pollution of propanil and isoxaben (herbicides), cadusafos (insecticide) and pencycuron (fungicide) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, leaching studies were conducted using disturbed soil columns filled with a clay loam soil (Hipercalcic calcisol). The addition of organic matter (OM) drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of agro-industrial and composted OW in reducing the groundwater pollution by pesticide drainage. PMID:24901963

Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Vela, Nuria; Navarro, Simón

2014-01-01

184

Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection is driven by competition for mates, and the advantage of a competitor is determined by the number of offspring it produces. Early experiments by Angus Bateman characterized this interaction, and the quantitative relationship between a male's number of mates and number of offspring is known as the Bateman slope. Sexual dimorphism, one of the most obvious results of sexual selection, largely requires a positive Bateman relationship, and the slope provides an estimate of the potential for sexual selection. However, natural selection from the environment can also influence male success, as can random effects, and some have argued for inclusion of the latter in calculations of mate success. Data from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) reveal the presence of a positive Bateman slope in each year of a 10-year study. We found no evidence that random effects skewed male mating success; however, substantial yearly variation in the Bateman slope due to predation on fawns was evident. These results support the validity of the Bateman relationship, yet they also demonstrate that environmental or extrinsic influences can limit the potential for sexual selection. PMID:23139332

Byers, John; Dunn, Stacey

2012-11-01

185

GHRH antagonists reduce the invasive and metastatic potential of human cancer cell lines in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of a GHRH antagonist, MIA-602on the metastatic cascade in vitro of three human cancers, DBTRG-05 glioblastoma, MDA-MB-468 estrogen-independent breast, and ES-2 clear cell ovarian cancer. GHRH receptors and their main splice variant, SV1 were detected on all three cell lines. After treatment with MIA-602, the cell viability decreased significantly, significant inhibition of cell invasion was observed and the release of MMPs was significantly decreased. The attachment of cancer cells to fibronectin and matrigel was severely hindered. Wound-healing experiments demonstrated a reduced cellular motility in all three cell lines. The upregulation of caveolin-1 and E-cadherin,and thepowerful downregulation of NF-kappaB and beta-catenin was detected. Our study suggests that the clinical application of highly potent GHRH antagonists in cancer therapy would be desirable since they inhibit proliferation and metastasis development as well. PMID:20064686

Bellyei, Szabolcs; Schally, Andrew V; Zarandi, Marta; Varga, Jozsef L; Vidaurre, Irving; Pozsgai, Eva

2010-07-01

186

Reduced neophobia: a potential mechanism explaining the emergence of self-medicative behavior in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. For instance, emerging behavioral evidence suggests that ruminants self-select medicinal compounds and foods that reduce parasitic burdens. However, the mechanism/s leading to self-medicative behaviors in sick animals is still unknown. We hypothesized that when homeostasis is disturbed by a parasitic infection, consumers should respond by increasing the acceptability of novel foods relative to healthy individuals. Three groups of lambs (N=10) were dosed with 0 (Control-C), 5000 (Medium-M) and 15000 (High-H) L3 stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus. When parasites had reached the adult stage, all animals were offered novel foods and flavors in pens and then novel forages at pasture. Ingestive responses by parasitized lambs were different from non-parasitized Control animals and they varied with the type of food and flavor on offer. Parasitized lambs consumed initially more novel beet pulp and less novel beet pulp mixed with tannins than Control lambs, but the pattern reversed after 9d of exposure to these foods. Parasitized lambs ingested more novel umami-flavored food and less novel bitter-flavored food than Control lambs. When offered choices of novel unflavored and bitter-flavored foods or different forage species to graze, parasitized lambs selected a more diverse array of foods than Control lambs. Reductions in food neophobia or selection of a more diverse diet may enhance the likelihood of sick herbivores encountering novel medicinal plants and nutritious forages that contribute to restore health. PMID:24955494

Egea, A Vanina; Hall, Jeffery O; Miller, James; Spackman, Casey; Villalba, Juan J

2014-08-01

187

Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

2009-04-01

188

Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso / Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópic [...] o. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países. Abstract in english The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA), is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid recept [...] ors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

R.J., Schneider; P., Ardenghi.

2010-09-01

189

Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Catherine Stanton

2011-06-01

190

The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

Kingsley C. Anukam

2007-10-01

191

An inverse problem for reduced-encoding MRI velocimetry in potential flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a computational technique to reconstruct internal physiological flows described by sparse point-wise MRI velocity measurements. Assuming that the viscous forces in the flow are negligible, the incompressible flow field can be obtained from a velocity potential that satisfies Laplace's equation. A set of basis functions each satisfying Laplace's equation with appropriately defined boundary data is constructed using the finite-element method. An inverse problem is formulated where higher resolution boundary and internal velocity data are extracted from the point-wise MRI velocity measurements using a least-squares method. From the results we obtained with approximately 100 internal measurement points, the proposed reconstruction method is shown to be effective in filtering out the experimental noise at levels as high as 30%, while matching the reference solution within 2%. This allows the reconstruction of a high-resolution velocity field with limited MRI encoding. PMID:17271875

Raguin, L Guy; Kodali, Anil K; Rovas, Dimitrios V; Georgiadis, John G

2004-01-01

192

Potential of hybridization methods to reducing the dimensionality for multispectral biological images.  

Science.gov (United States)

We address the problem of unsupervised band reduction in multispectral imagery. We propose to use a new hybridization of dimensionality reduction method by combining two categories of bands selection method with projection method and apply it to multispectral data. The algorithm employs the concepts of fuzziness and belongingness (Fuzzy K-means) to provide a better and more adaptive clustering process. However, the Fuzzy hybridized algorithm is applicable to medical imagery. A cluster validity function associated with Bezdek's partition coefficient is employed for evaluation of the dimension reduction's performance for this multispectral data. Experiments conducted in this paper confirm the feasibility of the new hybridization for multispectral dimensionality reduction and shows the potential of the proposed approach. PMID:24111220

Khoder, Jihan; Younes, Rafic; Ben Ouezdou, Fethi

2013-01-01

193

Acute stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of ex vivo isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a) acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), and (b) that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35±13 years) were ran...

Kuebler, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H.; Sakai, Miho; Stemmer, Andreas; Ehlert, Ulrike

2013-01-01

194

Increases in soil organic carbon sequestration can reduce the global warming potential of long-term liming to permanent grassland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The application of calcium- and magnesium-rich materials to soil, known as liming, has long been a foundation of many agro-ecosystems worldwide because of its role in counteracting soil acidity. Although liming contributes to increased rates of respiration from soil thereby potentially reducing soils ability to act as a CO2 sink, the long-term effects of liming on soil organic carbon (Corg) sequestration are largely unknown. Here, using data spanning 129 years of the Park ...

2010-01-01

195

Child Abuse in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this ...

Mohammad Reza Iravani,

2011-01-01

196

Development and agronomical validation of new fertilizer compositions of high bioavailability and reduced potential nutrient losses.  

Science.gov (United States)

To optimize the economical cost of each unit of fertilizer applied and to reduce the environmental contamination caused by nutrient losses, the development of highly efficient granulated fertilizers is of great importance. This study proposes a strategy that consists of developing specific fertilizers having nutrient release patterns that are dependent on plant activity in the rhizosphere. This type of fertilizer is named "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" (RCF fertilizer). This fertilizer is based on the introduction of an organomineral matrix composed of metal [Mg (Ca is also possible), Zn (Fe and other metals are also possible)]-humic phosphates. The presence of this matrix modifies the nutrient release pattern of the fertilizer. In this way there are two main nutrient fractions: (i) a water-soluble fraction or "starter" fraction and (ii) a "rhizosphere-controlled" fraction insoluble in water but soluble by the action of the rhizospheric acids released by plants and microorganisms. This study shows the chemical and structural characterization of the organomineral matrix, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrient release rate of the RCF fertilizer, principally with respect to P and N. It is demonstrated how these properties of the matrix were also reflected in the significant reduction in both ammonia volatilization and N leaching in a pot system consisting of wheat plants cultivated in a calcareous soil and fertilized with a RCF fertilizer. PMID:17708642

Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; San Francisco, Sara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

2007-09-19

197

UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

2014-03-01

198

Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in signficant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electroylte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1--10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subesquent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption

199

The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

200

Brain MR imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

 
 
 
 
201

Warming-induced reduced peat accrual rates and potential C losses in Northern U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Peatlands located at northern latitudes represent a sink of carbon (C) that is at risk of being lost to the atmosphere if current and expected changes in climate accelerate existing C stock decomposition rates. The extent of such potential loss is still unknown, but recent studies suggest that accrual rate of this critical C stock may be in decline due to more rapid decomposition of plant material reaching the soil. The consequences for our climate system can be significant. If large amounts of C currently ';locked' belowground in peatland ecosystems were to be decomposed and hence lost to the atmosphere, atmospheric concentration of CO2 would increase, causing further warming and hence even more rapid decomposition of peatland C. Our objective in this study is to investigate and compare past and more recent rates of C accrual in peatlands to determine if the rates of C accrual are declining. We collected intact frozen blocks of peat from three sites in Northern Minnesota and sectioned them into horizontal slices, which are being dated by 137Cs and 14C. Atmospheric concentrations of both 137Cs and 14C spiked in the 1960's due to nuclear bomb testing, leaving a ';signature' in organic matter (14C) and sediments (137Cs). The signal has steadily declined since that time. Detection of the signal in current soil samples will allow us to date the sample and consequently to measure the quantity of C accrued in the peat over various measured time intervals.

Fissore, C.; Nater, E. A.; Moskun, A.; Klein, A.; Le, T.

2013-12-01

202

Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake and qualitatively by light microscopy of histological sections. One-way analyses of variance at the 0.05 level revealed no significant difference in strontium 85 uptake of the different groups, and no qualitative differences in osteoinduction could be detected by light microscopy. Ossicles consisting of bone and bone marrow were seen in the recovered implants of all groups.

Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M

1995-01-01

203

Elucidation of bacteria found in car interiors and strategies to reduce the presence of potential pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human microbiome is influenced by a number of factors, including environmental exposure to microbes. Because many humans spend a large amount of time in built environments, it can be expected that the microbial ecology of these environments will influence the human microbiome. In an attempt to further understand the microbial ecology of built environments, the microbiota of car interiors was analyzed using culture dependent and culture independent methods. While it was found that the number and type of bacteria varied widely among the cars and sites tested, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium were nearly always the dominant genera found at the locations sampled. Because Staphylococcus is of particular concern to human health, the characteristics of this genus found in car interiors were investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and S. warnerii were the most prevalent staphylococcal species found, and 22.6% of S. aureus strains isolated from shared community vehicles were resistant to methicillin. The reduction in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in cars by using silver-based antimicrobial surface coatings was also evaluated. Coatings containing 5% silver ion additives were applied to steering wheels, placed in cars for five months and were found to eliminate the presence of culturable pathogenic bacteria recovered from these sites relative to controls. Together, these results provide new insight into the microbiota found in an important built environment, the automobile, and potential strategies for controlling the presence of human pathogens. PMID:24564823

Stephenson, Rachel E; Gutierrez, Daniel; Peters, Cindy; Nichols, Mark; Boles, Blaise R

2014-01-01

204

Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

Wodak Shoshana

2007-07-01

205

Estimating a mosquito repellent’s potential to reduce malaria in communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Probability models for assessing a mosquito repellent’s potential toreduce malaria transmission are not readily available to public health researchers. To provide ameans for estimating the epidemiological efficacy of mosquito repellents in communities, wedeveloped a simple mathematical model.Study design: A static probability model is presented to simulate malaria infection in a communityduring a single transmission season. The model includes five parameters—sporozoite rate, humaninfection rate, biting pressure, repellent efficacy, and product-acceptance rate.Interventions: The model assumes that a certain percentage of the population uses a personalmosquito repellent over the course of a seven-month transmission season and that this repellentmaintains a constant rate of protective efficacy against the bites of malaria vectors.Main outcome measures: This model measures the probability of evading malaria infection underdiverse circumstances, e.g. vector biting pressure, repellent efficacy, and product acceptance.Results & conclusion: Absolute protection using mosquito repellents alone requires high rates ofrepellent efficacy and product acceptance may vary. Using performance data from a highly effectiverepellent, the model estimates an 88.9% reduction of infections over a seven-month transmissionseason. A corresponding reduction in the incidence of super-infection in community members notcompletely evading infection can also be presumed. Thus, the model shows that mass distributionof a repellent with >98% efficacy and >98% product acceptance would suppress new malariainfections to levels lower than those achieved with insecticide treated nets (ITNs. A combinationof both interventions could create synergies that result in reductions of disease burden significantlygreater than with the use of ITNs alone.

A.E. Kiszewski, S.T. Darling

2010-12-01

206

Testosterone: use, misuse and abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone is among the oldest drugs in medicine. It has a long efficacy and safety record for its prime role of androgen replacement therapy in men with androgen deficiency. Testosterone and synthetic analogue androgens have also been used in pharmacological androgen therapy (PAT) to produce androgenic effects on marrow, muscle or bone. Although PAT is increasingly being superseded by newer, more expensive drugs, androgens remain cost-effective in many older applications. Androgen misuse is the systematic over-prescribing for unproven medical indications. Misuse is increasingly evident for male ageing ("andropause") and some other clinical conditions. Further trials for new indications for androgens require reliable safety data, but rising costs may make it increasingly attractive to circumvent the need for evidence by promoting off-label mass marketing. Androgen abuse is the illicit self-administration of often massive doses of androgens for non-medical purposes - notably power sports and body building. In parallel with effective detection reducing androgen abuse in elite sports, more focus is needed on non-sporting cosmetic, recreational and occupational androgen abuse. Despite ongoing androgen misuse and abuse, testosterone remains under-prescribed for younger men with classical androgen deficiency that frequently remains undiagnosed. PMID:17137434

Handelsman, David J

2006-10-16

207

Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

208

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

209

Detecting elder abuse and neglect: assessment and intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians. PMID:24695564

Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol

2014-03-15

210

A managed protocol for treatment of deceased potential donors reduces the incidence of cardiac arrest before organ explant  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the effect of the application of a managed protocol for the maintenance care of deceased potential multiple organ donors at two hospitals. Methods A before (Phase 1)/after (Phase 2) study conducted at two general hospitals, which included consecutively potential donors admitted to two intensive care units. In Phase 1 (16 months), the data were collected retrospectively, and the maintenance care measures of the potential donors were instituted by the intensivists. In Phase 2 (12 months), the data collection was prospective, and a managed protocol was used for maintenance care. The two phases were compared in terms of their demographic variables, physiological variables at diagnosis of brain death and the end of the process, time to performance of brain death confirmatory test and end of the process, adherence to bundles of maintenance care essential measures, losses due to cardiac arrest, family refusal, contraindications, and the conversion rate of potential into actual donors. Student's t- and chi-square tests were used, and p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results A total of 42 potential donors were identified (18 in Phase 1 and 24 in Phase 2). The time interval between the first clinical assessment and the recovery decreased in Phase 2 (Phase 1: 35.0±15.5 hours versus Phase 2: 24.6±6.2 hours; p = 0.023). Adherence increased to 10 out of the 19 essential items of maintenance care, and losses due to cardiac arrest also decreased in Phase 2 (Phase 1: 27.8 versus 0% in Phase 2; p = 0.006), while the convertion rate increased (Phase 1: 44.4 versus 75% in Phase 2; p = 0.044). The losses due to family refusal and medical contraindication did not vary. Conclusion The adoption of a managed protocol focused on the application of essential measures for the care of potential deceased donors might reduce the loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. PMID:23917929

Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Cordeiro, Rodrigo de Brito; Horner, Marina Borges W.; de Oliveira, Thamy Pellizzaro; Duarte, Robson; Sperotto, Geonice; da Silveira, Georgiana; Caldeira, Milton; Coll, Elisabeth; Yus-Teruel, Santiago

2012-01-01

211

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin

2010-01-01

212

Dose-reducing strategies in combination offers substantial potential benefits to females requiring X-ray examination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work, using an adult anthropomorphic phantom, aimed to establish an optimised technique for ladies of child-bearing age undergoing antero-posterior (AP) pelvis and AP and lateral lumbar spine examinations. Phase one of the work involved introducing the following dose-reducing measures individually: increased kVp, increased focus-film distances, a carbon fibre cassette, a faster film/screen combination. The second phase established an optimised technique based on a combination of the parameters listed above. Radiation dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters and image quality was evaluated using anatomical criteria. All dose-reducing methods were compared with a standard technique, currently being used in a Dublin hospital. The results demonstrated that the optimised procedure reduced effective dose by 77, 62 and 66% for AP pelvis and AP and lateral lumbar spine respectively (p < 0.05) compared with the standard technique, with no significant changes in image quality. Dose-reducing measures used in combination offer substantial potential for optimisation of radiological procedures. (authors)

213

Refining the picture of reduced alerting responses in ADHD - A single-trial analysis of event-related potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a reduced phasic alerting response (event-related potential component P3 to cue stimuli) has been reported for different subtypes and task types in a series of studies. In order to get a refined picture of this attentional deficit, which is based on the analysis of averaged event-related potentials, we studied the distribution of single-trial cue-P3 amplitudes and the relation between the cue-P3 and the neural state (EEG spectral analysis) when expecting the stimulus. Brain electrical activity was recorded in children of different ADHD subtypes (combined type, predominantly inattentive) and typically developing children while conducting the attention network test. In children with ADHD of the combined type, smaller cue-P3 amplitudes in the averaged signal were due to a larger portion of single trials with reduced cue-P3 amplitudes whereas maximum amplitudes did not differ from typically developing children. In this ADHD subtype, larger activity in the upper theta/lower alpha range (5.5-10.5Hz) was strongly associated with the range (difference between 0.9 quantile and 0.1 quantile) of the cue-P3 amplitude in single trials (correlation coefficient r=0.77) indicating a suboptimal neural state before stimulus presentation. In children with ADHD of the predominantly inattentive subtype, single-trial P3 amplitudes were comparable at lower quantiles but maximum amplitudes were reduced. This result pattern indicates an intact triggering of the cue-P3 but a reduced capacity of resource allocation for the predominantly inattentive subtype. Though findings are limited by a relative small sample size, the cue-P3 may be considered as a neurophysiological marker of alerting deficits in ADHD reflecting different underlying mechanisms in ADHD subtypes. PMID:25218713

Heinrich, Hartmut; Busch, Katrin; Studer, Petra; Erbe, Karlheinz; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

2014-10-17

214

Causes of Child Abuse  

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Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

S. Erhan Deveci

2003-08-01

215

SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA  

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Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

Bano Rubeena

2009-12-01

216

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

Muge Gulen

2013-06-01

217

Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design. PMID:23926908

Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

2014-01-01

218

Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises  

Science.gov (United States)

... version of this document . The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

219

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the CA1 region of hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a psychoactive drug and a putative neurotransmitter, derived from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). At micromolar concentrations GHB binds to specific high and low affinity binding sites present in discrete areas of the brain, while at millimolar concentrations GHB also binds to GABA(B) receptors. Previous studies indicated that GHB inhibits both NMDA and AMPA receptor mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This action of GHB occurs in the presence of GABA(B) blockade and is antagonized by NCS-382, a specific GHB receptor antagonist, suggesting that it is mediated by GHB receptors. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of GHB on GABA(A) mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (GABA(A)-IPSP) elicited in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons by stimulation of Schaffer collateral-commissural fibers. We observed that GHB inhibited GABA(A)-IPSPs by about 40% at concentrations of 300-600 microM. GHB inhibition was blocked by NCS-382 (500 microM), which per se failed to modify GABA(A)-IPSPs. Moreover, GHB failed to modify cell membrane depolarization induced by the brief pressure application of GABA in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that GHB does not inhibit postsynaptic GABA responses. However, GHB reduced the amplitude of GABA(A)-IPSPs elicited in pyramidal neurons by paired pulse stimulation and enhanced paired pulse facilitation with respect to control condition, suggesting that GHB reduces GABA release from nerve terminals. Finally, GHB failed to reduce the amplitude of GABA(A)-IPSPs in the presence of BaCl(2), suggesting that the effect of GHB is due to GHB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of Ca(2)+ influx. PMID:12464453

Cammalleri, Maurizio; Brancucci, Alfredo; Berton, Fulvia; Loche, Antonella; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Francesconi, Walter

2002-12-01

220

Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth  

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Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than gener...

Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

An update on zolpidem abuse and dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, the health authorities (French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety-ANSM) modified the summary of zolpidem characteristics. Particularly it now includes the sentence "a pharmacodependence may materialize." The current article aims to show that despite this modification, zolpidem continues to be associated with problematic drug use, as the official system (Center for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence-Addictovigilance network) providing information on the abuse and dependence potential of drugs informs us. The authors reviewed the literature on this topic and analyzed French data from zolpidem's postmarketing period that were collected by the Addictovigilance network from 2003 to 2010. Postmarketing data and the 30 case reports yielded from the literature review highlight a significant dependence and abuse potential for zolpidem. This survey led to propose in stronger additional rules in France to try to mitigate the abuse potential of zolpidem. PMID:24467433

Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Gérardin, Marie; Rousselet, Morgane; Guerlais, Marylène; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

2014-01-01

222

How to Handle Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... the right way to behave, and encourage the good things that kids do. Most adults treat kids well. But some adults hurt kids rather than help them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds ...

223

Emotional Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... in topics related to emotional child abuse and parent-child relationships must be undertaken. 1 Sources 1) Garbarino, J. & Garbarino, A. Emotional Maltreatment of Children. (Chicago, National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, ... Florida Center for Parent Involvement (website: http://lumpy.fmhi.usf.edu/cfsroot/ ...

224

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

225

Effects of personality and semantic content of stimuli on augmenting and reducing in the event-related potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two groups of subjects classified as high vs. low in the need for power (n power) were assessed for augmenting versus reducing in the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by neutral and power-related words. Words at four different intensity levels in each of these two classes were randomly presented and ERPs in response to each word class at each of the four intensity levels were computed from EEG recorded at Fz. The results indicated that the two groups responded differentially to the power-related vs. neutral words. HIgh n power subjects showed reduction in response to both power-related and neutral words while low n power subjects showed augmentation in response to the power-related words. PMID:7272396

Davidson, R J; Saron, C; McClelland, D C

1980-01-01

226

Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

Kate?ina Randová

2010-09-01

227

Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

2007-01-01

228

Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

229

Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 s) adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features. PMID:24971058

Vakli, Pal; Nemeth, Kornel; Zimmer, Marta; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Kovacs, Gyula

2014-01-01

230

Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 s) adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features. PMID:24971058

Vakli, Pál; Németh, Kornél; Zimmer, Márta; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

2014-01-01

231

Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 seconds adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features.

KornélNémeth

2014-06-01

232

What home healthcare nurses should know about fraud and abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Home care nurses provide a critical link in all services provided by a home health agency. This article outlines basic information nurses can use to understand fraud and abuse regulations, see the importance of corporate compliance programs, and recognize the potential impact a focus on fraud and abuse has on their practice. PMID:12917523

Michael, Janet E

2003-08-01

233

Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

2012-01-01

234

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

2009-01-01

235

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01

236

Inside the alkalinity engine: the role of electron donors in the organomineralization potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mineral precipitation in microbial mats may have been the key to their preservation as fossil stromatolites, potentially documenting evidence of the earliest life on Earth. Two factors that contribute to carbonate mineral precipitation are the saturation index (SI) and the presence of nucleation sites. Both of these can be influenced by micro-organisms, which can either alter SI through their metabolisms, or produce and consume organic substances such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that can affect nucleation. It is the balance of individual metabolisms within the mat community that determines the pH and the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, thereby potentially increasing the alkalinity and consequently the SI. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are an important component of this 'alkalinity engine.' The activity of SRB often peaks in layers where CaCO(3) precipitates, and mineral precipitation has been demonstrated in SRB cultures; however, the effect of their metabolism on the alkalinity engine and actual contribution to mineral precipitation is the subject of controversy. Here, we show through culture experiments, theoretical calculations, and geochemical modeling studies that the pH, alkalinity, and organomineralization potential will vary depending on the type of electron donor. Specifically, hydrogen and formate can increase the pH, but electron donors like lactate and ethanol, and to a lesser extent glycolate, decrease the pH. The implication of this for the lithification of mats is that the combination of processes supplying electron donors and the utilization of these compounds by SRB may be critical to promoting mineral precipitation. PMID:22925453

Gallagher, K L; Kading, T J; Braissant, O; Dupraz, C; Visscher, P T

2012-11-01

237

Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on microbial populations in the rumen indicated that 15% of Leucaena and Fliricidia; 20% of Sapindus and A. pintoi as well as 40% of S. aterrimum, affect negatively the protozoa population in the rumen. Gliricidia reduced this population from 45.71 to 2.57 x 105 cel/mL. Enterolobium, however, increased the number and activity of the cellulolytic fungus and total viable bacteria, although it did not exert defaunating effect, at least, under the experimental conditions in which the studies were conducted. The inclusion of 10 % of Tithonia decreased the methanogenic bacteria and increased the cellulolytic bacteria, but to reduce the protozoa population level of 20 % level was necessary. The defaunating effect observed with some plants could be due to that it was found a quadratic relationship between the content of condensed tannins and the population of ruminal protozoa. The results of methane production in relation to inclusion of 25% of foliages of S. saponaria, M. alba and Trichantera using P. purpureum as a pasture base, indicated that this foliages reduced methane production, significantly, in similar proportions to respect to pasture. Trichantera inhibit methane emissions in 41 % respect to Pennisetum (7,01 vs. 16.96 g/kg DM, respectively). The results suggest that the secondary compounds found in plants can to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and also reduce the methanogenic bacteria when the adequate levels in the diet are utilized. The use of tree and shrubs, as strategies of supplementation is an adequate option to reduce methane production and improve the animal nutrition of ruminants. (author)

238

Child Abuse in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2011-02-01

239

Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

2010-01-01

240

Children's Rights Regarding Physical Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sees children's rights as important arena in struggle for human dignity. Asserts that flagrant violation of rights of the child occurs when he or she is abused by a parent or caretaker. Explains children's rights with regard to physical abuse, outlines various definitions of abuse, and discusses the incidence and consequences of child abuse.…

Saidla, Debie D.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

2013-01-01

242

Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

Lampert, Jo

2012-01-01

243

Do We Really Need Another Meeting? Lessons from the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Elder abuse cases are often time consuming and complex, requiring interagency cooperation from a diverse array of professionals. Although multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) offer a potentially powerful approach to synergizing the efforts of different providers, there has been little research on elder abuse MDTs in general or elder abuse

Navarro, Adria E.; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Yonashiro, Jeanine; Homeier, Diana C.

2010-01-01

244

Clinical importance of caffeine dependence and abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. Caffeine has occasionally been considered a drug of abuse and the potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence or abuse, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition. The authors present two cases of abuse or dependence on the caffeine contained in 'eutrophic' (energy/nutritional) beverages or caffeine preparations, followed by a review of clinical studies demonstrating evidence that some people can manifest a clinical syndrome of caffeine dependence or abuse. The cases suggest that caffeine can produce a clinical dependence syndrome similar to those produced by other psychoactive substances and has a potential for abuse. In a recent study using a structured interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition criteria for substance dependence and abuse, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence or caffeine abuse. Therefore, the authors propose that companies or businesses manufacturing or marketing caffeine or products containing caffeine must meet the following guidelines: (i) clearly indicate the caffeine content of products containing comparatively higher quantities of caffeine; (ii) warn that such products should be avoided by infants and children wherever possible, and inform adult consumers about the precise quantity of caffeine that is considered safe for consumption; and (iii) clearly state that consuming large quantities of caffeine and the long-term use of caffeine carry health risks. PMID:17472594

Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

2007-06-01

245

Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

246

The potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: Buildings sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is used in buildings to provide a variety of services to users such as lighting, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and electricity for electronics and other equipment. In the US building energy consumption accounts for nearly one third of total primary energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions. The cost for these energy services, or end-uses, was over $200 billion in 1997. This paper summarizes a detailed assessment of the achievable cost-effective potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 in the US residential and commercial buildings sector based on the preliminary results of a study completed by the authors for the US Department of Energy (LBNL, ORNL, ANL, NREL, and PNNL, 1997). The authors analysis shows that substantial reductions in future greenhouse gas emissions can be realized through the use of more energy-efficient technologies and processes at a net reduction in the total cost of energy services. In an efficiency scenario, in which renewed efforts are undertaken to promote energy efficiency through enhanced public and private-sector R and D and market transformation activities, energy use drops by 1.9 quadrillion Btu (5%) from business-as-usual (BAU) levels and carbon emissions decline by 25 MtC (4%) from BAU forecasted levels. This represents a savings of $18 billion in fuel costs in 2010, which is purchased with an annualized incremental cost of $7 billion in efficiency improvements. In a high efficiency/low carbon scenario, which reflects an even greater commitment to reduce carbon emissions, results in 4.0 quads (11%) less energy use and 91 MtC (16%) fewer carbon emissions than the BAU scenario in 2010. This high efficiency/low carbon scenario represents a savings of $33 billion in fuel costs in 2010 resulting from an annualized incremental expenditure of $14 billion on efficiency improvements

247

Substance abuse, adherence with antiretroviral therapy, and clinical outcomes among HIV-infected individuals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substance abuse and addiction are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. Substance abuse is an important comorbidity that affects the delivery and outcomes of HIV medical management. In this paper I will review data examining the associations between substance abuse and HIV treatment and potential strategies to improve outcomes in this population that warrant further investigation. Current - but not past - substance abuse adversely affects engagement in care, acceptance of antiretrovir...

Lucas, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

248

Emotional event-related potentials are larger to figures than scenes but are similarly reduced by inattention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In research on event-related potentials (ERP to emotional pictures, greater attention to emotional than neutral stimuli (i.e., motivated attention is commonly indexed by two difference waves between emotional and neutral stimuli: the early posterior negativity (EPN and the late positive potential (LPP. Evidence suggests that if attention is directed away from the pictures, then the emotional effects on EPN and LPP are eliminated. However, a few studies have found residual, emotional effects on EPN and LPP. In these studies, pictures were shown at fixation, and picture composition was that of simple figures rather than that of complex scenes. Because figures elicit larger LPP than do scenes, figures might capture and hold attention more strongly than do scenes. Here, we showed negative and neutral pictures of figures and scenes and tested first, whether emotional effects are larger to figures than scenes for both EPN and LPP, and second, whether emotional effects on EPN and LPP are reduced less for unattended figures than scenes. Results Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes. When pictures were unattended, emotional effects on EPN increased for scenes but tended to decrease for figures, whereas emotional effects on LPP decreased similarly for figures and scenes. Conclusions Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes, but these effects did not resist manipulations of attention more strongly for figures than scenes. These findings imply that the emotional content captures attention more strongly for figures than scenes, but that the emotional content does not hold attention more strongly for figures than scenes.

Nordström Henrik

2012-05-01

249

The pesticide methoxychlor given orally during the perinatal/juvenile period, reduced the spermatogenic potential of males as adults by reducing their Sertoli cell number  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perinatal and juvenile oral treatment of rats with the insecticide, methoxychlor (MXC), reduced testicular size and other reproductive indices including the number of epididymal spermatozoa in those animals as adults [6]. The objective was to determine if these males exposed during development had fewer Sertoli cells which might explain these testicular effects. Rat dams were gavaged with MXC at 0, 5, 50, or 150 mg$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}\\cdot$ day$^{-1}$ for the week before and after they gave birth....

Johnson, Larry; Staub, Christophe; Silge, Robert; Harris, Martha; Chapin, Robert

2002-01-01

250

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page ... page File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & ...

251

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... aren't medically necessary . A complaint about the quality of care you got from a doctor, hospital, ... or abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can help you if ...

252

Substance Abuse/Use  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sexual Risk of HIV When One Partner Is HIV+ Substance Abuse/Use Pregnancy & Childbirth Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Blood Transfusions & Organ/Tissue Transplants Using Condoms ...

253

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can help you if you have a complaint about your quality of care . Learn about reporting fraud. Find someone ...

254

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices ... Health plan rules , current page File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices ...

255

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still have a serious problem. The drinking may cause problems at home, work, or school. It may cause you to ...

256

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medigap policies Medigap & travel Claims & Appeals File a complaint File a claim Check the status of a ... incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy ...

257

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

258

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient ...

259

Abuse during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... put you in touch with a crisis hotline, domestic violence program, legal-aid service, or a shelter or ... information Georgetown University's Maternal and Child Health Library - domestic violence and abuse information. National domestic violence hotline: (800) ...

260

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could not be ... complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud ...

 
 
 
 
261

Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

Reed, Nathaniel P.

1974-01-01

262

Post-bottleneck inbreeding accumulation reduces fitness and adaptive potential in populations of Tribolium castaneum under environmental stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study used a model organism, Tribolium castaneum, to evaluate the effect of inbreeding accumulation on additive genetic variance and fitness related traits, owing to population bottleneck events, under laboratory conditions and environmental stressors. Demographic bottlenecks were imposed on 21 populations of T. castaneum, varying in intensity and duration, for up to five generations. After recovering to original census numbers, later generations of the populations were subjected to stressful environmental conditions. A significant decrease in additive genetic variance and heritability of pupa weight was observed in all populations as a result of the bottleneck. Fitness was quantified using adult weight, total progeny, fecundity and survivorship. When the estimated inbreeding accumulation in the populations approached 40%, there was evidence for a decrease in the mean of fitness-related traits. This relationship became statistically significant when the populations were under environmental stress. Populations with increased inbreeding accumulation demonstrated decreased survival of progeny under stress. The observed decrease in heritable variation could result in reduced potential for adaptation.

A.D. Franklin

2011-03-01

263

Activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 reduces ultraviolet B-induced prostaglandin E2 production in keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a member of the TRP family, and is activated at temperatures below 22°C, or by cooling compounds such as menthol. In this study, it was found that a new role of TRPM8 activation on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an inflammatory cytokine and dendritogenesis stimulator of normal human melanocytes. Normal human keratinocytes were pretreated with menthol or incubated at 22°C for TRPM8 activation before ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. To examine the specificity between TRPM8 activation and PGE2 release, we inhibited TRPM8 with the antagonist (capsazepine), or introduced TRPM8 siRNA for a gene silencing experiment. UV-B irradiation significantly induced PGE2 release in normal human keratinocytes. Interestingly, activation of TRPM8 at 22°C or with menthol inhibited UV-B-induced PGE2 release. The effect of the TRPM8 agonist was completely blocked by pretreatment with the TRPM8 antagonist, capsazepine. When TRPM8 expression was suppressed by siRNA, UV-B irradiation still upregulated PGE2 in keratinocytes, but pretreatment of menthol or low temperature did not inhibit UV-B-induced PGE2. In conclusion, the activation of TRPM8 inhibits UV-B-induced PGE2 production in keratinocytes, and the activation of TRPM8 may reduce inflammatory responses in skin. PMID:24580132

Park, Nok-Hyun; Na, Yong-Joo; Choi, Hyang-Tae; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Hae-Kwang

2013-11-01

264

The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

265

Potential of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum to reduce radiation induced hepatic damage in male Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum on radiation-induced hepatic damage was evaluated. Rats were treated with a single dose of 600 rads (6 Gy) y-radiation to induce hepatic damage. Aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum (200 and 400 mg/kg b. wt) were administered orally to rats for two weeks prior to radiation and four weeks after radiation. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined for their antioxidant capacity. The activities of serum markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the histological changes were examined to evaluate potential ameliorative effects. Results from this study confirmed that exposure of animals to radiation led to induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activities while simultaneously a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST was observed. Administration of varying doses of P.G. and A.L. before and after irradiation inhibited the elevated levels of LPO, restored the GSH level and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. This findings demonstrated that aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum might mitigate the liver gamma-radiation-induced damage probably by increasing antioxidant activities. PMID:23033796

Nwozo, S O; Okameme, P E; Oyinloye, B E

2012-01-01

266

Physical abuse in pregnancy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal...

Stewart, D. E.; Cecutti, A.

1993-01-01

267

Drug Abuse Resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

STUDENTS NEED TO BE AWARE OF THE DANGERS OF DRUGS! The following includes helpful ways to learn about drug abuse resistance. Please finish the smoking quiz for class discussion on Friday! If parents would like a helpful resource on how to teach their children to say no to drugs and alcohol. See NIDA for Teens : The Science Behind Drug Abuse Click on the following link ...

Koyle, Mrs.

2005-03-22

268

Research design strategies to evaluate the impact of formulations on abuse liability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scheduling of a chemical drug substance under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) includes an evaluation of preclinical and clinical safety, and experimental abuse liability studies, as well as information on diversion and overdose. Formulations that mitigate abuse liability, dependence potential and public health risks (e.g., altered absorption rate and tamperability, long half-life, pro-drugs and combination products) are amenable to preclinical and clinical studies to compare their abuse potential to reference compounds. For new formulations (NF) as marketed agents, direct comparison to the immediate release (IR) formulation of the reference compound is typically needed across the full range of potential studies. While the public health advantage of formulation changes in the marketplace can be conceptualized in behavioral economic terms, generating persuasive data is challenging. Study complexity increases because of additional conditions (e.g., placebo, 2-3 doses of the IR formulation, 2-3 doses of the new formulation, and 2-3 doses of the unscheduled or negative control drug), larger sample sizes (study power driven by the comparison of the new formulation versus the IR or placebo), and associated increases in study duration. However, the use of single maximal doses of well-characterized controls can reduce the number of study arms, and using incomplete block designs can reduce study duration. Less typical experimental approaches may also be useful, such as human choice or discrimination procedures, or pre-marketing consumer studies among experienced drug tamperers. New formulations that demonstrate a substantial difference from marketed or reference products have a potential marketing advantage and should require less onerous risk management. Post-marketing epidemiological data demonstrating the lack of abuse will carry the most weight from a public health and physician perspective. PMID:16554125

McColl, Shelley; Sellers, Edward M

2006-06-01

269

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O2 and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O2 -O2 potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included

270

Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

2014-05-01

271

Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

Horton, Lowell

272

Luteolin reduces the invasive potential of malignant melanoma cells by targeting ?3 integrin and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: To investigate whether luteolin, a highly prevalent flavonoid, reverses the effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo and to determine the mechanisms underlying this reversal. Methods: Murine malignant melanoma B16F10 cells were exposed to 1% O2 for 24 h. Cellular mobility and adhesion were assessed using Boyden chamber transwell assay and cell adhesion assay, respectively. EMT-related proteins, such as E-cadherin and N-cadherin, were examined using Western blotting. Female C57BL/6 mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were injected with B16F10 cells (1×106 cells in 0.2 mL per mouse) via the lateral tail vein. The mice were treated with luteolin (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip) daily for 23 d. On the 23rd day after tumor injection, the mice were sacrificed, and the lungs were collected, and metastatic foci in the lung surfaces were photographed. Tissue sections were analyzed with immunohistochemistry and HE staining. Results: Hypoxia changed the morphology of B16F10 cells in vitro from the cobblestone-like to mesenchymal-like strips, which was accompanied by increased cellular adhesion and invasion. Luteolin (5?50 ?mol/L) suppressed the hypoxia-induced changes in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hypoxia significantly decreased the expression of E-cadherin while increased the expression of N-cadherin in the cells (indicating the occurrence of EMT-like transformation), which was reversed by luteolin (5 ?mol/L). In B16F10 cells, luteolin up-regulated E-cadherin at least partly via inhibiting the ?3 integrin/FAK signal pathway. In experimental metastasis model mice, treatment with luteolin (10 or 20 mg/kg) reduced metastatic colonization in the lungs by 50%. Furthermore, the treatment increased the expression of E-cadherin while reduced the expression of vimentin and ?3 integrin in the tumor tissues. Conclusion: Luteolin inhibits the hypoxia-induced EMT in malignant melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via the regulation of ?3 integrin, suggesting that luteolin may be applied as a potential anticancer chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:22983392

Ruan, Jun-shan; Liu, Yu-ping; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Ling-geng; Fan, Fang-tian; Shen, Cun-si; Wang, Ai-yun; Zheng, Shi-zhong; Wang, Shao-ming; Lu, Yin

2012-01-01

273

Upregulation of CRABP1 in human neuroblastoma cells overproducing the Alzheimer-typical A?42 reduces their differentiation potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurodegeneration and changes in cellular processes, including neurogenesis. Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP plays a central role in AD. Owing to varying APP processing, several ?-amyloid peptides (A? are generated. In contrast to the form with 40 amino acids (A?40, the variant with 42 amino acids (A?42 is thought to be the pathogenic form triggering the pathological cascade in AD. While total-A? effects have been studied extensively, little is known about specific genome-wide effects triggered by A?42 or A?40 derived from their direct precursor C99. Methods A combined transcriptomics/proteomics analysis was performed to measure the effects of intracellularly generated A? peptides in human neuroblastoma cells. Data was validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR and a functional validation was carried out using RNA interference. Results Here we studied the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to increased or decreased A?42 and A?40 levels generated in human neuroblastoma cells. Genome-wide expression profiles (Affymetrix and proteomic approaches were combined to analyze the cellular response to the changed A?42- and A?40-levels. The cells responded to this challenge with significant changes in their expression pattern. We identified several dysregulated genes and proteins, but only the cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1 was up-regulated exclusively in cells expressing an increased A?42/A?40 ratio. This consequently reduced all-trans retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation, validated by CRABP1 knock down, which led to recovery of the cellular response to RA treatment and cellular sprouting under physiological RA concentrations. Importantly, this effect was specific to the AD typical increase in the A?42/A?40 ratio, whereas a decreased ratio did not result in up-regulation of CRABP1. Conclusion We conclude that increasing the A?42/A?40 ratio up-regulates CRABP1, which in turn reduces the differentiation potential of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, but increases cell proliferation. This work might contribute to the better understanding of AD neurogenesis, currently a controversial topic.

Weninger Annette

2008-12-01

274

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized effectiveness trial of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) for physically abused youth (mean age = 13.88 years, 55.8% female, 68.6% Black) and their families. Eighty-six families being followed by Child Protective Services due to physical abuse were randomly assigned to MST-CAN or Enhanced Outpatient Treatment (EOT), with both interventions delivered by therapists employed at a community mental health center. Across five assessments extending 16 months post baseline, intent-to-treat analyses showed that MST-CAN was significantly more effective than EOT in reducing youth mental health symptoms, parent emotional distress, parenting behaviors associated with maltreatment, youth out-of-home placements, and changes in youth placement. Also, MST-CAN was significantly more effective at improving natural social support for parents. Effect sizes were in the medium to large range for most outcomes examined. Although fewer children in the MST-CAN condition experienced an incident of reabuse than did counterparts in the EOT condition, base rates were low and this difference was not statistically significant. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential for broad-based treatments of child physical abuse to be effectively transported and implemented in community treatment settings. PMID:20731496

Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Faldowski, Richard; Mayhew, Amy Marie

2010-01-01

275

Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

276

Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

Samuel J. G. Cooper

2013-06-01

277

The potential benefit of swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce swallowing dysfunction: An in silico planning comparative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To apply recently developed predictive models for swallowing dysfunction to compare the predicted probabilities of swallowing dysfunction for standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (ST-IMRT) and swallowing sparing IMRT (SW-IMRT). Materials and methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients who previously underwent radiotherapy for the bilateral neck were selected for this study. For each patient, ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were created. ST-IMRT treatment plan optimisation aimed at obtaining adequate target volume coverage and sparing of the parotid and submandibular glands as much as possible. Objectives for SW-IMRT were similar, with additional objectives to spare the organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SWOARs). Dose-volume data with ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT and normal tissue complication probabilities for physician-rated and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated with recently developed predictive models. Results: All plans had adequate target volume coverage and dose to critical organs was within accepted limits. Sparing of parotid glands was similar for ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT. With SW-IMRT, the mean dose to the various SWOARs was reduced. Absolute dose values and dose reductions with SW-IMRT differed per patient and per SWOAR and depended on N stage and tumour location. The mean reduction in predicted physician-rated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was G) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was 9% (range, 3–20%). Mean reductions of the probability of patient-rated moderate to severe complaints with regard to the swallowing of solid food, soft food, liquid food and choking when swallowing were 8%, 2%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Conclusions: New predictive models for swallowing dysfunction were applied to show potential reductions in physician and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction with IMRT that was specifically optimised to spare SWOARs.

278

Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-01-01

279

Emerging drugs of abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:24275167

Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

2014-02-01

280

Potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying / Potencial de adjuvantes para redução da deriva em pulverizações agrícolas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A redução da deriva das pulverizações agrícolas continua sendo um dos maiores desafios da agricultura brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de adjuvantes dos grupos surfatantes, redutores de deriva, óleos minerais e óleos vegetais para a redução da deriva em pulverizações agr [...] ícolas. O experimento quantificou a deriva de pulverizações realizadas com 18 adjuvantes em diferentes concentrações, em solução aquosa, sob condições controladas em túnel de vento. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicatas, com pontas de pulverização Teejet XR8003 VK, pressão de 200 kPa e gotas médias. As soluções pulverizadas foram marcadas com corante Azul Brilhante a 0,6% (m v-1). A deriva foi coletada por meio de fios de polietileno posicionados transversalmente ao fluxo de ar, a diferentes distâncias da ponta e alturas do piso do túnel. A solução de lavagem de cada fio foi processada por meio de espectrofotometria para a quantificação dos depósitos. Os adjuvantes dos grupos funcionais óleos minerais e redutores de deriva proporcionaram valores menores de deriva em comparação com os surfatantes e a água. Os resultados de laboratório indicam que a seleção de produtos e de concentrações adequadas pode reduzir significativamente o risco de deriva nas pulverizações agrícolas. Entretanto, os melhores resultados obtidos em laboratório deverão ser validados com os produtos que irão constituir as caldas de pulverização em condições de campo no futuro. Abstract in english The reduction of pesticide spraying drift is still one of the major challenges in Brazilian agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of different adjuvant products, such as surfactants, drift retardants, mineral oil and vegetable oil for reducing drift in agricultural sprayin [...] g. The experiment consisted of quantifying drift of sprayings of 18 adjuvants dissolved in water under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Tests were performed in triplicates with spraying nozzles type Teejet XR8003 VK, pressure of 200kPa and medium drops. Solutions sprayed were marked with Brilliant Blue dye at 0.6% (m v-1). The drift was collected using polyethylene strips transversally fixed along the tunnel at different distances from the nozzle and different heights from the bottom part of the tunnel. Drift deposits were evaluated by spectrophotometry in order to quantify deposits. The adjuvants from chemical groups of mineral oil and drift retardant resulted in lower values of drift in comparison with surfactants and water. The results obtained in laboratory show that the selection of appropriate class and concentration of adjuvants can significantly decrease the risk of drift in agricultural spraying. However, the best results obtained in laboratory should be validated with pesticide under field conditions in the future.

Rone B. de, Oliveira; Ulisses R., Antuniassi; Alisson A. B., Mota; Rodolfo G., Chechetto.

 
 
 
 
281

Potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying / Potencial de adjuvantes para redução da deriva em pulverizações agrícolas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A redução da deriva das pulverizações agrícolas continua sendo um dos maiores desafios da agricultura brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de adjuvantes dos grupos surfatantes, redutores de deriva, óleos minerais e óleos vegetais para a redução da deriva em pulverizações agr [...] ícolas. O experimento quantificou a deriva de pulverizações realizadas com 18 adjuvantes em diferentes concentrações, em solução aquosa, sob condições controladas em túnel de vento. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicatas, com pontas de pulverização Teejet XR8003 VK, pressão de 200 kPa e gotas médias. As soluções pulverizadas foram marcadas com corante Azul Brilhante a 0,6% (m v-1). A deriva foi coletada por meio de fios de polietileno posicionados transversalmente ao fluxo de ar, a diferentes distâncias da ponta e alturas do piso do túnel. A solução de lavagem de cada fio foi processada por meio de espectrofotometria para a quantificação dos depósitos. Os adjuvantes dos grupos funcionais óleos minerais e redutores de deriva proporcionaram valores menores de deriva em comparação com os surfatantes e a água. Os resultados de laboratório indicam que a seleção de produtos e de concentrações adequadas pode reduzir significativamente o risco de deriva nas pulverizações agrícolas. Entretanto, os melhores resultados obtidos em laboratório deverão ser validados com os produtos que irão constituir as caldas de pulverização em condições de campo no futuro. Abstract in english The reduction of pesticide spraying drift is still one of the major challenges in Brazilian agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of different adjuvant products, such as surfactants, drift retardants, mineral oil and vegetable oil for reducing drift in agricultural sprayin [...] g. The experiment consisted of quantifying drift of sprayings of 18 adjuvants dissolved in water under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Tests were performed in triplicates with spraying nozzles type Teejet XR8003 VK, pressure of 200kPa and medium drops. Solutions sprayed were marked with Brilliant Blue dye at 0.6% (m v-1). The drift was collected using polyethylene strips transversally fixed along the tunnel at different distances from the nozzle and different heights from the bottom part of the tunnel. Drift deposits were evaluated by spectrophotometry in order to quantify deposits. The adjuvants from chemical groups of mineral oil and drift retardant resulted in lower values of drift in comparison with surfactants and water. The results obtained in laboratory show that the selection of appropriate class and concentration of adjuvants can significantly decrease the risk of drift in agricultural spraying. However, the best results obtained in laboratory should be validated with pesticide under field conditions in the future.

Rone B. de, Oliveira; Ulisses R., Antuniassi; Alisson A. B., Mota; Rodolfo G., Chechetto.

2013-10-01

282

Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator  

Science.gov (United States)

... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Substance Abuse Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... State or Zip | Find Facilities by Name | State Substance Abuse Agencies | Frequently Asked Questions | Links | Comments or Questions | ...

283

Substance abuse in later life.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

D Archangelo, E.

1993-01-01

284

Primary Prevention of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses primary prevention of child abuse, child injury, substance abuse with children and adolescents, and school maladjustment. Describes methods of prevention research with children, action approaches to primary prevention, and a school-based divorce intervention program. (MCF)

Rosenberg, Mindy S.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

1985-01-01

285

Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

286

Inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of substance use disorders in Cape Town, substance abuse treatment utilization is low among people from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. To improve substance abuse treatment utilization, it is important to identify any potential barriers to treatment initiation so that interventions to reduce these barriers can be implemented. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization within developing countries. Using the Behavioural Model of Health Services Utilization as an analytic framework, this study aimed to redress this gap by examining whether access to substance abuse treatment is equitable and the profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for people from poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods This study used a case-control design to compare 434 individuals with substance use disorders from disadvantaged communities who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of predisposing, treatment need and enabling/restricting variables thought to be associated with treatment utilization. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the unique contribution that the need for treatment, predisposing and enabling/restricting variable blocks made on substance abuse treatment utilization. Results Findings revealed that non-need enabling/restricting variables accounted for almost equal proportions of the variance in service utilization as the need for treatment variables. These enabling/restricting variables also attenuated the influence of the treatment need and predisposing variables domains on chances of treatment utilization. Several enabling/restricting variables emerged as powerful partial predictors of utilization including competing financial priorities, geographic access barriers and awareness of treatment services. Perceived severity of drug use, a need for treatment variable was also a partial predictor of utilization. Conclusions Findings point to inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services among people from poor South African communities, with non-need factors being significant determinants of treatment utilization. In these communities, treatment utilization can be enhanced by (i expanding the existing repertoire of services to include low threshold services that target individuals with less severe problems; (ii providing food and transport vouchers as part of contingency management efforts, thereby reducing some of the financial and geographic access barriers; (iii introducing community-based mobile outpatient treatment services that are geographically accessible; and (iv employing community-based outreach workers that focus on improving awareness of where, when and how to access existing treatment services.

Louw Johann

2010-11-01

287

The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

Putnam, Frank W.

1991-01-01

288

Domestic violence and substance abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The females and children have been the victims of family violence in most societies and cultures. The use of tobacco, alcohol and narcotic drugs are responsible in aggravating the violence. Incidences of domestic violence is significantly higher in substance abusers than others. It is equally present in countries where the status of women is high. Education level and economic status does not affect the incidence of domestic violence. Therefore we must look at other factors which perpetuate domestic violence. It is time for governments, societies and thinking people to give serious thought on how to reduce domestic violence and bring sanity into the community. Tobacco, alcohol and narcotic drugs are well on their way to the 'road of destruction' and fragmentation of social fabric. The conscience of the world needs to be roused to prevent the march of substance abuse. In the words of the Nobel laureate poet Tagore, I must say, 'into that heaven of freedom my father, let my country awake'. PMID:10075209

Bhatt, R V

1998-12-01

289

Waste Management Options and Their Potential to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Lithuania and Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Master thesis connects two interrelated environmental issues – climate change and waste management. Both have been under discussion for few decades and are currently two of the top priorities on EU’s environmental agenda. The goal of this thesis is to find out in what ways waste management in Lithuania and Sweden can contribute towards reducing global warming and how the release of greenhouse gases could be reduced. Four different material flows – food, metal, plastic, and paper an...

Didjurgyte, Rasa

2013-01-01

290

Two New Case Reports of Propofol Abuse and a Pattern Analysis of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propofol has become the most widely used sedation and anesthetic drug worldwide. Previously it was thought to lack abuse and dependence potential.  Increased awareness of actual propofol abuse cases, however, is providing greater understanding of the associated (or perceived motivations and rewards of propofol abuse.  We report the details of two new propofol abuse cases including the motivations for choosing this drug, abuse practices, subjective experiences, and outcomes.  An exploration of reported objective and subjective patterns in propofol abuse case reports was conducted using a modified  process of thematic (pattern analysis. These patterns include: healthcare providers are the most frequent propofol abusers, hospital drug diversion is a primary access, abuse regimens consist of frequent injections, there often exists underlying psychological unrest, typically there is a history of prior drug and alcohol abuse, abusers are seeking relief from anxiety and stress along with restful sleep, abusers report a craving desire, death is frequently an outcome, and rehabilitation programs can be effective treatments. We conclude restrictive control of propofol is necessary to better monitor and control its abuse.

Mark D Welliver

2012-03-01

291

Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types. PMID:2212055

Turner, J A; Mayr, S

1990-07-01

292

Abuse of Mentally Retarded Persons: Characteristics of the Abused, the Abuser, and the Informer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible casues of abuse of mentally retarded persons in residential facilities are examined and a study of all reported abuse cases occurring in Alabama's residential facilities from January, 1984, to September, 1986 is reviewed. Fifty-seven confirmed cases of abuse were identified for further examination using facility records and system…

Marchetti, Allen

293

Abuse of Persons with Mental Retardation: Characteristics of the Abused, the Abusers, and the Informers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of confirmed incidents of abuse of persons with mental retardation in public residential facilities indicated that the number of confirmed incidents was relatively small; direct care staff members committed and reported most incidents; most abuse incidents occurred on the second shift; and abuse committers were more often males.…

Marchetti, Allen G.; McCartney, John R.

1990-01-01

294

Drug abuse in athletes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

Reardon CL

2014-08-01

295

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-09-01

296

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient ... website has more than 1,000 videos of family members answering real-life questions about how they cope with a spinal ...

297

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

Aleksi? Jelena

2008-01-01

298

Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

299

Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

2006-04-01

300

Perceived discrimination and early substance abuse among American Indian children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated internalizing and externalizing symptoms as potential mediators of the relationship between perceived discrimination and early substance abuse among 195 American Indian 5 through 8 graders from three reservations that share a common culture (e.g., language, spiritual beliefs, and traditional practices) in the upper Midwest. The findings indicated that, although perceived discrimination contributed significantly to internalizing symptoms among the adolescents, internalizing symptoms were unrelated to early substance abuse. Rather, the effects of perceived discrimination on early substance abuse were mediated by adolescent anger and delinquent behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the consequences of perceived discrimination on the development of American Indian early adolescents. PMID:11831140

Whitbeck, L B; Hoyt, D R; McMorris, B J; Chen, X; Stubben, J D

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

302

Correction: A reduced radial potential energy function for the halogen bond and the hydrogen bond in complexes BXY and BHX, where X and Y are halogen atoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correction for 'A reduced radial potential energy function for the halogen bond and the hydrogen bond in complexes BXY and BHX, where X and Y are halogen atoms' by Anthony C. Legon, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 12415-12421. PMID:25325573

Legon, Anthony C

2014-12-01

303

[Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many patients with chronic alcohol abuse present a clinical picture of malnourishment either because of reduced usual intake of essential nutrients or because alcohol precludes an appropriate digestion and absorption of the different essential elements, vitamins, and minerals. A usual example is vitamin A deficiency in these patients. Besides, ethanol metabolic pathways themselves (through the ADH and the MEOS system) generate toxic intermediate products (acetaldehyde, free radicals) interfering with normal metabolism of essential elements, mainly lipids, leading to cellular damage through lipid peroxidation mechanisms and impairment of the membrane fluidity, fat deposits (hepatocellular steatosis), inflammation secondary to oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, activation of stellate cells, fibrogenesis, etc. Nutritional supports may be effective to improve alcoholic liver disease. A balanced diet, vitamin supplements, and pharmacological therapy with antioxidants in order to recover depleted glutathione deposits are recommended. It is paramount that these patients have a multidisciplinary clinical approach to resolve the problem of alcohol dependency. PMID:18714405

Moreno Otero, R; Cortés, J R

2008-05-01

304

Profiles of pregabalin and gabapentin abuse by postmortem toxicology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregabalin (PRG) and gabapentin (GBP) are used in the treatment of neuropathic pain and epilepsy, and PRG also in generalized anxiety disorder. There is increasing evidence that PRG possesses considerable abuse potential. PRG may have a higher addiction potential than GBP due to its rapid absorption and faster onset of action. Our objective is to estimate the proportion of all PRG- and GBP-related fatalities attributable to PRG and GBP abuse. We investigated all medico-legal death cases in Finland in which PRG or GBP was found in postmortem toxicology during 2010-2011. PRG was found in 316 cases and GBP in 43 cases. Drug abuse was associated with 48.1% of the PRG and 18.6% of the GBP findings. PRG poisoning accounted for 10.1% of all PRG cases and GBP poisoning for 4.7% of all GBP cases. In the drug abuser cases, PRG poisoning represented 19.1%, and GBP poisoning 12.5%. The median blood concentration of PRG was 15 mg/L in the abuser group and 5.8 mg/L in the other cases. For GBP, these concentrations were 12 mg/L and 8.3mg/L, respectively. In the PRG abuser group, 91.4% of cases showed concomitant opioid use, while in the rest of these cases neither alcohol nor opioids were detected, but other central nervous system acting drugs were found in each abuser case. In the GBP abuser group, 87.5% of cases showed concomitant opioid use. PRG abuse with high doses is increasingly common and can be fatal when combined with opioids. PMID:24835028

Häkkinen, Margareeta; Vuori, Erkki; Kalso, Eija; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2014-08-01

305

Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

306

Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

Rellini, Alessandra H.

2010-01-01

307

Substance abuse in older adults: policy issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

By 2020, it is projected that the number of older adults needing treatment for drug and alcohol addictions will increase dramatically. Although Medicare covers treatment for mental health issues, copayments can be prohibitive for those with lower incomes. The Positive Aging Act, an amendment to the Public Health Service Act, is a policy alternative that could address substance abuse in the older adult population by (a) demonstrating ways of integrating mental health services for older adults into primary care settings, and (b) supporting the establishment and maintenance of interdisciplinary geriatric mental health outreach teams in community settings where older adults reside or receive social services. Increasing funding to states to emphasize primary care provider education on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of substance abuse problems of older adults has the potential to better meet the substance abuse needs of this population. Educating primary care providers, including gerontological nurses, to recognize signs of substance abuse in this population and providing age-appropriate treatment options is critically important but will require funding beyond what is currently available. PMID:22084964

Gage, Susan; Melillo, Karen Devereaux

2011-12-01

308

Prevalence of Physical and Sexual Abuse in Women and Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse and its respective factors in women and children referring to medical and health centers of Birjand county.Materials and Methods: A number of 301 women referring to medical and health centers of Birjand were entered into this analytical-descriptive study. Based on the research objectives, a self-administered questionnaire was prepared and approved in terms of content validity by experts of the field. The data were analyzed using SPSS-15, at a significance level of p ?0.05.Results: Results showed that 58.8% and 25.3% of the subjects experienced physical abuse and sexual abuse, respectively. 24.3% confirmed physical abuse and 1.7% confirmed sexual abuse of their children by their husbands. There was a significant relationship between physical and sexual abuse, and the education level, husband’s education level, addiction and commitment of husband, economical disputes, husband’s job, disputes over rearing children, mental disorders of husband, and the weakness of husband in controlling his motions (p=0.001.Conclusion: The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in women and children is relatively high, and based on the investigated related causes, it is necessary to reduce such prevalence through an appropriate planning.

Tahereh Farhadian

2012-10-01

309

Biotin Deficiency Reduces Expression of SLC19A3, a Potential Biotin Transporter, in Leukocytes from Human Blood12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate c...

Vlasova, Tatyana I.; Stratton, Shawna L.; Wells, Amanda M.; Mock, Nell I.; Mock, Donald M.

2005-01-01

310

Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with elec...

Cooper, Samuel J. G.; Joe Dowsett; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Mcmanus, Marcelle C.; Rogers, John G.

2013-01-01

311

Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

Batri?evi? Ana

2011-01-01

312

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

id and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

313

The use of filters to reduce the potential ?-energy due to radon daughters in the cabs of mining vehicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the performance of filters for use in ventilation systems and describes an experiment performed in an inactive stope in an operating uranium mine in France. A series of truck engine air filters were used, designed to remove dust in the tens of microns range with an efficiency of about 5-20. They were chosen because they were designed from the outset to operate under the conditions of shock and vibration likely to be encountered in a mine. It was concluded that the use of the Liebherr filter will reduce the working level in the machine cab by a factor of two. (U.K.)

314

Crime and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity, developed by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, asks students to use geographical information systems (GIS) to examine the correlations between crime and substance abuse. On this site, visitors will find links to the web-based GIS viewer needed to see and manipulate the data (there are links to the viewer on many servers) and to a student version of the activity which has complete instructions and questions for students to answer.

2008-08-12

315

Drug abuse in athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

2014-01-01

316

Drug abuse in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

2014-01-01

317

The potential of five winter-grown crops to reduce root-knot nematode damage and increase yield of tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel; Ploeg, Antoon

2010-06-01

318

The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself. PMID:24151325

Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

2014-02-01

319

nfluence of reducing and oxidizing compounds and of the redox potential of the medium on the biomass of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Breb.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence was investigated of several concentrations of the reducing agents: cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, pyracatechol and of the oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K4Cr2O7 and H2O2 on the total dry weight increment and that of protein with reference to redox potential changes of the medium in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures. The culture was run in a photothermostat. It was found that the reducing compounds had as a rule a stimulating influence under 24-h illumdnation, whereas the oxidilzing agents gave the same effect when a period of 7-h darkness was applied within 24 h.

Stefan Gumi?ski

1984-06-01

320

The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser

Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information. PMID:16225068

Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

2005-01-01

322

Increases in water potential gradient reduce xylem conductivity in whole plants. Evidence from a low-pressure conductivity method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method using hydrostatic suctions (less than 0.02 MPa) was used to measure whole-root conductivity (K(r)) in saplings of two angiosperm pioneer trees (Eucalyptus regnans and Toona australis) and two rainforest conifers (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides and Nageia fleurii). The resultant K(r) was combined with measurements of stem and leaf hydraulic conductivity to calculate whole-plant conductivity and to predict leaf water potential (Psi(l)) during transpiration. At normal soil temperatures there was good agreement between measured and predicted Psi(l) during transpiration in all species. Changes in the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient were produced by root chilling, and in three of the four species, changes in Psi(l) corresponded to those expected by the effect of increased water viscosity on K(r). In one species, however, root chilling produced severe plant wilting and a decline in Psi(l) significantly below the predicted value. In this species Psi(l) decreased to a value close to, or below, the Psi(l) at 50% xylem cavitation. It is concluded that decreased whole-plant conductivity in T. australis resulted from a decrease in xylem conductivity due to stress-induced cavitation. PMID:10889251

Brodribb, T J; Hill, R S

2000-07-01

323

Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging cerebral GABAA receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

324

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, be...

Abbas Yavari

2009-01-01

325

Computational identification and analysis of arsenate reductase protein in Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 suggests potential microorganism for reducing arsenate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses a bioinformatics-based prediction of arsC gene product arsenate reductase (ArsC) protein in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 strain. A protein structure-based study encloses three-dimensional structural modeling of target ArsC protein, was carried out by homology modeling method. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in protein. The ten probable ligand binding sites were predicted for target protein structure and highlighted the common binding residues between target and template protein. It has been first time identified that modeled ArsC protein structure in C. sakazakii was structurally and functionally similar to well-characterized ArsC protein of Escherichia coli because of having same structural motifs and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigation revealed that ArsC from C. sakazakii can play significant role during arsenic resistance and potential microorganism for bioremediation of arsenic toxicity. PMID:23666632

Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Pandey, Paras Nath

2013-06-01

326

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

327

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

2002-04-01

328

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

Kleinman, P.K.

1987-01-01

329

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

330

Community-based child abuse prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prematurity, congenital abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal illness often impair parent-infant attachment, which can contribute to subsequent child abuse. Enhancement of parent-infant relationships, parental coping skills, and social support systems through parent education and home visitation has been shown to reduce the incidence of abuse and is emphasized in the child abuse prevention program proposed in this article. New parents who participate in the program learn about the behavioral capabilities and responses of their newborn from a trained and supervised volunteer perinatal coach/parent aide. With this knowledge, parents can develop optimal sensory communication skills for interacting with their infant. Perinatal coaches/parent aides also foster better parental understanding of the child's physical and emotional development and needs, help reduce family isolation, offer emotional support and practical parenting assistance, and serve as a positive parental role model. Social workers are integral to the program because they select, train, and supervise the perinatal coaches/parent aides. PMID:2284599

Darmstadt, G L

1990-11-01

331

Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 ?g/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated throughout the jatropha waste-handling process. However additional tests such as digestibility as well as acceptability of the treated jatropha seed cake should be conducted using both in vivo and in vitro studies before recommending the jatropha seed cake as a source of renewable animal feed and other value-added products. PMID:23998310

Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

2013-01-01

332

Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignet...

Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2010-01-01

333

REDUCED RESTING POTENTIALS IN DYSTROPHIC (MDX) MUSCLE FIBERS ARE SECONDARY TO NF-?B-DEPENDENT NEGATIVE MODULATION OF OUABAIN SENSITIVE Na+ - K+ PUMP ACTIVITY  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RP) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na+ - K+ pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na+]i in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na+]i of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na+ - K+ ATPase catalytic ?1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle Examination of the effects of the NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 minutes) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na+]i Administration of an NF-?B inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-?B activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na+ - K+ pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-?B dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle. PMID:21306738

Miles, M. T.; Cottey, E.; Cottey, A.; Stefanski, C.

2011-01-01

334

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates obtained from simulated gastrointestinal digestion of cowpea proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment of cowpea proteins (CP) on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates (CPH) obtained from in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of CP was evaluated. Hydrolysis of native and treated CP with gastrointestinal pepsin and pancreatin yielded CPH that displayed antioxidant activities based on oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA). CPH derived from the treated CP yielded higher ORAC values than CPH from untreated proteins. However, lower significant FRAP and SRSA values were observed for these samples compared to untreated CPH (p?reduce the radical scavenging and reducing potential of the enzymatic hydrolysates possibly due to the decreased amounts of cysteine. Since the hydrolysates were generated with gastrointestinal enzymes, it is possible that the resulting compounds are produced to exert some health functions during normal consumption of cowpea. PMID:23354934

Quansah, Joycelyn K; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Saalia, Firibu K; Yada, Rickey Y

2013-03-01

335

The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Mike [The UK' s National Nuclear Laboratory, Preston Laboratory, Preston, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

336

The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

337

Towards reducing the physical environmental impact of North American surface coal mines; a review of potential selective overburden handling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In North America, coal and lignite are presently extracted by a variety of surface mining techniques that are largely dictated by factors such as coal thickness and attitude, overburden characteristics, and geological complexity of the deposit. Although a large variety of techniques are used, they are often similar within certain geographic regions, each being associated with a typical method of overburden handling and one or more major type(s) of physical environmental impact (topographic, stratigraphic and/or geohydrologic). While it is technically feasible to modify current routine overburden handling practices, or to introduce effective novel selective handling techniques in order to reduce subsequent environmental damage within each geographic region, economic factors do not always favour selective methods. Because of the possibility of increased stripping costs, the implementation of any selective overburden placement scheme requires site-specific appraisal of the profitability of the operation. In some situations, however, the use of selective techniques in place of conventional methods can actually be economically superior. The appropriate selective overburden placement schemes that can be applied in the different geographic regions are assessed. 8 figs., 24 refs., 2 tabs. (F.W.)

George, H. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)); Meech, J.; Workman, L.

1986-01-01

338

Recent Patents on Novel P2X7 Receptor Antagonists and Their Potential for Reducing Central Nervous System Inflammation  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation arises in the CNS from a number of neurodegenerative and oncogenic disorders, as well as from ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. These pathologies give rise to increased levels of extracellular adenine nucleotides which, via activation of a variety of cell surface P2 purinergic receptors, influence the inflammatory activities of responding immune cells. One P2 receptor subtype in particular, the P2X7 receptor, potentiates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?) from macrophage-like cells. It is also thought to contribute to secondary brain injury by inducing neuronal cell death. Therefore, antagonism of this receptor could have significant therapeutic impact on all disorders, not just CNS, to which excessive inflammatory activities contribute. The use of currently available P2X7 receptor antagonists for the treatment of CNS inflammation has been limited to the generally non-selective antagonists PPADS, oxidized ATP, Brilliant Blue G, suramin, calmidizolium, and KN-62. However, the recent patents and development of novel P2X7 receptor antagonists, as discussed in this review, will provide new tools both for clinical and research purposes. Here we discuss compounds for which patents have been applied since 2006, from the following categories: benzamide inhibitors, bicycloheteroaryl compounds, acylhdranzine antagonists, biaromatic P2X7 antagonists, heterocyclic compounds and amide derivatives, and aromatic amine antagonists. PMID:19705995

Friedle, Scott A.; Curet, Marjorie A.; Watters, Jyoti J.

2009-01-01

339

Novel experimental result contradicts conventional pinning theory; record-high J c obtained by reducing the pinning potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scores of work have suggested that the pinning potential energy, U p, should be maximized to achieve high critical current density, J c. This has led several researchers to believe that the highest J c could only be achieved by means of continuous columnar defects, CCPCs, because they provide the largest U p. We now present the surprising experimental result that, in clear contrast with the conventional belief, J c for discontinuous pinning is much higher than for continuous. For example, in melt-textured YBCO we obtained a record-high J c ? 275 kA/cm2, at B = 1 T and T = 77 K, using discontinuous multiple-in-line-damage, MILD. Our data contrary to conventional pinning theories indicate that J c does not depend primarily on U p, but on the simultaneous optimization of three factors: the loss in current percolation, the reduction in T c, and U p. In conclusion the maximum J c in YBCO, at 10 K < T < 88 K and up to 8 T, is obtained for MILD pinning centers with a fractional length along the sample thickness of only 0.2-0.3, whereas CCPCs have fractional length of 1

340

Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

 
 
 
 
341

Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR. PMID:22205544

Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Tenno, Toomas

2012-07-01

342

Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

Golwala, Harsh

2012-01-01

343

The abuse of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

344

Intervention Strategies with Abused Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers receiving training about child abuse issues raised many questions about what they could do in a classroom to facilitate the healing and growth of an abused/neglected child. The questions centered on three main areas of concern: (1) How are children's extreme behaviors to be interpreted? (2) What is the teacher's role? and (3) What can…

Koskie, Beth; Heidemann, Sandra

345

Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan: Coin-Operated-Locker Babies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of reported cases…

Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.

1995-01-01

346

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

Abbas Yavari

2009-09-01

347

[Child abuse: a world problem].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused. PMID:9567659

Santana-Tavira, R; Sánchez-Ahedo, R; Herrera-Basto, E

1998-01-01

348

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar

2008-01-01

349

Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 ? sq(-1)) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. PMID:25360800

Yoo, Ji Hoon; Han, Dae Sang; Park, Su Bin; Chae, Jangwoo; Kim, Ji Man; Kwak, Jeonghun

2014-11-21

350

Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

2007-01-01

351

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

2009-01-01

352

Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive

Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2008-01-01

353

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

2008-01-01

354

[Child abuse in the family].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals: abuse of the embryo, foetus or new-born child, and sexual abuse. In Portugal the existence of various forms of poverty (whether in material or educational terms), and the lack of family support services and mechanisms, are of particular significance. And tied in with this structural aspect there is the significant factor of alcoholism, which in the sample under investigation is statistically much more significant than drug addiction. PMID:12525019

De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

2002-01-01

355

Reduced visual evoked responses in multiple sclerosis patients with optic neuritis: comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for investigations of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has already shown that deficits of the motor, cognitive and visual systems may be identified by differences in the patterns of activation in response to a suitable stimulus. In MS patients with unilateral optic neuritis, the area of activation in the primary visual cortex, measured by fMRI techniques, is dramatically reduced in response to stimulation of the affected eye. The latency of the major positive component of the visual evoked potential (VEP) recorded upon stimulation of the affected eye is significantly increased in these patients, as compared to the unaffected eye and normal volunteers. We have found a correlation between the neural response measured using fMRI and the latency of the VEP. fMRI signal responses have the potential to provide more detailed topographic information relating to functional deficits in MS. PMID:10408715

Gareau, P J; Gati, J S; Menon, R S; Lee, D; Rice, G; Mitchell, J R; Mandelfino, P; Karlik, S J

1999-06-01

356

Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We audited a paper mill in China to reduce its energy use and CO2 emissions. ? The energy use and CO2 emissions of the mill and each paper machine are presented. ? The energy saving potential for the paper machine is estimated at 8–37%. ? The energy saving potential is 967.8 TJ, equal to 14.4% of the mill’s energy use. ? The CO2 reduction potential is 93,453 tonnes CO2 for the studied paper mill. -- Abstract: The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the audit period.

357

The misuse and abuse of propofol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Media attention on the misuse of propofol increased significantly when the drug was implicated in the death of pop music superstar Michael Jackson in 2010. The misuse and abuse of propofol among healthcare providers has been reported worldwide, with some misuse resulting in death. Propofol policies guiding healthcare worker re-entry into the workplace after misusing propofol have received rare attention in the research literature. The paucity of information regarding propofol-specific re-entry policies suggests that little research has addressed this problem and the lack of research and policy guidance can contribute to unsafe re-entry and even death. This paper focuses on healthcare providers because they have an easy access to propofol and therefore are vulnerable to misusing or abusing the drug. To accomplish this, the pharmacology and misuse/abuse potential of propofol and the influence of the 12-step recovery paradigm in the re-entry literature are reviewed. In conclusion, existing research and policy are drawn upon to suggest employment re-entry guidelines for healthcare workers. PMID:21463203

Monroe, Todd; Hamza, Heather; Stocks, Greg; Scimeca, Paula Davies; Cowan, Ronald

2011-01-01

358

Child abuse, a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

Andri M.T. Lubis

2004-02-01

359

Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

360

Combating Misuse and Abuse of Prescription Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... may be similar to a known drug of abuse. When the drug is given to animals, it may produce behaviors that are like those produced by abusable drugs. In humans, the drug may produce a high rate of euphoria. FDA considers these and all abuse-related data to make a determination regarding abuse ...

 
 
 
 
361

Ritual Abuse and Counseling: A Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ritual abuse consists of mental, physical, sexual, and psychological abuse motivated by religious reasons, out of anger and stress, or inflicted on victims for reasons unknown. Little is now being done to educate and train school counselors on ritual abuse and its signs. This paper offers a literature review of ritual abuse and the results of a…

Zoslocki, Linda

362

Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

2012-04-11

363

Child physical abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

2014-04-01

364

Sustained Release d-Amphetamine Reduces Cocaine but not ‘Speedball'-Seeking in Buprenorphine-Maintained Volunteers: A Test of Dual-Agonist Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine/Heroin Polydrug Abusers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine whether oral sustained release d-amphetamine (SR-AMP) reduces cocaine and opioid/cocaine combination (‘speedball'-like) seeking in volunteers with current opioid dependence and cocaine dependence. Following outpatient buprenorphine (BUP) 8?mg/day stabilization without SR-AMP, eight participants completed a 3-week in-patient study with continued BUP 8?mg/day maintenance and double-blind ascending SR-AMP weekly doses of 0, 30, and 60?mg/day, respec...

Greenwald, Mark K.; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Steinmiller, Caren L.

2010-01-01

365

Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596

Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

2010-01-01

366

Science and policy in substance abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

Stephan Arndt

2006-01-01

367

The outdoor air quality flag program in central California: a school-based educational intervention to potentially help reduce children's exposure to environmental asthma triggers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel school-based, visual environmental public health educational intervention intended to help reduce the exposure of children-and adults-to outdoor air pollution, including known environmental asthma triggers like ozone and particles. The overarching goal was to enhance the learning, recreational, and work environments of students and staff. The specific purpose of the Asthma-Friendly Outdoor (Ambient) Air Quality Flag Program was to establish an education and communication tool for Central California communities that would accomplish two things: (1) Establish permanent local policy change to existing operating procedures in school districts and schools to help reduce the exposure of students, teachers, staff, and nearby communities to outdoor environmental asthma triggers and (2) provide education on air quality and potential health effects of exposure to air pollutants. Data on the program from its initial years are presented. To date, the following important lessons have been learned: (1) Science-based, simple, visual, low-cost school-based educational interventions to help reduce human exposure to outdoor environmental asthma triggers (i.e., ozone, particles, and pollens) can work in socioeconomically and ethnically diverse urban and rural or agricultural communities, and (2) local health and environmental justice groups such as asthma coalitions can successfully lead school-based environmental interventions to help improve children's quality of life. PMID:17941400

Shendell, Derek G; Rawling, Mary-Michal; Foster, Christine; Bohlke, Alicia; Edwards, Bobbie; Rico, Susie A; Felix, Justina; Eaton, Sandra; Moen, Stephanie; Roberts, Eric M; Love, Mary Beth

2007-10-01

368

c-fos and c-jun overexpression in malignant cells reduces their tumorigenic and metastatic potential, and affects their MHC class I gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced co-expression of the c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes has been correlated with the down regulation of H-2K class I major histocompatibility antigens in high-metastatic cell lines from the Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma and the K1735 melanoma. Transfection of c-jun and c-fos genes into the high metastatic clones D122 (3LL) and F10.9 (B16 melanoma) resulted in activation of H-2 class I gene expression. D122 transfectants expressing high levels of c-jun and c-fos and F10.9 transfectants expressing high levels of c-fos exhibited markedly reduced tumorigenicity and were of low metastatic potential. In contrast, transfection of junB into the low metastatic, high H-2Kb, Db expressor clone A9 (3LL), reduced MHC class I gene expression, and converted the parental low, into high-metastatic cells. The data demonstrate the involvement of genes from the fos and jun family in regulation of MHC class I expression and consequently in regulation of immunogenicity and metastatic competence of tumor cells. PMID:8134110

Yamit-Hezi, A; Plaksin, D; Eisenbach, L

1994-04-01

369

Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

2006-06-01

370

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies Mental Health Rural Child Welfare Service Array Statistics Substance Abuse Youth Search A to Z Services & ...

371

Personality development after physical abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of behaviour disorders than mothers of control children. Child abuse has long term effects on the personality development of children. A long term, child centred approach is needed for abused children to try to prevent some of the sequelae. PMID:6703764

Oates, R K

1984-01-01

372

Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... contributing to substance abuse in rural America include poverty, unemployment, underemployment and the isolation of rural areas. ... in children Spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, STDs, and Hepatitis C either through sharing ...

373

Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... of abuse have been shown to alter gene expression and brain circuitry, which in turn affect human ... permission, with the exception of any text or graphics that are followed by source information. In those ...

374

Etiological characteristics of abusive husbands.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared abusive husbands with nonabusive, marital discordant husbands using six measures to ascertain certain etiological characteristics of abusers. Both groups completed the Jenkins Activity Survey for measuring type A behavior, the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, the Index of Self-Esteem, the Spence-Helmrich Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Index of Marital Satisfaction, and a simple rating scale to access their perceptions of their wives' physical attractiveness. As predicted, abusers evidence significantly higher type A behaviors, higher problem drinking behaviors, more rigid attitudes toward women, lower marital satisfaction, and rated their wives as less attractive than did nonabusers. Inconsistent with the literature, however, no significant differences were discovered between the self-esteem of abusers and nonabusers. PMID:1780068

Hurlbert, D F; Whittaker, K E; Munoz, C J

1991-12-01

375

Substance Abuse in the Military  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Over-the-Counter Medications Salvia Spice ("Synthetic Marijuana") Stimulant ADHD Medications - Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental ...

376

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... is often mistakenly assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop ... Cocaine Seeking Nora's Blog Substance Use in American Indian Youth is Worse than We Thought UNODC Recommends ...

377

Adolescent abuse of other drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a general overview of other drugs of abuse within the adolescent population. Stimulants, hallucinogens, club drugs, inhalants, sedative-hypnotics, tranquilizers, opiates, and ergogenic drugs are included. Epidemiology, pharmacology, clinical aspects, laboratory, and treatment issues are addressed. Attention is focused on most commonly used drugs or representative drugs within each category. Review of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco abuse can be found in other articles. PMID:16814695

Greene, Jeffery P; Ahrendt, Dale; Stafford, Elisabeth M

2006-06-01

378

The efficiency of noble metals in reducing the corrosion potential in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors operating under hydrogen water chemistry operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to promote the effectiveness of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and to achieve a more effective reduction in electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors (BWRs), the technology of noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) was brought into practice about 10 years ago. NMCA aims at enhancing the oxidation of hydrogen on metal surfaces and lowering the concentrations of the oxidants (oxygen and hydrogen peroxide) via recombination with hydrogen on the catalyzed surfaces, and therefore reducing the corrosion potentials of the structural alloys in a BWR primary heat transport circuit. Previous research indicates that the effectiveness of NMCA in combination with a low HWC might be evaluated via model predictions of the hydrogen-to-oxidant molar ratio (MH/O) in the primary coolant circuit. If the MH/O at a certain location is calculated to be greater than 2, it is justified that the NMCA would be effective in reducing the ECP to much below the critical potential for Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC), EIGSCC, of -0.23 VSHE. However, this statement is true only when the recombination efficiency of hydrogen with oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide at the location of interest is 100%. Otherwise, significant amounts of oxidants may still be present, even with a stoichiometric MH/O of greater than 2. With the aid of a computer model DEMACE, we explored the im computer model DEMACE, we explored the impact of incomplete recombination and found that the ECP might be reduced under given circumstances, but not to a great extent, and might remain well above EIGSCC. Accordingly, considerable caution should be exercised upon using the MH/O as a sole indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of NMCA with low HWC as a means of mitigating IGSCC in a BWR. An important finding of this study is that it is necessary to quantify the recombination efficiencies of hydrogen with oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide on the noble metal treated stainless steel surfaces in order to qualify the use of MH/O as an indicator for NMCA effectiveness in the primary coolant circuit of a BWR. (author)

379

Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: This study evaluates the dosimetric benefits and feasibility of a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique in the treatment of lung tumors. The technique has two distinct features--deep inspiration, which reduces lung density, and breath-hold, which immobilizes lung tumors, thereby allowing for reduced margins. Both of these properties can potentially reduce the amount of normal lung tissue in the high-dose region, thus reducing morbidity and improving the possibility of dose escalation. Methods and Materials: Five patients treated for non-small cell lung carcinoma (Stage IIA-IIIB) received computed tomography (CT) scans under 4 respiration conditions: free-breathing, DIBH, shallow inspiration breath-hold, and shallow expiration breath-hold. The free-breathing and DIBH scans were used to generate 3-dimensional conformal treatment plans for comparison, while the shallow inspiration and expiration scans determined the extent of tumor motion under free-breathing conditions. To acquire the breath-hold scans, the patients are brought to reproducible respiration levels using spirometry, and for DIBH, modified slow vital capacity maneuvers. Planning target volumes (PTVs) for free-breathing plans included a margin for setup error (0.75 cm) plus a margin equal to the extent of tumor motion due to respiration (1-2 cm). Planning target volumes for DIBH plans included the same margin for setup error, with a reduced margin for residual uncertainty in tumor position (0.2-0.5 cm) as determined from repeat fluoroscopic movies. To simulate the effects of respiration-gated treatments and estimate the role of target immobilization alone (i.e., without the benefit of reduced lung density), a third plan is generated from the free-breathing scan using a PTV with the same margins as for DIBH plans. Results: The treatment plan comparison suggests that, on average, the DIBH technique can reduce the volume of lung receiving more than 25 Gy by 30% compared to free-breathing plans, while respiration gating can reduce the volume by 18%. The DIBH maneuver was found to be highly reproducible, with intra breath-hold reproducibility of 1.0 (± 0.9) mm and inter breath-hold reproducibility of 2.5 (± 1.6) mm, as determined from diaphragm position. Patients were able to perform 10-13 breath-holds in one session, with a comfortable breath-hold duration of 12-16 s. Conclusion: Patients tolerate DIBH maneuvers well and can perform them in a highly reproducible fashion. Compared to conventional free-breathing treatment, the DIBH technique benefits from reduced margins, as a result of the suppressed target motion, as well as a decreased lung density; both contribute to moving normal lung tissue out of the high-dose region. Because less normal lung tissue is irradiated to high dose, the possibility for dose escalation is significantly improved

380

Psychotropic Medications and Substances of Abuse Interactions in Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…

Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effects of Parental Substance Abuse on Youth in Their Homes  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the potential differential effects of parental alcohol versus drug abuse on the family environment, dyadic adjustment, and parent functioning. How these differences may be associated with development and adjustment differences of youth in these homes is then examined.

Schroeder, Valarie; Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

2006-01-01

382

Religiosity and Substance Abuse: Need for Systematic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Religion plays a significant role in human life, yet its potential to influence health and health-related conditions is not well studied. This article cites several studies that examine the correlation between religiosity and substance abuse. This article also suggests that more systematic researches are needed to validate the correlation of…

Sharma, Manoj

2006-01-01

383

Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a “solvent dominant type” of use to a “cannabis dominant type,” that is, from a “Japanese type” to a “Western type,” (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model.

Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

2014-01-01

384

A laboratory approach for investigations into the potential effectiveness of potassium-based fertilisers in reducing radiocesium transfer from soil to plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A laboratory experimental model based on a simple soil-plant system used to investigate the potential effectiveness of potassium-based fertilisers in reducing soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium is presented. The soil-plant system, slightly modified comparing to that described originally in the NEUBAUER's plantlet method, consists in wheat plantlets grown from caryopsis phase on brown acid soil contaminated with 137Cs resulted from Chernobyl nuclear accident and treated with potassium salt of 30%. The effectiveness of 30% potassium salt applied to the soil as treatment is discussed in terms of reduction factor for 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer coefficient and 137Cs+:K+ ratio in soil and plantlets. (author)

385

The dentist's role in identifying child abuse: an evaluation about experiences, attitudes, and knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to investigate dentists' experiences, attitudes, and knowledge in recognizing and reporting suspected cases of child abuse. It was designed as a cross-sectional study across dental practices. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, which was distributed randomly to 500 dentists. The questionnaire investigated characteristics of the population, education concerning child abuse, experience and attitudes in reporting suspected cases, and the ability to recognize signs of abuse. Approximately 60% of the dentists responded to the survey. Among the dentists who participated in the survey, 87% believed that recognizing child abuse is important, however, 63.2% reported that they did not know how to act in such situations, and 44.2% were unaware of the proper child protection authorities to contact. Among the dentists surveyed, 94.7% reported they did not receive enough education concerning child abuse in their undergraduate studies. While 31.3% of dentists suspected child abuse among their patients, 84% reported their suspicions to the proper authorities. The reason cited most often (33.3%) for not reporting suspected abuse was the fear of litigation and its potential impact on their practice. Only 34.2% of dentists demonstrated knowledge about the potential signs of child abuse. PMID:24401353

da Silva, Rubenice Amaral; Goncalves, Leticia Machado; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Alves; da Cruz, Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da

2014-01-01

386

Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of dental neglect that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients.

Pushpalatha C.

2013-07-01

387

Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses. PMID:22694135

Varga, Matthew D

2012-01-01

388

Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abu...

Özlem Karaku?

2012-01-01

389

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. PMID:18504566

Drubach, Laura A; Sapp, Mark V; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K

2008-07-01

390

Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices. PMID:25116864

Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

2014-01-01

391

GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA

2013-03-01

392

L-cysteine efflux in erythrocytes as a function of human age: correlation with reduced glutathione and total anti-oxidant potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiol compounds such as cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) play an important role in human aging and age-related diseases. In erythrocytes, GSH is synthesized by glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, but the rate of GSH synthesis is determined only by the availability of L-cysteine. Cysteine supplementation has been shown to ameliorate several parameters that are known to degenerate during human aging. We have studied L-cysteine efflux in vitro in human erythrocytes as a function of age by suspending cells in solution containing 10?mM L-cysteine for uptake; later cells were re-suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-glucose to allow efflux. Change in the free sulfhydryl (-SH) concentration was then measured to calculate the rate of efflux. The GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was taken as a control to study the oxidation/reduction state of the erythrocyte. The total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values. We have shown a significant (paging, and the GSH/GSSG ratio decreases as a function of human age. The decline in L-cysteine efflux during aging correlates with the decrease in GSH and the FRAP value. This finding may help to explain the shift in the redox status and low GSH concentration that might determine the rate of L-cysteine efflux observed in erythrocytes and an important factor in the development of oxidative stress in erythrocytes during aging. PMID:23442131

Kumar, Prabhanshu; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

2013-06-01

393

32 CFR 199.9 - Administrative remedies for fraud, abuse, and conflict of interest.  

Science.gov (United States)

...potential for personal gain or the appearance of impropriety. Although...regulatory agencies, state medical societies, peer review organizations...fraud or abuse had an adverse physical, mental, or financial impact...state or local professional societies; or other sources...

2010-07-01

394

Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

395

Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

2012-06-01

396

Nurses' diagnostic work on possible physical child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of diagnostic work (A. Strauss, S. Fagerhaugh, B. Suczek, & C. Wiener, 1985) is used to explore nurses' responses to potential child abuse. A total of 1,036 nurses (response rate of 67%) completed a mailed questionnaire that included open-ended qualitative-type questions about a hypothetical situation involving possible child abuse. We report their judgments regarding information presented in the hypothetical situation and additional information they requested to make the diagnosis. Nurses focused primarily on the child's injuries and behavior and wanted more information about the abuse event. Diagnostic work was then analyzed by specialty group: community health, school health, emergency, and pediatric nursing. Nurses' specialization influenced the choice of information that was determined to be decisive and the additional information desired to make a diagnosis. PMID:8918174

O'Toole, A W; O'Toole, R; Webster, S W; Lucal, B

1996-10-01

397

A theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tool [...] s. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.

Asha Saidi, Kalula; Farai, Nyabadza.

398

A theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tools. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.

Farai Nyabadza

2012-03-01

399

Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

2004-01-01