WorldWideScience

Sample records for reduced abuse potential

  1. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The...... aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n...

  2. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  3. Family functioning and child abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerstrom, W W; Patchner, M A; Milner, J S

    1992-07-01

    Family conflict and the lack of family cohesion are believed to set a foundation for coercive interactions that increase the likelihood of child abuse. The present study investigated the relationship between the family social environment (Family Environment Scale and Index of Marital Satisfaction) and physical child abuse potential (Child Abuse Potential Inventory) in maltreating (n = 376) and comparison (n = 148) parents. As expected, the strongest positive relationship was between family conflict and abuse potential. The strongest inverse relationships were between family cohesion, family expressiveness, marital satisfaction, and abuse scores, which indicates that the lack of positive interactional patterns is related to abuse potential. However, regression analysis revealed that family interactional patterns did not account for the majority of variance in abuse potential. PMID:1517438

  4. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug... appears to have an abuse potential....

  5. Moderating Effects of Physical Abuse and Perceived Social Support on the Potential to Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litty, Cathy Grist; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=369) were classified as abused or nonabused as children based on responses to the Childhood History Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed interactions of perceived social support and a childhood history of physical abuse on both the potential to abuse and the quality of participants' relationships with their…

  6. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  7. Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Katherine L; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

  8. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Abuse KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Families > Abuse Print A A ... Should Someone Who's Being Abused Do? What Is Abuse? Amy's finger was so swollen that she couldn' ...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  10. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  11. Abuse Potential of Soma®: the GABAA Receptor as a Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Forster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soma® (carisoprodol is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABAA receptors (GABAAR. Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABAAR function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated.

  12. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need. PMID:26566680

  13. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  14. Chronic bullous disease of childhood--another cause for potential misdiagnosis of sexual abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, H.; Shrubb, V A

    1997-01-01

    There have been several reports of unusual skin conditions producing genital lesions that can be mistaken for sexual abuse. We report on another unusual skin condition, well known to dermatologists, that can again lead to potential misdiagnosis of sexual abuse.

  15. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental ... prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting ...

  16. Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasal drug abuse (N?=?27). Active treatments contained oxycodone (30?mg). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., Overall Drug Liking [ODL], Take Drug Again [TDA], and High Visual Analog Scales [VAS]; Subjective Drug Value [SDV]; pupillometry; intranasal irritation), and safety (e.g., adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests) were assessed to 24?hours postdose. Crushed ORF administration yielded reduced oxycodone Cmax and increased Tmax versus crushed OC and Oxy API. Peak effects for pharmacodynamic measures were delayed with ORF (1-2?hours) versus OC and Oxy API (0.5-1?hour). ODL, TDA, High VAS, and SDV Emax values were significantly lower (P???.05) and some intranasal irritation ratings were greater for ORF versus OC and Oxy API. No significant or unexpected safety findings were observed. Compared with OC and Oxy API, intranasally administered ORF was associated with lower and delayed peak plasma concentrations, decreased drug-liking, and decreased intranasal tolerability. This suggests that ORF has a decreased potential for intranasal oxycodone abuse. There were no significant or unexpected safety findings. As is true for all abuse potential studies, epidemiological or other appropriate post-marketing studies are required to assess the impact of the reduction in intranasal oxycodone abuse potential observed in the present study on real-world patterns of ORF misuse, abuse, and diversion. PMID:24243216

  17. A GENTLER GESTALT THERAPY: ON REDUCING STIMULATION IN ADULT SURVIVORS OF ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lapides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult survivors of abuse require a slower progression in treatment. Profoundly abused patients suffering from pre-oedipal conditions may become overstimulated using gestalt methods. This paper will focus on reducing stimulation in the patient using methods borrowed from modern psychoanalysis, which was developed by Hyman Spotnitz. The author argues for a combined approach that emphasizes support rather then frustration in the development of the treatment process.

  18. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse can also take the form of hate crimes directed at people just because of their race, ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ...

  19. Abuse potential of intranasal buprenorphine versus buprenorphine/naloxone in buprenorphine-maintained heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D

    2015-07-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse. PMID:25060839

  20. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...developing drug and other medical products with the potential for abuse...Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, an abuse potential assessment...agreeing not to market the product until the DEA makes a final...drug's labeling, prescribing, advertising, manufacturing,...

  1. Parental Discipline and Abuse Potential Affects on Child Depression, Anxiety, and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated differences in children's emotional functioning as a product of their parents' reported disciplinary practices and child abuse potential. Children's anxiety symptoms were higher in those children whose parents obtained higher abuse potential scores and had harsher discipline practices. Results suggest emotional difficulties similar to…

  2. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  3. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  4. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential

  5. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  6. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  7. Childhood Abuse and Migraine: Epidemiology, Sex Differences, and Potential Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tietjen, Gretchen E.; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Migraine and maltreatment are both common conditions that are more prevalent in women. Epidemiological evidence supports an association between childhood abuse and headache, as well as pain in general, although some controversy exists based on methodological concerns of studying the influence of remote, traumatic, stigmatizing events in an often depressed population. There is a growing scientific body of knowledge regarding the neurobiological effects of abuse on brain function and structure ...

  8. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Saini, Michael; Wu, Meng-Jia; MacFadden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Internet has created a new communication tool, particularly for young people whose use of electronic communication is exploding worldwide. While there are many benefits that result from electronic-based communication, the Internet is concurrently a potential site for abuse and victimization. Methods: This paper systematically…

  9. Opportunities for Exploring and Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse Through Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Scott, Kevin; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse. PMID:26075802

  10. Is Web-Based Education Effective in Reducing Belief Toward Drug Abuse Among College Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalilian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Addiction is considered a basic structural problem in modern society, and seems to reach an epidemic scale in the last decades. Choosing a method to fulfill the intervention is an important issue to conduct educational interventions to prevent addictive behaviors. In this regard, web-based education has been widely used to introduce preventive programs to risky behaviors during recent years. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of web-based education intervention to decrease positive beliefs encouraging drug abuse among male medical college students. Patients and Methods This was a prospective-retrospective intervention study that was conducted among 75 male students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2014. t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Results Our findings indicated that the belief toward drug abuse was significantly reduced after education (P = 0.003. In addition, compared pre and post-intervention scores on survey items showed a significant reduction in enjoyment, improve energy, attraction, higher strength, and higher self-esteem items after education (P 0.05. Conclusions Our findings showed that designing and implementing web-based educational intervention could be effective to reduce the positive beliefs toward drug abuse among college students.

  11. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  12. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

  13. Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale.

  14. Effects of the ? opioid agonist AZD2327 upon operant behaviors and assessment of its potential for abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, T J; Pietras, M R; Caccese, R; Bui, K H; Yocca, F; Paronis, C A; Swedberg, M D B

    2014-09-01

    AZD2327 is a brain-penetrant agonist at ? opioid receptors which has antidepressant and anxiolytic properties in a wide array of animal models. As part of the preclinical safety pharmacology assessment, a number of studies were conducted in order to characterize its behavioral effects and its potential for abuse, in order to enable testing in humans. AZD2327 produced only modest effects when tested in a multiple fixed-ratio differential reinforcement of low rate schedule in rats, and did not enhance the rate-suppressing effects of ethanol in the procedure. In a suppressed responding test, AZD2327 only reduced rates of unpunished responding. In drug discrimination studies, AZD2327 produced partial or no generalization from known drugs of abuse. In primates trained to self-administer cocaine, substitution with AZD2327 did not result in appreciable self-administration of AZD2327, indicating that it does not behave as a positive reinforcer under the present conditions. Following termination of repeated administration of AZD2327, no signs of physical dependence (withdrawal) were noted. Overall, the data suggest that AZD2327 does not possess a high potential for abuse, and appears to have only subtle behavioral effects as measured by operant behaviors. PMID:24857840

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  16. Use of Pregabalin - A Nationwide Pharmacoepidemiological Drug Utilization Study with Focus on Abuse Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, O; Pottegård, A; Damkier, P; Rosenzweig, M; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    dosages that exceed the approved therapeutic range. Methods: To identify predictors of pregabalin use above recommended dosage, we conducted a pharmacoepidemological drug utilization study using the Danish nationwide registers. We deployed 4 measures of abuse: high use (?600?mg/day) or very high use (?1......Introduction: Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder and neuropathic pain with a licensed dosage range of 150?mg to 600?mg/day. Growing concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin is partly based on reports of pregabalin being used in......?200?mg/day) over a 6- or 12-month period, respectively. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify patient and treatment characteristics that were associated with either abuse marker. Results: Out of 42?520 pregabalin users 4?090 (9.6%) were treated with more than 600?mg/day for 6 months and 2...

  17. Mental Health Services and Public Safety: Substance Abuse Outpatient Visits Were Associated with Reduced Crime Rates in a Swedish Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Berman, Anne H.; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is related to offending and substance abuse treatment has been associated with reductions in criminal behavior. This cohort study aimed to explore the relationship between participation in substance abuse interventions and general criminal recidivism among offenders with a combination of mental health problems and substance use problems. In total, 150 Swedish offenders with self-reported mental health and substance use problems were followed for approximately three years with regard to participation in substance abuse interventions and criminal recidivism. Participants with at least three planned visits to specialized outpatient substance abuse clinics had a substantially reduced risk of reoffending as compared to those with fewer than three such visits (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.29–0.77). For those with at least three planned visits, general criminal recidivism was reduced by 75% during periods of participation in outpatient visits, as compared to periods of non-participation (HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11–0.60). For offenders with mental health problems and substance use problems, outpatient substance abuse interventions could be regarded as important from a clinical risk management perspective, and be encouraged. PMID:26356604

  18. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  19. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. PMID:25262913

  20. Preclinical platform for the translational research of the abuse potential of novel drug candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Teuns, Greet

    2014-01-01

    To determine the abuse potential of new CNS-active molecular entities with a novel mechanism of action, considerable knowledge of the pharmacology, toxicity and kinetics is needed to enable the choice of the correct tests, the selection of an appropriate dose range of the test compound and the proper choice of the psycho-active reference compound(s) or a scheduled comparator. In addition, one must have a thorough expertise of the current overall Drug Development process and subsequent require...

  1. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  2. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Julia M; Williams, Lisa E; Woodward, Neil D; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter vol...

  3. Metabolic syndrome in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew K; Ali, Syed F; Gaetani, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Drug abuse is associated with significant health risk. Whether drug abusers are at a higher risk of suffering the metabolic syndrome is not widely known. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity, and is probably triggered by initial imbalances at the cellular level in various critical metabolic pathways. These initially small metabolic imbalances are believed to cascade with time and lead to larger problems. Some indications that drug abuse may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome include the following: Drug-abusing patients have higher rates of diabetes complications. Substance abuse is a significant contributing factor for treatment noncompliance in diabetes. Nutrition education can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. Each type of drug/substance abuse has a unique profile of toxicity. For example, the amphetamines generally affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems, worsening the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. Methamphetamine (meth) abusers suffer cognitive deficits and abnormal metabolic activity, which affect nutritional status. This condition is further worsened by a drastic reduction in oral health in meth abusers, resulting in improper chewing and, therefore, digestion. Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse would increase the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by increasing cell damage, augmenting excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. Another potential risk factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome is genetic vulnerability, especially in combination with drug abuse and nutritional deficiencies. The strategies available to treat this problem include pharmacological agents as well as dietary antioxidants. Such measures may be useful in reducing drug abuse-related toxicity that may lead to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18077564

  4. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug administration. There were no cases in which a urine drug screen alone altered the outcome of a case. In summary, hair toxicology testing proved clinically useful in the evaluation of a child for suspected abuse; in contrast, urine drug testing showed low clinical yield. PMID:26048499

  5. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  6. Zaleplon and triazolam in humans: acute behavioral effects and abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, C R; Frey, J M; Griffiths, R R

    1999-07-01

    Zaleplon, a pyrazolopyrimidine that is under development as a hypnotic, produces its pharmacological effects at the benzodiazepine-recognition site on the GABA(A) benzodiazepine-receptor complex. Unlike most benzodiazepines, zaleplon binds selectively to the BZ1 (omega1) subtype of the benzodiazepine receptor. The present study compared the acute subject-rated effects, performance-impairing effects, and abuse potential of zaleplon and triazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine hypnotic, in 14 healthy volunteers with histories of drug abuse. Zaleplon (25, 50, and 75 mg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg) and placebo were administered orally in this double-blind, crossover study. Zaleplon and triazolam produced comparable dose-related effects on several subject-rated drug-effect questionnaires. Zaleplon and triazolam also produced comparable dose-dependent decrements on several performance tasks including balance, circular lights, digit-enter and recall, DSST, picture recall/recognition and repeated acquisition. Same-day and next-day subject-rated measures reflecting abuse potential (e.g., drug liking, good effects, and monetary street value) also suggest that zaleplon and triazolam were comparable. The only notable between-drug difference observed in the present study was that the time-action function of zaleplon differed from that of triazolam. The onset time, time to maximum drug effect, and duration of action were shorter with zaleplon than triazolam. Thus, despite its non-benzodiazepine structure and unique benzodiazepine-receptor binding profile, the behavioral pharmacological profile of zaleplon is similar to that of triazolam. PMID:10445371

  7. Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J.; Colucci, Salvatore V.; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasa...

  8. Borderline personality features and emotion regulation deficits are associated with child physical abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael F; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2016-02-01

    The present study extends prior research examining the association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and child physical abuse (CPA) risk. We hypothesized that: (1) high CPA risk parents (compared to low CPA risk parents) would more often report clinically elevated levels of BPD features; (2) high CPA risk parents with elevated BPD features would represent a particularly high-risk subgroup; and (3) the association between elevated BPD features and CPA risk would be partially explained by emotion regulation difficulties. General population parents (N=106; 41.5% fathers) completed self-report measures of BPD features, CPA risk, and emotion regulation difficulties. Results support the prediction that BPD features are more prevalent among high (compared to low) CPA risk parents. Among the parents classified as high CPA risk (n=45), one out of three (33.3%) had elevated BPD features. In contrast, none of the 61 low CPA risk parents reported elevated BPD symptoms. Moreover, 100% of the parents with elevated BPD features (n=15) were classified as high-risk for CPA. As expected, high CPA risk parents with elevated BPD features (compared to high CPA risk parents with low BPD features) obtained significantly higher scores on several Child Abuse Potential Inventory scales, including the overall abuse scale (d=1.03). As predicted, emotion regulation difficulties partially explained the association between BPD features and CPA risk. Findings from the present study suggest that a subset of high CPA risk parents in the general population possess clinically significant levels of BPD symptoms and these parents represent an especially high-risk subgroup. Interventions designed to address BPD symptoms, including emotion regulation difficulties, appear to be warranted in these cases. PMID:26754570

  9. Differences in abuse potential of ADHD drugs measured by contrasting poison centre and therapeutic use data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Schow; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Atomoxetine (ATX) is the treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders with co-morbid risk of drug abuse, although its abuse potential needs to be qualified. The purpose of this study is to analyse ATX misuse in relation to therapeutic use and compare our results with that of methylphenidate (MPH). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on enquiries were extracted from the Danish Poison Information Centre database (January 2006 to June 2012), while data on therapeutic use were provided by the Danish State Serum Institute (2007-2011). RESULTS: The study included 28 ATX and 394 MPH enquiries. Frequency of ATX enquiries did not show a significant correlation to either sale or number of treated patients but for MPH, both correlations were significant (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0008, respectively). The enquiries/number of treated patients relationship differed significantly between ATX and MPH (p = 0.018), but not the enquiries/sale relationship. The proportion of exposures motivated by recreational drug use was significantly lower for ATX (19%) than that for MPH (40%) (p = 0.038). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ATX is used by adults for non-medical purposes including recreational use, but to a lesser extent than MPH.

  10. Validation of a reduced spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Sierra; Fredy S. Monge; Pablo Santos-Iglesias; María Paz Bermúdez; José María Salinas

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de examinar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión en español del Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), se aplicó éste, junto a la Double Standard Scale, la Rape Supportive Attitude Scale y el Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R, a 813 mujeres peruanas distribuidas en tres muestras diferentes: población general (n = 300), mujeres que no habían denunciado abuso (n = 300) y mujeres que habían denunciado abuso (n = 213).Después de poner a prueba mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio s...

  11. The Potential Role of an Extended-Release, Abuse-Deterrent Oxycodone/Acetaminophen Fixed-Dose Combination Product for the Treatment of Acute Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Acute pain, prevalent as part of postoperative and traumatic pain, is often sub-optimally or inadequately treated. Fixed-dose combination analgesic products that combine a reduced amount of opioid with a nonopioid analgesic such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a single tablet offer potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic benefits, and may also result in an opioid-sparing effect. A new analgesic product (XARTEMIS™ XR, Mallinckrodt Brand Pharmaceuticals, Dublin, Ireland) combines oxycodone (7.5 mg) with acetaminophen (325 mg) in an immediate-release/extended-release (ER) formulation that is indicated for the treatment of acute pain. The ER formulation of this product provides stable serum drug concentrations that in this case lasts 12 h. Oxycodone/acetaminophen is a drug combination that offers safe and effective pain relief in a variety of acute pain syndromes such as postoperative pain. The combination formulation allows a smaller amount of oxycodone per tablet and the biphasic-layered matrix of the pill for ER may present obstacles to potential abusers. No opioid is totally abuse resistant, but the lower opioid content and tamper-resistant formulation of this product might discourage abuse. Clinicians must still be mindful of the acetaminophen part of this product in the patient's overall daily intake (in light of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity). The new product appears to provide an important new choice in the armamentarium against acute pain. PMID:26026272

  12. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  13. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  14. Attitudes toward Parenting Strategies, Potential for Child Abuse, and Parental Satisfaction of Ethnically Diverse Low-Income U.S. Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, Nilufer P.; Wilson, Stephan; Larson, Jeffry H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study that examined: (1) preferences for certain parenting styles; (2) the potential for child abuse; and (3) relationships between parenting strategies affected by ethnic differences. Indicates no significant differences in parenting styles or potential for child abuse due to ethnic differences. Includes references. (CMK)

  15. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  16. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Abuse (NIDA), as described in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of March 8, 1985 (50 FR 9518). When a..., and drugs that produce psychoactive effects such as sedation, euphoria, or mood change....

  17. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  18. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  19. Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  20. Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model

    OpenAIRE

    Lefever, Timothy W.; Marusich, Julie A; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wiley, Jenny L

    2014-01-01

    Because ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a rob...

  1. Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

  2. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Cui, Yinghong; Jeon, Jongrye; Wess, Jürgen; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based......) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands...... to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS....

  3. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed. PMID:25455965

  4. Validade de Criterio do Inventario de Potencial para Abuso Infantil (CAP) / Criterion Validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) / Validez de Criterio del Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina de Almeida, Patrian; Karyne de Souza Augusto, Rios; Lucia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available É grande o interesse pelo tema da violência contra a criança, porém são escassas suas formas de avaliação, dificultando o desenvolvimento de intervenções. O Inventário de Potencial de Abuso Infantil (CAP) é considerado eficaz na identificação precoce de pais considerados em risco de agredirem fisica [...] mente seus filhos e uma boa ferramenta para avaliar intervenções na área dos maus-tratos contra crianças e adolescentes. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a validade de critério do Inventário CAP, por meio da comparação de seus resultados entre cuidadores considerados de alto risco para abuso infantil e cuidadores de baixo risco para o abuso infantil. Dois grupos de pais foram participantes, sendo um grupo composto por 20 pais denunciados por agressões físicas e o outro grupo de 20 pais não agressores de igual nível socioeconômico e educacional. Os resultados indicaram que o inventário é capaz de avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos propostos, demonstrando ser um bom instrumento para o trabalho de serviços de proteção à criança epara a avaliação de intervenções e políticas públicas ou pesquisas. Abstract in spanish Existe gran interés en el tema de la violencia contra los niños, pero son raras las formas de evaluación, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de intervenciones.El Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP) se considera eficaz en la identificación temprana de padres considerados en riesgo de agredir físicamen [...] te a sus hijos y buena herramienta para evaluar las intervenciones en el área de abuso contra niños. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la validez de criterio del Inventario CAP, por una comparación de sus resultados con padres de alto riesgo y padres sin riesgo para el abuso contra los niños. Participaron dos grupos: un de 20 padres que habían practicado el abuso físico y otro de 20 no agresores, del mismo nivel socioeconómico y educativo. Los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es capaz de evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos propuestos y ha demostrado ser una buena herramienta para el trabajo de los servicios de protección de la infancia, evaluación de las intervenciones y políticas públicas o de investigación. Abstract in english Even though there is great interest in the field of child abuse, there are few methods to assess it, which hinders the development of interventions. The Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is considered effective in the early identification of parents at risk of physically abusing their children, [...] and a good tool to evaluate interventions in the field of child abuse. This study's objective was to perform the CAP Inventory's criterion validity by comparing the results obtained by caregivers at a high risk of abusing their children with those obtained by caregivers at a low risk for child abuse. Two groups of parents participated in the study: a group of 20 parents reported for physically abusing their children and a group of 20 non-offending parents with the same socio-economic and educational levels. The results indicated the instrument is able to discriminate between the two groups, showing it to be a good tool for use in child protection services, to assess interventions, public policies, and research.

  5. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse. PMID:26022268

  6. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster LR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.Methods: Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h, peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h. Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry.Results: There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons, suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically significant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.Keywords: drug abuse, opioid, oxycodone, niacin

  7. Contributions of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to understanding development: potential applications in the study of adolescent alcohol use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research has documented structural and functional brain development during adolescence, yet little is known about neurochemical changes that occur during this important developmental period. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a well-developed technology that permits the in vivo quantification of multiple brain neurochemicals relevant to neuronal health and functioning. However, MRS technology has been underused in exploring normative developmental changes during adolescence and the onset of alcohol and drug use and abuse during this developmental period. This review begins with a brief overview of normative cognitive and neurobiological development during adolescence, followed by an introduction to MRS principles. The subsequent sections provide a comprehensive review of the existing MRS studies of development and cognitive functioning in healthy children and adolescents. The final sections of this article address the potential application of MRS in identifying neurochemical predictors and consequences of alcohol use and abuse in adolescence. MRS studies of adolescent populations hold promise for advancing our understanding of neurobiological risk factors for psychopathology by identifying the biochemical signatures associated with healthy brain development, as well as neurobiological and cognitive correlates of alcohol and substance use and abuse. PMID:24621605

  8. METHODS OF REDUCING CORROSION POTENTIAL OF DEMINERALIZED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chirila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this project are to study the method of obtaining demineralized water by using an ion exchange column type Purolite A200MBO, Purolite C100MBH. Considering the fact that we intend to use this type of water for the production of the steam used in the energetic industry, it is very important that the corrosive potential of water to be highly reduced. We have made chemical determinations for the water that enters in the ion exchange column and for the final water, which is the demineralized water. The results that we obtained emphasize that the corrosive capacity of the water is intensely diminished following this process.

  9. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prosp...

  10. Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyz Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

  11. Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB2 ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-qun (Sean)

    2012-01-01

    The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB2 drugs without CB1 psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB1 receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB2 is mainly expressed in ...

  12. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO2 emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation. However, the trees have to be grown on good sites; otherwise long rotations could be better options for broad-leaved stands. In coniferous stands, a shortened rotation period resulted in lower carbon stocks than a prolonged rotation period, but the amount of residues that could substitute fossil fuel increased with a shorter rotation. However, annual rates of carbon accumulation in biomass might decline in both short- and long-rotation stands in the future. If so, carbon sequestration in biomass would not be the best option. In a long-term perspective, wood products could have high potential to reduce net CO2 emissions, since wood can replace energy-intensive materials like cement, plastics and aluminium. Intensively managed forests (e.g. fertilized forests or shortened rotation lengths) could contribute more to reductions in CO2 emissions than current forest management. Using forest products (i.e. wood products and biofuel) is probably more important than storing carbon in biomass and soil, but it is necessary to conserve the existing stocks. Intensive forest management and increased use of biomass may, however, conflict with environmental quality objectives

  13. Potentiated clinoptilolite reduces signs and symptoms associated with veisalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandy JJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Justin John Gandy, Ilze Laurens, Jacques Rene Snyman Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa Introduction: Abundant anecdotal evidence for products claiming to reduce veisalgia after alcohol overindulgence are available on the Internet and as many advertisements in journals. None of these claims are, however, substantiated by research. The aim of this research was to ascertain the validity of such claims for the substance Absorbatox™, a potentiated aluminosilicate (cation exchanger able to bind NH4+, histamine, and other positively charged ions by investigating the signs and symptoms, as well as blood or breath alcohol levels, in healthy volunteers. Methods: Blood or breath alcohol levels were measured in all volunteers in initial controlled experiments, and symptoms were scored on a diary card for gastrointestinal tract symptoms, as well as other symptoms such as headache and light sensitivity. Eighteen volunteers completed the initial blood alcohol study, which investigated the effect of Absorbatox™ on blood alcohol levels after fasting. The follow-up studies researched the effects of the symptoms and signs of alcohol overindulgence. The “night out” study was completed by ten volunteers in a typical controlled environment, which was followed by the real-life four-leg crossover study. In the crossover study, volunteers (number =25 completers had to fill matching diary cards to containers of two placebo and two active drugs after a night out where they themselves decided on the container (color coded to be used and the amount of alcohol to be consumed. Results: Absorbatox™ had no effect on blood alcohol levels, but it significantly reduced the symptoms and signs of veisalgia by approximately 40%–50%. Conclusion: This research indicates that Absorbatox™ does not have an effect on blood- or breath-alcohol levels. Furthermore, treatment with Absorbatox™ resulted in an overall significant reduction in central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract symptoms associated with veisalgia, warranting further investigation. Keywords: hangover, clinoptilolite, Absorbatox, alcohol

  14. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and...... general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...

  15. Potential for reducing air pollution from oil refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbassi, A R; Abbasspour, M; Sekhavatjou, M S; Ziviyar, F; Saeedi, M

    2008-10-01

    Islamic Republic of Iran has to invest 95 billion US$ for her new oil refineries to the year 2045. At present, the emission factors for CO(2), NO( x ) and SO(2) are 3.5, 4.2 and 119 times higher than British refineries, respectively. In order to have a sustainable development in Iranian oil refineries, the government has to set emission factors of European Community as her goal. At present CO(2) per Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in the country is about 2.7 kg CO(2) as 1995's USD value that should be reduced to 1.25 kg CO(2)/GDP in the year 2015. Total capital investment for such reduction is estimated at 346 million USD which is equal to 23 USD/ton of CO(2). It is evident that mitigation of funds set by Clean Development Mechanism (3 to 7 USD/tons of CO(2)) is well below the actual capital investment needs. Present survey shows that energy efficiency promotion potential in all nine Iranian oil refineries is about 165,677 MWh/year through utilization of more efficient pumps and compressors. Better management of boilers in all nine refineries will lead to a saving of 273 million m(3) of natural gas per year. PMID:18066676

  16. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Dencker; Thomsen, Morgane

    2012-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based". There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) to M(5)). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knock-out mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M(1)-M(5) receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS.

  17. Reducing the Risk of Drug Involvement among Early Adolescents: An Evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Michele Alicia

    1993-01-01

    DARE's effectiveness in Charleston County (South Carolina) was studied by comparing 341 DARE to 367 non-DARE fifth-grade students. DARE teaches students to recognize and resist social pressures to use drugs. DARE has positive impacts on anti-substance abuse attitudes, assertiveness, positive peer association, association with drug-using peers, and…

  18. Comprehensive drug screening in blood for detecting abused drugs or drugs potentially hazardous for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillsunde, P; Michelson, L; Forsstrom, T; Korte, T; Schultz, E; Ariniemi, K; Portman, M; Sihvonen, M L; Seppala, T

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive drug screening procedure for detecting drugs in the blood samples of car drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, is presented. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and benzodiazepines were screened by an immunological EMIT ETS system after acetone precipitation. Gas chromatographic methods were used to screen and quantitate basic, neutral and acidic drugs. The free amino groups of basic drugs were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysis was performed by a dual channel gas chromatograph combined with a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector. Phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide was used as a methylathing agent for acidic substances before analysis with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus detector. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry was used as a common confirmation method. Tetrahydrocannabinol was quantitated after bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatization, opiates after pentafluoropropionic anhydride derivatization and benzoylecgonine after pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol derivatization. Excluding benzodiazepines, which were confirmed with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector, the other basic drugs as well as the acidic drugs were confirmed after the same derivatization procedures as in the screening methods. Alcohols were quantitated in triplicate by gas chromatography using three different kinds of columns. Although urine is the most important specimen for screening abused drugs, it has only limited use in forensic toxicology. The described system is most useful for analyzing a wide range of substances, including illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants and phenothiazenes in forensic samples when urine is not available. PMID:8819994

  19. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  20. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users

    OpenAIRE

    Webster LR; Rolleri RL; Pixton GC; Sommerville KW

    2012-01-01

    Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. T...

  1. Forest harvesting reduces the soil metagenomic potential for biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Kranabetter, J M; Hope, Graeme; Maas, Kendra R; Hallam, Steven; Mohn, William W

    2015-11-01

    Soil is the key resource that must be managed to ensure sustainable forest productivity. Soil microbial communities mediate numerous essential ecosystem functions, and recent studies show that forest harvesting alters soil community composition. From a long-term soil productivity study site in a temperate coniferous forest in British Columbia, 21 forest soil shotgun metagenomes were generated, totaling 187?Gb. A method to analyze unassembled metagenome reads from the complex community was optimized and validated. The subsequent metagenome analysis revealed that, 12 years after forest harvesting, there were 16% and 8% reductions in relative abundances of biomass decomposition genes in the organic and mineral soil layers, respectively. Organic and mineral soil layers differed markedly in genetic potential for biomass degradation, with the organic layer having greater potential and being more strongly affected by harvesting. Gene families were disproportionately affected, and we identified 41 gene families consistently affected by harvesting, including families involved in lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin degradation. The results strongly suggest that harvesting profoundly altered below-ground cycling of carbon and other nutrients at this site, with potentially important consequences for forest regeneration. Thus, it is important to determine whether these changes foreshadow long-term changes in forest productivity or resilience and whether these changes are broadly characteristic of harvested forests. PMID:25909978

  2. Inhibition of Filamin-A Reduces Cancer Metastatic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Jiang, Jingyin Yue, Huimei Lu, Neil Campbell, Qifeng Yang, Shijie Lan, Bruce G. Haffty, Changji Yuan, Zhiyuan Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filamin-A cross-links actin filaments into dynamic orthogonal networks, and interacts with an array of proteins of diverse cellular functions. Because several filamin-A interaction partners are implicated in signaling of cell mobility regulation, we tested the hypothesis that filamin-A plays a role in cancer metastasis. Using four pairs of filamin-A proficient and deficient isogenic cell lines, we found that filamin-A deficiency in cancer cells significantly reduces their migration and invasion. Using a xenograft tumor model with subcutaneous and intracardiac injections of tumor cells, we found that the filamin-A deficiency causes significant reduction of lung, splenic and systemic metastasis in nude mice. We evaluated the expression of filamin-A in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemical staining, and found that low levels of filamin-A expression in cancer cells of the tumor tissues are associated with a better distant metastasis-free survival than those with normal levels of filamin-A. These data not only validate filamin-A as a prognostic marker for cancer metastasis, but also suggest that inhibition of filamin-A in cancer cells may reduce metastasis and that filamin-A can be used as a therapeutic target for filamin-A positive cancer.

  3. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Dennis C; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many ...

  4. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  5. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  6. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  7. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  8. REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBBING P. D.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

  10. Potential of treatment-specific protein biomarker profiles for detection of hormone abuse in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Susann Katrina Julie; Smits, Nathalie Gabriëlle Esther; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Nielen, Michel Wilhelmus Franciscus

    2013-05-15

    Targeted protein biomarker profiling is suggested as a fast screening approach for detection of illegal hormone treatment in meat production. The advantage of using biomarkers is that they mark the biological response and, thus, are responsive to a panel of substances with similar effects. In a preliminary feasibility study, a 4-plex protein biomarker flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) previously developed for the detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was applied to cattle treated with steroids, such as estradiol, dexamethasone, and prednisolone. Each treatment resulted in a specific plasma biomarker profile for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2, osteocalcin, and anti-rbST antibodies, which could be distinguished from the profile of untreated animals. In summary, the 4-plex biomarker FCIA is, apart from rbST, also capable of detecting treatment with other growth-promoting agents and therefore clearly shows the potential of biomarker profiling as a screening method in veterinary control. It is proposed to perform additional validation studies covering high numbers of treated and untreated animals to support inclusion or adaptation of protein biomarker approaches in future monitoring regulations. PMID:23582010

  11. Intelligent use and potential abuse of hormone assays in animal production research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoassays provide sensitive and specific techniques to measure very low concentrations of hormones in biological fluids. Use of these procedures has provided comprehensive plasma profiles for most hormones and contributed to a better understanding or reproductive function. One future challenge for basic research is the development of new methods to monitor and quantitate target organ response rather than continuing to determine concentrations. In applied or production-oriented projects the difficulties and expenses associated with most hormone assays are usually not justified. One exception is sequential monitoring of plasma or milk progesterone concentrations in twice weekly or weekly samples which can be used to detect the occurrence of sexual maturity, the time of first postpartum ovulation, the true incidence of anoestrus, whether individual females have regular ovarian cycles, and as an early test for pregnancy. Past results indicate that most healthy, adequately fed dairy cows in temperate regions ovulate during the first three or four weeks postpartum. Under intensive management systems the major problem in reproductive management of dairy cattle is oestrus detection. In contrast, many beef cows have not ovulated by 60 days postpartum, so prolonged anoestrus is a serious problem in suckled cows. Very little is known about nutrition, disease or climatic stress effects or interactions on reproductive performance in tropical environments. Regular progesterone concentrations from individual cows, combined with condition scores, management evaluation and breeding plus health records should accurately define the current reproductive performance, potential and problems. Once the major factors limiting reproductive efficiency have been defined, research projects can concentrate on the development of practical solutions. Sequential progesterone assays can then be incorporated into experimental procedures to objectively determine ovarian response. (author)

  12. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports Supplements Note-Taking Tips Yoga for Lowering Stress Can Acne Scars Be Removed? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Abusive Relationships KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Relationships > Abusive Relationships Print A A A ...

  13. Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues," Vol 20, No. 4 2008 Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical ... Baltimore, MD: Health Professionals Press. Home | About NCPEA | Elder Abuse | Calendar | Publications | Coalitions | Links | Members | Contact © 2008 NCPEA. ...

  14. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial: an integrated set of interventions to promote competence and reduce risk for conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, J E; Prinz, R J; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J

    1999-03-01

    Describes the EARLY ALLIANCE interventions, an integrated set of four programs designed to promote competence and reduce risk for early-onset conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure. These interventions are evaluated as part of a prevention trial that begins at school entry and targets child functioning and socializing practices across multiple contexts (school, peer group, family) and multiple domains (affective, social, and achievement coping-competence). The paper presents the conceptual foundation of the four interventions, including a synopsis of the risk and protective factors associated with conduct disorder and related outcomes, and of the coping-competence model driving EARLY ALLIANCE. The developmental rationale, intended impact, and procedures are described for each intervention: a universally administered classroom program and indicated, peer, reading-mentoring, and family programs. Interventions are currently being tested in a prevention trial, which is briefly summarized. PMID:11324096

  15. Relationship between drug discrimination and ratings of subjective effects: implications for assessing and understanding the abuse potential of D-amphetamine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (r<0.52). The current findings demonstrate that diverse subjective effects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse. PMID:23851485

  16. Severity of abuse to pregnant women and associated gun access of the perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Soeken, K; Campbell, J; Parker, B; Reel, S; Silva, C

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between abuse to pregnant women and gun access by the abuser, an ethnically stratified cohort of 199 pregnant abused women (70 African-Americans, 63 non-Hispanic Anglo-American, and 66 Hispanic women were interviewed using: (1) The Index of Spouse Abuse, a measure of the severity of physical and nonphysical abuse; (2) The Danger Assessment Scale, a measure of potential danger of homicide; and (3) The Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, a measure of threats of violence and actual violence. There were no significant differences by ethnicity among the 41.2% of the abused women who reported that their male partner had access to a gun. Among these same women reporting gun access, 17% reported the abuser kept the gun on his body. Women reporting gun access by the abuser reported higher level of abuse on all scaled instruments (P = gun access is recommended. Additionally, policy initiatives to remove firearms from abuse perpetrators may reduce the severity of violence experienced by abused women. PMID:9629034

  17. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)

    2010-09-03

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  18. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  19. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  20. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  1. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  2. Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential: Association with Indicators of Positive Functioning in Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Eden, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower…

  3. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babada??, Zehra; Karabekiro?lu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akba?, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims. PMID:26075920

  4. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: factors relevant to opioid abuse and abuse- deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Jason S; Taylor, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent opioid formulations are receiving renewed interest in light of the increasing legitimate medical use of prescription opioids for the adequate treatment of pain. Unfortunately, there is an inevitable associated potential for misuse, diversion, and abuse. The challenges of deterrence are significant: opioid abusers are a heterogeneous population; studies on drug "liking" and opioid "attractiveness" are informative, but mainly rely on reports from users who are not reliable respondents; drug "liking" scores are useful, but it is unclear how much drug "liking" must be reduced in order to achieve an actual reduction in abuse levels; and the most popular drugs among opioid abusers appear to be those that meet a complex combination of both positive and negative criteria including things like availability, pricing, and how easily the drug's illicit use can be concealed. Several abuse-deterrent formulations have been introduced or are in development. Epidemiological studies will have to be conducted to evaluate their effectiveness. Although there are currently more questions than answers, such products are clearly of medical and societal importance. PMID:22747546

  5. Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Edmundo Muñiz; Robert Taylor; Jason Pergolizzi

    2012-01-01

    Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are mo...

  6. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MSE, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  7. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  8. Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregory T; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 respon...

  9. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more? Anetzberger, G.J. (1987). The etiology of elder abuse by adult offspring. Springfield, IL: Thomas. Baumhover, L. ... Professions Press. Quinn, M.J., & Tomita, S.K. (1997). Elder abuse and neglect: Causes, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. (2nd ...

  10. [Drugs and drug abusers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, J; Sitbon, N; Saulnier, J L

    2001-02-17

    DRUG ABUSERS: Drugs are widely used by toxicomaniacs to reproduce drug effects. Drug abusers generally start with psychotrops, but other abuse drug classes. Toxicomanic behavior leads to addictive practices that are difficult to control. BARBITURATES: Both the oral and intravenous routes are used. The expected result is a state of ecstasy with a feeling of comfort. Intoxication may cause respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce physical and psychic dependence. Abuse is not widespread with this class of drugs. BENZODIAZEPINES: Drug abuses widely use benzodiazepines orally or intravenously. They search for a flash effect, with sedation and a feeling of comfort. All benzodiazepines induce physical and psychic dependence. Death may result from combinations leading to respiratory depression. Flunitrazepam is the most widely abused benzodiazepine in France. It induces serious neuropsychic disorders. ANTIDEPRESSANTS: Few are used, mostly at high doses. OPIATES: Administration gives the same effect as heroine injection. Opiates induce physical and psychic dependence. The adverse effects are similar to those of morphine with a higher risk of respiratory depression. AMPHETAMINES: Few are used, either orally or intravenously. They induce a flash with excitation, euphoria, and a period of invincibility. This is followed by a period of depression with risk of suicide. Psychic dependence is high. ANTICHOLINERGIC ANTIPARKINSONIANS: These drugs are well known to abusers for their hallucinatory effect. They induce atropinic adverse effects and physical and psychic dependence. GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE: This anesthetic is used for its euphoria and sedation effects. It may induce falling sickness or coma, with a risk of respiratory depression. KETAMINE: Administered via the intranasal route, ketamine induces a state of indifference. Death has been observed. ANABOLIC AND ANDROGENIC STEROIDS: These drugs are used for their physical and psychic stimulating effect. They induce potentially dangerous adverse effects such as cardiovascular, hepatic, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Clinical signs of addiction and weaning are observed. OTHERS: Several other drug classes are used by abusers, including analgics, beta-adrenergic agents, nasal vasoconstrictors and corticosteroids. PMID:11252979

  11. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  12. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  14. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.; WATKEYS, J.; Ridgway, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.?DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.?RESULTS—Sw...

  15. Potential-based reduced Newton algorithm for nonlinear multiphase flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Felix; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2007-11-01

    We present a phase-based potential ordering that is an extension of the Cascade ordering introduced by Appleyard and Cheshire [John R. Appleyard, Ian M. Cheshire, The cascade method for accelerated convergence in implicit simulators, in: European Petroleum Conference, 1982, pp. 113-122]. The proposed ordering is valid for both two-phase and three-phase flow, and it can handle countercurrent flow due to gravity and/or capillarity. We show how this ordering can be used to reduce the nonlinear algebraic system that arises from the fully-implicit method (FIM) into one with only pressure dependence. The potential-based reduced Newton algorithm is then obtained by applying Newton's method to this reduced-order system. Numerical evidence shows that our potential-based reduced Newton solver is able to converge for time steps that are much larger than what the standard Newton's method can handle. In addition, whenever standard Newton converges, so does the reduced Newton algorithm, and the number of global nonlinear iterations required for convergence is significantly reduced compared with the standard Newton's method.

  16. Substance Abuse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A collection of substance abuse resources for service members, Veterans and their families being offered outside of the Missouri Department of Mental Health.

  17. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  18. Inhibition of CREB activity in the dorsal portion of the striatum potentiates behavioral responses to drugs of abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fasano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum participates in multiple forms of behavioral adaptation, including habit formation, other forms of procedural memory, and short and long-term responses to drugs of abuse. The CREB family of transcription factors has been implicated in various forms of behavioral plasticity, but its role in the dorsal portion of the striatum-has been little explored. We previously showed that in transgenic mice in which CREB function is inhibited in the dorsal striatum, bidirectional synaptic plasticity and certain forms of long-term procedural memory are impaired. Here we show, in startling contrast, that inhibition of striatal CREB facilitates cocaine- and morphine-place conditoning and enhances locomotor sensitization to cocaine. These findings propose CREB as a positive regulator of dorsal striatum-dependent procedural learning but a negative regulator of drug-related learning.

  19. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ?6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  20. Reducing quasi-ergodicity in a double well potential by Tsallis Monte Carlo simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamatsu, Masao; Okabe, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo scheme based on the system of Tsallis's generalized statistical mechanics is applied to a simple double well potential to calculate the canonical thermal average of potential energy. Although we observed serious quasi-ergodicity when using the standard Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm, this problem is largely reduced by the use of the new Monte Carlo algorithm. Therefore the ergodicity is guaranteed even for short Monte Carlo steps if we use this new canoni...

  1. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access to substance abuse treatment and reduce the stigma associated with behavioral health treatment. Also, the providers ... The goal of this program was to improve public safety and provide some assistance to help offenders ...

  2. Capacidade discriminante do inventário de potencial de abuso na infância: dados numa amostra de progenitores portugueses / Discriminant ability of the child abuse potential inventory: data from a sample of Portuguese parents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Manuela, Calheiros; Eunice, Magalhães; Patrício, Costa.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar a capacidade discriminante do Inventário de Potencial de Abuso na Infância (CAP), numa amostra de 641 progenitores portugueses. Trinta e sete por cento da amostra é constituída por progenitores maltratantes sinalizados às Comissões de Proteção de Crianças e Joven [...] s e avaliados através do Questionário de Avaliação do Mau Trato, Negligência e Abuso Sexual. Os resultados indicaram que os progenitores maltratantes reportam valores significativamente superiores na Escala de Abuso e em todas as suas dimensões. Do ponto de vista da capacidade discriminante, a função da Escala de Abuso Global classificou corretamente 79,9% e a função das subdimensões da Escala classificou corretamente 83,3% dos casos. Estes resultados revelam a potencialidade do instrumento na identificação de situações de potencial abuso na infância no contexto português. Abstract in english This study aims to test discriminant ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) in a sample of 641 Portuguese parents. Thirty-seven percent of the sample is composed by abusive parents reported to the Comissions for the Protection of Children and Young People and evaluated by an assessment [...] questionnaire of maltreatment, neglect and sexual abuse. Abusive parents showed significantly higher scores on the Abuse Scale and in all of its dimensions. Considering the discriminant analysis, the Abuse Scale correctly classified 79.9% of the cases and the function of sub dimensions correctly classified 83.3% of the cases. These results reveal the capacity of CAP in identifying cases of potential child abuse in the Portuguese context.

  3. Hypnotics and mortality-partial confounding by disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Hendriksen, C.; Vass, Mikkel; Mortensen, E.L.; Osler, Merete

    2016-01-01

    ) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: When covariates were entered one at a time, the changes in HR estimates showed that psychiatric disease, socioeconomic position and substance abuse reduced the excess risk by 17-36% in the low user group and by 45-52% in the high user group. Somatic disease...... this study point at psychiatric disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic position as potential confounding factors partly explaining the association between use of hypnotics and all-cause mortality....

  4. The Effects of Sexual Abuse as a Child on the Risk of Mothers Physically Abusing Their Children: A Path Analysis Using Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The potential path from sexual abuse as a child to the current risk of physical abuse by mothers was assessed. Ontogenic variables including the experience of the parent's sexual abuse as a child and current depression or substance abuse were expected to have a greater impact on the risk of child abuse than microsystem and exosystem…

  5. Twins abused by their father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  6. A Dipole Polarizable Potential for Reduced and Doped CeO$_2$ from First-Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Burbano, Mario; Yildiz, Bilge; Tuller, Harry L; Norberg, Stefan T; Hull, Stephen; Madden, Paul A; Watson, Graeme W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO$_2$. We use a dipole-polarizable potential (DIPPIM) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of DFT calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO$_2$ and by comparing them to experimental values. The agreement for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) is within 10-15% of the experimental one, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic-scale properties of CeO$_2$ in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size-limitations.

  7. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where...... was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the...

  8. A Prospective Study of the Potential Moderating Role of Social Support in Preventing Marginalization Among Individuals Exposed to Bullying and Abuse in Junior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-01-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it...

  9. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Winding, Anne; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Termansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in regulating the global carbon cycle and its feedbacks within the Earth system. Compelling evidence exists that soil carbon stocks have reduced in many regions of the world, with these reductions often associated with agriculture. In a Danish context...... and land owners’ objectives and preferences in terms of participating in initiatives to increase SOC. We map the carbon sequestration potential under different scenarios, value the potential sequestered carbon in terms of marginal costs of using voluntary agreements with agricultural land managers and...

  10. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  11. An Empirical Evaluation Of The Potential Of Public E-Procurement To Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Neupane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant potential benefits of e-procurement technology is reducing opportunities for corruption in public procurement processes. The authors identified anti-corruption capabilities of e-procurement through an extensive literature review and a theoretical model representing the impact of three latent variables: monopoly of power, information asymmetry, and transparency and accountability upon the dependent variable, the intent-to-adopt e-procurement. This research was guided by the Principal-Agent theory and collected the perceptions of 46 government officers of the potential of public e-procurement to reduce corruption in public procurement processes. Results were analysed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM approach. The findings suggest that the intent-to-adopt e-procurement has a positive and significant relationship with the independent variables that might inform developing countries in strategies to combat corruption in public procurement.

  12. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill Ann; Marcus Stephen; Hartman Anne; Cummings K Michael; Allen Jane; Garrett Catherine A; Biener Lois; Bogen Karen; O'Connor Richard J; Parascandola Mark; Pederson Linda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and cr...

  13. The Potential for Automatic Crash Notification Systems to Reduce Road Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Lahausse, Julie A.; Fildes, Brian N.; Page, Yves; Fitzharris, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    This predictive study investigated the effectiveness of Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) systems in reducing road fatalities, due to enabling faster emergency medical services (EMS) notification times, and therefore, the earlier provision of treatment. The cost-effectiveness associated with fleet installation of ACN systems in Australia was also evaluated. A range of data sources were used to identify the range of road fatalities that ACN systems could potentially mitigate, with urban and r...

  14. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evalu...

  15. Reduced Ulcerogenic Potential and Antiarthritic Effect of Chitosan–Naproxen Sodium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pinaki; Bhise, Kiran S.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Bodhankar, S. L.; Kadam, Shivajirao S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium–chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treated ...

  16. A method for computing the inter-residue interaction potentials for reduced amino acid alphabet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhinav Luthra; Anupam Nath Jha; G K Ananthasuresh; Saraswathi Vishveswara

    2007-08-01

    Inter-residue potentials are extensively used in the design and evaluation of protein structures. However, dealing with all (20×20) interactions becomes computationally difficult in extensive investigations. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the alphabet of 20 amino acids to a smaller number. Currently, several methods of reducing the residue types exist; however a critical assessment of these methods is not available. Towards this goal, here we review and evaluate different methods by comparing with the complete (20×20) matrix of Miyazawa-Jernigan potential, including a method of grouping adopted by us, based on multi dimensional scaling (MDS). The second goal of this paper is the computation of inter-residue interaction energies for the reduced amino acid alphabet, which has not been explicitly addressed in the literature until now. By using a least squares technique, we present a systematic method of obtaining the interaction energy values for any type of grouping scheme that reduces the amino acid alphabet. This can be valuable in designing the protein structures.

  17. The Relative Abuse Liability of Oral Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Hydromorphone Assessed in Prescription Opioid Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Sharon L.; Nuzzo, Paul A; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Holtman, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioids has risen precipitously in the United States. Few controlled comparisons of the abuse liability of the most commonly abused opioids have been conducted. This outpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential and potency of oral oxycodone (10, 20 & 40 mg), hydrocodone (15, 30 & 45 mg), hydromorphone (10, 17.5 & 25 mg) and placebo. Healthy adult volunteers (n=9) with sporadic pres...

  18. Full potential energy curve for N2 by the reduced multireference coupled-cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhu; Paldus, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Relying on a 56-dimensional reference space and using up to the correlation-consistent, polarized, valence-quadruple-zeta (cc-pVQZ) basis sets, the reduced multireference (RMR) coupled-cluster method with singles and doubles (CCSD), as well as its perturbatively corrected version for secondary triples [RMR CCSD(T)], is employed to generate the full potential energy curves for the nitrogen molecule. The resulting potentials are then compared to the recently published accurate analytic potential based on an extensive experimental data analysis [R. J. Le Roy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164310 (2006)], and the vibrational term values of these potentials are compared over the entire well. A comparison with single-reference CCSD and CCSD(T) results, as well as with earlier obtained eight-reference RMR CC results, is also made. Excellent performance of RMR CCSD, and its systematic improvement with the increasing dimension of the reference space employed, is demonstrated. For the first 19 vibrationally excited levels, which are based on experimentally observed bands, we find an absolute average deviation of 8 cm-1 from the computed RMR CCSD/cc-pVQZ values. The perturbative correction for triples increases this deviation to 126 cm-1, but only to 61 cm-1 when extrapolated to the basis set limit. Both RMR CCSD and RMR CCSD(T) potentials perform well when compared to the experiment-based analytic potential in the entire range of internuclear separations.

  19. Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

  20. Marijuana Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemp plant. Changes in marijuana policies across states legalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational use suggest that marijuana is gaining greater acceptance in our society. Thus, it is ... forms of drug abuse or addiction more likely. Whether smoking or ...

  1. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

  2. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans EA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Evans, Maria A Sullivan Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Background: Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI” and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine” in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results: A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous. Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion: The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and implemented. Keywords: antidepressant, prescription, misuse, abuse, nonmedical use, dependence, addiction

  3. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy. PMID:22307280

  4. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use it as a base of operation for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to be violent while they're under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and ...

  5. 80 FR 17765 - Abuse-Deterrent Opioids-Evaluation and Labeling; Guidance for Industry; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    ...evaluating and labeling abuse-deterrent opioid products. The guidance...the potentially abuse-deterrent properties of an opioid analgesic formulated to...labeling of the abuse-deterrent properties of opioid analgesics intended...

  6. An overview of prodrug technology and its application for developing abuse-deterrent opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudin, Jeffrey A; Nalamachu, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified prescription drug abuse and overdose deaths as an epidemic. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death, with rates that have more than doubled since 1999. This crisis has developed concurrently with the increased prescribing and availability analgesic drugs, especially opioids, resulting from an effort on the part of clinicians to address a critical need for improved pain assessment and treatment. Clinicians have recognized that oftentimes, opioid analgesics are one of the few remaining options for patients who suffer with severe pain. A 2015 fact sheet issued by the Office of National Drug Policy stated: "While we must ensure better access to prescription medications to alleviate suffering, it is also vital that we do all we can to reduce the diversion and abuse of pharmaceuticals." The US Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance that encourages the research and development of abuse-deterrent formulation of opioids which have the potential to curtail abuse. Included among the recommended formulations for development of abuse-deterrent opioids are prodrugs. Prodrugs are chemically modified versions of pharmacological agents that must undergo a biochemical conversion following administration, often by enzymatic cleavage, to free the active drug. Prodrugs may be inherently abuse-deterrent because they are inactive or significantly less active until conversion to the active drug. This requirement for conversion in the GI tract can modify the pharmacokinetic profile and eliminate or reduce the euphoria when abusers change the route of administration. Abusers often attempt to extract the active drug for injection or insufflation. Prodrugs can be designed to be resistant to crushing or dissolving. In this article, we review the concept of prodrugs and introduce and examine the potential of abuse-deterrent opioid prodrugs. PMID:26615852

  7. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Thiemi Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-01-01

    Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The...

  8. Ionization potentials and electron affinities from reduced density matrix functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zarkadoula, E N; Dewhurst, J K; Gross, E K U; Lathiotakis, N N

    2012-01-01

    In the recent work of S. Sharma \\emph{et al.}, (arXiv:0912.1118), a single-electron spectrum associated with the natural orbitals was defined as the derivative of the total energy with respect to the occupation numbers at half filling for the orbital of interest. This idea reproduces the bands of various periodic systems using the appropriate functional quite accurately. In the present work we apply this approximation to the calculation of the ionization potentials and electron affinities of molecular systems using various functionals within the reduced density-matrix functional theory, and demonstrate that this approximation is very successful.

  9. Update on abuse-resistant and abuse-deterrent approaches to opioid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lynn

    2009-07-01

    The number of opioid analgesic prescriptions has increased since 1990. Opioids are being prescribed for longer periods of time for both cancer- and noncancer-associated moderate to severe chronic pain. Concurrent with the increased prescribing of opioids has been an increase in their diversion from prescribed use and their abuse; frequently, this abuse occurs after the opioid analgesic has been physically or chemically manipulated to increase the concentration or bioavailability of the active ingredient. Formulations of opioids have been designed to resist the extraction of the active opioid from prescribed products through the incorporation of physical barriers or to deter the reinforcing effects of opioids through the incorporation of antagonists or other ingredients that only become active when the analgesic is used improperly. However, none of these formulations are currently commercially available in the United States. This paper describes the formulations now under development and their potential clinical utility and impact on society. These emerging opioid formulations designed to reduce the risk of misuse and/or abuse may be useful to physicians in meeting the important goals of maximizing pain relief and minimizing prescription opioid abuse. PMID:19691683

  10. High rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in freshwater wetlands reduce potential atmospheric methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, K E A; Schubotz, F; Samarkin, V; Yoshinaga, M Y; Hinrichs, K-U; Joye, S B

    2015-01-01

    The role of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in wetlands, the largest natural source of atmospheric methane, is poorly constrained. Here we report rates of microbially mediated AOM (average rate=20?nmol?cm(-3) per day) in three freshwater wetlands that span multiple biogeographical provinces. The observed AOM rates rival those in marine environments. Most AOM activity may have been coupled to sulphate reduction, but other electron acceptors remain feasible. Lipid biomarkers typically associated with anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea were more enriched in (13)C than those characteristic of marine systems, potentially due to distinct microbial metabolic pathways or dilution with heterotrophic isotope signals. On the basis of this extensive data set, AOM in freshwater wetlands may consume 200?Tg methane per year, reducing their potential methane emissions by over 50%. These findings challenge precepts surrounding wetland carbon cycling and demonstrate the environmental relevance of an anaerobic methane sink in ecosystems traditionally considered strong methane sources. PMID:26123199

  11. Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intima Alrimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

  12. Peer abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

  13. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6, containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L or not (control, 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear. Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean wear (±se was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

  14. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tes...

  15. Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)

  16. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  17. The potential for automatic crash notification systems to reduce road fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahausse, Julie A; Fildes, Brian N; Page, Yves; Fitzharris, Michael P

    2008-10-01

    This predictive study investigated the effectiveness of Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) systems in reducing road fatalities, due to enabling faster emergency medical services (EMS) notification times, and therefore, the earlier provision of treatment. The cost-effectiveness associated with fleet installation of ACN systems in Australia was also evaluated. A range of data sources were used to identify the range of road fatalities that ACN systems could potentially mitigate, with urban and rural crashes analyzed separately, due to the average EMS notification time being slower for rural areas. It was established that ACN would provide an average crash-to-EMS notification time of one minute, which represented a three minute reduction in the total crash-to-hospital time for urban areas, with the corresponding reduction for rural areas being six minutes. Calculations revealed that these reductions would save an estimated 104 fatalities on Australian roads per annum (41 urban and 63 rural), assuming all vehicles were fitted with ACN. This corresponds to almost 11% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities. Despite the potential for ACN to significantly influence the Australian road toll, the benefit-cost-ratio analysis indicated that without government support, the systems are unlikely to be a cost-effective option for mandatory installation in all registered passenger vehicles. It was also recommended, however, that the benefits of ACN systems should be further investigated, in order to better establish their potential to increase road safety. PMID:19026225

  18. Radiological assessment of the limits and potential of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu, E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp; Someya, Yoji; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Hirose, Takanori; Ochiai, Kentaro

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Ni is the major contamination element that should be removed to reduce the activation levels. • The amount of 14C transmuted from N must be reduced to achieve the shallow land burial limit. • About 100 ppm N will remain in the EAF melted steel, and Ni contamination occurs during the melting process. • Using Al for deoxidation of the RAFM steel has no significant impact on the activation levels. • The impact of the minor elements such as Ag is negligible compared to that of Ni and N. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed as the structural material for the fusion demonstration reactor, DEMO. These steels contain elements that produce radioactive isotopes and decay to low levels in timeframe required by the waste management scenario. Developments within the past quarter-century suggest a practical limit to the removal of undesired impurities such as Co, Cu, Ni, Mo and Nb. The concentrations of elements essential for the mechanical properties of RAFM steels, such as Al and N, required a compromise between the waste disposal scenario and performance demand. The limits and potential of RAFM steel pertaining to reducing the activation levels after service are discussed based on the actual achievements of F82H, Japanese RAFM steel, and numerical analyses of the activity. It was found that in order to achieve the shallow land burial limits 100 years after a reactor shutdown, Ni is the most significant impurity that must be removed (Mo in the case of the first wall). Limiting N below concentrations of 100 ppm will not be possible for a large scale melt, but concentrations of Al up to the maximum amount that has been achieved present no problems.

  19. Radiological assessment of the limits and potential of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ni is the major contamination element that should be removed to reduce the activation levels. • The amount of 14C transmuted from N must be reduced to achieve the shallow land burial limit. • About 100 ppm N will remain in the EAF melted steel, and Ni contamination occurs during the melting process. • Using Al for deoxidation of the RAFM steel has no significant impact on the activation levels. • The impact of the minor elements such as Ag is negligible compared to that of Ni and N. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed as the structural material for the fusion demonstration reactor, DEMO. These steels contain elements that produce radioactive isotopes and decay to low levels in timeframe required by the waste management scenario. Developments within the past quarter-century suggest a practical limit to the removal of undesired impurities such as Co, Cu, Ni, Mo and Nb. The concentrations of elements essential for the mechanical properties of RAFM steels, such as Al and N, required a compromise between the waste disposal scenario and performance demand. The limits and potential of RAFM steel pertaining to reducing the activation levels after service are discussed based on the actual achievements of F82H, Japanese RAFM steel, and numerical analyses of the activity. It was found that in order to achieve the shallow land burial limits 100 years after a reactor shutdown, Ni is the most significant impurity that must be removed (Mo in the case of the first wall). Limiting N below concentrations of 100 ppm will not be possible for a large scale melt, but concentrations of Al up to the maximum amount that has been achieved present no problems

  20. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Body Works Main Page How to Handle Abuse KidsHealth > Kids > Feelings > My Emotions & Behaviors > How to ... adult. Continue How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? There are lots of forms of abuse — including ...

  1. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  2. Child abuse - sexual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same type of risk factors as physical child abuse , including: Alcohol and drug abuse Family troubles Poverty ... write down symptoms due to any form of child abuse. An exam will automatically be scheduled when suspected ...

  3. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  4. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  5. Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Intima Alrimawi; Ahmad Rajeh Saifan; Mohannad AbuRuz

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted ...

  6. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals.

  7. Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-12-01

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm-2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.

  8. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melissa Thiemi, Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a [...] crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

  9. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ingrid M; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have spurred the promotion of no-tillage practices as a means to stimulate carbon storage and reduce CO2 emissions in agro-ecosystems. Recent research has ignited debate about the effect of earthworms on the GHG balance of soil. It is unclear how earthworms interact with soil management practices, making long-term predictions on their effect in agro-ecosystems problematic. Here we show, in a unique two-year experiment, that earthworm presence increases the combined cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O from a simulated no-tillage (NT) system to the same level as a simulated conventional tillage (CT) system. We found no evidence for increased soil C storage in the presence of earthworms. Because NT agriculture stimulates earthworm presence, our results identify a possible biological pathway for the limited potential of no-tillage soils with respect to GHG mitigation. PMID:26337488

  10. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  11. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or sexual abuse, or emotional abuse. In all kinds of child abuse, the child and the family can benefit ...

  12. Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity – Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity. PMID:24073244

  13. Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NOx, 0.07 million tonnes in SOx and 4.1 million tonnes in CO2. These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ? Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. ? We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ? A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ? Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ? Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

  14. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2015-02-01

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m(3); 3h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks. PMID:25549921

  15. [Silent abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolin, G S

    1986-09-15

    The rate of "silent abuse" is probably underestimated by the current esteem of 1:200 in the general population. Because of the criterion of "silent inconspicuousness" most of the patients concerned elude statistical records. So much the more, however, they need medical attention. It is a highly urgent problem, involving individual as well as social medicine, and carrying the risk of massive damage to health, shortening of life expectancy and loss of ability to enjoy creativity and pleasure. The presenting symptoms are mainly headache, sleep disturbances and vegetative manifestations. The (over-)medication in use consists mainly of analgesics, tranquillizers and narcotics. The etiological background is made up (usually in close interdependency) of depression, external circumstances and neurotic development as well as a distinct type of personality (to be understood as the result of interaction between genetic and psychodynamic factors). Especially, there appears a personality structure according to the present ideal picture of achievement and order. Therefore, even from the medical point of view, hardly ever to be regarded as deviant or in need of therapy. In some cases out of this constellation arises a further enhancement of the mechanisms of abuse. Among rational objective measures we can propose: Increased information of the public and further special education of medical people, especially referring to rational therapy of depression and pain without the use of analgesics, furthermore, rational psychotherapeutic guidance; attempts at more specified and follow-up care of disaccustomed abusers; intensified public relation work in cooperation between medical doctors and politicians.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2879388

  16. Identification of a potential gene expression biomarker signature in bovine liver to detect the abuse of growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Spornraft, Melanie; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The misuse of anabolic agents in animal husbandry is a ubiquitous problem. The ban of growth promoters in food producing animals in the European Union is well controlled, but there are still application regimes, such as new designed drugs or hormone cocktails, that are difficult to detect. Therefore, the idea of identifying molecular biomarkers that are based on the physiological effect of treatment has come into focus. In a previous study we identified mRNA biomarker candidates in liver samples that enable the separation of untreated animals from animals treated with a combination of androgens plus estrogens. In the present study those candidates were validated in calves treated with a combination of progesterone plus estradiol or clenbuterol, respectively. Therefore, the candidate genes were quantified in liver samples of those calves via RT-qPCR. Using dynamic principal component analysis (PCA), a signature of 11 genes could be selected. This set of genes enabled the separation of treated and control animals independent of the applied drug. Additional quantification of these genes in a set of control samples from another animal trial resulted in a PCA that also showed a separation of those samples from treated animals. This study showed that gene expression biomarkers have a high potential to enable the detection of physiological changes caused by the application of growth-promoting substances independent of the given drug, but further studies are necessary to broaden the spectrum of anabolic substance groups for which those biomarker candidates can be used. PMID:24559206

  17. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  18. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Exploiting the Reducing Potential of Trapa bispinosa Peel Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work reports exceptionally high reducing capacity of Trapa bispinosa to synthesize monodispersed silver nanoparticles (SNPs) within 120 seconds at 30 degree C which is the shortest tenure reported for SNP synthesis using plants. Moreover, we also instigated impact of different ph values on fabrication of SNPs using visible spectroscopy with respect to time. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag was calculated using ICP-AES analysis and was found to be 97% at pH = 7. To investigate the reduction of Ag+ ions to SNPs, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and open circuit potential (OCP) using 0.1M KNO3 were performed. There was prompt reduction in cathodic and anodic currents after addition of the peel extract which indicates the reducing power of T. bispinosa peel. Stability of the SNPs was studied using flocculation parameter (FP) which was found to be least at all the pH values. FP was found to be indirectly proportional to stability of the nanoparticles

  19. Reduced folate carrier independent internalization of PEGylated pemetrexed: a potential nanomedicinal approach for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, Mallaredy; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-10-01

    Pemetrexed has been widely used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of cancers including breast cancer. It is a multitargeted antifolate that gets transported to cells primarily by reduced folate carrier (RFC) and exerts its action by disrupting folate-dependent metabolic processes essential for cell replication. The loss of RFC leads to impaired transport of pemetrexed, which in turn decreases its intracellular concentration and reduces its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Furthermore, the multidrug resistance (MDR) related proteins (MRPs) contribute to pemetrexed efflux from the cancer cells. These observations prompted us to develop PEGylated pemetrexed that follows an efficient cellular internalization route independent of RFC and simultaneously bypasses the MRP efflux mechanism for acting as an efficient chemotherapeutic agent. Thus, the present study focuses on PEGylation of pemetrexed for its superior therapeutic efficiency by evaluating its cellular uptake and retention by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in breast cancer cell lines having RFC expression and lacking RFC expression, that is, MCF7 and MDA MB231, respectively. In addition, the treatment of PEGylated pemetrexed lead to enhanced cytotoxicity due to S-phase arrest and apoptosis in the above mentioned cell lines. Interestingly, the longer circulation time of PEGylated pemetrexed in animal model concomitant with the RFC independent uptake and enhanced cytotoxicity suggests it to be a potential candidate for cancer therapy in a clinical setting. PMID:22894559

  20. Potential transportation measures to reduce South Africa's dependency on crude oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Vanderschuren; R, Jobanputra; T, Lane.

    Full Text Available Transportation, including the movement of people and freight, accounts for over 60% of all oil consumed globally, and the world's transportation systems are over 90%o dependent on oil and oil byproducts. Oil represents the single largest item on South Africa's import account. Gasoline and diesel fue [...] ls, which are almost exclusively used for transportation services, form a significant proportion of these imports. Globally, transport systems have been built on an over-reliance on cheap oil, allowing towns, cities and the movement of people and goods to be designed around the automobile. People in most South African cities require the use of motorised transport in order to travel efficiently, as public transport systems either do not exist, are too sparse or are difficult to use in many areas. The predicted depletion of oil and thus rising prices will significantly affect the choice of transportation systems and their use, as well as increase South Africa's vulnerability to 'oil shocks'. Transport planning policies must, therefore, prepare for the likelihood of such shocks and ameliorate them via policy options. A precautionary approach needs to be adopted to reduce our dependency on oil. This paper addresses the global shift towards the reduction of transport's dependency on, or reduction in, oil consumption and describes potential ways in which South Africa can reduce its oil dependency along with an indication of a timeframe for implementation.

  1. Reduced ventral striatal/ventral pallidal serotonin1B receptor binding potential in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrough, James W.; Henry, Shannan; Hu, Jian; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Neumaier, John F.; Neumeister, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Although serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), the role of specific receptor subtypes remains to be elucidated. Emerging preclinical research suggests an important role for the 5-HT1B receptor in behavioral regulation and depressive phenotypes. In particular, 5-HT1B heteroreceptors located within the striatum have been shown to play an essential role in antidepressant action. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine 5-HT1B receptor binding potential (BPND) in the region of the ventral striatum/ventral pallidum (VS/VP) in individuals with MDD and healthy control participants. Methods Ten participants with MDD (30.8±9.5 years, five men/five women) in a current major depressive episode (MDE) and ten healthy control participants (30.7±10.5 years, five men/five women) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with the selective 5-HT1B receptor radioligand [11C]P943. Results Within the VS/VP region of interest, [11C]P943 BPND was significantly reduced in the MDD group compared with the healthy control group (1.37±0.13 and 1.68±0.16, respectively; 18.7% between-group difference; p<0.001). Conclusions Consistent with preclinical and postmortem data, our findings suggest abnormally reduced function of VS/VP 5-HT1B receptors in humans with MDD. Abnormal 5-HT1B heteroreceptor function may contribute to dysfunctional reward signaling within the striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, via interaction with dopamine, ?-amino-butyric acid, or glutamate systems. Our findings suggest reduced 5-HT1B receptor signaling in the VS/VP in MDD and contribute to the therapeutic rationale for testing 5-HT1B agonists as a novel class of antidepressants. PMID:20480149

  2. Distinct germination response of endangered and common arable weeds to reduced water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A T; Eckstein, R L; Otte, A; Donath, T W

    2016-01-01

    Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land-use management are the main causes of their dramatic decline. However, besides the changes in land use, climate change may further challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Therefore, we investigated the response pattern of arable weeds to different water potential and temperature regimes during the phase of germination. We expected that endangered arable weeds would be more sensitive to differences in water availability and temperature than common arable weeds. To this end, we set up a climate chamber experiment where we exposed seeds of five familial pairs of common and endangered arable weed species to different temperatures (5/15, 10/20 °C) and water potentials (0.0 to -1.2 MPa). The results revealed a significant relationship between the reaction of arable weed species to water availability and their Red List status. The effects of reduced water availability on total germination, mean germination time and synchrony were significantly stronger in endangered than in common arable weeds. Therefore, global climate change may present a further threat to the survival of endangered arable weed species. PMID:25786499

  3. Checklist Usage as a Guidance on Read-Back Reducing the Potential Risk of Medication Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus N. Maharjana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital as a last line of health services shall provide quality service and oriented on patient safety, one responsibility in preventing medication errors. Effective collaboration and communication between the profession needed to achieve patient safety. Read-back is one way of doing effective communication. Before-after study with PDCA TQM approach. The samples were on the medication chart patient medical rd rd records in the 3 week of May (before and the 3 week in July (after 2013. Treatment using the check list, asked for time 2 minutes to read-back by the doctors and nurses after the visit together. Obtained 57 samples (before and 64 samples (after. Before charging 45.54% incomplete medication chart on patient medical records that have the potential risk of medication error to 10.17% after treatment with a read back check list for 10 weeks, with 77.78% based on the achievement of the PDCA TQM approach. Checklist usage as a guidance on Read-back as an effective communication can reduce charging incompleteness drug records on medical records that have the potential risk of medication errors, 45.54% to 10.17%.

  4. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

    2012-09-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

  5. Duck Production: Has a Potential to Reduce Poverty among Rural Households in Asian Communities – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adzitey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Duck production plays an important part in the agricultural economy of many Asia countries. The continent alone accounts for 82.6% of the total duck meat produced worldwide. Not only is Asia involved in duck production but also duck meat, eggs and their products are relished and consumed by many Asians. In spite of this, intensive education to empower rural households to increase duck production is limited. In recent times, much emphasize is being laid on commercialization to increase production at the neglect of rural household production. Subsequently this can affect the income levels of many rural households in Asia countries with the potential and can take the advantage to engage in duck production should they have been given adequate training and education. Poverty alleviation among rural communities had involved a number of strategies including women empowerment, promotion of crop, poultry and livestock production, and various activities of governmental and non-governmental organizations geared towards community development. Considering the population, importance and prospects of duck production in Asia, this mini review discusses the potentials duck farming has in reducing poverty level among rural communities in Asia

  6. The potential of fuelwood to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project FEEDS (Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies) has been carried out to analyze possibilities of increasing fuelwood use for five selected European countries in the year 2020, considering environmental, technical and socio-economic aspects. In this paper the effects of increased use of fuelwood on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, are presented. Achievable emission reductions in Sweden range from 6.9 to 17.2 Mt CO2 equivalents, which is equivalent to 12 and 30% of total energy-related GHG emissions in 1995. In Finland a reduction between 5.0 and 10.5 Mt (9 and 18%) is seen to be possible. For France (8.6 and 13.6 Mt; 2 and 4%), Austria (3.7 and 6.2 Mt; 6 and 10%) and Portugal (1.8 and 2.4 Mt; 4 and 6%), relative emission reductions are lower, because of the usable fuelwood potential, but also the market potential in various sectors of the economy are lower. Greatest emission reductions in 2020 are expected in the sectors of individual housing, collective housing (France, Austria and Sweden), tertiary, manufacturing and other industries (Portugal) and district heating (Finland, Sweden). The scenarios indicate that fuelwood has significant yet limited possibilities to reduce total emissions of GHG in the five countries, with the greatest relative reductions in Sweden and Finland. (author)

  7. Methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation. PMID:17990840

  8. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  9. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  10. What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakely Tony

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP. Consequently the smoking-related mortality burden is higher among these populations. Regarding the gap in mortality between low and high socioeconomic groups, 21% and 11% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking in 1996–99. Regarding the gap in mortality between M?ori and non-M?ori/non-Pacific, 5% and 8% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking. The estimates from both these studies are probably moderate underestimates due to misclassification bias of smoking status. Despite the modest relative contribution of smoking to these gaps, the absolute number of smoking-attributable deaths is sizable and amenable to policy and health sector responses. There is some evidence, from New Zealand and elsewhere, for interventions that reduce smoking by low-income populations and indigenous peoples. These include tobacco taxation, thematically appropriate mass media campaigns, and appropriate smoking cessation support services. But there are as yet untried interventions with major potential. A key one is for a tighter regulatory framework that could rapidly shift the nicotine market towards pharmaceutical-grade nicotine (or smokeless tobacco products and away from smoked tobacco.

  11. What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony; Tobias, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity) and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP). Consequently the smoking-related mortality burden is higher among these populations. Regarding the gap in mortality between low and high socioeconomic groups, 21% and 11% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking in 1996-99. Regarding the gap in mortality between M?ori and non-M?ori/non-Pacific, 5% and 8% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking. The estimates from both these studies are probably moderate underestimates due to misclassification bias of smoking status. Despite the modest relative contribution of smoking to these gaps, the absolute number of smoking-attributable deaths is sizable and amenable to policy and health sector responses. There is some evidence, from New Zealand and elsewhere, for interventions that reduce smoking by low-income populations and indigenous peoples. These include tobacco taxation, thematically appropriate mass media campaigns, and appropriate smoking cessation support services. But there are as yet untried interventions with major potential. A key one is for a tighter regulatory framework that could rapidly shift the nicotine market towards pharmaceutical-grade nicotine (or smokeless tobacco products) and away from smoked tobacco. PMID:17081299

  12. Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Y de; Windig, J J; Calus, M P L; Dijkstra, J; Haan, M de; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F

    2011-12-01

    Mitigation of enteric methane (CH?) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH? is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH? emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH? yield. Measuring CH? emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH? emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH? predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH? output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane produced per unit feed is not affected by RFI level), as well as the limitations of predicting the biological consequences of selection. To overcome these limitations, an international effort is required to bring together data on feed intake and methane emissions of dairy cows. PMID:22118100

  13. Reducing symbolic-violence in the research encounter: collaborating with a survivor of domestic abuse in a qualitative study in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. PMID:26403218

  14. Systematic screening for child abuse at emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Louwers, Eveline (Eefje)

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious problem and has serious consequences for the victim, his or her environment and for society itself. It has been estimated that one in every 30 Dutch children is exposed to child abuse.1 While preventable morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in childhood is enormously reduced over the past decades, unfortunately this has not been the case for the staggering statistics surrounding child abuse.2 Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional maltreatm...

  15. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  16. Estimating Potential and Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions in Lithuanian Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaraminienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU is considering increasing the GHG emissions reduction target by 2020 from 20% to 30% by committing each member state to tighten up its emission reduction goals. According to the recent study such decision could cost some 2 365 million LTL to Lithuanian economy. Evaluation and comparison of CO2 abatement costs incurred by the state implementing a variety of measures in different sectors allow choosing a most cost effective policy scenario. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions related to energy use in buildings. First, this paper reviews the role of the Lithuanian building stock in overall GHG emissions. Then the paper examines the existing studies on the CO2 mitigation potential and cost in buildings. Given the limitations of existing evaluation and lack of comprehensive modelling in the existing studies, this paper proposes a framework for examining the technology options aimed to inform policy making on the options to reduce CO2 emissions in Lithuanian housing and service sectors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.680

  17. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ? From 1990 to 2008, CO2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ? Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ? The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ? The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ? Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  18. Reducing the potential for conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of potential conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities are identified and analyzed. Programs and policies are suggested that could reduce conflict over the siting and operation of such facilities

  19. Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often begins in childhood or adolescence. NIH-funded studies have found that prevention programs targeting this time of life are effective in reducing drug abuse. Successful prevention involves families, schools, communities and the media. Despite these efforts, people still try drugs, and ...

  20. Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community. Caregivers can: ■ Get help. Making use of social and support services, including support groups, respite care, home delivered meals, adult day care and assessment services, can reduce the stress associated with abuse. ■ Learn to recognize their “triggers,” ...

  1. Potentials of the first excited ( A) state of LiNa, Na 2, and K 2 by the generalized reduced potential curve method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen?, F.; Brandt, B. A.

    1992-03-01

    Rydberg-Klein-Rees potentials for the first excited ( A) state of LiNa, Na 2, and K 2 are extended by the generalized reduced potential curve method from 50 to 60% of the depth of the potential well up to the dissociation limit. The method is tested on the potentials of the ground state. The error limit in the extensions in the attractive limb should be essentially smaller than 3 cm -1 for LiNa, smaller than 10 and 15 cm -1 for Na 2 and K 2, respectively, and smaller than 0.001 Å in the repulsive limb for all three molecules.

  2. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH, were detected in tap water from one sampling point at concentrations of 1.61 and 0.29ngL(-1), respectively. The preliminary human health risk characterization showed that no toxic effects could be expected at the detected concentration level in tap water. The screening level risk assessment showed that MOR, EDDP and the THC metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were present in at least one of the sampling sites in a concentration leading to a Hazard Quotient (HQ) value between 1.0 and 10.0, thus indicating some possible adverse effects. The cumulative HQ or Toxic units (TUs) calculated for each of the groups studied showed that opioids and cannabinoids were present at concentrations high enough to potentially generate some adverse effects on at least one sampling point. PMID:24908641

  3. DRUG ABUSE BY THE TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.VENUMADHAVA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in thecrime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impairjudgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assaultand impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability,addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.With most drug users being in the productive age group of 18-35 years, the loss in terms ofhuman potential is incalculable.

  4. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  6. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  7. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  8. Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery

    OpenAIRE

    VanDeMark Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies that promote such...

  9. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  10. Physical Activity as a Potential Mechanism Through Which Social Support May Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Aggarwal, Brooke A.; Liao, Ming; Mosca, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Social support has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been suggested that the protective effect of social support is mediated through the autonomic nervous system and/or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, but data are sparse, especially in diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pathways through which social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Baseline data from The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Famil...

  11. A ketogenic diet reduces long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koranda, Jessica L.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.; Blaise, J Harry

    2011-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are very low in carbohydrates and can reduce epileptic seizures significantly. This dietary therapy is particularly effective in pediatric and drug-resistant epilepsy. Hypothesized anticonvulsant mechanisms of ketogenic diets focus on increased inhibition and/or decreased excitability/excitation. Either of these consequences might not only reduce seizures, but also could affect normal brain function and synaptic plasticity. Here, we characterized effects of a ketogenic diet on...

  12. Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Holly R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important arboviruses of humans and cause significant disease. Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fcγ receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. Here we describe results from the development and testing of cross-reactivity reduced DENV-2 DNA vaccine candidates that contain substitutions in immunodominant B cell epitopes of the fusion peptide and domain III of the envelope protein. Results Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. Sera from mice immunized with wild-type, fusion peptide-, or domain III- substitution containing vaccines enhanced heterologous DENV infection in vitro, unlike sera from mice immunized with a vaccine containing a combination of both fusion peptide and domain III substitutions. Passive transfer of immune sera from mice immunized with fusion peptide and domain III substitutions also reduced the development of severe DENV disease in AG129 mice when compared to mice receiving wild type immune sera. Conclusions Reducing cross-reactivity in the envelope glycoprotein of DENV may be an approach to improve the quality of the anti-DENV immune response.

  13. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  14. What is Elder Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... financial situations may be the result of exploitation. Bedsores, unattended medical needs, poor hygiene, and unusual weight ... or Exploitation? National Center on Elder Abuse AoA Prevention of Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation program Back ...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was ... this into account when prescribing medicines. People who abuse these drugs may not understand the risks. The ...

  16. Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... threatens whole communities, causing new waves of crime, unemployment, child neglect or abuse, and other social ills. A 2009 report from the RAND Corporation noted that methamphetamine abuse cost the Nation approximately $23.4 billion in 2005. ...

  17. Rural Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevention program resources for youth include: Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) Teaches students good decision- ... marijuana, and other drugs. National Institute on Drug Abuse ... education of children and teens. Underage Drinking Enforcement Training ...

  18. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Drugs of Abuse Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... she is thought to be at risk for drug abuse or has a newborn baby exhibiting certain characteristic ...

  19. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, and ... non-participating states, the national office. Healthy Families America® (HFA) (312) 663-3520 An innovative initiative designed ...

  20. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  1. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  2. A comparative assessment of the curative potential of reduced intensity allografts in acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, N H; Kjeldsen, L; Craddock, C; Pagliuca, A; Yin, J A; Clark, R E; Howman, A; Hills, R K; Burnett, A K

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) provides the best mechanism of preventing relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However non-relapse mortality (NRM) negates this benefit in older patients. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) permits SCT with reduced NRM, but its contribution to cure...... is uncertain. In the MRC AML15 Trial, patients in remission without favourable risk disease could receive SCT from a matched sibling or unrelated donor (MUD). If aged >45 years, a RIC was recommended and in patients aged 35-44 years, either RIC or myeloablative conditioning was permitted. The aim was...... to determine which approach improved survival and within which prespecified cytogenetic groups. RIC transplants significantly reduced relapse (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66 (0.50-0.85), P=0.002) compared to chemotherapy The 5-year overall survival from a sibling RIC (61%) was superior to a MUD RIC...

  3. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

  4. Catalase activity as a potential indicator of the reducer component of small closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangova, A. B.; Somova, L. A.; Pisman, T. I.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of catalase activity has been shown to reflect the growth curve of microorganisms in batch cultivation (celluloselythic bacteria Bacillus acidocaldarius and bacteria of the associated microflora Chlorella vulgaris). Gas and substrate closure of the three component ecosystems with spatially separated components ``producer-consumer-reducer'' (Chl. vulgaris-Paramecium caudatum-B. acidocaldarius, two bacterial strains isolated from the associated microflora Chl. vulgaris) demonstrated that the functioning of the reducer component can be estimated by the catalase activity of microorganisms of this component.

  5. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  6. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  7. Elder Abuse FAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids aren’t all right: The failure of child abuse statutes as a model for elder abuse statutes. ... 12-508.pdf; Sabatino, C. P. (2011). Damage prevention and control for financial ... Hawes, C. (2003). Elder abuse in residential long-term care settings: What is ...

  8. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress : 5 year follow-up of a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points as repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress was found between groups at 1 and 5 year follow-up. Difference in trajectories was found for the two groups (time*treatment group interaction, CR-PTSD, P = 0.012 and GSI, P = 0.021). Level of PTSD symptoms on the CR-PTSD was validated at 5 year follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, ?2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch.

  9. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

  11. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  12. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. Corn Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is both an anthropogenic source of CO2, CH4, and N2O, and a sink for CO2 and CH4. Management can impact agriculture's net global warming potential (GWP) by changing source and/or sink. This study compared GWP among three crop management systems: business as usual (BAU), optimum greenhous...

  13. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani,

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  14. Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

  15. Influences on youthful driving behavior and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Shope, J. T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an organized, comprehensive view of the factors known to influence young drivers' behavior and how those factors might inform interventions to reduce crashes. This effort was done from the perspective of a public health professional, with a background in health behavior and health education, interested in preventing injury and death among young people from motor vehicle crashes. The author's own studies, selected relevant literature, observation, and experience were consid...

  16. Discontinuity of the chemical potential in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, N.; Lathiotakis, N. N.; Albrecht, M.; Gross, E.K.U.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel method for calculating the fundamental gap. To this end, reduced-density-matrix-functional theory is generalized to fractional particle number. For each fixed particle number, $M$, the total energy is minimized with respect to the natural orbitals and their occupation numbers. This leads to a function, $E_{\\mathrm{tot}}^M$, whose derivative with respect to the particle number has a discontinuity identical to the gap. In contrast to density functional theor...

  17. Alternatives to reduce sodium in processed foods and the potential of high pressure technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Morais RODRIGUES; Rosenthal, Amauri; Júlia Hauck TIBURSKI; Adriano Gomes da CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIn most industrialized countries, the sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. In this sense the search for healthier foods has led the food industry to review their formulations in relation to food components such as salt, which is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. As a result, different strategies for reducing salt levels in processed foods have been investigated. Among the technological options available, the high-pressure processing has stood out by...

  18. A comparative assessment of the curative potential of reduced intensity allografts in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, N H; Kjeldsen, L; Craddock, C; Pagliuca, A; Yin, J A; Clark, R E; Howman, A; Hills, R K; Burnett, A K

    2015-07-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) provides the best mechanism of preventing relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However non-relapse mortality (NRM) negates this benefit in older patients. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) permits SCT with reduced NRM, but its contribution to cure is uncertain. In the MRC AML15 Trial, patients in remission without favourable risk disease could receive SCT from a matched sibling or unrelated donor (MUD). If aged >45 years, a RIC was recommended and in patients aged 35-44 years, either RIC or myeloablative conditioning was permitted. The aim was to determine which approach improved survival and within which prespecified cytogenetic groups. RIC transplants significantly reduced relapse (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66 (0.50-0.85), P=0.002) compared to chemotherapy The 5-year overall survival from a sibling RIC (61%) was superior to a MUD RIC (37%; adjusted HR 1.50 (1.01-2.21), P=0.04) due to lower NRM (34 vs 14%, P=0.002) In adjusted analyses, there was a survival benefit for sibling RIC over chemotherapy (59 vs 49%, HR 0.75 (0.57-0.97), P=0.03), with consistent results in intermediate and adverse-risk patients. In patients aged 35-44 years, best outcomes were seen with a sibling RIC transplant, although a comparison with chemotherapy and myeloablative transplant was not significant in adjusted analyses (P=0.3). PMID:25376374

  19. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  20. The potential of melatonin in reducing morbidity-mortality after craniocerebral trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M D; Murillo-Cabezas, F; Terron, M P; Flores, L J; Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Reiter, R J

    2007-01-01

    Craniocerebral trauma (CCT) is the most frequent cause of morbidity-mortality as a result of an accident. The probable origins and etiologies are multifactorial and include free radical formation and oxidative stress, the suppression of nonspecific resistance, lymphocytopenia (disorder in the adhesion and activation of cells), opportunistic infections, regional macro and microcirculatory alterations, disruptive sleep-wake cycles and toxicity caused by therapeutic agents. These pathogenic factors contribute to the unfavorable development of clinical symptoms as the disease progresses. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an indoleamine endogenously produced in the pineal gland and in other organs and it is protective agent against damage following CCT. Some of the actions of melatonin that support its pharmacological use after CCT include its role as a scavenger of both oxygen and nitrogen-based reactants, stimulation of the activities of a variety of antioxidative enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase), inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation-adhesion molecules which consequently reduces lymphocytopenia and infections by opportunistic organisms. The chronobiotic capacity of melatonin may also reset the natural circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin reduces the toxicity of the drugs used in the treatment of CCT and increases their efficacy. Finally, melatonin crosses the blood-brain barrier and reduces contusion volume and stabilizes cellular membranes preventing vasospasm and apoptosis of endothelial cells that occurs as a result of CCT. PMID:17198533

  1. Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

  2. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss

    OpenAIRE

    Siikamäki, Juha; James N. Sanchirico; Jardine, Sunny L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Us...

  3. Ionization potentials and electron affinities from reduced density matrix functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadoula, E. N.; Sharma, S.(Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India); Dewhurst, J.K.; Gross, E.K.U.; Lathiotakis, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent work of S. Sharma \\emph{et al.}, (arxiv.org: arxiv:0912.1118), a single-electron spectrum associated with the natural orbitals was defined as the derivative of the total energy with respect to the occupation numbers at half filling for the orbital of interest. This idea reproduces the bands of various periodic systems using the appropriate functional quite accurately. In the present work we apply this approximation to the calculation of the ionization potential...

  4. What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation

    OpenAIRE

    Blakely Tony; Wilson Nick; Tobias Martin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity) and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP). Consequently the smoking-related mor...

  5. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X.; Jefferson, Amy M.; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T.; SCHWEGLER-BERRY, DIANE; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L.; ROBERTS, JENNY R.; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2014-01-01

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aeroso...

  6. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  7. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  8. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

  9. Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

  10. Reduced and oxidised scytonemin: Theoretical protocol for Raman spectroscopic identification of potential key biomolecules for astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Scytonemin is an important UV-radiation protective biomolecule synthesised by extremophilic cyanobacteria in stressed terrestrial environments. Scytonemin and its reduced form have been both isolated experimentally and the Raman spectrum for scytonemin has been assigned and characterised experimentally both in extracts and in living extremophilic cyanobacterial colonies. Scytonemin is recognised as a key biomarker molecule for terrestrial organisms in stressed environments. We propose a new, theoretically plausible structure for oxidised scytonemin which has not been mentioned in the literature hitherto. DFT calculations for scytonemin, reduced scytonemin and the new structure modelled and proposed for oxidised scytonemin are reported along with their Raman spectroscopic data and ?max UV-absorption data obtained theoretically. Comparison of the vibrational spectroscopic assignments allows the three forms of scytonemin to be detected and identified and assist not only in the clarification of the major features in the experimentally observed Raman spectral data for the parent scytonemin but also support a protocol proposed for their analytical discrimination. The results of this study provide a basis for the search for molecules of this type in future astrobiological missions of exploration and the search for extinct and extant life terrestrially.

  11. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  12. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations. PMID:26282112

  13. The potential for short-rotation woody crops to reduce US CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) could potentially displace fossil fuels and thus mitigate CO2 buildup in the atmosphere. To determine how much fossil fuel SRWC might displace in the United States and what the associated fossil carbon savings might be, a series of assumptions must be made. These assumptions concern the net SRWC biomass yields per hectare (after losses); the amount of suitable land dedicated to SRWC production; wood conversion efficiencies to electricity or liquid fuels; the energy substitution properties of various fuels; and the amount of fossil fuel used in growing, harvesting, transporting, and converting SRWC biomass. Assuming the current climate, present production, and conversion technologies and considering a conservative estimate of the US land base available for SRWC (14 x 106 ha), it is calculated that SRWC energy could displace 33.2 to 73.1 x 106 Mg of fossil carbon releases, 3-6% of the current annual US emissions. The carbon mitigation potential per unit of land is larger with the substitution of SRWC for coal-based electricity production than for the substitution of SRWC-derived ethanol for gasoline. Assuming current climate, predicted conversion technology advancements, an optimistic estimate of the US land base available for SRWC (28 x 106 ha), and an optimistic average estimate of net SRWC yields (22.4 dry Mg/ha), it is calculate that SRWC energy could displace 148 to 242 x 106 Mg of annual fossil fuel carbon releases. Under this scenario, the carbon migration potential of SRWC-based electricity production would be equivalent to about 4.4% of current global fossil fuel emissions and 20% of current US fossil fuel emissions. 21 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Mecoprop mineralization potential at oxygen-reduced conditions in subsoil with phenoxy acid contamination history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frkova, Zuzana; Johansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Historic phenoxy acid waste disposal and spillage at an industrial site close to Copenhagen (Denmark) has contaminated the groundwater with especially mecoprop (RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid. The contamination is very persistent, probably because it is situated in the subsoil where biological degradation of the contaminant is hindered by lack of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors like nitrate. To examine this, we sampled soil at 3, 4.5 and 6 m depth at the contaminated site and measured the microbial mineralization of mecoprop as affected by nitrate and glucose at nitrate-reducing conditions. The results showed that at these conditions, glucose always had a clear negative impact on mecoprop mineralization. Mineralization of mecoprop was significantly enhanced in soil inoculated with phenoxy acid degraders (p

  15. Reduced neophobia: a potential mechanism explaining the emergence of self-medicative behavior in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, A Vanina; Hall, Jeffery O; Miller, James; Spackman, Casey; Villalba, Juan J

    2014-08-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. For instance, emerging behavioral evidence suggests that ruminants self-select medicinal compounds and foods that reduce parasitic burdens. However, the mechanism/s leading to self-medicative behaviors in sick animals is still unknown. We hypothesized that when homeostasis is disturbed by a parasitic infection, consumers should respond by increasing the acceptability of novel foods relative to healthy individuals. Three groups of lambs (N=10) were dosed with 0 (Control-C), 5000 (Medium-M) and 15000 (High-H) L3 stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus. When parasites had reached the adult stage, all animals were offered novel foods and flavors in pens and then novel forages at pasture. Ingestive responses by parasitized lambs were different from non-parasitized Control animals and they varied with the type of food and flavor on offer. Parasitized lambs consumed initially more novel beet pulp and less novel beet pulp mixed with tannins than Control lambs, but the pattern reversed after 9d of exposure to these foods. Parasitized lambs ingested more novel umami-flavored food and less novel bitter-flavored food than Control lambs. When offered choices of novel unflavored and bitter-flavored foods or different forage species to graze, parasitized lambs selected a more diverse array of foods than Control lambs. Reductions in food neophobia or selection of a more diverse diet may enhance the likelihood of sick herbivores encountering novel medicinal plants and nutritious forages that contribute to restore health. PMID:24955494

  16. Evaluation of abuse and dependence in addiction monitoring systems: tramadol as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussin, Anne; Doazan-d'Ouince, Odile; Géniaux, Hélène; Halberer, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an evaluation of the potential for abuse of and dependence on a drug from the data obtained from the different pharmacoepidemiological tools used by the French network for evaluation and information on pharmacodependence and addiction monitoring taking the example of tramadol. Comparison of the data from spontaneous reports with surveys in specific populations and with evaluations of indicators of diverted uses does not highlight a major problem of tramadol abuse and dependence in terms of public health, but stresses the importance of paying attention to the signal. This example of addiction monitoring of tramadol illustrates the interest of comparing results obtained from different validated sources. The implementation of repeated observational programs of abuse of and dependence on psychoactive drugs is an important aid to health authorities to define the content of the information to be delivered or regulatory decisions to reduce these problematic uses. PMID:25858577

  17. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  18. The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Anukam

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

  19. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  20. Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock HV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hannah V Woodcock,1,2 Philip L Molyneaux,1,3 Toby M Maher1–31Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, 2Centre for Respiratory Research, University College London, 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120 is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF. These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited.Keywords: interstitial lung disease, BIBF 1120, clinical trials, usual interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbation

  1. Reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: a potential anticancer nanotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jung Hyun Park, Eunsu Kim, Yun-Jung Choi, Deug-Nam Kwon, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites are used in various research areas including sensing, energy storage, and catalysis. The mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological properties render graphene-based nanocomposites of metallic nanoparticles useful for several biomedical applications. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the fifth most deadly cancer in women; most tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, but eventually acquire chemoresistance. Consequently, the development of novel molecules for cancer therapy is essential. This study was designed to develop a simple, non-toxic, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–silver (rGO–Ag nanoparticle nanocomposites using Tilia amurensis plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The anticancer properties of rGO–Ag were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. Methods: The synthesized rGO–Ag nanocomposite was characterized using various analytical techniques. The anticancer properties of the rGO–Ag nanocomposite were evaluated using a series of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, cellular levels of malonaldehyde and glutathione, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation in ovarian cancer cells (A2780. Results: AgNPs with an average size of 20 nm were uniformly dispersed on graphene sheets. The data obtained from the biochemical assays indicate that the rGO–Ag nanocomposite significantly inhibited cell viability in A2780 ovarian cancer cells and increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation compared with other tested nanomaterials such as graphene oxide, rGO, and AgNPs. Conclusion: T. amurensis plant extract-mediated rGO–Ag nanocomposites could facilitate the large-scale production of graphene-based nanocomposites; rGO–Ag showed a significant inhibiting effect on cell viability compared to graphene oxide, rGO, and silver nanoparticles. The nanocomposites could be effective non-toxic therapeutic agents for the treatment of both cancer and cancer stem cells. Keywords: graphene–silver nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, ovarian cancer cells, cancer stem cells, cell viability, caspase-3

  2. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermertcan Aylin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Technical potentialities for reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere of fuel-utilizing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cost, W.; Schulz, P.T.

    1983-01-01

    Cleaning of fuel gases from ash is most often done in the EF, whose efficiency reaches 99.8%. In this case the ash concentration should be brought to 50 mg/m/sup 3/. For the energy block 750 MW, the EF has a length of 30, width of 40 and height of 15 m. In order to burn low sulfur fuels with ZhShU, the volatile ash is formed as small glassy spheres with high electrical resistance. This deteriorates the operating efficiency of the EF. Decrease in emissions of NO /SUB x/ occurs with recirculation of gases from the gas line beyond the VE into the furnace chamber and organization of two-stage combustion, where air enters the main burners in reduced quantities, while additional combustion of the products of incomplete combustion occurs in the upper part of the furnace, where secondary air is supplied. Control of SO /SUB x/ emissions occurs both by supplying additives to the gas channel of the boiler, and by treating the outgoing flue gases in the system of desulfurization. A promising method for decreasing the emissions of SO /SUB x/ and NO /SUB x/ is combustion of fuel in the FB with addition to it of alkaline additives.

  4. Methylglyoxal reduces mitochondrial potential and activates Bax and caspase-3 in neurons: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Valls-Comamala, Victòria; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-09-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the oxidative stress generated from amyloid ?-peptide (A?) aggregates. It produces protein nitrotyrosination, after the reaction with nitric oxide to form peroxynitrite, being triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) one of the most affected proteins. TPI is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Methylglyoxal (MG) is a by-product of TPI activity whose production is triggered when TPI is nitrotyrosinated. MG is harmful to cells because it glycates proteins. Here we found protein glycation when human neuroblastoma cells were treated with A?. Moreover glycation was also observed when neuroblastoma cells overexpressed mutated TPI where Tyr165 or Tyr209, the two tyrosines close to the catalytic center, were changed by Phe in order to mimic the effect of nitrotyrosination. The pathological relevance of these findings was studied by challenging cells with A? oligomers and MG. A significant decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, one of the first apoptotic events, was obtained. Therefore, increasing concentrations of MG were assayed searching for MG effect in neuronal apoptosis. We found a decrease of the protective Bcl2 and an increase of the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax levels. Our results suggest that MG is triggering apoptosis in neurons and it would play a key role in AD neurodegeneration. PMID:25102327

  5. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake and qualitatively by light microscopy of histological sections. One-way analyses of variance at the 0.05 level revealed no significant difference in strontium 85 uptake of the different groups, and no qualitative differences in osteoinduction could be detected by light microscopy. Ossicles consisting of bone and bone marrow were seen in the recovered implants of all groups.

  6. Acute Stress Reduces Wound-Induced Activation of Microbicidal Potential of Ex Vivo Isolated Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H.; Sakai, Miho; Stemmer, Andreas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a) acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), and (b) that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. Methods Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35±13 years) were random...

  7. Acute stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of ex vivo isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H.; Sakai, Miho; Stemmer, Andreas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a) acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), and (b) that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35±13 years) were rand...

  8. Invertibility of retarded response functions for Laplace transformable potentials: application to one-body reduced density matrix functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Giesbertz, Klaas J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A theorem for the invertibility of arbitrary response functions is presented under the following conditions: the time-dependence of the potentials should be Laplace transformable and the initial state should be a ground state, though it might be degenerate. This theorem provides a rigorous foundation for all density-functional-like theories in the time-dependent linear response regime. Especially for time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory this is an important ...

  9. Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

  10. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisman, S. Lara [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-20

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  11. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  12. Does child abuse cause crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  13. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the disulfide-bond reducing potential of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Anita; Dóka, Éva; Fábián, István; Nagy, Péter

    2015-04-30

    The significance of persulfide species in hydrogen sulfide biology is increasingly recognized. However, the molecular mechanisms of their formation remain largely elusive. The obvious pathway of the reduction of biologically abundant disulfide moieties by sulfide was challenged on both thermodynamic and kinetic grounds. Using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), also known as Ellman's reagent) as a model disulfide we conducted a comprehensive kinetic study for its reaction with sulfide. The bimolecular reaction is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant of 889 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1) at pH = 7.4. pH dependence of the rate law revealed that the reaction proceeds via the bisulfide anion species with an initial nucleophilic thiol-disulfide exchange reaction to give 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) and TNB-persulfide with a pH independent second-order rate constant of 1090 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1). However, kinetic studies and stoichiometric analyses in a wide range of reactant ratios together with kinetic simulations revealed that it is a multistep process that proceeds via kinetically driven, practically irreversible reactions along the disulfide ? persulfide ? inorganic polysulfides axis. The kinetic model postulated here, which is fully consistent with the experimental data, suggests that the TNB-persulfide is further reduced by sulfide with a second-order rate constant in the range of 5 × 10(3)?- 5 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.4 and eventually yields inorganic polysulfides and TNB. The reactions of cystine and GSSG with sulfide were found to be significantly slower and to occur via more complicated reaction schemes. (1)H NMR studies suggest that these reactions also generate Cys-persulfide and inorganic polysulfide species, but in contrast with DTNB, in consecutive equilibrium processes that are sensitive to changes in the reactant and product ratios. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reaction of disulfides with sulfide is a highly system specific process from both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, which together with the considerable steady-state concentrations of the reactants in biological systems signifies physiological relevance. PMID:25512332

  15. Sexual Abuse Of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Carol P

    1982-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

  16. Child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kiran

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realized. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in their treatment. Despite their frequent occurrence among dental patients, neglect is the least known and identified type of abuse. The present case reports a 3-year-old girl suffering from abuse and neglect. The girl had dental neglect and als...

  17. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  18. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 ... change the brain in ways that foster compulsive drug abuse, quitting is difficult, even for those who are ...

  19. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » Prescription Drug Abuse » From the Director Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter From the Director The nonmedical ... this group. In fact, the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey found that ...

  20. Behavioral Couples Treatment for Substance Use Disorder: Secondary Effects on the Reduction of Risk for Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R

    2016-03-01

    Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD. PMID:26742725

  1. Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed ...

  2. Prolonged Abusive Chest Compressions in an Infant: An Occult Form of Child Abuse: Review of Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridson, James R; Cromblin, Kristy L

    2015-12-01

    This is the case of a 4-month-old male infant whose mother sought medical care because of poor feeding and low-grade temperature. The infant had no external evidence of abuse, but chest radiographs showed multiple bilateral rib fractures. There were no retinal hemorrhages. Investigation revealed that the father had repeatedly squeezed the child to unconsciousness. The cardiopulmonary effects of this form of abuse are restriction of respiration and reduced cardiac output. This is an unusual case of occult child abuse. PMID:26418309

  3. Testing the "Sexually Abused-Abuser Hypothesis" in Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths. PMID:25981223

  4. The Role of Family Environment and Multiple Forms of Childhood Abuse in the Shaping of Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that sexual self-schemas are an important cognitive mechanism in the sexual development of women with a history of childhood abuse. This literature is only beginning to explore how multiple forms of abuse (i.e., physical, emotional, and sexual), rather than sexual abuse alone, can influence the development of adult sexuality. Moreover, the extant literature has not carefully considered important factors other than the severity of the abuse that may relate to sexual self-schemas, including family environment and quality of romantic relationships. Findings from this cross-sectional study conducted on 417 heterosexual women (ages 18-25 years) suggest that family dynamics and different types of childhood abuse contribute both directly and indirectly to adult sexual function and satisfaction and that part of those effects were mediated by other factors such as sexual self-schemas and romantic relationship quality. These results, including an exploration of the direct and indirect effects, were discussed in terms of the pervasive effects of abuse on people's lives and the potential treatment targets that can be addressed when trying to reduce sexual problems in women with a history of abuse. PMID:25339521

  5. Dose-reducing strategies in combination offers substantial potential benefits to females requiring X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, using an adult anthropomorphic phantom, aimed to establish an optimised technique for ladies of child-bearing age undergoing antero-posterior (AP) pelvis and AP and lateral lumbar spine examinations. Phase one of the work involved introducing the following dose-reducing measures individually: increased kVp, increased focus-film distances, a carbon fibre cassette, a faster film/screen combination. The second phase established an optimised technique based on a combination of the parameters listed above. Radiation dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters and image quality was evaluated using anatomical criteria. All dose-reducing methods were compared with a standard technique, currently being used in a Dublin hospital. The results demonstrated that the optimised procedure reduced effective dose by 77, 62 and 66% for AP pelvis and AP and lateral lumbar spine respectively (p < 0.05) compared with the standard technique, with no significant changes in image quality. Dose-reducing measures used in combination offer substantial potential for optimisation of radiological procedures. (authors)

  6. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional. PMID:26339207

  7. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional. PMID:26339207

  8. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24-hours a day, 7 days a week online at www.cybertipline.com National Runaway Safeline Children’s Bureau/ACYF A listing of State toll-free numbers for specific agencies to receive and investigate reports of suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America ( ...

  9. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  10. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco—is a growing problem in the older population. The terms “drug abuse” or “substance abuse” is defined as the use of chemical substances that lead to an increased risk of problems and an inability to control the use of the substance. Dependence (getting "hooked") ...

  11. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  12. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  13. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  14. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  15. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  16. Invertibility of retarded response functions for Laplace transformable potentials: Application to one-body reduced density matrix functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, K. J. H.

    2015-08-01

    A theorem for the invertibility of arbitrary response functions is presented under the following conditions: the time dependence of the potentials should be Laplace transformable and the initial state should be a ground state, though it might be degenerate. This theorem provides a rigorous foundation for all density-functional-like theories in the time-dependent linear response regime. Especially for time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory, this is an important step forward, since a solid foundation has currently been lacking. The theorem is equally valid for static response functions in the non-degenerate case, so can be used to characterize the uniqueness of the potential in the ground state version of the corresponding density-functional-like theory. Such a classification of the uniqueness of the non-local potential in ground state 1RDM functional theory has been lacking for decades. With the aid of presented invertibility theorem presented here, a complete classification of the non-uniqueness of the non-local potential in 1RDM functional theory can be given for the first time.

  17. Drug abuse in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuni, T; Pela, O A

    1986-01-01

    Apart from cannabis abuse in northern and southern Africa and khat chewing in north-eastern Africa, the history of drug abuse in Africa is relatively short. The abuse of drugs in Africa is nevertheless escalating rapidly from cannabis abuse to the more dangerous drugs and from limited groups of drug users to a wider range of people abusing drugs. The most common and available drug of abuse is still cannabis, which is known to be a contributing factor to the occurrence of a schizophrenic-like psychosis. The trafficking in and abuse of cocaine and heroin are the most recent developments in some African countries that had had no previous experience with these drugs. Efforts should be made to design and implement drug abuse assessment programmes to determine the real magnitude and characteristics of the problem and to monitor its trends. A lack of funds and a shortage of adequately trained personnel have made it difficult to implement drug abuse control programmes. In addition to formal drug control involving the implementation of legislation, there is an informal system of drug abuse control operating through the family, church, school, neighbourhood and work environment, as well as healthy recreational activities. It is suggested that efforts in African countries should be directed towards strengthening not only the formal drug control system but also informal control in order to compensate for the insufficient funds and the shortage of personnel trained in implementing formal drug control measures. It is very likely that the drug problems in African countries will worsen in future unless more effective measures are implemented to arrest the current situation. PMID:3490891

  18. Peer Abuse as Child Abuse and Indications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Jean B.

    2005-01-01

    Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be…

  19. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  20. Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design. PMID:23926908

  1. Legal liability perspectives on abuse-deterrent opioids in the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brushwood, David B; Rich, Ben A; Coleman, John J; Bolen, Jennifer; Wong, Winston

    2010-12-01

    Abuse-deterrent opioid analgesic formulations can help reduce the risk of opioid diversion and abuse. Not all opioid analgesics are available as both extended- and immediate-release dosage forms in abuse-deterrent formulations. Clinicians may have to balance the clinical benefit of a product that does not use abuse-deterrent technology versus the regulatory benefit of using a product with this technology. There is the possibility that a health care professional may be held legally liable when a product without abuse-deterrent qualities is used and a person suffers harm that would not have occurred had an abuse-deterrent formulation been provided. This article reviews legal precedents that inform an understanding of the need to reduce malpractice exposure by identifying patients who are at high risk of opioid diversion and/or abuse and considering the use of an abuse-deterrent formulation for these patients. PMID:21133741

  2. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    OpenAIRE

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2007-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage ...

  3. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  4. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed. PMID:26342266

  5. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  6. Abuse of Our Children: The Socio-Political Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Edward; Anderson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Addresses corporal punishment in schools as a policy issue, regarding every manifestation as either abusive or potentially so. Discusses the history of physical punishment in schools, reviews current sentiment toward its use, considers policies in other countries, and examines disciplinary alternatives and child abuse prevention methods.…

  7. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  8. A Review of Recent Literature on Child Abuse and Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John L.

    This paper addresses moderate- to long-term psychological effects of child abuse. It begins by discussing characteristics of effective and ineffective parenting to provide a background of potential contributors to child abuse within the family system. Belsky's (1984) developmental model of determinants of parenting behavior is explained and his…

  9. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  10. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  11. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  12. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  13. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  14. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction. PMID:19932382

  15. Clinical strategies for the primary health care professional to minimize prescription opioid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudin, Jeffrey A

    2012-05-01

    Prescription opioid analgesic therapy can be effective in managing chronic noncancer pain in appropriately selected patients. However, the risks and benefits of prescription opioids should be carefully considered when treating this patient population. A dramatic increase in opioid-related morbidity and mortality has been observed in the United States in the past decade. Therefore, health care providers must balance the treatment of chronic pain with the need to minimize the risks of opioid misuse, abuse, addiction, and diversion. Current literature suggests that most patients with chronic pain are managed at the primary care level. However, many of these practitioners are not skilled in risk assessment, stratification, and monitoring. This article reviews strategies and tools that providers may implement to help identify appropriate patients for chronic opioid therapy and recognize signs of drug-related aberrant behaviors and abuse. In addition, the potential role of abuse-deterrent, extended-release opioid formulations to reduce risk in patients and nonmedical users of opioids is introduced. Collectively, these preventative measures may effectively reduce opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion without denying adequate analgesia in appropriate patients. PMID:22691907

  16. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  17. Child abuse: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M M

    1998-01-01

    The National Statistics on Child Abuse and Neglect are staggering and rising despite a national objective to decrease domestic violence, of which child abuse is a part. More than 3 million children are abused each year. That figure represents 25 out of every 1,000 children being physically, sexually, or emotionally abused or neglected by their caretakers. It is important to note that 50% of abused children have an abused mother (American Medical Association, 1992). There are immediate as well as long-term sequelae of abuse including emotional and developmental problems, permanent injury, death, and perpetuation of abuse to the next generation. Since fractures are often part of the constellation of injuries seen in the abused child, orthopaedic nurses may encounter these children in a range of settings. Recognizing the signs of abuse is an important step for intervention on behalf of the child. PMID:9526412

  18. Erythropoietin use and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient?s disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge.

  19. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  20. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  1. Recall of Childhood Neglect and Physical Abuse as Differential Predictors of Current Psychological Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lisa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Histories of child neglect or child physical abuse were correlated with psychological functioning in 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. Childhood neglect was more predictive of psychological problems and anxious attachment styles than was physical abuse. Results suggest neglect and physical abuse are potentially separate moderators of…

  2. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  3. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  4. Do We Really Need Another Meeting? Lessons from the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Yonashiro, Jeanine; Homeier, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Elder abuse cases are often time consuming and complex, requiring interagency cooperation from a diverse array of professionals. Although multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) offer a potentially powerful approach to synergizing the efforts of different providers, there has been little research on elder abuse MDTs in general or elder abuse…

  5. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  6. Issues in Institutional Child Sexual Abuse: The Abused, the Abuser, and the System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Alan B.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses issues surrounding child sexual abuse in residential treatment settings, including incidence and reporting, kinds of sexual abuse, profiles of the institutional abuser and of children at risk, as well as administrative styles identified with patterns of institutional sexual abuse. Preventative hiring practices for child…

  7. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate?ina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  8. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  9. Pixantrone (BBR 2778) has reduced cardiotoxic potential in mice pretreated with doxorubicin: comparative studies against doxorubicin and mitoxantrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalletti, Ennio; Crippa, Luca; Mainardi, Patrizia; Oggioni, Norberto; Cavagnoli, Rosanna; Bellini, Ornella; Sala, Franca

    2007-06-01

    Anthracyclines and anthracenediones are important oncotherapeutics; however, their use is associated with irreversible and cumulative cardiotoxicity. A novel aza-anthracenedione, pixantrone (BBR 2778), was developed to reduce treatment-related cardiotoxicity while retaining efficacy. This study evaluates the cumulative cardiotoxic potential of pixantrone compared with equiactive doses of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone in both doxorubicin-pretreated and doxorubicin-naïve mice. CD1 female mice were given doxorubicin 7.5 mg/kg (once weekly for 3 weeks) followed 6 weeks later by either sterile 0.9% saline, doxorubicin 7.5 mg/kg, pixantrone 27 mg/kg, or mitoxantrone 3 mg/kg (once weekly for 3 weeks). A second group of CD1 female mice were given 2 cycles of either sterile 0.9% saline, pixantrone 27 mg/kg, doxorubicin 7.5 mg/kg, or mitoxantrone 3 mg/kg (once weekly for 3 weeks). Animals were sacrificed at different time points for histopathologic examination of the heart. In the doxorubicin-pretreated mice, further exposure to doxorubicin or mitoxantrone resulted in a significant worsening of pre-existing degenerative cardiomyopathy. In contrast, pixantrone did not worsen pre-existing cardiomyopathy in these animals. Only minimal cardiac changes were observed in mice given repeated cycles of pixantrone, while 2 cycles of doxorubicin or mitoxantrone resulted in marked or severe degenerative cardiomyopathy. These animal studies demonstrate the reduced cardiotoxic potential of pixantrone compared with doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. Exposure to pixantrone did not worsen pre-existing cardiomyopathy in doxorubicin-pretreated mice, suggesting that pixantrone may be useful in patients pretreated with anthracyclines. PMID:17285358

  10. Reduced transport potential of a palladium-doped zero valent iron nanoparticle in a water saturated loamy sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Mohan; Di Tommaso, Caroline; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Direct in situ injection of palladium-doped nanosized zero valent iron (Pd-NZVI) particles can contribute to remediation of various environmental contaminants. A major challenge encountered is rapid aggregation of Pd-NZVI and hence very limited mobility. To reduce aggregation and concurrently improve particle mobility, the surface of bare Pd-NZVI can be modified with stabilizing surface modifiers. Selected surface-modified Pd-NZVI has shown dramatically improved stability and transport. However, little is known regarding the effects of aquifer grain geochemical heterogeneity on the transport and deposition behavior of surface-modified Pd-NZVI. Herein, the mobility of surface stabilized Pd-NZVI in two granular matrices representative of model ground water environments (quartz sand and loamy sand) was assessed over a wide range of environmentally relevant ionic strengths (IS). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), soybean flour and rhamnolipid biosurfactant were used as Pd-NZVI surface modifiers. Our results show that, both in quartz sand and loamy sand, an increase in solution IS results in reduced Pd-NZVI transport. Moreover, at a given water chemistry, Pd-NZVI transport is notably attenuated in loamy sand implying that geochemical heterogeneity associated with loamy sand is a key factor influencing Pd-NZVI transport potential. Experiments conducted at a higher Pd-NZVI particle concentration, to be more representative of field conditions, show that rhamnolipid and CMC are effective stabilizing agents even when 1 g/L Pd-NZVI is injected into quartz sand. Overall, this study emphasizes the extent to which variation in groundwater chemistry, coupled with changes in aquifer geochemistry, could dramatically alter the transport potential of Pd-NZVI in the subsurface environment. PMID:25462742

  11. Uses and Abuses of Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Potential Iatrogenic Impact of PROMs Implementation and How It Can Be Mitigated

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpert, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Having been a national advocate for the use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK for the last decade, I have become increasingly concerned that unless the potential iatrogenic impact of widespread policy requirement for use of PROMs (Department of Health, Children and Young People’s Health Outcomes Strategy, 2012) is recognised and addressed their real potential benefits (Sapyta et al., J Clin Psychol 61(2):145–153, 2005...

  12. Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Cocaine » Letter from the Director Cocaine Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine abuse and addiction continue to plague our Nation. In 2008, almost ...

  13. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and low self-esteem. Unhealthy behaviors, such as alcohol, drugs, self-harm, or eating problems. These behaviors are often used to try to hide painful emotions related to the abuse. If you were sexually ...

  14. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  15. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  16. A rare SNP mutation in Brachytic2 moderately reduces plant height and increases yield potential in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Anqi; Gao, Yufeng; Ye, Lingfeng; Zhang, Weiping; Cai, Lichun; Ching, Ada; Llaca, Victor; Johnson, Blaine; Liu, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Kang, Dingming; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2015-07-01

    Plant height has long been an important agronomic trait in maize breeding. Many plant height QTLs have been reported, but few of these have been cloned. In this study, a major plant height QTL, qph1, was mapped to a 1.6kb interval in Brachytic2 (Br2) coding sequence on maize chromosome 1. A naturally occurring rare SNP in qph1, which resulted in an amino acid substitution, was validated as the causative mutation. QPH1 protein is located in the plasma membrane and polar auxin transport is impaired in the short near-isogenic line RIL88(qph1). Allelism testing showed that the SNP variant in qph1 reduces longitudinal cell number and decreases plant height by 20% in RIL88(qph1) compared to RIL88(QPH1), and is milder than known br2 mutant alleles. The effect of qph1 on plant height is significant and has no or a slight influence on yield in four F2 backgrounds and in six pairs of single-cross hybrids. Moreover, qph1 could reduce plant height when heterozygous, allowing it to be easily employed in maize breeding. Thus, a less-severe allele of a known dwarf mutant explains part of the quantitative variation for plant height and has great potential in maize improvement. PMID:25922491

  17. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

  18. Physical abuse in pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, D.E.; Cecutti, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal...

  19. Drug abuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  20. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  1. Can potentials from the visual cortex be elicited electrically despite severe retinal degeneration and a markedly reduced electroretinogram?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, M; Sato, Y; Propst, R; de Juan, E

    1995-01-01

    Outer retinal degenerations can cause severe visual handicap. Specific treatment is lacking. There is good histologic evidence that even in the face of total photoreceptor loss the ganglion cells remain viable. This study evaluates the possibility of eliciting an evoked potential by electrical stimulation of rabbit eyes with experimentally induced outer retinal degenerations. Electrical stimulation using a bipolar contact-lens electrode was performed in normal rabbits as well as in rabbits with experimentally induced outer retinal degenerations. Outer retinal degenerations were induced by injecting intravenously either monoiodoacetic acid (IAA) or sodium iodate (NaIO3). After administration of IAA or NaIO3, the electroretinogram was absent or markedly reduced and, histologically, the photoreceptor layer was severely damaged. However, the electrically evoked visual cortical response could nonetheless be elicited. We conclude that electrical stimulation of the globe can elicit evoked potentials from the visual cortex despite severe outer retinal damage. These results provide support for future efforts toward testing the feasibility of bypassing damaged outer retina and electrically stimulating the inner retina of patients with profound visual loss from retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:7728112

  2. Reduced pH increases recovery from radiation damage potentially leading to cell death and to in vitro transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C3H-10T1/2 cells were grown to plateau phase and assessed for recovery from radiation damage under acidic and normal pH conditions. Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was observed after X-ray doses of 5.0, 6.0 and 12.0 Gy and repair increased with dose. The repair at an acidic pH of 6.8 was greater than at the normal pH of 7.4. Repair of potentially transforming damage (PTD) was also observed when cells were held in plateau phase after irradiation. Repair of PTD was greater at the acidic pH than at the normal pH. When PTD recovery was plotted vs PLD recovery the results showed a good linear correlation with approximately twice as much PTDR. The experimental conditions allowing PLDR and PTDR indicate that the repair process may be error-free, since transformation was reduced in all experiments which showed recovery from PLD. (Author)

  3. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  4. Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornél Németh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 seconds adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features.

  5. Inside the alkalinity engine: the role of electron donors in the organomineralization potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, K L; Kading, T J; Braissant, O; Dupraz, C; Visscher, P T

    2012-11-01

    Mineral precipitation in microbial mats may have been the key to their preservation as fossil stromatolites, potentially documenting evidence of the earliest life on Earth. Two factors that contribute to carbonate mineral precipitation are the saturation index (SI) and the presence of nucleation sites. Both of these can be influenced by micro-organisms, which can either alter SI through their metabolisms, or produce and consume organic substances such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that can affect nucleation. It is the balance of individual metabolisms within the mat community that determines the pH and the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, thereby potentially increasing the alkalinity and consequently the SI. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are an important component of this 'alkalinity engine.' The activity of SRB often peaks in layers where CaCO(3) precipitates, and mineral precipitation has been demonstrated in SRB cultures; however, the effect of their metabolism on the alkalinity engine and actual contribution to mineral precipitation is the subject of controversy. Here, we show through culture experiments, theoretical calculations, and geochemical modeling studies that the pH, alkalinity, and organomineralization potential will vary depending on the type of electron donor. Specifically, hydrogen and formate can increase the pH, but electron donors like lactate and ethanol, and to a lesser extent glycolate, decrease the pH. The implication of this for the lithification of mats is that the combination of processes supplying electron donors and the utilization of these compounds by SRB may be critical to promoting mineral precipitation. PMID:22925453

  6. Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on microbial populations in the rumen indicated that 15% of Leucaena and Fliricidia; 20% of Sapindus and A. pintoi as well as 40% of S. aterrimum, affect negatively the protozoa population in the rumen. Gliricidia reduced this population from 45.71 to 2.57 x 105 cel/mL. Enterolobium, however, increased the number and activity of the cellulolytic fungus and total viable bacteria, although it did not exert defaunating effect, at least, under the experimental conditions in which the studies were conducted. The inclusion of 10 % of Tithonia decreased the methanogenic bacteria and increased the cellulolytic bacteria, but to reduce the protozoa population level of 20 % level was necessary. The defaunating effect observed with some plants could be due to that it was found a quadratic relationship between the content of condensed tannins and the population of ruminal protozoa. The results of methane production in relation to inclusion of 25% of foliages of S. saponaria, M. alba and Trichantera using P. purpureum as a pasture base, indicated that this foliages reduced methane production, significantly, in similar proportions to respect to pasture. Trichantera inhibit methane emissions in 41 % respect to Pennisetum (7,01 vs. 16.96 g/kg DM, respectively). The results suggest that the secondary compounds found in plants can to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and also reduce the methanogenic bacteria when the adequate levels in the diet are utilized. The use of tree and shrubs, as strategies of supplementation is an adequate option to reduce methane production and improve the animal nutrition of ruminants. (author)

  7. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lowell

    This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

  9. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  10. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

  11. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  12. Molecular approaches to treatments for cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; George, Clifford; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2003-02-01

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system with severe addiction potential. Its abuse is a major problem worldwide. The exact mechanism of action of cocaine is still uncertain but it is known that its reinforcing and stimulant effects are related to its ability to inhibit the membrane bound dopamine transporter (DAT). This paper discusses efforts that are underway to identify ligands for possible use in the treatment of cocaine abuse. Much of this effort has been focussed on understanding cocaine interactions at DAT receptor sites.

  13. The potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: Buildings sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is used in buildings to provide a variety of services to users such as lighting, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and electricity for electronics and other equipment. In the US building energy consumption accounts for nearly one third of total primary energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions. The cost for these energy services, or end-uses, was over $200 billion in 1997. This paper summarizes a detailed assessment of the achievable cost-effective potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 in the US residential and commercial buildings sector based on the preliminary results of a study completed by the authors for the US Department of Energy (LBNL, ORNL, ANL, NREL, and PNNL, 1997). The authors analysis shows that substantial reductions in future greenhouse gas emissions can be realized through the use of more energy-efficient technologies and processes at a net reduction in the total cost of energy services. In an efficiency scenario, in which renewed efforts are undertaken to promote energy efficiency through enhanced public and private-sector R and D and market transformation activities, energy use drops by 1.9 quadrillion Btu (5%) from business-as-usual (BAU) levels and carbon emissions decline by 25 MtC (4%) from BAU forecasted levels. This represents a savings of $18 billion in fuel costs in 2010, which is purchased with an annualized incremental cost of $7 billion in efficiency improvements. In a high efficiency/low carbon scenario, which reflects an even greater commitment to reduce carbon emissions, results in 4.0 quads (11%) less energy use and 91 MtC (16%) fewer carbon emissions than the BAU scenario in 2010. This high efficiency/low carbon scenario represents a savings of $33 billion in fuel costs in 2010 resulting from an annualized incremental expenditure of $14 billion on efficiency improvements

  14. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  15. Evaluation of Potential Wetlands to Reduce Peak Flows in Future Climate Scenarios in the Eagle Creek Watershed, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, K. M.; Babbar-Sebens, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the severity of floods and droughts and the frequency of extreme streamflow events in the Midwestern United States. Managing these projected impacts poses a major challenge for water resources, conservation, and land use management. Wetlands have been considered as a conservation strategy and work to increase the capacity of watersheds by storing runoff upstream. The implementation of wetlands, especially in tile-drained agricultural watersheds, can reduce peak flows and help mitigate the anticipated impacts of climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of wetlands to reduce peak flows in future climate scenarios in the Eagle Creek Watershed in Indiana. A secondary goal of this research was to establish a methodology for incorporating climate change into hydrological models to conduct long-term land management studies and decisions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was forced with an ensemble of bias corrected climate projections from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology and the ability of wetlands to reduce peak flows. Long-term monthly streamflow results predicted a slight increase in streamflow in the winter and a slight decrease in the summer from the past (1971-2000) to future (2041-2070) time periods. About half of the climate realizations produced an increase in the 5% exceedance flow and half a decrease, but all predictions agreed that high flow events will increase in frequency in the winter and decrease in the spring and summer. Results from the wetland analysis showed that if all potential wetlands identified in a previous study are installed in the watershed, maximum peak flow reductions of around 20-50 cubic meters per second for the past and future, as well as decreased frequency of extreme events, can be seen. Wetlands proved to be a robust solution for peak flow reduction, producing consistent reductions across all climate projections for both the past and future time periods.

  16. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Containers & Packaging A Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse This page gives a guide to parent's on preventing inhalant abuse. Inhalant Abuse: It's Deadly. Inhalant abuse can kill. It can ...

  17. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.

  18. Current status and evolving role of abuse-deterrent opioids in managing patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lynn; St Marie, Barbara; McCarberg, Bill; Passik, Steven D; Panchal, Sunil J; Voth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Opioids are widely used for the treatment of patients with chronic pain; yet, the increase in their abuse, misuse, and diversion is an ongoing focus of regulatory, governmental, and legal scrutiny. As a consequence, clinicians are faced with numerous challenges in an effort to use opioids in appropriate patients with pain while minimizing the potential for opioid abuse, misuse, and diversion. Policies and programs such as state prescription monitoring programs, which have been in existence for decades, are but one attempt to address some of the issues regarding the prescribing of opioids. Another is a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for opioids under consideration by the US Food and Drug Administration. At the clinical level, a universal precautions and risk management package that includes risk assessment and patient monitoring is a recommended approach. This approach can also include the use of abuse-deterrent and abuse-resistant formulations designed to reduce the nonmedical use of opioids. Several of these opioid formulations have been approved or should soon be on the market for use in the United States; however, their role and other questions regarding their use remain unanswered. The authors offer their clinical perspective on several of these key questions. PMID:21823554

  19. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  20. Recognition and prevention of child abuse in the child with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Catherine Bearce

    2015-12-01

    Children with disabilities (CWD) are victims of abuse more frequently than children in the general population. The features of their underlying conditions make it more difficult to detect abuse and on occasion can be mistaken for abuse. Thus, the expertise of the clinical geneticist is often vital to properly identifying maltreatment in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the magnitude of abuse in the population of CWD, to identify the aggravating factors, and to suggest practice changes in order to both diagnose and reduce the likelihood of abuse in CWD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26473616

  1. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  2. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff...

  3. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  4. Effect of interventions to reduce potentially inappropriate use of drugs in nursing homes: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjerberg Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that residents in nursing homes often are exposed to inappropriate medication. Particular concern has been raised about the consumption of psychoactive drugs, which are commonly prescribed for nursing home residents suffering from dementia. This review is an update of a Norwegian systematic review commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate of Health. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarise the effect of interventions aimed at reducing potentially inappropriate use or prescribing of drugs in nursing homes. Methods We searched for systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, DARE and HTA, with the last update in April 2010. Two of the authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion or exclusion. Data on interventions, participants, comparison intervention, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table and GRADE, respectively. Outcomes assessed were use of or prescribing of drugs (primary and the health-related outcomes falls, physical limitation, hospitalisation and mortality (secondary. Results Due to heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes, we employed a narrative approach. Twenty randomised controlled trials were included from 1631 evaluated references. Ten studies tested different kinds of educational interventions while seven studies tested medication reviews by pharmacists. Only one study was found for each of the interventions geriatric care teams, early psychiatric intervening or activities for the residents combined with education of health care personnel. Several reviews were identified, but these either concerned elderly in general or did not satisfy all the requirements for systematic reviews. Conclusions Interventions using educational outreach, on-site education given alone or as part of an intervention package and pharmacist medication review may under certain circumstances reduce inappropriate drug use, but the evidence is of low quality. Due to poor quality of the evidence, no conclusions may be drawn about the effect of the other three interventions on drug use, or of either intervention on health-related outcomes.

  5. Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O2 and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O2 -O2 potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included

  6. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  7. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  8. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID:23820327

  9. Exon and intron variants in the human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase gene: potential association with Tourette syndrome, substance abuse and other disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Gade, R; Muhleman, D; Chiu, C; Wu, S; To, M; Spence, M; Dietz, G; Winn-Deen, E; Rosenthal, R J; Lesieur, H R; Rugle, L; Sverd, J; Ferry, L; Johnson, J P; MacMurray, J P

    1996-08-01

    Defects in serotonin metabolism, and abnormalities in both blood serotonin and tryptophan levels, have been reported in many psychiatric disorders. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) is the rate limiting enzyme for the breakdown of tryptophan to N-formyl kenurenine. Functional variants of this gene could account for the observed simultaneous increases or decreases of both serotonin and tryptophan in various disorders. We have identified four different polymorphisms of the human TDO2 gene. Association studies show a significant association of one or more of these polymorphisms and Tourette syndrome (TS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug dependence. The intron 6G-->T variant was significantly associated with platelet serotonin levels. Only the association with TS was significant with a Bonferroni correction (p = 0.005). Our purpose here is not to claim these associations are proven, but rather to report preliminary results and show that easily testable polymorphisms are available. We hope to encourage additional research into the potential role the TDO2 gene in these and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:8873217

  10. Beta2-agonist abuse in food producing animals: use of in vitro liver preparations to assess biotransformation and potential target residues for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, M J; Dave, M; Lake, B G; Manchee, G R; Howells, L C; Coldham, N G

    1999-05-01

    1. The biotransformation of [3H]clenbuterol, [3H]salbutamol, [14C]salmeterol and 7-ethoxycoumarin by bovine liver was investigated by incubation with freshly prepared microsomes, suspension and monolayer cultures of isolated hepatocytes, precision-cut (250 microm) and chopped (600 microm) tissue slices. 2. Radio-HPLC analysis indicated that the saligenin beta2-agonists salmeterol and salbutamol were extensively metabolized by all intact cell preparations. A single major product (SmM1) was evident for salmeterol and two unresolved products for salbutamol (SbM1 and SbM2). Differential enzyme hydrolysis studies with Helix pomatia beta-glucuronidase/aryl sulphatase indicated that the main metabolites were glucuronide conjugates. Consistent with this, analysis of metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed molecular ions ([M+H]+) at m/z 592 for Sm1 and 416 for both Sb1 and Sb2. 3. Comparable studies with clenbuterol revealed three minor metabolites. Prolonged incubations generated products representing, at maximum, 27% biotransformation. Two of the products have been identified as a glucuronide ([M+H]+, m/z 453) and hydroxyclenbuterol ([M+H]+, m/z 293). 4. These findings indicate that in vitro studies provide simple and cost-effective means of evaluating xenobiotic metabolism, and thus of identifying potential target residues to enable surveillance of use of unlicensed veterinary drugs, or prohibited substances in farm animals. PMID:10379986

  11. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  12. JAMA Patient Page: Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAMA PATIENT PAGE Elder Abuse E lder abuse refers to the mistreatment of an older adult that threatens his or her health or safety. Although the abuse may be caused by a person who is in a position of trust, such as a family member or paid assistant, it also may be self-inflicted. In cases of ...

  13. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  14. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  15. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  16. The potential benefit of swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce swallowing dysfunction: An in silico planning comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To apply recently developed predictive models for swallowing dysfunction to compare the predicted probabilities of swallowing dysfunction for standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (ST-IMRT) and swallowing sparing IMRT (SW-IMRT). Materials and methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients who previously underwent radiotherapy for the bilateral neck were selected for this study. For each patient, ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were created. ST-IMRT treatment plan optimisation aimed at obtaining adequate target volume coverage and sparing of the parotid and submandibular glands as much as possible. Objectives for SW-IMRT were similar, with additional objectives to spare the organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SWOARs). Dose-volume data with ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT and normal tissue complication probabilities for physician-rated and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated with recently developed predictive models. Results: All plans had adequate target volume coverage and dose to critical organs was within accepted limits. Sparing of parotid glands was similar for ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT. With SW-IMRT, the mean dose to the various SWOARs was reduced. Absolute dose values and dose reductions with SW-IMRT differed per patient and per SWOAR and depended on N stage and tumour location. The mean reduction in predicted physician-rated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was 9% (range, 3–20%). Mean reductions of the probability of patient-rated moderate to severe complaints with regard to the swallowing of solid food, soft food, liquid food and choking when swallowing were 8%, 2%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Conclusions: New predictive models for swallowing dysfunction were applied to show potential reductions in physician and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction with IMRT that was specifically optimised to spare SWOARs.

  17. Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. G. Cooper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

  18. Two New Case Reports of Propofol Abuse and a Pattern Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Welliver

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Propofol has become the most widely used sedation and anesthetic drug worldwide. Previously it was thought to lack abuse and dependence potential.  Increased awareness of actual propofol abuse cases, however, is providing greater understanding of the associated (or perceived motivations and rewards of propofol abuse.  We report the details of two new propofol abuse cases including the motivations for choosing this drug, abuse practices, subjective experiences, and outcomes.  An exploration of reported objective and subjective patterns in propofol abuse case reports was conducted using a modified  process of thematic (pattern analysis. These patterns include: healthcare providers are the most frequent propofol abusers, hospital drug diversion is a primary access, abuse regimens consist of frequent injections, there often exists underlying psychological unrest, typically there is a history of prior drug and alcohol abuse, abusers are seeking relief from anxiety and stress along with restful sleep, abusers report a craving desire, death is frequently an outcome, and rehabilitation programs can be effective treatments. We conclude restrictive control of propofol is necessary to better monitor and control its abuse.

  19. Sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Ayşin Taşar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

  20. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  1. Child abuse, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Andri M.T. Lubis; Syaiful A. Hadi

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was ...

  2. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  3. Green chemistry methods in sulfur dyeing: application of various reducing D-sugars and analysis of the importance of optimum redox potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Richard S; Harvey, Anna

    2004-07-15

    The importance of sulfur dyeing of cellulosic fibers, particularly cotton, is realized economically throughout the dyeing industry. At the present time, dyeing with sulfur dyes requires the use of various auxiliaries, many of which have adverse effects on the environment. The most damaging of these is the reducing agent sodium sulfide, required to reduce the dye molecules to a water-soluble leuco form to enable adsorption and diffusion into the fiber. In this study, attempts have been made to replace the sodium sulfide used within the sulfur dyeing process with a variety of environmentally friendly reducing sugars. The redox potential of various hexose and pentose monosaccharides and reducing disaccharides was recorded and compared. Subsequently, cotton was dyed with the world's most important sulfur dye, C. I. Sulfur Black 1, using the reducing sugars under alkaline conditions, and compared to dyeings secured by employing commercial sulfide reducing agents. It was observed that reducing sugars gave comparable, and in many cases superior, color strength and wash fastness results, with respect to the commercial sulfide-based reducing agents, which still account for the vast majority of sulfur dyeing processes and that pose significant environmental concern. Employment of reducing sugars in sulfur dyeing could provide a sustainable, nontoxic, biodegradable, cost-effective alternative to sodium polysulfide and sodium hydrogen sulfide. Comparison of the redox potential of reducing sugars against the color strength of the dyeings secured demonstrated that there was an optimum redox potential of around -650 mV for maximum color strength achieved. The same redox potential also conferred the lowest color loss upon washing. These observations were attributed to reduction of the polymeric dye molecules to an optimum size for fiber affinity and diffusion into the fiber, but which would also confer maximum wash fastness upon oxidation. PMID:15298216

  4. Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  5. Limited Agulhas Leakage as a potential trigger for reduced AMOC intensity before the onset of Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Knorr, G.; Zahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Interocean exchange of heat and salt around South Africa - the so called 'Agulhas Leakage' - is thought to be a key link in the maintenance of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). It takes place at the Agulhas Retroflection, largely by the intermittent shedding of enormous rings that penetrate into the South Atlantic Ocean. Recent palaeoceanographic studies suggest that variability in the latitudinal position of the subtropical front (STF) in the Southern Ocean, acts as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas retroflection and moreover, that a variable northward migration of the STF potentially modulated the severity of glacial periods by altering the amount of Agulhas leakage with consequences for the AMOC. Here we present a high-resolution record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from the southern Agulhas Plateau (sediment core MD02-2588, 41'19,90 S and 25'49,70 E, 2907 m water depth) covering the last 350,000 years. We find distinct millennial-scale events with high abundances of IRD. These IRD events are indicators for a northward shift of the Southern Ocean frontal system, thereby allowing sufficient cooling and iceberg survivability as far north as the Agulhas Plateau. Our proxy record suggests significant millennial scale variability of the frontal movements throughout the last three glacial cycles. Largest IRD peaks occur during marine isotope stage 8 (~300,000 years BP) and hence during a period for which an extreme northward shift in the STF has been identified previously. We compare our IRD record with records of millennial scale climate variability in the North Atlantic after careful synchronization of individual age models using benthic oxygen isotopes. In general, IRD peaks recorded on the Agulhas Plateau occur during globally cold conditions but in anti-phase with coldest events (Heinrich events) in the North Atlantic, which systematically occur at the culmination of large reductions in AMOC. This observation is in line with the concept of a bipolar seesaw behaviour of the glacial Atlantic. As IRD peaks recorded in MD02-2588 tend to precede IRD peaks in the North Atlantic they lend credence to the emerging viewwe speculate that the events in the South may have been active in triggering a reduced AMOC intensity that has been observed to occur before the onset of ice rafting events in the North. A reduced salt export into the Atlantic ocean associated with the southern IRD events may have augmented the destabilization of AMOC activity in the North Atlantic triggering feedbacks in that region, such as basin-wide subsurface warming, increased basal melt rates under an ice shelves fronting the Laurentide Ice Sheet, subsequent collapse allowing ice flow surges and eventually iceberg and freshwater discharge into the Labrador Sea that further amplified weakening of the AMOC.

  6. Drug abuse monitoring: which pharmacoepidemiological resources at the European level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Dupui, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the potential for abuse and dependence of psychoactive substances falls within the scope of international conventions on narcotic drugs. At the European level, this monitoring is based on activities controlled by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) for substance abuse in general and by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for marketed drugs, in the context of pharmacovigilance. If France has set up in the early 1990s an original system to assess potential for abuse of psychoactive substances, with specific tools combining both the evaluation of the use of these substances (illicit substances or diverted drugs), and the consequences of that use in terms of morbidity and mortality, there is no equivalent in other European countries. Indeed, unlike the USA, who, for several decades, organized this type of surveillance, with a multisource approach (sentinel systems, databases, medical and administrative data, databases for seeking care in relation abuse), we have not found in other European countries integrated system for identifying a signal of drug abuse, or to assess the impact of measures for minimizing the risk of abuse. However, some recent examples show a growing concern about drug addiction, based on a pharmacoepidemiological approach using pharmacovigilance databases or medical administrative data. These examples illustrate the interest of these approaches in the field of drug of abuse. PMID:25858571

  7. Potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying / Potencial de adjuvantes para redução da deriva em pulverizações agrícolas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rone B. de, Oliveira; Ulisses R., Antuniassi; Alisson A. B., Mota; Rodolfo G., Chechetto.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A redução da deriva das pulverizações agrícolas continua sendo um dos maiores desafios da agricultura brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de adjuvantes dos grupos surfatantes, redutores de deriva, óleos minerais e óleos vegetais para a redução da deriva em pulverizações agr [...] ícolas. O experimento quantificou a deriva de pulverizações realizadas com 18 adjuvantes em diferentes concentrações, em solução aquosa, sob condições controladas em túnel de vento. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicatas, com pontas de pulverização Teejet XR8003 VK, pressão de 200 kPa e gotas médias. As soluções pulverizadas foram marcadas com corante Azul Brilhante a 0,6% (m v-1). A deriva foi coletada por meio de fios de polietileno posicionados transversalmente ao fluxo de ar, a diferentes distâncias da ponta e alturas do piso do túnel. A solução de lavagem de cada fio foi processada por meio de espectrofotometria para a quantificação dos depósitos. Os adjuvantes dos grupos funcionais óleos minerais e redutores de deriva proporcionaram valores menores de deriva em comparação com os surfatantes e a água. Os resultados de laboratório indicam que a seleção de produtos e de concentrações adequadas pode reduzir significativamente o risco de deriva nas pulverizações agrícolas. Entretanto, os melhores resultados obtidos em laboratório deverão ser validados com os produtos que irão constituir as caldas de pulverização em condições de campo no futuro. Abstract in english The reduction of pesticide spraying drift is still one of the major challenges in Brazilian agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of different adjuvant products, such as surfactants, drift retardants, mineral oil and vegetable oil for reducing drift in agricultural sprayin [...] g. The experiment consisted of quantifying drift of sprayings of 18 adjuvants dissolved in water under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Tests were performed in triplicates with spraying nozzles type Teejet XR8003 VK, pressure of 200kPa and medium drops. Solutions sprayed were marked with Brilliant Blue dye at 0.6% (m v-1). The drift was collected using polyethylene strips transversally fixed along the tunnel at different distances from the nozzle and different heights from the bottom part of the tunnel. Drift deposits were evaluated by spectrophotometry in order to quantify deposits. The adjuvants from chemical groups of mineral oil and drift retardant resulted in lower values of drift in comparison with surfactants and water. The results obtained in laboratory show that the selection of appropriate class and concentration of adjuvants can significantly decrease the risk of drift in agricultural spraying. However, the best results obtained in laboratory should be validated with pesticide under field conditions in the future.

  8. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  9. Wife abuse in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Rahman, Fazlur; Jansson, Bjarne

    2009-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and gender problem, especially in low-income countries. The study focused on verbal abuse, physical abuse and abuse by restricting food provision to wives by their husbands by victim and perpetrator characteristics, emphasizing the socioeconomic context of rural Bangladesh. Using a cross-sectional household survey of 4411 randomly selected married women of reproductive age, the study found that a majority of the respondents are exposed to verbal abuse (79%), while 41% are exposed to physical abuse. A small proportion (5%) of the women had suffered food-related abuse. Risk factors observed were age of the wife, illiteracy (of both victims and perpetrators), alcohol misuse, dowry management, husband's monetary greed involving parents-in-law, and wife's suspicions concerning husband's extramarital affairs. Well-established risk factors for wife abuse, along with dowry and husband's monetary greed, have a relatively high prevalence in rural Bangladesh. PMID:19534836

  10. Economic well-being and elder abuse in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Koshio, Atsushi; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the distribution of wealth and then tests associations between elder abuse and wealth in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Data from 896 respondents (60 years old and over) were collected in April 2009. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index, and logistic regressions were performed to test the associations between wealth and elder abuse. Results reveal that about 62% of individuals from poor households face abuse of some kind, whereas only 6% of individuals from rich households do. The test of the relationship between elder abuse and wealth also suggests that individuals from rich households were more likely not to be abused than individuals from poor households. Results of this study may be useful to policy makers developing policies and programs aimed at preventing elder abuse and reducing inequalities in elder abuse in Rajshahi district as well as in the whole of Bangladesh. PMID:25651557

  11. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse: Rationale, Methods, and Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fals-Stewart, William; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...

  12. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Karaku?

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse...

  13. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  14. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  15. Waste Management Options and Their Potential to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Lithuania and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Didjurgyte, Rasa

    2013-01-01

    This Master thesis connects two interrelated environmental issues – climate change and waste management. Both have been under discussion for few decades and are currently two of the top priorities on EU’s environmental agenda. The goal of this thesis is to find out in what ways waste management in Lithuania and Sweden can contribute towards reducing global warming and how the release of greenhouse gases could be reduced. Four different material flows – food, metal, plastic, and paper and card...

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment strate...

  17. Evaluation of factors influencing child abuse leading to oro-facial lesions in Isfahan, Iran: A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nilchian, Firoozeh; Jabbarifar, Seyed Ebrahim; Khalighinejad, Navid; Sadri, Leyli; Saeidi, Alireza; Arbab, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since child abuse and neglect are serious conditions which can potentially lead to inappropriate dental health, we conducted this qualitative study to define the factors influencing child abuse and neglect, which lead to oro-facial lesions. Materials and Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted by social services employees. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants to capture a range of experiences such as the physical abuse, sexual abuse, role of f...

  18. Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug...

  19. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  20. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  1. A Real-Time Fast-Flow Tube Study of VOC and Particulate Emissions from Electronic, Potentially Reduced-Harm, Conventional, and Reference Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Sandra L.; Epstein, Scott A.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Staimer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco-free electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which are currently not regulated by the FDA, have become widespread as a “safe” form of smoking. One approach to evaluate the potential toxicity of e-cigarettes and other types of potentially “reduced-harm” cigarettes is to compare their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including reactive organic electrophillic compounds such as acrolein, and particulate matter to those of conventional and reference cigarettes. Our newly desig...

  2. Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter Charlotte; Strike Carol; Barnaby Lorraine; Busch Adam; Marshall Chantel; Shepherd Susan; Hopkins Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target grou...

  3. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  4. Child Abuse: Exceptionality as a Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, W. C.; Karagianis, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews literature and research on child abuse, emphasizing correlation between abuse and exceptionality of the child. States child abuse is not linked with poverty or socioeconomic level; the role of conditions in prompting abuse is hard to assess; a child's special needs may create the stressful environment prompting abuse. (LC)

  5. Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  7. The evaluation of the abuse liability of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, C E

    1990-01-01

    In order to place appropriate restrictions upon the availability of certain therapeutic agents to limit their abuse, it is important to assess abuse liability, an important aspect of drug safety evaluation. However, the negative consequences of restriction must also be considered. Drugs most likely to be tested are psychoactive compounds with therapeutic indications similar to known drugs of abuse. Methods include assays of pharmacological profile, drug discrimination procedures, self-administration procedures, and measures of drug-induced toxicity including evaluations of tolerance and physical dependence. Furthermore, the evaluation of toxicity using behavioural end-points is an important component of the assessment, and it is generally believed that the most valid procedure in this evaluation is the measurement of drug self-administration. However, even this method rarely predicts the extent of abuse of a specific drug. Although methods are available which appear to measure relative abuse liability, these procedures are not validated for all drug classes. Thus, additional strategies, including abuse liability studies in humans, modelled after those used with animals, must be used in order to make a more informed prediction. Although there is pressure to place restrictions on new drugs at the time of marketing, in light of the difficulty of predicting relative abuse potential, a better strategy might be to market a drug without restrictions, but require postmarketing surveillance in order to obtain more accurate information on which to base a final decision. PMID:2182063

  8. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

  9. Antitussives and substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Burns JM; Boyer EW

    2013-01-01

    Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly a...

  10. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  11. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children not to blame themselves. But studies are inconclusive about whether education programs reduce victimization. Finkelhor urges further research and development of this approach, in particular efforts to integrate it into comprehensive health and safety promotion curricula. Finkelhor also points to evidence that supports counseling strategies both for offenders, particularly juveniles, to reduce re-offending, and for victims, to prevent negative mental health and life course outcomes associated with abuse. PMID:19719027

  12. A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

  13. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. PMID:25890665

  14. Substance Abuse via Legally Prescribed Drugs: The Case of Vicodin in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Wendy K.; Freedman, Benjamin; Settles, Luke; Thomas, Michael M.; Murillo, Anarina; Camacho, Erika; Wirkus, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Vicodin is the most commonly prescribed pain reliever in the United States. Research indicates that there are two million people who are currently abusing Vicodin, and the majority of those who abuse Vicodin were initially exposed to it via prescription. Our goal is to determine the most effective strategies for reducing the overall population of Vicodin abusers. More specifically, we focus on whether prevention methods aimed at educating doctors and patients on the potentia...

  15. Chylothorax associated with child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Atsuo; Sato, Kodai; Nakamura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Norihiko; Tanoue, Koji; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of right chylothorax associated with physical abuse in a 10-month-old boy who presented with respiratory decompensation. Chylothorax was improved by thoracic drainage and nutrition management, such as fasting followed by medium-chain triglyceride milk. Chest computed tomography on admission showed bilateral old rib fractures. Accordingly, physical abuse was suspected. Chylothorax of unknown cause in infancy, especially in those with coexisting rib fractures, must be scrutinized for child abuse. PMID:26388541

  16. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon.Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them.Methods: Data were coll...

  17. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

  18. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

  19. The potential of papain and alcalase enzymes and process optimizations to reduce allergenic gliadins in wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to select effective enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of allergenic proteins, gliadins, in wheat flour and to optimize the enzymatic treatment conditions. Six proteases were tested. Hydrolyzed samples were tested for residual gliadin concentrations and in vitro allergenicity. The hydrolysis conditions of wheat protein by the effective enzymes were optimized by central composite design. Results showed that alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis, and papain from latex of papaya fruit had greater ability to reduce gliadin content of wheat flour than flavourzyme, pepsin, trypsin or ?-chymotrypsin. The sequential-treatment of wheat flour by alcalase-papain was more effective in reducing gliadin content than single enzyme treatment. Under the optimal conditions of sequential enzymatic treatment, gliadin was almost completely removed, resulting in the flour extract showing lowest IgE-binding. Therefore, this could be a promising biotechnology for preparing low allergenic wheat products. PMID:26593625

  20. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  2. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical Consequences Mental Health Pain Prevention Substance Abuse in Military Life Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  3. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  4. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  5. National Institute on Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders extremely common among previously incarcerated youth A child’s first eight years critical for substance abuse prevention NIH convenes Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research ...

  6. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be determined.

  7. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, E.; Metzler-Zebeli, B.U.; M.W.A. Verstegen; Mosenthin, R.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty...

  9. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

  10. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char.......05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to...... composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw...

  11. Elder abuse in residential long-term care: an update to the 2003 National Research Council report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas; Ferguson-Rome, Jamie C; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2015-06-01

    A synthesis of the last decade of literature on elder abuse in residential long-term care (i.e., Nursing Homes and Assisted Living) is discussed. Presented are definitions of abuse, theoretical and conceptual models, prevalence rates of abuse, outcomes and costs, and sources of abuse. The synthesis represents an update to the literature in the influential 2003 National Research Council report. We identify many of the same issues and concerns exist that were surfaced in this prior report. Many theoretical and conceptual models need further elaboration. Conflicting definitions of abuse are pervasive. Rates of abuse are generally inaccurate, and probably under-reported. However, we also identify progress in many areas. An increase in empirical studies that exist in this area (although very few in Assisted Living). Other forms and types of abuse have also been identified as important, such as resident-to-resident abuse. These areas are discussed, along with potential suggestions for additional research. PMID:24652890

  12. Managing potential drug-drug interactions between gastric acid-reducing agents and antiretroviral therapy: experience from a large HIV-positive cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J M; Stott, K E; Monnery, D; Seden, K; Beeching, N J; Chaponda, M; Khoo, S; Beadsworth, Mbj

    2016-02-01

    Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and other drugs are well described. Gastric acid-reducing agents are one such class. However, few data exist regarding the frequency of and indications for prescription, nor risk assessment in the setting of an HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy. To assess prevalence of prescription of gastric acid-reducing agents and drug-drug interaction within a UK HIV cohort, we reviewed patient records for the whole cohort, assessing demographic data, frequency and reason for prescription of gastric acid-reducing therapy. Furthermore, we noted potential drug-drug interaction and whether risk had been documented and mitigated. Of 701 patients on antiretroviral therapy, 67 (9.6%) were prescribed gastric acid-reducing therapy. Of these, the majority (59/67 [88.1%]) were prescribed proton pump inhibitors. We identified four potential drug-drug interactions, which were appropriately managed by temporally separating the administration of gastric acid-reducing agent and antiretroviral therapy, and all four of these patients remained virally suppressed. Gastric acid-reducing therapy, in particular proton pump inhibitor therapy, appears common in patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Whilst there remains a paucity of published data, our findings are comparable to those in other European cohorts. Pharmacovigilance of drug-drug interactions in HIV-positive patients is vital. Education of patients and staff, and accurate data-gathering tools, will enhance patient safety. PMID:25721922

  13. Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Drug Abuse in America Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged ... Infographics that present current scientific information about prescription drug abuse in interesting, novel, and creative ways to help ...

  14. Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in America Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged the public ... Popping Pills: The Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic in America . The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in ...

  15. Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B

    2015-10-01

    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400

  16. Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components

    OpenAIRE

    Kornél Németh; Stefan Schweinberger; Gyula Kovács

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 seconds) adaptation to normal or vertica...

  17. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain ...

  18. Biotin Deficiency Reduces Expression of SLC19A3, a Potential Biotin Transporter, in Leukocytes from Human Blood12

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasova, Tatyana I.; Stratton, Shawna L; Wells, Amanda M.; Mock, Nell I.; Mock, Donald M

    2005-01-01

    In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate c...

  19. Experimental evidence that intra-specific competition in seagrass meadows reduces reproductive potential in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomàs Nash, Fiona; Romero, Javier; Turon Barrera, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the biological controls that regulate sea urchin dynamics, we studied the effects of potential inter- and intra-specific competition for food on several biological variables of the main sea urchin in the Mediterranean (Paracentrotus lividus). We carried out a caging experiment in which we manipulated sea urchin density (natural vs. high density) and herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa) accessibility (free access vs. exclusion) in a Posidonia oceanica meadow. No evidence of comp...

  20. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  1. Implications of fraud and abuse in interventional pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2002-07-01

    The federal government has enacted a comprehensive strategy to fight healthcare waste, fraud and abuse. As a result of the federal government's comprehensive strategy, in 2002, the Office of Inspector General announced that improper Medicare payments to doctors, hospitals and other healthcare providers declined 54% from the fiscal year 1996 to the fiscal year 2001. The Office of Inspector General in its 2002 work plan focuses on procedure coding for outpatient services billed by hospital and doctor, coding for evaluation and management services in physician offices and conditions under which a doctor's bill is "incident to" services or supplies among other things. The distinction between fraud and abuse can be very important in determining the potential fines and penalties that might apply, even though it is not clear. Fraud is much more serious than abuse. The degree of intent by the individual or entity under investigation is often the determining factor. The most commonly used statutes for prosecuting or facilitating such a prosecution of healthcare fraud or abuse include HIPAA of 1996, the False Claims Act, healthcare fraud, theft or embezzlement, obstruction of criminal investigations of healthcare offenders, the False Statement Statute, mail and wire fraud statutes, the Social Security Act Civil Monetary Penalties, criminal penalties, and/or Stark laws. This review focuses on various aspects of implications of fraud and abuse in interventional pain management practices including various activities of potential fraud and abuse. PMID:16902658

  2. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes inhibit fluorescein extrusion and reduce plasma membrane potential in in vitro human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong; Chen, Xiao; Cheng, Yuli; Xing, Yiqiao

    2010-06-01

    In the study on the interactions of carbon nanotubes with living cells, the cell membrane deserves particular attention as it provides the first interface to initiate CNTs-cell interactions. In the present study, the inhibiting effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the extrusion of fluorescein in human glioma cells was demonstrated using two procedures. To provide clues to explanation of this effect, intracellular glutathione content and reactive oxygen species production were determined as fluorescein is a specific substrate of cell membrane multidrug resistance-related protein whose transport activity requires glutathione which can be depleted under oxidative stress. The plasma membrane potential was also probed as the susceptibility of fluorescein efflux to modulation of the plasma membrane potential has been documented. Results showed a remarkable decrease in cellular glutathione level as well as an increase in reactive oxygen species production. Probe staining also indicated decreased plasma membrane potential. The data suggested that multiwalled carbon nanotubes may affect the transport activity of cell membrane multidrug resistance-related protein through reduction of intracellular glutathione content. Hypopolarization of the plasma membrane may also contribute to MWCNTs' effect. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21179943

  3. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  4. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; HEIMAN, JULIA R.; NORRIS, JEANETTE; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  5. Using court reports to enhance knowledge of sexual abuse in sport: A Norwegian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Ceila; Kjølberg, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Sport scientists face difficulties in gaining access to data on sexual abuse in sport through conventional research sources and also in verifying media reports of such cases. One potential alternative source of data is court reports. The study reported here used a small number of court reports to examine issues confronting those researching sexual abuse in sport. Two questions were investigated: What do the court reports tell us about the perpetrators and their abuse strategies? How useful is...

  6. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Givskov, Michael Christian; Gram, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...... Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of...

  7. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

  8. The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

    2014-02-01

    The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself. PMID:24151325

  9. 4.5 Tesla magnetic field reduces range of high-energy positrons -- Potential implications for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have theoretically and experimentally investigated the extent to which homogeneous magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla reduce the spatial distance positrons travel before annihilation (positron range). Computer simulations of a noncoincident detector design using a Monte Carlo algorithm calculated the positron range as a function of positron energy and magnetic field strength. The simulation predicted improvements in resolution, defined as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line-spread function (LSF) for a magnetic field strength up to 7 Tesla: negligible for F-18, from 3.35 mm to 2.73 mm for Ga-68 and from 3.66 mm to 2.68 mm for Rb-82. Also a substantial noise suppression was observed, described by the full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM) for higher positron energies. The experimental approach confirmed an improvement in resolution for Ga-68 from 3.54 mm at 0 Tesla to 2.99 mm FWHM at 4.5 Tesla and practically no improvement for F-18 (2.97 mm at 0 Tesla and 2.95 mm at 4.5 Tesla). It is concluded that the simulation model is appropriate and that a homogeneous static magnetic field of 4.5 Tesla reduces the range of high-energy positrons to an extent that may improve spatial resolution in positron emission tomography

  10. Understanding forearm fractures in young children: Abuse or not abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryznar, Elizabeth; Rosado, Norell; Flaherty, Emalee G

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study describes the characteristics and mechanisms of forearm fractures in children buckle (57%) or transverse (26%). Child protection teams evaluated 47 (35%) of the patients and diagnosed 11 (23%) as having fractures caused by abuse. Children with abusive versus non-inflicted injuries had significant differences in age (median age 7 versus 12 months), race, and presence of additional injuries. Children with abusive forearm fractures often presented without an explanation or a changing history for the injury. Children with non-inflicted forearm fractures often presented after a fall. No particular type of forearm fracture was specific for child abuse. Any forearm fracture in a young child should be evaluated with special attention to the details of the history and the presence of other injuries. Young age, additional injuries, and an absent or inconsistent explanation should increase concern that the fracture was caused by child abuse. PMID:25765815

  11. Childhood sexual abuse among chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, S K; Kaplan, G M; Keairnes, M

    1990-06-01

    Recent literature indicates a relationship between history of sexual abuse and subsequent psychological and social dysfunction. Less thoroughly examined are the possible abuse-related physical effects. This article examines the prevalence of sexual abuse among 135 chronic pain patients. History of abuse for all patients was determined during initial interview. Twenty-eight percent reported child sexual abuse, with history of victimization more significant for women (39%) than men (7%). The abused and nonabused groups of women differed on such variables as marital status, occupation, history of rape and substance abuse, and age of hospitalization. The relationship between sexual abuse and chronic somatic reactions was discussed. PMID:2135003

  12. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, R. H.; Olson, E. A. J.; Vanhowe, K. R.

    1980-09-01

    The prospect for performance improvement in the 62 operating light water reactors was examined. It is found that in the short term, capacity factor improvement of about 16 percent can be achieved, in response to a short term energy crisis. In the long term a gain of 18 percent can be achieved. Such gains represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. Potential increases in the operating power level of these units, are evaluated. This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day.

  13. Characterization of prescription opioid abuse in the United States: focus on route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Kenneth; Peppin, John; Coleman, John

    2012-12-01

    Prescription opioids are prescribed increasingly for the management of chronic pain, and this has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in opioid-related abuse, addiction, and overdose deaths. Reports of abuse involving nonoral administration (e.g., snorting, injecting) of prescription opioids are increasing, although the epidemiology of oral versus nonoral abuse is not well understood. Available data indicate that oral abuse is far more common,with 72% to 97% of opioid abusers perferring oral administration. Factors associated with nonoral administration include longer duration of opioid abuse, male gender, and rural setting. Extended-release opioids, because of their relatively high drug load, may be attractive to experienced abusers seeking to manipulate the formulation to facilitate a rapid onset of effect. Putative abuse-deterrent formulations have been developed to decrease the likelihood or consequences of nonoral abuse. In addition, Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) are now required for prescribed extended-release/long-acting opioids by the US Food and Drug Administration, although their effectiveness in reducing the risk of abuse, addiction, and overdose has not been evaluated. Physicians should remain vigilant when prescribing opioids and should exercise appropriate patient selection, perform risk analysis and stratification, and maintain continuous patient monitoring to ensure the benefits outweigh these important risks. PMID:23675595

  14. Blockage of LMP1-modulated store-operated Ca(2+) entry reduces metastatic potential in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiazhang; Zhang, Jinyan; Si, Yongfeng; Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Zhe; Terakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane proteins (LMPs) expedite progression of EBV-relevant cancers. Of the full set of LMPs, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was identified to uniquely augment store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Previously, we reported that the suppression of SOCE exhibited inhibitory effects on cell migration and the extravasation from vasculature in EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. In this follow-up study, we aimed to expand our understanding of the modulation of SOCE by LMP1 and test the possibility that blockage of LMP1-modulated SOCE affects the LMP1-promoted metastatic potential. Here we showed that suppressions of the LMP1-boosted SOCE blunted the LMP1-promoted cell migration, VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and permeabilization in vitro. Blockage of SOCE inhibited vasculature-invasion of circulating cells and distant metastatic colonization in vivo. Notably, utilizing VEGFR2-EGFP-tag zebrafish we revealed that the LMP1-expressing cells arrested in a small-caliber vessel mobilized surrounding endothelial cells to facilitate vasculature-invasion. Thus, the LMP1-boosted SOCE promotes metastatic potential of NPC cells by solidifying their collaborations with the nearby non-cancer cells through the manipulation of oncogenic Ca(2+) signaling. Our study highlights the advantage of using both conventional mammal and transgenic zebrafish for developing a novel therapeutic strategy targeting the multiple steps of invasion-metastasis cascade. PMID:25697483

  15. Assessment of self-help methods to reduce potential exposure to radiological contamination after a large-scale radiological release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Emily; Drake, John; Cardarelli, John; Hall, Kathy; Szabo, Jeff; Demmer, Rick; Lindberg, Michael; Riggs, Karen; James, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    After the release of radioactive materials from a large radiological dispersal device (e.g., dirty bomb), improvised nuclear detonation, or nuclear power plant accident, up to hundreds of square miles may be contaminated. A portion of this area will be evacuated; however, people living in the portion that is not evacuated yet is still contaminated with low-levels of radioactive contamination will be asking for ways they can reduce their exposure. Whether cleaning activities can significantly reduce exposure is not fully understood. In this effort, the ability of cleaning activities to remove cesium (137Cs) was studied. The removal efficacy of cleaning with a commercial product, Simple Green®, was compared to cleaning with water for hard surfaces typically seen in residences. The removal efficacy of laundering fabric material surfaces was also determined for a range of conditions (e.g., fabric material type, wash temperature). During these studies, assessments of the implications of these activities (e.g., cross-contamination, resulting waste streams) were also completed. Simple Green and water were effective for removing 137Cs from plastic laminate and vinyl flooring (93.4-96.8%) but were not effective for removing 137Cs from painted wallboard and wood (7.3-68.1%). It was also determined that there was no significant difference between the two cleaners on all of the surfaces, except plastic laminate, for which Simple Green was slightly more effective. Laundering was effective for removing 137Cs contamination from polyester and cotton swatches and cotton comforters (up to 96.8% in the single swatch testing). PMID:25068960

  16. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  17. Abuse in the exercise of copyright:Is Mexico ready to use compulsory licensing as a remedy? :The potential of copyright exclusivity to affect competition and the readiness of competition law tools in Mexico to bring balance

    OpenAIRE

    Trevino,Carlos Alberto Vela

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with Compulsory Licences, both as a limitation provided by IP law and as a remedy provided by competition law. It focus on how such remedy have been provided by the European Commission as a solution to bring to an end the abusive use of copyright by copyright holders enjoying a dominant position. It further explores if such European development represents an option for developing countries and if Mexico is prepared to benefit from such development.The First Chapter presents...

  18. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  19. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  20. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... 37. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Welfare ... Abuse and Neglect. Available at: https://www.childwelfare.gov/ ...

  1. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  2. Economic evaluation of a prerelease substance abuse treatment program for repeat criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Fretz, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are common conditions among repeat criminal offenders. Without addressing these underlying substance use behaviors, parolees are significantly more likely to recidivate within 1 year of release. New Jersey is one of the first states to actively pursue substance abuse treatment options for inmates who are in the final stages of their sentences. Given the fiscal realities of tax payer-supported programs, such initiatives must clearly demonstrate economic benefits for sustainability and growth. This article conducted one of the few comprehensive economic evaluations of prerelease substance abuse treatment to determine whether Community Education Centers' programs in New Jersey generated desirable outcomes, significant economic benefits, and positive net benefits. Relative to a matched comparison group of offenders who did not receive treatment, the intervention group returned an average economic benefit of $4,307 to $6,209 over the 1-year postrelease period. These economic benefits are underscored by the fact that the treatment program is housed in a separate facility, with a lower average per diem from that of the general inmate population. These results provide quantitative economic evidence that prerelease substance abuse treatment programs have the potential to reduce recidivism and save tax payer dollars without adding to existing prison resources. PMID:19631489

  3. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have been several reports that many patients with dual diagnosis of substance dependence and other mental disorders are poly-drug abusers. In our study, 43.4% of the psychosis group patients and 19.6% of the dependence group patients had the past history of abuse of other drugs including methamphetamine and marijuana. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. PMID:8710994

  4. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Ana L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Daiane [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Weber, Julia; Ribeiro, Roseane F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana H. [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Diego F. de; Beck, Ruy C.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-01

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

  5. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules

  6. Potential for Woody Bioenergy Crops Grown on Marginal Lands in the US Midwest to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-12-01

    While cellulosic biofuels are widely considered to be a low carbon energy source for the future, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and future biofuel systems is needed to assess their utility in meeting US energy and food needs without exacerbating environmental harm. To assess the carbon emission reduction potential of cellulosic biofuels, we need to identify lands that are initially not storing large quantities of carbon in soil and vegetation but are capable of producing abundant biomass with limited management inputs, and accurately model forest production rates and associated input requirements. Here we present modeled results for carbon emission reduction potential and cellulosic ethanol production of woody bioenergy crops replacing existing native prairie vegetation grown on marginal lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands are selected based on soil properties describing use limitation, and are extracted from the SSURGO (Soil Survey Geographic) database. Yield estimates for existing native prairie vegetation on marginal lands modeled using the process-based field-scale model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) amount to ~ 6.7±2.0 Mg ha-1. To model woody bioenergy crops, the individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model ED (Ecosystem Demography) is initialized with the soil organic carbon stocks estimated at the end of the EPIC simulation. Four woody bioenergy crops: willow, southern pine, eucalyptus and poplar are parameterized in ED. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters and drivers is conducted to explore the range of carbon emission reduction possible with variation in woody bioenergy crop types, spatial and temporal resolution. We hypothesize that growing cellulosic crops on these marginal lands can provide significant water quality, biodiversity and GHG emissions mitigation benefits, without accruing additional carbon costs from the displacement of food and feed production.

  7. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  8. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  9. Sexual and physical abuse are not associated with rectal hypersensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ringel, Y; Whitehead, W E; Toner, B B; Diamant, N. E.; Y. Hu; Jia, H; Bangdiwala, S I; Drossman, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have reduced pain thresholds for rectal distension. In addition, the prevalence of sexual/physical abuse in referred IBS patients is high and is associated with greater pain reporting, poorer health status, and poorer outcome. This lead to a hypothesis that abuse history may sensitise patients to report pain at a lower threshold.

  10. Catch It Low to Prevent It High: Countering Low-Level Verbal Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Arnold P.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the low-level aggression of verbal abuse demonstrated by children and adolescents. Describes the teasing, cursing, gossip, and ostracism associated with verbal abuse. Provides strategies for working with youth who are verbally aggressive including, how to reduce verbal maltreatment, how to engage in constructive communication, and ways…

  11. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  12. Job Stress, Coping Strategies, and Burnout among Abuse-Specific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sam Loc; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether effective coping strategies play an important role to reduce burnout levels among sexual or substance abuse counselors. The authors examined whether coping strategies mediated or moderated relations between job stress and burnout in a sample of 232 abuse-specific counselors. Results indicated…

  13. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. Hence instead of having the normal TH1 bias and immune tolerance because of repeated exposure to pathogens, urban dwellers have TH2 cell immune activity and atopic disease in a more sterile environment. Various other environmental exposures have been implicated in the explosion of AD (and atopic disorders in general), including breast-feeding, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to domesticated furry pets. Notably, the key role of a compromised barrier of neonatal skin as a predisposing factor in the development of childhood AD has recently been demonstrated. In this article we review the salubrious effects of suberythemogenic doses of UVB irradiation for the skin barrier. We then discuss how the lack of sufficient UVB exposure could have contributed to the rapid increase in the incidence of AD in developed countries. This hypothesis offers a separate but not competing partial explanation, which should be viewed as not discounting the role of the etiopathogenic factors that also could influence the prevalence of atopic disorders. PMID:26298230

  14. The potential for energy efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: The industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an assessment of the possible contribution that an invigorated effort to move energy efficient technology which is commercially available, or near commercialization, into the market could make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the US industrial sector by 2010. It presents preliminary results from the industrial sector chapter of a larger study being undertaken by the Dept. of Energy. The authors begin with some background information on their approach to the assessment and how that approach is shaped by the complexities of the US industrial sector and the limitations of the available analytical tools for this sector. They then describe the results of their model-based scenario analysis through the year 2010. They summarize examples of the types of technologies that, were they to come into widespread use in the US industrial sector in the near term, would achieve the model scenario results, acknowledging that widespread adoption of these technologies would require the appropriate policies (e.g., accelerated R and D, fiscal incentives and market conditions)

  15. Reducing the influence of spatial resolution to improve quantitative accuracy in emission tomography: A comparison of potential strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to compare strategies for reducing partial volume effects by either minimizing the cause (i.e. improving resolution) or correcting the effect. Correction for resolution loss can be achieved either by modelling the resolution for use in iterative reconstruction or by imposing constraints based on knowledge of the underlying anatomy. Approaches to partial volume correction largely rely on knowledge of the underlying anatomy, based on well-registered high-resolution anatomical imaging modalities (CT or MRI). Corrections can be applied by considering the signal loss that results by smoothing the high-resolution modality to the same resolution as obtained in emission tomography. A physical phantom representing the central brain structures was used to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the various strategies for either improving resolution or correcting for partial volume effects. Inclusion of resolution in the reconstruction model improved the measured contrast for the central brain structures but still underestimated the true object contrast (?0.70). Use of information on the boundaries of the structures in conjunction with a smoothing prior using maximum entropy reconstruction achieved some degree of contrast enhancement and improved the noise properties of the resulting images. Partial volume correction based on segmentation of registered anatomical images and knowledge of the reconstructed resolution permitted more accurate quantification of the target to background ratio for individual brain structures

  16. Potential for smoke-free policies in social venues to prevent smoking uptake and reduce relapse: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Cameron, Melissa; Murphy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand the utility of smoking in pubs/bars and nightclubs and explore perceptions of how smoke-free policies might influence smoking behavior. Qualitative focus group methodology was used involving young social smokers and older regular smokers. Pubs/bars and nightclubs were valued as the few remaining indoor public places where people could relax and smoke. These venues were perceived to provide encouragement for smoking more cigarettes by increasing smoking rate and facilitating smoking relapse. For young social smokers, smoking provided an opportunity to be part of a "cool" in-group. Older regular smokers felt pubs/bars provided strong cues for smoking relapse. Smokers felt they would adapt to smoke-free policies and expected these policies to reduce their smoking or assist quitting. Smoke-free policies in pubs/bars and nightclubs may assist smokers to quit and make it less likely that young social smokers will progress to regular smoking. PMID:17925593

  17. alcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrianJohnson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  18. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  19. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  20. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Hansen, Matthew; Houghton, Richard A.; Walker, Wayne; Laporte, Nadine; Busch, Jonah

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of measurement and monitoring capabilities for forests in the context of REDD+ needs, with a focus on what is currently possible, where improvements are needed, and what capabilities will be advanced in the near-term with new technologies already under development. We summarize the role of remote sensing (both satellite and aircraft) for observational monitoring of forests, including measuring changes in their current and past extent for setting baselines, their carbon stock density for estimating emissions in areas that are deforested or degraded, and their regrowth dynamics following disturbance. We emphasize the synergistic role of integrating field inventory measurements with remote sensing for best practices in monitoring, reporting and verification. We also address the potential of remote sensing for enforcing safeguards on conservation of natural forests and biodiversity. We argue that capabilities exist now to meet operational needs for REDD+ measurement, reporting, and verification and reference levels. For some other areas of importance for REDD+, such as safeguards for natural forests and biodiversity, monitoring capabilities are approaching operational in the near term. For all REDD+ needs, measurement capabilities will rapidly advance in the next few years as a result of new technology as well as advances in capacity building both within and outside of the tropical forest nations on which REDD+ is primarily focused.

  1. Reduced sensitivity to neutral feedback versus negative feedback in subjects with mild depression: Evidence from event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Song, Xinxin; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoran; Li, Jiayi; Lin, Fengtong; Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Xinxin; Cui, Hewei; Wang, Wenmiao; Li, Hong; Cong, Fengyu; Roberson, Debi

    2015-11-01

    Many previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have linked the feedback related negativity (FRN) component with medial frontal cortex processing and associated this component with depression. Few if any studies have investigated the processing of neutral feedback in mildly depressive subjects in the normal population. Two experiments compared brain responses to neutral feedback with behavioral performance in mildly depressed subjects who scored highly on the Beck Depression Inventory (high BDI) and a control group with lower BDI scores (low BDI). In the first study, the FRN component was recorded when neutral, negative or positive feedback was pseudo-randomly delivered to the two groups in a time estimation task. In the second study, real feedback was provided to the two groups in the same task in order to measure their actual accuracy of performance. The results of experiment one (Exp. 1) revealed that a larger FRN effect was elicited by neutral feedback than by negative feedback in the low BDI group, but no significant difference was found between neutral condition and negative condition in the High BDI group. The present findings demonstrated that depressive tendencies influence the processing of neutral feedback in medial frontal cortex. The FRN effect may work as a helpful index for investigating cognitive bias in depression in future studies. PMID:26432379

  2. Reduced vagal control of the heart in high-fat diet mice: a potential role of increased butyrylcholinesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Sigurd; Gao, Hongbo; Schnack, Sabrina; Li, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Suppressed parasympathetic function is commonly present in cardiovascular diseases, aging, obesity, and various other health conditions. Impaired parasympathetic action is known as a detrimental factor and contributes to the adverse outcomes in these conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed. In this study, using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model, the potential peripheral mechanisms underlying the impaired parasympathetic vagal control of the heart was examined. The HFD induced obesity and metabolic disorder in mice. These obese mice exhibited an attenuated response in heart rate to vagal stimulation, indicating impairment of peripheral parasympathetic activity in the heart. In cholinergic function-related proteins in the atria, protein levels of choline transporter and vesicular acetylcholine transporter were not decreased but increased, and type 2 muscarinic receptors showed a trend toward a reduction in HFD mice atria as compared with regular diet (RD) mice controls. While the protein level of acetylcholinesterase was not different, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) protein level showed a twofold increase in HFD mice atria as compared with RD mice. Functionally, inhibition of BChE activity partially and significantly improved the attenuated response in heart rate to vagal stimulation in HFD mice. Collectively, these data suggest that increased BChE activity in the atria may contribute to the decreased parasympathetic function in HFD-induced obese mice. PMID:26537347

  3. Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, J O; Michels, H; Keevil, C W

    2006-07-01

    Epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) emerged in the early 1980s with EMRSA-15 and -16 being the most prevalent strains within the UK. MRSA transmission between patients is largely via the hands of healthcare workers, and contamination of the hospital environment may occur. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of copper and brass to reduce the viability of air-dried deposits of three MRSA strains [MRSA (NCTC 10442), EMRSA-1 (NCTC 11939) and EMRSA-16 (NCTC 13143)] compared with stainless steel. MRSA and EMRSA [10(7)colony-forming units (CFU)] were inoculated on to coupons (1 cm x 1 cm) of copper, brass or stainless steel and incubated at either 22 degrees C or 4 degrees C for various time periods. Viability was determined by resuspending removed CFUs and plating out on tryptone soy agar plates in addition to staining with the respiratory indicator fluorochrome 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium. On pure copper surfaces, 10(7) MRSA, EMRSA-1 and EMRSA-16 were completely killed after 45, 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 22 degrees C. In contrast, viable organisms for all three strains were detected on stainless steel (grade 304) after 72 h at 22 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, complete kill was achieved on copper for all three strains within 6 h. The results demonstrate an antimicrobial effect of copper on MRSA, EMRSA-1 and -16 in contrast to stainless steel. Consequently, the contemporary application of stainless steel in hospital environments for work surfaces and door furniture is not recommended. PMID:16650507

  4. Copper-resistant bacteria reduces oxidative stress and uptake of copper in lentil plants: potential for bacterial bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ali, Qasim; Mubin, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    For effective microbe-assisted bioremediation, metal-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) must facilitate plant growth by restricting excess metal uptake in plants, leading to prevent its bio-amplification in the ecosystem. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize copper (Cu)-resistant PGPB from waste water receiving contaminated soil. In addition, we investigated the phytotoxic effect of copper on the lentil plants inoculated with copper-resistant bacteria Providencia vermicola, grown in copper-contaminated soil. Copper-resistant P. vermicola showed multiple plant growth promoting characteristics, when used as a seed inoculant. It protected the lentil plants from copper toxicity with a considerable increase in root and shoot length, plant dry weight and leaf area. A notable increase in different gas exchange characteristics such as A, E, C i , g s , and A/E, as well as increase in N and P accumulation were also recorded in inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated copper stressed plants. In addition, leaf chlorophyll content, root nodulation, number of pods, 1,000 seed weight were also higher in inoculated plants as compared with non-inoculated ones. Anti-oxidative defense mechanism improved significantly via elevated expression of reactive oxygen species -scavenging enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase with alternate decrease in malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents, reduced electrolyte leakage, proline, and total phenolic contents suggesting that inoculation of P. vermicola triggered heavy metals stress-related defense pathways under copper stress. Overall, the results demonstrated that the P. vermicola seed inoculation confer heavy metal stress tolerance in lentil plant which can be used as a potent biotechnological tool to cope with the problems of copper pollution in crop plants for better yield. PMID:26387695

  5. Minibeam Therapy With Protons and Light Ions: Physical Feasibility and Potential to Reduce Radiation Side Effects and to Facilitate Hypofractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite several advantages of proton therapy over megavoltage x-ray therapy, its lack of proximal tissue sparing is a concern. The method presented here adds proximal tissue sparing to protons and light ions by turning their uniform incident beams into arrays of parallel, small, or thin (0.3-mm) pencil or planar minibeams, which are known to spare tissues. As these minibeams penetrate the tissues, they gradually broaden and merge with each other to produce a solid beam. Methods and Materials: Broadening of 0.3-mm-diameter, 109-MeV proton pencil minibeams was measured using a stack of radiochromic films with plastic spacers. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the broadening in water of minibeams of protons and several light ions and the dose from neutron generated by collimator. Results: A central parameter was tissue depth, where the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) reached 0.7 mm, beyond which tissue sparing decreases. This depth was 22 mm for 109-MeV protons in a film stack. It was also found by simulations in water to be 23.5 mm for 109 MeV proton pencil minibeams and 26 mm for 116 MeV proton planar minibeams. For light ions, all with 10 cm range in water, that depth increased with particle size; specifically it was 51 mm for Li-7 ions. The ?2.7% photon equivalent neutron skin dose from the collimator was reduced 7-fold by introducing a gap between the collimator and the skin. Conclusions: Proton minibeams can be implemented at existing particle therapy centers. Because they spare the shallow tissues, they could augment the efficacy of proton therapy and light particle therapy, particularly in treating tumors that benefit from sparing of proximal tissues such as pediatric brain tumors. They should also allow hypofractionated treatment of all tumors by allowing the use of higher incident doses with less concern about proximal tissue damage

  6. Toward a sustainable and wise healthcare approach: potential contributions from hospital Internal Medicine Departments to reducing inappropriate medical spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available All countries are facing the question of how to maintain quality of care with shrinking health budgets, in the presence of a persistent increase in life expectancy, and with a significant growing demand for health care from aging populations and chronically ill patients. Current implementation of legislative measures is largely presented as a cost-cutting policy. With this political approach, there is a risk of services and the number of hospital beds being drastically reduced, mainly to detriment of the most vulnerable groups of the population and without considering the results obtained by each regional healthcare organization according to explicit evaluation markers. In our Scientific Society of Internal Medicine (the Federation of Associations of Hospital Doctors on Internal Medicine, FADOI, we want to support good medical practice because essential medicine is still a goal to be achieved throughout medical hospital care. We are looking for original ways to implement a sustainable and frugal hospital Internal Medicine policy by searching for wise and efficient clinical methodology to be applied in the care of patients admitted to internal medicine wards according to their real needs. We firmly believe that reinforcing a common agenda between medicine and public health, and sharing a common vision among professionals and decision makers in the planning of care, may be the greatest opportunity for any every health care reform. The future of the health care system cannot be restricted to mere cost reduction, but should aim to deliver better health care in relation to the money spent. Even in this period of austerity, new opportunities can still be found and doctors must lead efforts to meet this challenge.

  7. CE: Mental Health Matters: Revisiting Child Sexual Abuse and Survivor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Donna

    2016-03-01

    : Child sexual abuse is a global issue that nurses must be aware of and knowledgeable about as they care for children in various care settings. This article focuses on the prevalence, potential risk factors, and possible signs and symptoms of child sexual abuse. It also provides information about what nurses can do should they suspect that a child has been or is being abused. Because consequences can be far reaching and exist for many years after the abuse, this article also addresses the possible long-term issues faced by survivors and provides resources that nurses can share with patients. PMID:26871893

  8. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  9. Towards reducing DBP formation potential of drinking water by favouring direct ozone over hydroxyl radical reactions during ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Glen Andrew; Stalter, Daniel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Weinberg, Howard S; Keller, Jurg; Farré, Maria José

    2015-12-15

    When ozonation is employed in advanced water treatment plants to produce drinking water, dissolved organic matter reacts with ozone (O3) and/or hydroxyl radicals (OH) affecting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation with subsequently used chlorine-based disinfectants. This study presents the effects of varying exposures of O3 and OH on DBP concentrations and their associated toxicity generated after subsequent chlorination. DBP formation potential tests and in vitro bioassays were conducted after batch ozonation experiments of coagulated surface water with and without addition of tertiary butanol (t-BuOH, 10 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mg/mg O3), and at different pH (6-8) and transferred ozone doses (0-1 mg/mg TOC). Although ozonation led to a 24-37% decrease in formation of total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and trihaloacetamides, an increase in formation of total trihalonitromethanes, chloral hydrate, and haloketones was observed. This effect however was less pronounced for samples ozonated at conditions favoring molecular ozone (e.g., pH 6 and in the presence of t-BuOH) over OH reactions (e.g., pH 8 and in the presence of H2O2). Compared to ozonation only, addition of H2O2 consistently enhanced formation of all DBP groups (20-61%) except trihalonitromethanes. This proves that OH-transformed organic matter is more susceptible to halogen incorporation. Analogously, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) concentrations increased under conditions that favor OH reactions. The ratio of unknown to known AOX, however, was greater at conditions that promote direct O3 reactions. Although significant correlation was found between AOX and genotoxicity with the p53 bioassay, toxicity tests using 4 in vitro bioassays showed relatively low absolute differences between various ozonation conditions. PMID:26378731

  10. Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…

  11. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic and Epigenetic Variations: Association with Child Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date…

  12. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  13. Do We Really Need Another Meeting? Lessons from the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Yonashiro, Jeanine; Homeier, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Elder abuse cases are often time consuming and complex, requiring interagency cooperation from a diverse array of professionals. Although multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) offer a potentially powerful approach to synergizing the efforts of different providers, there has been little research on elder abuse MDTs in general or elder abuse…

  14. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Later Sexual Victimization among Female Homeless and Runaway Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of early sexual abuse on later sexual victimization among female homeless, runaway adolescents. Results indicate that early sexual abuse in the home had a positive direct effect on sexual victimization of adolescents on the street. The social context of street life puts these adolescents in close proximity to potential…

  15. Preventing Elder Abuse: Identificaton of High Risk Factors Prior to Placement Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I.

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that some elder abuse can be prevented by systematic assessment of the older person and the potential caregiver, as well as of the family constellation. Uses research findings to identify high-risk factors associated with elder abuse, factors that can be used to guide placement decisions. (Author/nB)

  16. Aging and Risk: Physical and Sexual Abuse of Elders in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozowski, Kari; Hall, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on physical and sexual elder abuse within the context of risk theory and feminist sociology. Employing data from the 1999 General Social Survey, we also examine several variables potentially associated with the risk for physical or sexual abuse of elders. Women, Aboriginal Canadians, and elders who are…

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

  19. Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…

  20. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…