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1

Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abus/span>e Potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the ability of the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory to screen for child abus/span>e in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abus/span>e scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

1986-01-01

2

Assessing Employee Potentials for Abuse.  

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Administered questionnaires to abusive (N=21) and nonabusive (N=21) employees to identify potential for institutional child abuse. Results corroborated earlier findings of institutional child abuse and demonstrated an attempt at developing an assessment tool needed to screen staff who are working with the developmentally disabled and children in…

Haddock, M. Dean; McQueen, William M.

1983-01-01

3

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey  

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This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

4

Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine  

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The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

2009-01-01

5

Abuse Potential of Soma®: the GABAA Receptor as a Target  

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Full Text Available Soma® (carisoprodol is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABAA receptors (GABAAR. Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABAAR function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated.

Michael J. Forster

2009-01-01

6

Prediction and Explanation of Child Abus/span>e: Cross-Validation of the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory.  

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To provide cross-validation data for the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory, classification rates were determined for 220 physical child abusers and matched control subjects. Using all protocols, a discriminant analysis indicated the Abuse scale correctly classified 85.4% of the subjects, with 82.7% of the abusers and 88.2% of the control subjects…

Milner, Joel S.; And Others

1986-01-01

7

Childhood Physical Abuse, Childhood Social Support, and Adult Child Abus/span>e Potential.  

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Examines the role of social support in the discrimination of physical child abusers and nonabusers, both with a childhood history of physical child abus/span>e. In contrast to expectations, none of the social support factors distinguished between the abusers and nonabusers. (JPS)

Caliso, John A.; Milner, Joel S.

1994-01-01

8

Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users.  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasal drug abuse (N?=?27). Active treatments contained oxycodone (30?mg). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., Overall Drug Liking [ODL], Take Drug Again [TDA], and High Visual Analog Scales [VAS]; Subjective Drug Value [SDV]; pupillometry; intranasal irritation), and safety (e.g., adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests) were assessed to 24?hours postdose. Crushed ORF administration yielded reduced oxycodone Cmax and increased Tmax versus crushed OC and Oxy API. Peak effects for pharmacodynamic measures were delayed with ORF (1-2?hours) versus OC and Oxy API (0.5-1?hour). ODL, TDA, High VAS, and SDV Emax values were significantly lower (P???.05) and some intranasal irritation ratings were greater for ORF versus OC and Oxy API. No significant or unexpected safety findings were observed. Compared with OC and Oxy API, intranasally administered ORF was associated with lower and delayed peak plasma concentrations, decreased drug-liking, and decreased intranasal tolerability. This suggests that ORF has a decreased potential for intranasal oxycodone abuse. There were no significant or unexpected safety findings. As is true for all abuse potential studies, epidemiological or other appropriate post-marketing studies are required to assess the impact of the reduction in intranasal oxycodone abuse potential observed in the present study on real-world patterns of ORF misuse, abuse, and diversion. PMID:24243216

Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

2014-04-01

9

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any ... and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

10

Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.  

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Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. PMID:24325939

Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

2014-07-01

11

Preliminary Validation of the Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory in Turkey  

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This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

12

Offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use: affective psychopathic personality traits as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions.  

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Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients. PMID:24512943

Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

2014-01-01

13

Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.  

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Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population. PMID:22924801

Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie

2013-02-01

14

Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abus/span>e Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.  

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The validity of the Child Abus/span>e Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin

1998-01-01

15

Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.  

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The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

Rodriguez, Christina M

2010-01-01

16

Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale.

Warren Charlotte

2013-01-01

17

Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.  

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We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. PMID:24331549

Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

2014-01-01

18

Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative attractiveness of 14 opioid analgesic products. Methods First, the concept of attractiveness was empirically defined with a group of prescription opioid abusers and experts in opioid abuse using a process called Concept Mapping. Abuse liability consisted of two components: factors intrinsic to the drug formulation (e.g., speed of onset, duration and factors extrinsic to drug formulation (e.g., availability, availability of alternatives, cost. A 17-item Opioid Attractiveness Scale (OAS was constructed, focusing on factors intrinsic to the drug product. Results A total of 144 individuals participated in tests of validity and reliability. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's ? = 0.85–0.94. Drug rankings based on OAS scores achieved good inter-rater agreement (Kendall's W 0.37, p Conclusion An initial examination of the psychometric properties of the OAS suggests that it is a valid and reliable scale. The OAS may be useful in providing important guidance on product features that are attractive to potential abusers.

Fernandez Kathrine C

2006-02-01

19

Reducing the Genotoxic Potential of Retroviral Vectors  

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The recent development of leukemia in gene therapy patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease due to retroviral vector insertional mutagenesis has prompted reassessment of the genotoxic potential of integrating vector systems. In this chapter, various strategies are described to reduce the associated risks of retroviral genomic integration. These include deletion of strong transcriptional enhancer-promoter elements in the retroviral long terminal repeats, flanking the ret...

2008-01-01

20

The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.  

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Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse. PMID:24825823

Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Elder abuse through a prism of perceptions : perspectives of potential witnesses  

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The overall aim of this thesis was to deepen understanding of elder abuse (EA) by exploring and comparing perceptions held by experts, older persons, representatives of potential support organizations, and family members. Experts’ perspectives (I) were examined through risk indicators and screening questions (a) located in EA literature and (b) selected by an international Delphi panel. Risk indicators most commonly found in the literature or selected by the panel were compiled into consens...

Erlingsson, Christen

2007-01-01

22

Metabolic syndrome in drug abuse.  

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Drug abuse is associated with significant health risk. Whether drug abusers are at a higher risk of suffering the metabolic syndrome is not widely known. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity, and is probably triggered by initial imbalances at the cellular level in various critical metabolic pathways. These initially small metabolic imbalances are believed to cascade with time and lead to larger problems. Some indications that drug abuse may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome include the following: Drug-abusing patients have higher rates of diabetes complications. Substance abuse is a significant contributing factor for treatment noncompliance in diabetes. Nutrition education can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. Each type of drug/substance abuse has a unique profile of toxicity. For example, the amphetamines generally affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems, worsening the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. Methamphetamine (meth) abusers suffer cognitive deficits and abnormal metabolic activity, which affect nutritional status. This condition is further worsened by a drastic reduction in oral health in meth abusers, resulting in improper chewing and, therefore, digestion. Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse would increase the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by increasing cell damage, augmenting excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. Another potential risk factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome is genetic vulnerability, especially in combination with drug abuse and nutritional deficiencies. The strategies available to treat this problem include pharmacological agents as well as dietary antioxidants. Such measures may be useful in reducing drug abuse-related toxicity that may lead to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18077564

Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew K; Ali, Syed F; Gaetani, Franco

2007-12-01

23

Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse.  

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Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on ?1, ?2 ?1? and ?2? glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation. PMID:23973295

Kirson, Dean; Cornelison, Garrett L; Philpo, Ashley E; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

2013-12-01

24

Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.  

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In the reward circuitry of the brain, ?-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) modulate effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of ?7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of ?7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

2013-11-01

25

Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid  

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In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of ?7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of ?7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferre, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

2013-01-01

26

Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP. “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

Ramona Stone

2010-07-01

27

Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol  

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Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results ...

Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

2006-01-01

28

Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.  

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Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed. PMID:17105926

Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

2006-08-01

29

Development of Country-Wide Strategies to Reduce the Alcohol Abuse  

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Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

Nikfarjam, Ali; Memaryan, Nadereh; Damari, Behzad; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein

2014-01-01

30

Evaluation of a Drug Education Program: Does It Reduce Student Drug Abuse?  

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Examines perceptions of principals, teachers, elementary students, and parents of the DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program for fifth graders begun in Dade County (Florida) Schools in 1988-89. Compares ninth-grade program graduates' drug use with that of a comparable group of non-DARE students. DARE and non-DARE students exhibit no…

Strusinski, Marianne; Gomez, Joseph J.

1996-01-01

31

Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB(2) ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential.  

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The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB(1) antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB(2) drugs without CB(1) psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB(1) receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB(2) is mainly expressed in peripheral cells and tissues, and is involved in immune signal transduction. Conversely, the CB(2) receptor was recently detected in the CNS, for example, in the microglial cells and the neurons. While the CB(2) neurons activity remains controversial, the CB(2) receptor is an attractive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, immune system, cancer and osteoporosis without psychoactivity. This review addresses CB drug abuse and therapeutic potential with a focus on the most recent advances on new CB(2) ligands from the literature as well as patents. PMID:22300098

Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

2012-02-01

32

Validation of a reduced spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Con el objetivo de examinar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión en español del Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), se aplicó éste, junto a la Double Standard Scale, la Rape Supportive Attitude Scale y el Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R, a 813 mujeres peruanas distribuidas en tres muestras diferentes: población general (n = 300), mujeres que no habían denunciado abuso (n = 300) y mujeres que habían denunciado abuso (n = 213).Después de poner a prueba mediante análisis factorial confi...

Juan Carlos Sierra; Monge, Fredy S.; Pablo Santos-Iglesias; María Paz Bermúdez; José María Salinas

2011-01-01

33

Engineering reduced evolutionary potential for synthetic biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of synthetic biology seeks to engineer reliable and predictable behaviors in organisms from collections of standardized genetic parts. However, unlike other types of machines, genetically encoded biological systems are prone to changes in their designed sequences due to mutations in their DNA sequences after these devices are constructed and deployed. Thus, biological engineering efforts can be confounded by undesired evolution that rapidly breaks the functions of parts and systems, particularly when they are costly to the host cell to maintain. Here, we explain the fundamental properties that determine the evolvability of biological systems. Then, we use this framework to review current efforts to engineer the DNA sequences that encode synthetic biology devices and the genomes of their microbial hosts to reduce their ability to evolve and therefore increase their genetic reliability so that they maintain their intended functions over longer timescales. PMID:24556867

Renda, Brian A; Hammerling, Michael J; Barrick, Jeffrey E

2014-07-01

34

Evaluation of the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of a C8-C9 isoparaffin solvent.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that the abuse potential of certain types of inhalants could be evaluated in animals by determining the overlap in their profile of behavioral effects with that of CNS depressant drugs and other depressant-like abused inhalants. For our first attempt in evaluating a solvent with an unknown abuse potential we tested ISOPAR-E. ISOPAR-E is a mixture of predominantly C8-C9 isoparaffinic hydrocarbons that is being used more and more frequently as a solvent in industrial and consumer products, including, but not limited to, typewriter correction fluids. Presently, nothing is known about the potential for abuse of products containing this solvent. In the present studies, we compared the volatility of ISOPAR-E and the abused solvent 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) in our exposure systems. Additionally, five behavioral procedures were conducted in mice to compare the effects of the two compounds. The results demonstrate that: (1) ISOPAR-E was less volatile than TCE; (2) ISOPAR-E produced a somewhat different profile of effects than did TCE as assessed with a functional observational battery; (3) unlike TCE, ISOPAR-E did not affect performance on tests of motor coordination; (4) TCE and ISOPAR-E produced concentration-related decreases in schedule-controlled operant performance with recovery from TCE being somewhat more rapid; (5) ISOPAR-E produced cross dependence in TCE-dependent mice; and (6) both TCE and ISOPAR-E produced substantial levels of ethanol-lever responding in a drug discrimination procedure, although the ethanol-like effects of ISOPAR-E only occurred at response rate decreasing concentrations. Overall, there was a poorer separation of behavioral and lethal concentrations for ISOPAR-E than for TCE. Although a somewhat different profile of behavioral effects was obtained with ISOPAR-E and TCE, we cannot say with certainty if enough similarities exist with abused inhalants to predict that ISOPAR-E would be subject to depressant-like abuse. Nonetheless, the feasibility of preclinical assessment of abuse potential of inhalants was demonstrated. PMID:9250471

Balster, R L; Bowen, S E; Evans, E B; Tokarz, M E

1997-07-01

35

Association between improvement in depression, reduced benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse, and increased psychotropic medication use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We had evaluated the depressive symptoms severity of 75 former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) using the 21-item Hamilton rating scale for depression (21-HAM-D) and re-assessed 63 of them 1.6+/-0.3 years later. The second mean 21-HAM-D score was lower than the first (11.8+/-8.4 versus 17.4+/-6.2, p<0.0005). Benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse was lower although not significantly (p=0.06) during the month preceding the second analysis (32/63, 50.8%) than the month preceding the first one (40/63, 63.5%). Psychotropic medication usage was higher at the second assessment than at the first one (50/63, 79.4% versus 27/63, 42.9%, p<0.0005). 21-HAM-D score reduced significantly over time among 13 "no psychotropic medication" patients (13.5+/-6.3 versus 6.8+/-6.8, p=0.005) and in 27 who started medication following the first assessment (19.3+/-3.8 versus 11.0+/-8.4, p<0.0005), but not in those who were already taking any medication before the first assessment (17.7+/-7.0 versus 15.0+/-8.0, p=n.s). 21-HAM-D score reduced in all BDZ groups but scores were still highest in the 32 patients who continued BDZ abuse (19.4+/-5.6 versus 15.2+/-7.7) followed by 14 who stopped it (16.8+/-6.4 versus 9.6+/-9.1) and were lowest in 17 patients who never abused BDZ (14.2+/-5.2 versus 7.2+/-6.4) (repeated measured, time and group effect, each p<0.0005). Predictors for being depressed at follow-up were pre-existing depression only. Stopping BDZ abuse and starting psychotropic treatment was associated with a reduction of depressive symptoms among MMT patients. PMID:17706374

Schreiber, Shaul; Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam

2008-01-01

36

Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

2011-03-01

37

Identification of 3-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones as isoform-selective PKC-? inhibitors and potential therapeutics for psychostimulant abuse†‡  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From a screen of small molecule libraries to identify potential therapeutics for psychostimulant abuse, 3-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones were shown to be isoform-selective PKC-? inhibitors.

Yuan, Langtian; Seo, Jin-soo; Kang, Nam Sook; Keinan, Shahar; Steele, Sarah E.; Michelotti, Gregory A.; Wetsel, William C.; Beratan, David N.; Gong, Young-dae; Lee, Tong H.; Hong, Jiyong

2009-01-01

38

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.Methods: Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h, peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h. Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry.Results: There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons, suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically significant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.Keywords: drug abuse, opioid, oxycodone, niacin

Webster LR

2012-08-01

39

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

... behavior. What Is Abuse? Abuse can be physical, emotional, or sexual. Physical abuse means any form of violence such as hitting, punching, pulling hair, and kicking. Abuse can occur in both dating relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) ...

40

Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB2 ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB2 drugs without CB1 psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB1 receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB2 is mainly expressed in ...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

1992-01-01

42

Reducing the Risk of Drug Involvement among Early Adolescents: An Evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE).  

Science.gov (United States)

DARE's effectiveness in Charleston County (South Carolina) was studied by comparing 341 DARE to 367 non-DARE fifth-grade students. DARE teaches students to recognize and resist social pressures to use drugs. DARE has positive impacts on anti-substance abuse attitudes, assertiveness, positive peer association, association with drug-using peers, and…

Harmon, Michele Alicia

1993-01-01

43

The Use of a Vibrator to Reduce Self-Abusive Behaviors in a Mentally and Sensorially Handicapped Individual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study evaluated the effectiveness of an electric vibrator on the deceleration and/or extinction of 10 self abusive and aberrant behaviors in a profoundly retarded, nonambulatory 25 year old female who could not hear, see, or speak. At the end of 41 twenty minute sessions, seven of the target behaviors approached extinction and three were…

Fischer, Margaret

44

Estimating prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in one general hospital: an approach to reduce sample selection bias.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence estimates of alcohol abuse or dependence in general hospitals are often limited to single wards, small data collecting periods or insufficient diagnostic procedures. Therefore, the present study aimed to ascertain alcohol abuse or dependence in one general hospital, to compare prevalence data for all the 11 wards and 6 intake months, to establish if screening is sufficient or if a two-step diagnostic procedure is needed, and to determine whether information for an alcohol diagnosis on suspicion is available. A sample of 1309 medical or surgical in-patients were screened by questionnaires or medication for withdrawal, and, if screening-positive, were interviewed with the alcohol section of a standardized psychiatric interview. In screening-negative patients, a diagnosis on suspicion was given if medication to treat withdrawal had been used, or if there was evidence of single criteria of alcohol dependence, somatic disorders from alcohol drinking, raised laboratory parameters on grounds of alcohol drinking or of self-reported high alcohol consumption. Of the medical and surgical in-patients, 20.7 and 16.0% respectively were alcohol abusers or dependents, with a range of prevalence rates of alcohol abuse or dependence among wards of 11.1-32.9% and among intake months between 11.3 and 28.7%. Of the medical department in-patients, 1.9%, and of the surgical in-patients, 2.1%, were screened as false-positive cases. In addition, 5.5% of the medical and 12.0% of the surgical patients were given a diagnosis on suspicion. It is concluded that all general wards and different intake months should be taken into account when estimating prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence in a general hospital. PMID:10528822

John, U; Rumpf, H J; Hapke, U

1999-01-01

45

METHODS OF REDUCING CORROSION POTENTIAL OF DEMINERALIZED WATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this project are to study the method of obtaining demineralized water by using an ion exchange column type Purolite A200MBO, Purolite C100MBH. Considering the fact that we intend to use this type of water for the production of the steam used in the energetic industry, it is very important that the corrosive potential of water to be highly reduced. We have made chemical determinations for the water that enters in the ion exchange column and for the final water, which is the demineralized water. The results that we obtained emphasize that the corrosive capacity of the water is intensely diminished following this process.

Nicolae Chirila

2012-11-01

46

METHODS OF REDUCING CORROSION POTENTIAL OF DEMINERALIZED WATER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this project are to study the method of obtaining demineralized water by using an ion exchange column type Purolite A200MBO, Purolite C100MBH. Considering the fact that we intend to use this type of water for the production of the steam used in the energetic industry, it is very important that the corrosive potential of water to be highly reduced. We have made chemical determinations for the water that enters in the ion exchange column and for the final water, which is the d...

Nicolae Chirila

2012-01-01

47

Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He ...

48

Inhalant abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic...

Baydala, L.

2010-01-01

49

Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

Czyz Anne

2011-07-01

50

Alternative drugs of abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

2014-02-01

51

Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces their usefulness. A detailed alcohol history is therefore recommended. The pathophysiology may include alcohol-induced organ dysfunctions. We demonstrated that subclinical cardiac insufficiency, immune incompetence, and haemostatic imbalance were already present preoperatively. A relation between the various lesions remains to be investigated. The surgical stress response was greater in alcohol abusers, which may further compromise the already dysfunctioning organs, thus leading to the documented increase in postoperative morbidity. Withdrawal from alcohol reverses organic dysfunction in non-surgical patients. Haemostasis normalises after one to four weeks, cardiac function after one month, immune function after two months, and response to external stress after three months. Accordingly, our small randomised investigation has shown that one month of abstinence before surgery improves several organic dysfunctions and reduces postoperative morbidity. We have demonstrated that prevention before surgery is possible. The study has methodological flaws, so further studies are required before final recommendations can be given. However, in the meantime clinical guidelines for alcohol abusers undergoing surgery should include up-to-date patient information and four weeks of abstinence before surgery, in accordance with the evidence-based association, the potential prevention attained by preoperative abstinence, and the best clinical practice. Implementation should be monitored in the clinical databases. In future, all patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect attainable from thismulti-modal prevention and fast track surgery should be investigated among the alcohol abusers.

Tønnesen, Hanne

2003-01-01

52

Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces their usefulness. A detailed alcohol history is therefore recommended. The pathophysiology may include alcohol-induced organ dysfunctions. We demonstrated that subclinical cardiac insufficiency, immune incompetence, and haemostatic imbalance were already present preoperatively. A relation between the various lesions remains to be investigated. The surgical stress response was greater in alcohol abusers, which may further compromise the already dysfunctioning organs, thus leading to the documented increase in postoperative morbidity. Withdrawal from alcohol reverses organic dysfunction in non-surgical patients. Haemostasis normalises after one to four weeks, cardiac function after one month, immune function after two months, and response to external stress after three months. Accordingly, our small randomised investigation has shown that one month of abstinence before surgery improves several organic dysfunctions and reduces postoperative morbidity. We have demonstrated that prevention before surgery is possible. The study has methodological flaws, so further studies are required before final recommendations can be given. However, in the meantime clinical guidelines for alcohol abusers undergoing surgery should include up-to-date patient information and four weeks of abstinence before surgery, in accordance with the evidence-based association, the potential prevention attained by preoperative abstinence, and the best clinical practice. Implementation should be monitored in the clinical databases. In future, all patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect attainable from this multi-modal prevention and fast track surgery should be investigated among the alcohol abusers.

Tønnesen, Hanne

2003-01-01

53

Series compensation schemes reducing the potential of subsynchronous resonance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents new series compensation schemes which reduce the potential of subsynchronous resonance problems in series compensated electrical power systems. The schemes are phase-wise compensation schemes with three different combinations of inductive and capacitive elements. The combinations are chosen such that their frequency characteristics given equal reactances at the power frequency and unequal reactances at the other frequencies. This implies that subsynchronous oscillations drive unsymmetrical three phase currents. The developed electric torque will be, therefore, lower than what it would be if the three phase currents are symmetrical. This results in a lower coupling strength between the mechanical and the electrical systems at asynchronous oscillations. The validity and effectiveness of the schemes have been demonstrated on the Second IEEE Benchmark Model, by means of time simulation analysis using the EMTP program.

Edris, A.A. (ABB Power Systems, AB Vasteras (SE))

1990-02-01

54

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. T...

2012-01-01

55

Commonly Abused Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... illicit and prescription drugs, listing their common and street names, how they are generally administered, and their potentially ... Drug Abuse Tobacco Category & Name Examples of Commercial & Street Names DEA Schedule How Administered* Nicotine Found in cigarettes, ...

56

Financial Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Financial Abuse Elder financial abuse spans a broad spectrum of conduct, including: Taking money or property Forging an older person's signature Getting an ... false pretence, or dishonest acts or statements for financial gain Telemarketing scams. Perpetrators call victims and use ...

57

Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Issues," Vol 20, No. 4 2008 Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical ... Baltimore, MD: Health Professionals Press. Home | About NCPEA | Elder Abuse | Calendar | Publications | Coalitions | Links | Members | Contact © 2008 NCPEA. ...

58

Elder abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

Bradley, M.

1996-01-01

59

Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

2005-02-01

60

Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [{sup 11}C]butane and intravenously injected [{sup 11}C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of {sup 11}C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [{sup 11}C]toluene to include [{sup 11}C]acetone and [{sup 11}C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [{sup 11}C]toluene and [{sup 11}C]acetone were administered intravenously and [{sup 11}C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [{sup 11}C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane.

Gerasimov, Madina R. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ferrieri, Richard A. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Pareto, Deborah [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging, Functional Imaging, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Logan, Jean [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: logan@bnl.gov; Alexoff, David [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ding Yushin [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Early Detection of Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

Shearman, J. K.

1987-01-01

62

[Elder abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prevention Law of Elder Abuse was enacted from April 1, 2006. There are two kinds of abuse by nursing family and by staff of nursing care home. In the case of abuse by family, 80s women were most victims and they were abused by their sons or husbands. While abused by staff of nursing care home, the number was small but increased rapidly. In the background of victims, they need high degree of care, and their dementia is severe. Those may affect the incident of abuse. Health Care workers have to examine the elders with thinking of their backgrounds, and it is important that we always suspect of the existence of abuse. PMID:23855213

Nishiyama, Kingo

2013-06-01

63

Potential of treatment-specific protein biomarker profiles for detection of hormone abuse in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Targeted protein biomarker profiling is suggested as a fast screening approach for detection of illegal hormone treatment in meat production. The advantage of using biomarkers is that they mark the biological response and, thus, are responsive to a panel of substances with similar effects. In a preliminary feasibility study, a 4-plex protein biomarker flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) previously developed for the detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was applied to cattle treated with steroids, such as estradiol, dexamethasone, and prednisolone. Each treatment resulted in a specific plasma biomarker profile for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 2, osteocalcin, and anti-rbST antibodies, which could be distinguished from the profile of untreated animals. In summary, the 4-plex biomarker FCIA is, apart from rbST, also capable of detecting treatment with other growth-promoting agents and therefore clearly shows the potential of biomarker profiling as a screening method in veterinary control. It is proposed to perform additional validation studies covering high numbers of treated and untreated animals to support inclusion or adaptation of protein biomarker approaches in future monitoring regulations. PMID:23582010

Ludwig, Susann Katrina Julie; Smits, Nathalie Gabriëlle Esther; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Nielen, Michel Wilhelmus Franciscus

2013-05-15

64

Intelligent use and potential abuse of hormone assays in animal production research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunoassays provide sensitive and specific techniques to measure very low concentrations of hormones in biological fluids. Use of these procedures has provided comprehensive plasma profiles for most hormones and contributed to a better understanding or reproductive function. One future challenge for basic research is the development of new methods to monitor and quantitate target organ response rather than continuing to determine concentrations. In applied or production-oriented projects the difficulties and expenses associated with most hormone assays are usually not justified. One exception is sequential monitoring of plasma or milk progesterone concentrations in twice weekly or weekly samples which can be used to detect the occurrence of sexual maturity, the time of first postpartum ovulation, the true incidence of anoestrus, whether individual females have regular ovarian cycles, and as an early test for pregnancy. Past results indicate that most healthy, adequately fed dairy cows in temperate regions ovulate during the first three or four weeks postpartum. Under intensive management systems the major problem in reproductive management of dairy cattle is oestrus detection. In contrast, many beef cows have not ovulated by 60 days postpartum, so prolonged anoestrus is a serious problem in suckled cows. Very little is known about nutrition, disease or climatic stress effects or interactions on reproductive performance in tropical environments. Regular progesterone concentrations from individual cows, combined with condition scores, management evaluation and breeding plus health records should accurately define the current reproductive performance, potential and problems. Once the major factors limiting reproductive efficiency have been defined, research projects can concentrate on the development of practical solutions. Sequential progesterone assays can then be incorporated into experimental procedures to objectively determine ovarian response. (author)

1986-03-17

65

Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are mo...

Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Edmundo Muñiz; Robert Taylor; Jason Pergolizzi

2012-01-01

66

A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)

2010-09-03

67

Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

2011-03-01

68

Peer abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a) is intended to cause harm or distress, (b) occurs repeatedly over time, and (c) occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may b...

2011-01-01

69

Nuclear Fuel Service Center approach to reducing proliferation potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the concepts being studied as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), is that of an international Fuel Service Center (IFSC). The purpose of an IFSC is to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, with due consideration for using uranium resources more efficiently than the current Light Water Reactors without Plutonium Recycle. The IFSC's will prevent proliferation by restricting Weapons Usable Material (WUM) to the IFSC boundaries and providing the necessary safeguards to prevent diversion

1978-01-01

70

Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

2008-01-01

71

Inhibition of Filamin-A Reduces Cancer Metastatic Potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Filamin-A cross-links actin filaments into dynamic orthogonal networks, and interacts with an array of proteins of diverse cellular functions. Because several filamin-A interaction partners are implicated in signaling of cell mobility regulation, we tested the hypothesis that filamin-A plays a role in cancer metastasis. Using four pairs of filamin-A proficient and deficient isogenic cell lines, we found that filamin-A deficiency in cancer cells significantly reduces their migration and invasion. Using a xenograft tumor model with subcutaneous and intracardiac injections of tumor cells, we found that the filamin-A deficiency causes significant reduction of lung, splenic and systemic metastasis in nude mice. We evaluated the expression of filamin-A in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemical staining, and found that low levels of filamin-A expression in cancer cells of the tumor tissues are associated with a better distant metastasis-free survival than those with normal levels of filamin-A. These data not only validate filamin-A as a prognostic marker for cancer metastasis, but also suggest that inhibition of filamin-A in cancer cells may reduce metastasis and that filamin-A can be used as a therapeutic target for filamin-A positive cancer.

Xi Jiang, Jingyin Yue, Huimei Lu, Neil Campbell, Qifeng Yang, Shijie Lan, Bruce G. Haffty, Changji Yuan, Zhiyuan Shen

2013-01-01

72

Physical Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more? Anetzberger, G.J. (1987). The etiology of elder abuse by adult offspring. Springfield, IL: Thomas. Baumhover, L. ... Professions Press. Quinn, M.J., & Tomita, S.K. (1997). Elder abuse and neglect: Causes, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. (2nd ...

73

Fetal Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

Kent, Lindsey; And Others

1997-01-01

74

Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

... effective in reducing drug abuse. Successful prevention involves families, schools, communities and the media. Despite these efforts, people still ... before they start abusing drugs. These programs involve schools, families, sports ... and the broader community. NIH is also working hard to engage the ...

75

Child Abuse: The Undetected "Special Need."  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explains forms of child abuse (neglect, emotional, sexual, and physical), outlines recommended school procedures for dealing with suspected child abuse in students with special educational needs, and emphasizes the need for increased teacher training and teacher action in reducing child abuse. (JDD)

Maher, Peter

1989-01-01

76

[Drugs and drug abusers].  

Science.gov (United States)

DRUG ABUSERS: Drugs are widely used by toxicomaniacs to reproduce drug effects. Drug abusers generally start with psychotrops, but other abuse drug classes. Toxicomanic behavior leads to addictive practices that are difficult to control. BARBITURATES: Both the oral and intravenous routes are used. The expected result is a state of ecstasy with a feeling of comfort. Intoxication may cause respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce physical and psychic dependence. Abuse is not widespread with this class of drugs. BENZODIAZEPINES: Drug abuses widely use benzodiazepines orally or intravenously. They search for a flash effect, with sedation and a feeling of comfort. All benzodiazepines induce physical and psychic dependence. Death may result from combinations leading to respiratory depression. Flunitrazepam is the most widely abused benzodiazepine in France. It induces serious neuropsychic disorders. ANTIDEPRESSANTS: Few are used, mostly at high doses. OPIATES: Administration gives the same effect as heroine injection. Opiates induce physical and psychic dependence. The adverse effects are similar to those of morphine with a higher risk of respiratory depression. AMPHETAMINES: Few are used, either orally or intravenously. They induce a flash with excitation, euphoria, and a period of invincibility. This is followed by a period of depression with risk of suicide. Psychic dependence is high. ANTICHOLINERGIC ANTIPARKINSONIANS: These drugs are well known to abusers for their hallucinatory effect. They induce atropinic adverse effects and physical and psychic dependence. GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE: This anesthetic is used for its euphoria and sedation effects. It may induce falling sickness or coma, with a risk of respiratory depression. KETAMINE: Administered via the intranasal route, ketamine induces a state of indifference. Death has been observed. ANABOLIC AND ANDROGENIC STEROIDS: These drugs are used for their physical and psychic stimulating effect. They induce potentially dangerous adverse effects such as cardiovascular, hepatic, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Clinical signs of addiction and weaning are observed. OTHERS: Several other drug classes are used by abusers, including analgics, beta-adrenergic agents, nasal vasoconstrictors and corticosteroids. PMID:11252979

Schlatter, J; Sitbon, N; Saulnier, J L

2001-02-17

77

Comparison of full and reduced potential formulations for low-frequency applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors examine five alternative finite element formulations of magnetostatic problems: (1) full vector potential, (2) reduced vector potential, (3) reduced scalar potential with source integral over all volume, (4) reduced scalar potential with source integral over permeable volumes only, and (5) reduced scalar potential with surface source integral. They show that (3) is more prone to numerical error than the other methods, and that (4) and (5) are competitive in accuracy with (1) and (2) in air regions but are easier to implement in three dimensions. However, all three scalar formulations suffer from cancellation errors in iron regions

1993-03-01

78

Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to be violent while they're under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

79

Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MSE, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

2011-01-17

80

On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the emerging landscape of cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials evaluating the effects of blood glucose lowering drugs in individuals with type 2 diabetes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that since the promising signals coming from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) no unequivocal benefits have been established for any single therapy thus far. There is an unmet need for introducing an effective pharmacological agent which could target both correlates of glycaemic regulation and CV risk factors, to ameliorate the enormous burden of fatal and non-fatal CV events in diabetic patients. Acarbose, like other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), has been proven to be an effective antidiabetic treatment for decades, but the overall significant impact of this class of drugs on modulating CV risk has only recently been appreciated. Accumulating evidence has shown that apart from its multiple effects on primarily postprandial glucose dysmetabolism, a key component of mechanisms linked to increased incidence of CV events, acarbose therapy also associates with a favorable impact on an array of surrogate markers of CV disease. Data stemming from in vitro testing of human cell lines as well as from preliminary trials in diabetic populations, like the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial, have highlighted - though not undisputed - the potential beneficial effects of the drug on CV morbidity. Large scale trials, like the ongoing Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial, aim at conclusively establishing such a positive effect in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance. In view of its usually acceptable level of side effects that are, if they occur, mostly limited to transient gastrointestinal symptoms, acarbose could well be a strong future player in CV disease secondary prevention. Current discouraging results from many trials of antidiabetic medications to significantly lower CV event rates in diabetic patients, should only draw further attention on alternative glucose lowering agents, among which acarbose is indeed promising. PMID:24742256

Standl, Eberhard; Theodorakis, Michael J; Erbach, Michael; Schnell, Oliver; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies.

Turk, Dennis C.; O'Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

2013-01-01

82

Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

2012-01-01

83

Elder abuse: speak out for justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that 1 in 10 older adults experience abuse, but only 1 in 5 to as little as 1 in 24 cases are reported. Elder abuse is expected to increase as the population ages. Nurses are in a prime position to identify, assess, manage, and prevent elder abuse. This article explores elder abuse and its prevalence, potential causes, and risk factors offering case studies, assessment tools, resources, and interventions. PMID:24592599

Olson, Jenna M; Hoglund, Barbara A

2014-01-01

84

Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... of these may play a part in caregiver burnout, neglect, or abuse. Who Can Help? Elder mistreatment ... http://ovc.ncjrs.org/findvictimservices/ For information on nursing homes, nutrition, exercise, and other resources on health ...

85

Lack of abuse potential in a highly selective dopamine D3 agonist, PF-592,379, in drug self-administration and drug discrimination in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 responding for cocaine, experimentally naive rats failed to acquire responding when 7-OH-DPAT or PF-592,379 was made available during an 18-session acquisition period. Cocaine also maintained dose-dependent levels of responding when available under a FR5 or a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Although 7-OH-DPAT maintained modest levels of responding when substituted under a FR5, it failed to maintain significant levels of PR responding. PF-592,379 maintained saline-like rates of responding when substituted under FR5 or PR schedules of reinforcement. Similar behavioral profiles were observed in cocaine discrimination assays, with 7-OH-DPAT partially substituting for cocaine, and PF-592,379 producing saline-like effects over a wide range of doses. Together, the results of these studies predict that highly selective D3 agonists, such as PF-592,379, will have low abuse potential in humans. PMID:22470105

Collins, Gregory T; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S Barak

2012-06-01

86

Evaluation of the abuse potential of lorcaserin, a serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptor agonist, in recreational polydrug users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lorcaserin is a selective and potent serotonin 2C receptor subtype (5-HT(2C)) agonist under development for the treatment of obesity. This study assessed the drug's abuse potential on the basis of its pharmacological profile. For this purpose, a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, randomized seven-way crossover study with single oral doses of lorcaserin (20, 40, and 60 mg), zolpidem (15 and 30 mg), ketamine (100 mg), and placebo was conducted in recreational polydrug users (N = 35). Subjective and objective measures were assessed up to 24 h after the dose. We found that zolpidem and ketamine had significantly higher peak scores relative to placebo on the primary measures as well as on most of the secondary measures. The subjective effects of a 20-mg dose of lorcaserin were similar to those of placebo, whereas supratherapeutic doses of lorcaserin were associated with significant levels of dislike by users as compared with placebo, zolpidem, and ketamine. Perceptual effects were minimal after administration of lorcaserin and significantly lower than after administration of either ketamine or zolpidem. The findings suggest that, at supratherapeutic doses, lorcaserin is associated with distinct, primarily negative, subjective effects and has low abuse potential. PMID:21412231

Shram, M J; Schoedel, K A; Bartlett, C; Shazer, R L; Anderson, C M; Sellers, E M

2011-05-01

87

The Effects of Sexual Abuse as a Child on the Risk of Mothers Physically Abusing Their Children: A Path Analysis Using Systems Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The potential path from sexual abuse as a child to the current risk of physical abuse by mothers was assessed. Ontogenic variables including the experience of the parent's sexual abuse as a child and current depression or substance abuse were expected to have a greater impact on the risk of child abuse than microsystem and exosystem…

Mapp, Susan C.

2006-01-01

88

The Relative Abuse Liability of Oral Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Hydromorphone Assessed in Prescription Opioid Abusers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abuse of prescription opioids has risen precipitously in the United States. Few controlled comparisons of the abuse liability of the most commonly abused opioids have been conducted. This outpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential and potency of oral oxycodone (10, 20 & 40 mg), hydrocodone (15, 30 & 45 mg), hydromorphone (10, 17.5 & 25 mg) and placebo. Healthy adult volunteers (n=9) with sporadic pres...

Walsh, Sharon L.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Holtman, Joseph R.

2008-01-01

89

Inhibition of CREB activity in the dorsal portion of the striatum potentiates behavioral responses to drugs of abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The striatum participates in multiple forms of behavioral adaptation, including habit formation, other forms of procedural memory, and short and long-term responses to drugs of abuse. The CREB family of transcription factors has been implicated in various forms of behavioral plasticity, but its role in the dorsal portion of the striatum-has been little explored. We previously showed that in transgenic mice in which CREB function is inhibited in the dorsal striatum, bidirectional synaptic plasticity and certain forms of long-term procedural memory are impaired. Here we show, in startling contrast, that inhibition of striatal CREB facilitates cocaine- and morphine-place conditoning and enhances locomotor sensitization to cocaine. These findings propose CREB as a positive regulator of dorsal striatum-dependent procedural learning but a negative regulator of drug-related learning.

StefaniaFasano

2009-09-01

90

Redundant states, reduced potentials, and extra nodes in the radial wave function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First-principle scattering calculations which include antisymmetrization of a projectile with respect to identical particles in the target result in a nonsymmetric nonlocal effective potential. Such a potential can lead to redundant states in the scattering wave function. In this case the potential is required to satisfy a consistency condition. We discuss this condition and the manner in which it can be imposed. We also discuss the replacement of this potential by a reduced symmetric nonlocal effective potential which does not produce redundant states. This reduced potential generates a scattering wave function orthogonal to the redundant states. If the original equation has one redundant state, the phase shift at zero energy is ?, resulting in an extra node in the zero-energy wave function. The reduced effective potential must retain this extra node. This characteristic of the reduced effective potential is illustrated with an example. We show that the extra node produced by the potential in the example comes either from a spurious state or a bound state of that potential

1980-01-01

91

A Dipole Polarizable Potential for Reduced and Doped CeO$_2$ from First-Principles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO$_2$. We use a dipole-polarizable potential (DIPPIM) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of DFT calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO$_2$ and by comparing them to experimental values. The agreement for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficie...

Burbano, Mario; Marrocchelli, Dario; Yildiz, Bilge; Tuller, Harry L.; Norberg, Stefan T.; Hull, Stephen; Madden, Paul A.; Watson, Graeme W.

2011-01-01

92

Peer abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

Müjgan

2011-03-01

93

Risk management in tianeptine abuse in Turkey: a national experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Although tianeptine has several advantages compared with tricyclic antidepressants, it should be carefully observed for abuse potential especially in patients with the history of dependence or abuse of any drug or alcohol.

nedim durmus

2013-01-01

94

Abuse during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... It's been added to your dashboard . Abuse during pregnancy Abuse, whether emotional or physical, is never okay. ... or physical injuries. What can trigger abuse during pregnancy? For many families, pregnancy can bring about feelings ...

95

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... do anything with the Marketplace during Open Enrollment. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

96

Substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comorbidity of schizophrenia and substance abuse has attracted increasing attention in the past years, with multiple potential links, including genetic vulnerability, neurobiological aspects, side effects of medications, and psychosocial factors being under discussion. The link between the use of substances and the development of psychoses is demonstrated by the high prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia. Apart from alcohol misuse, substances commonly abused in this patient group...

2006-01-01

97

Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

2000-01-01

98

A survey of teaching and implementation: the veterinarian's role in recognizing and reporting abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many families seeking assistance from domestic violence agencies are known to local humane societies or animal control officials because of previous incidents of animal abuse. This is because pets are often the first victims of family disputes that erupt into violence. Analysis of domestic violence statistics indicates that veterinarians potentially treat hundreds of thousands of abused pets each year. Because veterinarians may be the first or only individuals to have access to abusive family situations, it is it important for veterinarians to be aware of potential signs of abuse of pets and their owners and to be familiar with the mechanisms for reporting suspected incidents of abuse. Thirty-one North American veterinary schools and a sample of large and small animal practitioners in Indiana were surveyed to understand to what degree current veterinary curricula prepare students to recognize abuse of animal patients and human clients and to what extent practitioners recognize and report their suspicions of abuse to appropriate authorities. The data indicate a discrepancy between beliefs about prevalence of abuse and the amount of time spent educating veterinary students to recognize and report that abuse. I hypothesize that: 1) practicing veterinarians are reluctant to report suspicions of domestic family violence directed against animals, children, or spouses for various reasons (e.g., lack of adequate training, fear of litigation, time constraints, fear that violence will escalate, belief that it is not their place to intervene, lack of contact information, fear of losing a client's business); 2) practicing veterinarians (in large and small animal practices) may not be aware that animal patients and human clients may have been abused and being unfamiliar with this diagnosis, are unfamiliar with the mechanism for reporting the abuse, especially when it involves human victims; and 3) veterinary school curricula could be modified so that veterinary students are trained to recognize human and animal abuse, thereby reducing risks to animal patients, other animals in the household, and human clients. I believe that recognition of animal and human abuse is in line with veterinarians' responsibilities to protect animal health, relieve animal suffering, and promote public health. PMID:10434967

Landau, R E

1999-08-01

99

Reduced representation model of protein structure prediction: statistical potential and genetic algorithms.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A reduced representation model, which has been described in previous reports, was used to predict the folded structures of proteins from their primary sequences and random starting conformations. The molecular structure of each protein has been reduced to its backbone atoms (with ideal fixed bond lengths and valence angles) and each side chain approximated by a single virtual united-atom. The coordinate variables were the backbone dihedral angles phi and psi. A statistical potential function,...

Sun, S.

1993-01-01

100

Oxytocin Reduces Background Anxiety in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm: Peripheral vs Central Administration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oxytocin is known to have anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects. Using a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats, we previously demonstrated that subcutaneously administered oxytocin suppressed acoustic startle following fear conditioning compared with startle before fear conditioning (termed background anxiety), but did not have an effect on cue-specific fear-potentiated startle. The findings suggest oxytocin reduces background anxiety, an anxious state not directly related to cue-specific ...

Ayers, Luke W.; Missig, Galen; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Neuroprotective strategies in drug abuse-evoked encephalopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Encephalopathy is evidenced as an altered mental state with various neurological symptoms, such as memory and cognitive problems. The type of a substance-evoked encephalopathy will depend on the drug, substance, or combination being abused. The categories into which we could place the various abused substances could be tentatively divided into stimulants, amphetamines, hallucinogens, narcotics, inhalants, anesthetics, anabolic steroids, and antipsychotics/antidepressants. Other factors that may underlie encephalopathy, such as infectious agents, environmental, and other factors have also to be taken into account. Drugs of abuse can be highly toxic to the CNS following acute, but more so in chronic exposure, and can produce significant damage to other organs, such as the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. The damage to these organs may be at least partially reversible when drug abuse is stopped but CNS damage from repeated or prolonged abuse is often irreversible. The major pathways for the organ and CNS toxicity could be related to ischemic events as well as increased cell damage due to metabolic or mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in increased excitotoxicity, reduced energy production, and lowered antioxidant potential. These susceptibilities could be strengthened by the use of antioxidants to combat free radicals (e.g., vitamin E, lipoic acid); trying to improve energy generation by using mitochondriotropic/metabolic compounds (e.g., thiamine, coenzyme Q10, carnitine, riboflavin); by reducing excitotoxicity (e.g., glutamate antagonists) and other possible strategies, such as robust gene response, need to be investigated further. The drug-abuse-evoked encephalopathy still needs to be studied further to enable better preventative and protective strategies. PMID:20633109

Virmani, Ashraf; Ali, Syed F; Binienda, Zbigniew K

2010-06-01

102

Evaluating on-line high purity water oxidizing-reducing potential analysis for boiler feedwater quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conditioned boiler feedwater was analyzed with a unique flowing-junction oxidizing-reducing potential (ORP) analyzer in comparison with dissolved oxygen and other parameters. Two different fossil plant boiler chemistries were utilized in the evaluation. Correlations were drawn between ORP, dissolved oxygen, and hydrazine levels to determine the usefulness of this ORP analysis for corrosion control. (orig.)

Olson, Vickie G. [Honeywell Field Solutions, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2010-02-15

103

The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

Makoto Yokohari

2010-09-01

104

Evaluating the Potential for Watershed Restoration to Reduce Nutrient Loading to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

A literature review of best management practices to reduce nutrient loading was performed to provide information for resource managers in the Klamath Basin, Oregon. Although BMPs have already been implemented in the watershed, some sense of their effectiveness in reducing phosphorus loading and their cost for installation and maintenance is still lacking. This report discusses both causes of nutrient loading and a wide-variety of BMPs used to treat or reduce causal factors. We specifically focused on cattle grazing as the principal land-use and causal factor for nutrient loading in the Klamath Basin above Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Several BMP types, including stream corridor fencing, riparian buffer strips and constructed wetlands, seem to have potential for reducing phosphorus loading that may result from cattle grazing. However, no single BMP is likely to be the most effective in all locations or situations.

McCormick, Paul; Campbell, Sharon G.

2007-01-01

105

Parent Abuse: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

2007-01-01

106

Preventing Child Abus/span>e: A Bibliography of Information Professionals Should Know to Protect Deaf Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to help professionals protect hearing impaired children from abuse and neglect, this bibliography lists 78 resources published between 1966 and 1985 in the following areas: general information, sexual abuse, institutional abuse, legal responsibilities, profiles of abusers and potential abusers, hiring and training of personnel, and…

McCrone, William P., Comp.; And Others

1985-01-01

107

Physical Abuse: Are Children with Disabilities at Greater Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines child abus/span>e and neglect in terms of the potential proportional threat to children with disabilities. Characteristic traits of abusers and victims, environmental and sociocultural factors, and the history of maltreatment of the disabled are discussed. Recommendations for practitioners and a list of child abus/span>e organizations…

Zirpoli, Thomas J.

1990-01-01

108

Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity of bromate-reducing bacteria suggests the widespread capability for microbial bromate reduction. While the cometabolism of bromate via nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase has been postulated, five of our bromate-reducing isolates were unable to reduce nitrate or perchlorate. This suggests that a bromate-specific reduction pathway might exist in some microorganisms. Bioaugmentation of activated carbon filters with eight of the bromate-reducing isolates did not significantly decrease start-up time or increase bromate removal as compared to control filters. To optimize bromate reduction in a biological drinking water treatment process, the predominant mechanism of bromate reduction (i.e., cometabolic or respiratory) needs to be assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken to improve bromate removal. PMID:21943884

Davidson, Andrew N; Chee-Sanford, Joanne; Lai, Hoi Yi Mandy; Ho, Chi-hua; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Kirisits, Mary Jo

2011-11-15

109

Reducing Potentially Avoidable Complications in Patients with Chronic Diseases: The Prometheus Payment Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective (or Study Question) To determine whether a new payment model can reduce current incidence of potentially avoidable complications (PACs) in patients with a chronic illness. Data Sources/Study Setting A claims database of 3.5 million commercially insured members under age 65. Study Design We analyzed the database using the Prometheus Payment model's analytical software for six chronic conditions to quantify total costs, proportion spent on PACs, and their variability across the United States. We conducted a literature review to determine the feasibility of reducing PACs. We estimated the financial impact on a prototypical practice if that practice received payments based on the Prometheus Payment model. Principal Findings We find that (1) PACs consume an average of 28.6 percent of costs for the six chronic conditions studied and vary significantly; (2) reducing PACs to the second decile level would save U.S.$116.7 million in this population; (3) current literature suggests that practices in certain settings could decrease PACs; and (4) using the Prometheus model could create a large potential incentive for a prototypical practice to reduce PACs. Conclusions By extrapolating these findings we conclude that costs might be reduced through payment reform efforts. A full extrapolation of these results, while speculative, suggests that total costs associated to the six chronic conditions studied could decrease by 3.8 percent.

de Brantes, Francois; Rastogi, Amita; Painter, Michael

2010-01-01

110

Charge density distributions derived from smoothed electrostatic potential functions: design of protein reduced point charge models.  

Science.gov (United States)

To generate reduced point charge models of proteins, we developed an original approach to hierarchically locate extrema in charge density distribution functions built from the Poisson equation applied to smoothed molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) functions. A charge fitting program was used to assign charge values to the so-obtained reduced representations. In continuation to a previous work, the Amber99 force field was selected. To easily generate reduced point charge models for protein structures, a library of amino acid templates was designed. Applications to four small peptides, a set of 53 protein structures, and four KcsA ion channel models, are presented. Electrostatic potential and solvation free energy values generated by the reduced models are compared with the corresponding values obtained using the original set of atomic charges. Results are in closer agreement with the original all-atom electrostatic properties than those obtained with a previous reduced model that was directly built from the smoothed MEP functions [Leherte and Vercauteren in J Chem Theory Comput 5:3279-3298, 2009]. PMID:21915750

Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

2011-10-01

111

Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

Pifalo, Terry

2007-01-01

112

Amphetamine Dependence and Co-Morbid Alcohol Abuse: Associations to Brain Cortical Thickness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Long-term amphetamine and methamphetamine dependence has been linked to cerebral blood perfusion, metabolic, and white matter abnormalities. Several studies have linked methamphetamine abuse to cortical grey matter reduction, though with divergent findings. Few publications investigate unmethylated amphetamine's potential effects on cortical grey matter. This work investigated if amphetamine dependent patients showed reduced cortical grey matter thickness....

Lawyer Glenn; Bjerkan Petr S; Hammarberg Anders; Jayaram-Lindström Nitya; Franck Johan; Agartz Ingrid

2010-01-01

113

Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evalu...

Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

2008-01-01

114

The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N) and phosphorous (T-P) loads, an increasingly problemat...

Jiro Kogi; Mariko Miyamoto; Jay Bolthouse; Makoto Yokohari

2010-01-01

115

Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

2008-12-01

116

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17

117

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

118

Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

119

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

2010-01-01

120

Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies ...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The potential for industrial energy efficiency technology to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the industrial portion of a Department of Energy (DOE) study that assessed the potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. The objectives of this portion of the study were (1) to assess the contribution that an invigorated effort to move efficient technology into the industrial market could make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2010, and (2) to describe the role of research and development (R and D) in providing a stream of advanced technologies after 2010 that can continue to reduce industrial energy intensity and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the authors first provide some background information on the approach to the assessment and how that approach is shaped by the complexities of the US industrial sector and the limitations of the available analytical tools for this sector. The authors then discuss the preliminary results of a model-based analysis through 2010. The study from which this paper is drawn (Boyd et al. 1997) supplements these results with descriptions of examples of technologies that, were they to come into widespread use in the US industrial sector before 2010, could achieve the model scenario results. It also describes examples of advanced technologies that, with continued R and D, could contribute to saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond 2010. In this paper the authors include a summary table of the technology examples described in the study

1997-07-08

122

The potential for industrial energy efficiency technology to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the industrial portion of a Department of Energy (DOE) study that assessed the potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. The objectives of this portion of the study were (1) to assess the contribution that an invigorated effort to move efficient technology into the industrial market could make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2010, and (2) to describe the role of research and development (R and D) in providing a stream of advanced technologies after 2010 that can continue to reduce industrial energy intensity and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the authors first provide some background information on the approach to the assessment and how that approach is shaped by the complexities of the US industrial sector and the limitations of the available analytical tools for this sector. The authors then discuss the preliminary results of a model-based analysis through 2010. The study from which this paper is drawn (Boyd et al. 1997) supplements these results with descriptions of examples of technologies that, were they to come into widespread use in the US industrial sector before 2010, could achieve the model scenario results. It also describes examples of advanced technologies that, with continued R and D, could contribute to saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond 2010. In this paper the authors include a summary table of the technology examples described in the study.

Woodruff, M.G.; Boyd, G.A.; Roop, J.M.

1997-07-01

123

Dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential is derived which sheds light on the determinant's dependence on these quantities. This is done via a partial zeta regularization, formally applying a general formula for the zeta determinant of a differential operator in one variable with operator-valued coefficients. The resulting expression generalizes the known one for the free fermion determinant, obtained via Matsubara frequency summation, to the case of a general background gauge field; moreover there is no undetermined overall factor. Rigorous versions of the result are obtained in a continuous time-lattice space setting. The determinant expression reduces to a remarkably simple form in the low temperature limit. A program for using this to obtain insight into the QCD phase transition at zero temperature and nonzero density is outlined

2004-08-15

124

Elder Abuse among African Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

2006-01-01

125

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The...

Melissa Thiemi Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-01-01

126

Stability of the minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential with reducible Higgs fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work takes up the problem of finding the absolute minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential for the reducible representation of Higgs fields consisting of the antisymmetric (A) and symmetric (S) traceless second-rank tensors. The stability of the minimum under changes on the potential's parameters is also investigated. Potentials containing S alone, both A and S coupled by a positive semi-definite term are minimized. Eigenstates of the Higgs mass matrix are calculated and related to the behavior of the SO(N)-action. Previous results relying on the absence of pseudo-Goldstone models and a new application of the geometry of the action show that the minimum is stable under small changes of the parameters. It is thus stable in an open region of the full eleven-dimensional parameter space of the most general potential of its kind. The isotropy group of the minimum is found to be either SO(N-p) x SO(p-2) x SO(2) or U({N-p}/2) x U(p/2), and the relative magnitudes of the vacuum expectation values of A and S are not constrained. For SO(10), U(3) x U(2) contains the standard model. One-loop Renormalization Group ?-functions are calculated for all parameters of the model

1986-01-01

127

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

128

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine ... another purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic ...

129

Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nicotine Commonly Abused Drugs Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... Drugs Chart Health Effects Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Investigating Drug Abuse Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drug ...

130

Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nicotine Commonly Abused Drugs Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... Drugs Chart Health Effects Emerging Trends Related Topics Addiction Science Investigating Drug Abuse Comorbidity Criminal Justice Drug ...

131

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for the abuser becomes trapped between affection or loyalty for the person, and the sense that the ... sitter tells you to do Encouraging professional prevention programs in the local school system Sexually abused children ...

132

Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.  

Science.gov (United States)

From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

Kosberg, Jordan I

2014-01-01

133

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Med...

Muge Gulen; Abdulkadir Akturk; Selen Acehan; Mustafa Sencer Segmen; Ayca Acikalin; Aysegul Bilen

2013-01-01

134

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAPâ??s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

135

Options to reduce the environmental impacts of residential buildings in the European Union - Potential and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A typology of buildings representative of the building stock for the EU-25 was developed characterizing 72 building types in terms of their representativity, geographical distribution, size, material composition, and thermal insulation. The life cycle impacts of the building types were calculated for different environmental impact categories both at building and EU-25 level. The use phase of buildings, dominated by the energy demand for heating is by far the most important life cycle phase for existing and new buildings. The environmental impacts were allocated to single building elements. Ventilation, heat losses through roofs and external walls are important for a majority of single- and multi-family houses. Three improvement options were identified: additional roof insulation, additional facade insulation and new sealings to reduce ventilation. The measures yield a significant environmental improvement potential, which, for a majority of the buildings types analyse represent at least 20% compared to the base case. The major improvement potentials at EU-level lie with single-family houses, followed by multi-family houses. Smaller reductions are expected for high-rise buildings due to the smaller share in the overall building stock. For both roof insulation and reduced ventilation, the measures were shown to be economically profitable in a majority of buildings. (author)

Nemry, Francoise; Uihlein, Andreas [Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Edificio Expo, C/Inca Garcilaso 3, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Colodel, Cecilia Makishi; Wittstock, Bastian [LBP Department Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), University of Stuttgart, Hauptstrasse 113, 70771 Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany); Wetzel, Christian; Hasan, Ivana; Niemeier, Sigrid; Frech, Yosrea [CalCon Deutschland AG, Goethestrasse 74, 80336 Muenchen (Germany); Braune, Anna; Kreissig, Johannes; Gallon, Nicole [PE International, Hauptstrasse 111-113, 70771 Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany)

2010-07-15

136

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6, containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L or not (control, 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear. Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean wear (±se was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-06-01

137

Elder Abuse Awareness Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

1985-01-01

138

Elder Abuse in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

Arai, Mizuho

2006-01-01

139

Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)

2009-06-08

140

Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): Seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH, were detected in tap water from one sampling point at concentrations of 1.61 and 0.29ngL(-1), respectively. The preliminary human health risk characterization showed that no toxic effects could be expected at the detected concentration level in tap water. The screening level risk assessment showed that MOR, EDDP and the THC metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were present in at least one of the sampling sites in a concentration leading to a Hazard Quotient (HQ) value between 1.0 and 10.0, thus indicating some possible adverse effects. The cumulative HQ or Toxic units (TUs) calculated for each of the groups studied showed that opioids and cannabinoids were present at concentrations high enough to potentially generate some adverse effects on at least one sampling point. PMID:24908641

Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Child Abuse in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death.
A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in...

2011-01-01

142

Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

2011-01-01

143

Protein-protein docking with reduced potentials by exploiting multi-dimensional energy funnels  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new computational approach for protein docking exploiting energy funnels in the 6-dimensional space of translations and rotations of the ligand with respect to the receptor. Our approach consists of a series of translational and orientational moves of the ligand towards the receptor. Each move is performed using a global optimization method we have developed – the Semi-Definite Underestimation (SDU) method – which can exploit a funnel-like energy function. We compared our approach with Monte Carlo on a set of 10 protein complexes using two residue-level potentials. To achieve the same level of performance (produce a near-native ? 3Å RMSD complex) our approach reduces energy evaluations by more than a factor of two, on average.

Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Shen, Yang; Vakili, Pirooz; Vajda, Sandor

2007-01-01

144

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a [...] crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

Melissa Thiemi, Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

145

The potential to reduce emissions of airborne microorganisms by means of biological waste gas treatment systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations regarding the reduction of airborne germs in the waste gas of biowaste composting processes have been carried out at the Hamburg University of Science and Technology and the University of Leipzig. Numerous waste gas treatment plants, ranging from laboratory-scale to technical-scale, have been available at the institutes of these two project partners. All plants consisted of bioscrubber/biofilter combinations. The results showed that these biological systems designed for odour control are able to successfully reduce bioaerosol emissions, even though a reduction to background levels could not be achieved. The bioscrubber, if equipped with a droplet separator, proved to be mainly responsible for the reduction, whereas the biofilter acted as a source for microbial emissions originating from the filter material. It could be observed that the microbial population changed while passing the treatment system, indicating the ability of biological waste gas treatment systems to retain potentially pathogenic microorganisms from waste gases. PMID:16140000

Schlegelmilch, M; Herold, T; Streese, J; Hensel, A; Stegmann, R

2005-01-01

146

The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2004-05-01

147

Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

McNeill Ann

2009-10-01

148

CCR5 Antagonism by Maraviroc Reduces the Potential for Gastric Cancer Cell Dissemination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) that belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors is exploited by macrophage tropic (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to enter cells. Maraviroc, a small molecule CCR antagonist, is used as a part of combination antiretroviral therapy to treat persons infected by R5 HIV-1. CCR5 is expressed in various cancers, and its level of expression is a negative predictor of patients' survival in gastric cancers. Here, we report MKN45, MKN74, and KATOIII cells, three human gastric cancer cell lines with different stages of differentiation, which express CCR5 as detected by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and its ligand RANTES. In vitro experiments demonstrate that CCR5 antagonism reduces gastric cancer cell migration induced by macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), MIP-1?, and RANTES and adhesion to the ex-planted murine peritoneum. Administration of maraviroc from days 3 to 10 after MKN45 cell inoculation to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice effectively reduced the extent of peritoneal disease and increased survival. Maraviroc treatment also reduced the tumor burden in a xenograft model. Gene expression and RT-PCR analyses revealed that CCR5 antagonism in vivo modulates the expression of genes known for their role in cancer growth including interleukin-10 receptor B; hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET); the homolog of the atypical cadherin gene, FAT1; Nm23-H1; and lymphotoxin ? receptor. In summary, we have shown that CCR5 is mechanistically involved in dissemination of gastric cancer cells, suggesting that small molecule inhibitors of CCR5 might be exploited for their anticancer potential. PMID:24466382

Mencarelli, Andrea; Graziosi, Luigina; Renga, Barbara; Cipriani, Sabrina; D'Amore, Claudio; Francisci, Daniela; Bruno, Angela; Baldelli, Franco; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

2013-12-01

149

The potential of fuelwood to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project FEEDS (Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies) has been carried out to analyze possibilities of increasing fuelwood use for five selected European countries in the year 2020, considering environmental, technical and socio-economic aspects. In this paper the effects of increased use of fuelwood on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, are presented. Achievable emission reductions in Sweden range from 6.9 to 17.2 Mt CO2 equivalents, which is equivalent to 12 and 30% of total energy-related GHG emissions in 1995. In Finland a reduction between 5.0 and 10.5 Mt (9 and 18%) is seen to be possible. For France (8.6 and 13.6 Mt; 2 and 4%), Austria (3.7 and 6.2 Mt; 6 and 10%) and Portugal (1.8 and 2.4 Mt; 4 and 6%), relative emission reductions are lower, because of the usable fuelwood potential, but also the market potential in various sectors of the economy are lower. Greatest emission reductions in 2020 are expected in the sectors of individual housing, collective housing (France, Austria and Sweden), tertiary, manufacturing and other industries (Portugal) and district heating (Finland, Sweden). The scenarios indicate that fuelwood has significant yet limited possibilities to reduce total emissions of GHG in the five countries, with the greatest relative reductions in Sweden and Finland. (author)

1997-09-29

150

The development of a brief acceptance and mindfulness-based program aimed at reducing sexual revictimization among college women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women with a history of childhood sexual assault (CSA) are more likely to be revictimized; however, most existing programs aimed at reducing sexual victimization do not expressly address the issue of revictimization. The present study examined the efficacy of a brief mindfulness-based program in reducing rates of sexual assault and revictimization in college women over the course of an academic semester. Although the results were not statistically significant, a large-magnitude effect was noted, whereby women with a history of CSA who participated in the program were less likely to be sexually assaulted and raped at 2-month follow-up. PMID:21544818

Hill, Justin M; Vernig, Peter M; Lee, Jonathan K; Brown, Cynthia; Orsillo, Susan M

2011-09-01

151

Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA permit comparable measures among species. We conclude that estimates of AOO based on fine-resolution distribution models are more robust tools for risk assessment than traditional systems, allowing a better understanding of species ranges at habitat level.

Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David

2012-01-01

152

Detecting elder abuse and neglect: assessment and intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians. PMID:24695564

Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol

2014-03-15

153

Treatment Effects for Common Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Current Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The present meta-analysis examined the effects of psychosocial treatments at reducing deleterious outcomes of sexual abuse. The meta-analysis included a total of 35 published and unpublished studies written in English, focusing on youth under the age of 18, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for the most common negative outcomes of sexual abuse: PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Results revealed medium effect sizes for PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems following treatment for sexual abuse. This study also examined the potential moderating effects of treatment (e.g., modality, duration, inclusion of caregiver) and participant (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity) characteristics. Results indicated that longer interventions were associated with greater treatment gains while group and individual treatments were equally effective. These findings shed new light on treatment effectiveness and provide useful information regarding the conditions under which treatment may be most effective. Future directions for research in this area are discussed.

Trask, Emily V.; Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David

2010-01-01

154

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin

2010-01-01

155

Determining Effective Interventions in a Community-Based Elder Abuse System. Final Report and Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this project was to better understand what interventions are successful in reducing the risk of future abuse, neglect or exploitation among elder abuse victims. The objectives were to: Enhance the Illinois Department on Aging's existing elder ...

1993-01-01

156

Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.

Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

2007-01-01

157

The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO{sub 2} Emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO{sub 2} emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation. However, the trees have to be grown on good sites; otherwise long rotations could be better options for broad-leaved stands. In coniferous stands, a shortened rotation period resulted in lower carbon stocks than a prolonged rotation period, but the amount of residues that could substitute fossil fuel increased with a shorter rotation. However, annual rates of carbon accumulation in biomass might decline in both short- and long-rotation stands in the future. If so, carbon sequestration in biomass would not be the best option. In a long-term perspective, wood products could have high potential to reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions, since wood can replace energy-intensive materials like cement, plastics and aluminium. Intensively managed forests (e.g. fertilized forests or shortened rotation lengths) could contribute more to reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions than current forest management. Using forest products (i.e. wood products and biofuel) is probably more important than storing carbon in biomass and soil, but it is necessary to conserve the existing stocks. Intensive forest management and increased use of biomass may, however, conflict with environmental quality objectives.

Eriksson, Erik

2006-07-01

158

JAMA Patient Page: Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

JAMA PATIENT PAGE Elder Abuse E lder abuse refers to the mistreatment of an older adult that threatens his or her health or safety. ... discussing elder abuse and self-neglect. TYPES OF ELDER ABUSE • Physical abuse, such as infliction of pain or ...

159

Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress : 5 year follow-up of a randomized trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points as repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress was found between groups at 1 and 5 year follow-up. Difference in trajectories was found for the two groups (time*treatment group interaction, CR-PTSD, P = 0.012 and GSI, P = 0.021). Level of PTSD symptoms on the CR-PTSD was validated at 5 year follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, Ï?2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch.

Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids

160

Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

Straus, Murray A.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 ?v/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed. PMID:24372943

Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

2014-02-01

162

What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP. Consequently the smoking-related mortality burden is higher among these populations. Regarding the gap in mortality between low and high socioeconomic groups, 21% and 11% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking in 1996–99. Regarding the gap in mortality between M?ori and non-M?ori/non-Pacific, 5% and 8% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking. The estimates from both these studies are probably moderate underestimates due to misclassification bias of smoking status. Despite the modest relative contribution of smoking to these gaps, the absolute number of smoking-attributable deaths is sizable and amenable to policy and health sector responses. There is some evidence, from New Zealand and elsewhere, for interventions that reduce smoking by low-income populations and indigenous peoples. These include tobacco taxation, thematically appropriate mass media campaigns, and appropriate smoking cessation support services. But there are as yet untried interventions with major potential. A key one is for a tighter regulatory framework that could rapidly shift the nicotine market towards pharmaceutical-grade nicotine (or smokeless tobacco products and away from smoked tobacco.

Blakely Tony

2006-11-01

163

Reducing the potential for conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sources of potential conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities are identified and analyzed. Programs and policies are suggested that could reduce conflict over the siting and operation of such facilities

1984-06-04

164

Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality.

2009-01-01

165

Does child abuse cause crime?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

2006-01-01

166

The Potential of Vegetation in Reducing Summer Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of trees and other vegetation to reduce building cooling loads has been recorded in a number of studies but the meso- and microclimate changes producing such savings are not well understood. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to model the effects of landscaping on temperature, humidity, windspeed and solar gain in urban climates using information from existing agricultural and meteorological studies, with particular attention placed on quantifying the effects of plant evapotranspiration. The climate model is then used in conjunction with the DOE-2.1C building simulation program to calculate the net reductions in air-conditioning requirements due to trees and other vegetation.Preliminary results show that an additional 25% increase in the urban tree cover can save 40% of the annual cooling energy use of an average house in Sacramento, and 25% in Phoenix and Lake Charles. If this additional tree cover is located to optimize summer shading, the savings are further increased to more dun 50% in Sacramento and 33% in the other two cities. The calculated savings are minimal for Los Angeles because the base case cooling energy use is small (65 hours) on the assumption that window venting is used whenever possible in lieu of mechanical cooling. There are additional benefits in lowering peak power consumption, where the savings are as much as 34% in Sacramento, 18% in Phoenix, 22% in Lake Charles, and 44% in Los Angeles. Parametric analysis reveals that most of the savings can be attributed to the effects of increased plant evapotranspiration, and only 10% to 30% to shading. The energy penalties of reduced windspeeds are found to be small in all four locations.The preliminary results suggest that while the conservation benefits of planting trees are appreciable at the individual house level, equally dramatic savings can be realized at the urban level through modifications of the urban climate by increasing the total amount of vegetative cover. Such a conservation strategy may be elective in counteracting the summer heat island evident in cities and may improve ambient conditions as well as reduce summertime air-conditioning requirements.

Huang, Y. J.; Akbari, H.; Taha, H.; Rosenfeld, A. H.

1987-09-01

167

Sexual Abuse Of Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

Herbert, Carol P.

1982-01-01

168

Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora" and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA, is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

R.J. Schneider

2010-09-01

169

Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso / Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópic [...] o. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países. Abstract in english The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA), is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid recept [...] ors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

R.J., Schneider; P., Ardenghi.

170

A study on the potential of metal corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria in animal buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to cause metal corrosion in animal buildings was examined in this study. An analysis was done on the bacterial colonization and the corrosion products on the surfaces of metals exposed to three animal buildings and one environmentally controlled building over a two-year period. Data from this study showed that the levels of SRB on metal surfaces were low after two-year's exposure (maximum count: 1.7 x 10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2}). SRB colonization levels after two years were not sufficient to corrode metal products exposed in animal environments. In addition, metal surface analysis data using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the corrosion compounds formed on the surfaces of different metals were not due to the SERB-induced corrosion mechanisms. These compounds were mainly oxides and carbonates (FeO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe(CO){sub 5} on iron samples; ZnO and ZnCO{sub 3} on galvanized steel samples: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, and ZnCO{sub 3} on Galvalume samples), and were normally generated due to the classic types of corrosion mechanisms. Some sulfur was present to form ZnS on the galvanized steel samples, but might not be attributed to SRB. The origin of this sulfur was not clear.

Zhu, J.; Riskowski, G.L.; Mackie, R.I.

1999-06-01

171

Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: clinical evaluation methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

Gray, Jennifer N; Breland, Alison B; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

2008-09-01

172

Markers suggest reduced malignant potential of subsquamous intestinal metaplasia compared with Barrett's esophagus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal subsquamous intestinal metaplasia (SSIM) is frequently observed in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and can also be found in patients after endoscopic ablative treatments for dysplastic BE. While these 'buried glands' appear identical to BE glands, features of SSIM and its malignant potency have yet to be fully elucidated. To determine differences in malignant potential between nondysplastic BE and SSIM, the Automated Cellular Imaging System was used to assess and compare changes in DNA content between SSIM and BE. Samples were further immunostained for Ki67 and Lgr5 to gauge general proliferative and possible stem cell features, respectively, in SSIM cells compared with BE glands. No significant differences were found between SSIM and BE with regards to DNA ploidy aberrance. However, significant differences were noted between SSIM and BE upon immunohistochemical analysis. SSIM was found to be negative for both Ki67 and Lgr5 while BE was positive for both markers. SSIM cells appear to be relatively quiescent and behave differently from BE, suggesting a reduced proclivity toward cancer progression. PMID:23796148

Basavappa, M; Weinberg, A; Huang, Q; Mashimo, H

2014-04-01

173

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abuse and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 Many people ... domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease ...

174

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

Muge Gulen

2013-06-01

175

SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

Bano Rubeena

2009-12-01

176

Is Seroquel Developing an Illicit Reputation for Misuse/Abuse?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been the subject of a series of case reports that suggest a potential for misuse/abuse. The available cases indicate a male predominance; oral, intranasal, or intravenous routes of administration; misuse/abuse in jail or inpatient psychiatric settings; and subjects with extensive histories of polysubstance abuse. While possible pharmacological explanations have been proffered, compared to the other atypical antipsychotics, there is no clear explanati...

Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

2010-01-01

177

Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than gener...

Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

2010-01-01

178

Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the ?13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the exception of C16 saturated and a C16 monounsaturated PLFAs in one live microcosm which showed >2 ‰ and >10 ‰ enrichment, respectively, compared to the average ?13C values of the same PLFA in the 13C Killed controlled replicates. Therefore the uptake of CO had minimal effect on the overall biomass and community composition in the system. The 13C labelled bicarbonate anaerobic microcosm experiments showed little to no methane production. The methane detected in the 13C labelled Live experiments were not isotopically enriched in 13C compared to the CH4 in the labelled Killed controlled replicates. Therefore bicarbonate was not used as a substrate for microbial methanogenesis via the CO2 reduction pathway. These results are generally consistent with genomic and metagenomic data, which discovered the potential for a carbon fixation pathway involving carbon monoxide, but little evidence for archaea or methanogenesis in the ultra-basic springs in the Tablelands (Brazelton et al., 2012). Reference: Brazelton WJ, Nelson B, & Schrenk MO (2012) Frontiers in Microbiology 2:1-16.

Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

2013-12-01

179

Elder Abuse Awareness Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

Goettler, Darla

180

Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

Özlem Karaku?

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

A typological analysis of behavioral profiles of sexually abused children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cluster analysis is used to explore differential outcomes in 123 French Canadian children reporting sexual abuse contrasted with 123 control children. Mothers' reports of behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist, abuse-related variables, personal factors, and family characteristics are used as potential variables discriminating clusters. Results reveal four clusters: (a) anxiety constellation group refers to children displaying behavior problems on a subset of scales, (b) the severe distress group refers to children showing a broader array of behavior problems, (c) victims of less severe sexual abuse (SA) group consists of children disclosing mostly extrafamilial SA, and (d) resilient children refers to children who, while disclosing severe abuse, rely less on avoidance coping. Findings underscore the need to go beyond abuse-related variables to orient treatment for children disclosing sexual abuse and for tailoring interventions to distinct subgroups. PMID:16816319

Hébert, Martine; Parent, Nathalie; Daignault, Isabelle V; Tourigny, Marc

2006-08-01

182

Preventing Child Abuse: A Meta-Analysis of Parent Training Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of parent training programs to reduce parents' risk of abusing a child. Method: A total of 23 studies were submitted to a meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included parents' attitudes toward abuse, emotional adjustment, child-rearing skills, and actual abuse. Conclusions:…

Lundahl, Brad W.; Nimer, Janelle; Parsons, Bruce

2006-01-01

183

When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

Tully, Fred

1998-01-01

184

The potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns and nonenergy emissions. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation, switching from a more carbon-intensive energy source mix to a less intensive mix, and reducing nonenergy emissions. Based on the difference between the two scenarios' results, our conclusions are that it is possible to reduce global warming by over 50% using a combination of conservation and efficiency improvements, increased use of nuclear, geothermal, and solar/renewable energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions. 34 refs.

Aronson, E.A.; Edenburn, M.W.

1989-12-01

185

Physical Activity as a Potential Mechanism Through Which Social Support May Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social support has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been suggested that the protective effect of social support is mediated through the autonomic nervous system and/or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, but data are sparse, especially in diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pathways through which social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Baseline data from The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Famil...

2008-01-01

186

Child Abuse in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2011-02-01

187

Do We Really Need Another Meeting? Lessons from the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Elder abuse cases are often time consuming and complex, requiring interagency cooperation from a diverse array of professionals. Although multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) offer a potentially powerful approach to synergizing the efforts of different providers, there has been little research on elder abuse MDTs in general or elder abuse

Navarro, Adria E.; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Yonashiro, Jeanine; Homeier, Diana C.

2010-01-01

188

Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

Lampert, Jo

2012-01-01

189

Low voltage limiters reduce dangerous potential differences; Niederspannungsbegrenzer senken Beruehrungsspannungen. Neue Schutzkonzepte moeglich  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It operation of DC railway systems can occur dangerous potential differences due to the separated earthing systems. All this leads to endangering of persons and has to be avoided by the use of the new developed low voltage limiters. (orig.)

Bluem, K. [Vertrieb Hochspannungsprodukte, ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany)

2006-08-28

190

What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities.

Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony; Tobias, Martin

2006-01-01

191

Reducing methane emissions from coal mines in China: the potential for coalbed methane development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China`s coalbed methane resources and opportunities for coalbed methane recovery and utilization are assessed. The report also includes an examination of the potential role of coalbed methane in China`s energy economy, and profiles of selected regions with strong coalbed methane potential. It describes the technological advances and experience in coalbed methane development in selected countries which can be considered by the Chinese. Policies to encourage coalbed methane development in China are also discussed.

Sun Maoyuan; Huang Shengchu; Zhu Chao; Li Hongye; Gao Quinchen; Kruger, D.W.; Pilcher, R.C.; Bibler, C.; Lottman-Craigg, L.; Marshall, J.S. [China Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse, Beijing (China)

1995-10-01

192

BIOPULPING AND ITS POTENTIAL TO REDUCE EFFLUENT LOADS FROM BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixed hardwood chips were treated with lignin-degrading fungi to study the effect of fungal pretreatment on bleaching characteristics of kraft pulp. Pretreated wood chips were subjected to reduced active alkali doses in comparison to untreated chips. Comparable results were obtained for pretreated chips with reduced alkali dose as was obtained with higher dose of alkali in case of untreated chips. Fungal treatment made the process more energy-efficient, and 4.8% less chlorine was consumed in comparison to the control process. Pretreatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was responsible for reduction of 4.7% in lignin contents, 14.3% permanganate number, and overall reduction of 15.5 kg/T of Cl2 consumption. The pollution load in terms of COD and BOD at the CD stage was reduced by 32.6% and 41.5% respectively, whereas 12% reduction in AOX compounds was observed in effluent of pretreated pulp.

Ravi Dutt Yadav

2010-02-01

193

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

1999-01-01

194

Factors of efficiency of measures on reducing an exceeding situation risk on potentially dangerous objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system of the factors of the efficiency and economic efficiency of measures for reducing the risk of exceeding situations in reference to an object subsystem of the Single State System for prevention and liquidation of exceeding situations is developed. The relations for calculation of the protection efficiency by means of partial factors of the efficiency of preventive measures and responding are received

2006-06-01

195

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact ... Health plan rules , current page File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact ...

196

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed for services or supplies you never got. Medicare fraud costs Medicare a lot of ...

197

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse ...

198

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and SCI Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

199

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... aren't medically necessary . A complaint about the quality of care you got from a doctor, hospital, ... facility isn't considered fraud or abuse. Your Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) can help you if you ...

200

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

 
 
 
 
201

Sexual Abuse of Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

Csapo, Marg

1988-01-01

202

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

... sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling) ... and street drugs or engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors Do poorly in school Have excessive fears Withdraw ...

203

Unemployment and child abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The employment state of men living in the homes of children at the time that child abuse was diagnosed was determined. The series included a wide range of abuse, including non-accidental injury, failure to thrive, neglect, and emotional deprivation. Two cohorts of children seen during 1974-9 and 1980-5 were compared; these periods were chosen because a large increase in unemployment began in Sheffield in 1980. Although the proportion of the men without work was significantly increased during ...

1987-01-01

204

Physical abuse in pregnancy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal...

Stewart, D. E.; Cecutti, A.

1993-01-01

205

Vaccines for Cocaine Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by ...

Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

206

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthet...

Capriola, Michael

2013-01-01

207

Drug Abuse Resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

STUDENTS NEED TO BE AWARE OF THE DANGERS OF DRUGS! The following includes helpful ways to learn about drug abuse resistance. Please finish the smoking quiz for class discussion on Friday! If parents would like a helpful resource on how to teach their children to say no to drugs and alcohol. See NIDA for Teens : The Science Behind Drug Abuse Click on the following link ...

Koyle, Mrs.

2005-03-22

208

Army Distance Learning: Potential for Reducing Shortages in Army Enlisted Occupations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of distance learning (DL) to expedite the U.S. Army's efforts to redress personnel shortages in Army enlisted occupations was studied by evaluating how DL-based training strategies might affect skill shortages in the following occupations: helicopter repairer; electronic switching system operator; microwave systems…

Shanley, Michael G.; Leonard, Henry A.; Winkler, John D.

209

Identification of highly efficacious glucocorticoid receptor agonists with a potential for reduced clinical bone side effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are described. These compounds contain "diazaindole" moieties and display different transcriptional regulatory profiles in vitro and are considered "dissociated" between gene transrepression and transactivation. The lead optimization effort described in this article focused in particular on limiting the transactivation of genes which result in bone side effects and these were assessed in vitro in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, leading to the identification of (R)-18 and (R)-21. These compounds maintained anti-inflammatory activity in vivo in collagen induced arthritis studies in mouse but had reduced effects on bone relevant parameters compared to the widely used synthetic glucocorticoid prednisolone 2 in vivo. To our knowledge, we are the first to report on selective glucocorticoid ligands with reduced bone loss in a preclinical in vivo model. PMID:24506830

Harcken, Christian; Riether, Doris; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; Betageri, Raj; Ralph, Mark; Emmanuel, Michel; Reeves, Jonathan T; Berry, Angela; Souza, Donald; Nelson, Richard M; Kukulka, Alison; Fadra, Tazmeen N; Zuvela-Jelaska, Ljiljana; Dinallo, Roger; Bentzien, Jörg; Nabozny, Gerald H; Thomson, David S

2014-02-27

210

The unaccounted yet abundant nitrous oxide-reducing microbial community: a potential nitrous oxide sink.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a major radiative forcing and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas emitted from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It can be transformed to nitrogen gas (N(2)) by bacteria and archaea harboring the N(2)O reductase (N(2)OR), which is the only known N(2)O sink in the biosphere. Despite its crucial role in mitigating N(2)O emissions, knowledge of the N(2)OR in the environment remains limited. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the nosZ gene coding the N(2)OR in genomes retrieved from public databases. The resulting phylogeny revealed two distinct clades of nosZ, with one unaccounted for in studies investigating N(2)O-reducing communities. Examination of N(2)OR structural elements not considered in the phylogeny revealed that the two clades differ in their signal peptides, indicating differences in the translocation pathway of the N(2)OR across the membrane. Sequencing of environmental clones of the previously undetected nosZ lineage in various environments showed that it is widespread and diverse. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate that this clade was most often at least as abundant as the other, thereby more than doubling the known extent of the overall N(2)O-reducing community in the environment. Furthermore, we observed that the relative abundance of nosZ from either clade varied among habitat types and environmental conditions. Our results indicate a physiological dichotomy in the diversity of N(2)O-reducing microorganisms, which might be of importance for understanding the relationship between the diversity of N(2)O-reducing microorganisms and N(2)O reduction in different ecosystems. PMID:23151640

Jones, Christopher M; Graf, Daniel R H; Bru, David; Philippot, Laurent; Hallin, Sara

2013-02-01

211

Vitamin E blended UHMWPE has the potential to reduce bacterial adhesive ability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomaterial-associated infection (BAI), a clinical significant problem often resulting in the implant septic failure, is initiated by the bacterial adhesion, mainly by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the material of choice in total joint replacement for many years; reducing the adhesion of S. epidermidis to the polymer could be a means to decrease infection. This interdisciplinary study examined the adhesion of 2 ATCC and one clinical str...

2011-01-01

212

Influences on youthful driving behavior and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an organized, comprehensive view of the factors known to influence young drivers' behavior and how those factors might inform interventions to reduce crashes. This effort was done from the perspective of a public health professional, with a background in health behavior and health education, interested in preventing injury and death among young people from motor vehicle crashes. The author's own studies, selected relevant literature, observation, and experience were consid...

Shope, J. T.

2006-01-01

213

Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

2012-01-01

214

The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

2014-02-11

215

Potential reconstruction from R-matrix resonance positions and reduced widths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first example is given of numerical reconstruction of the potential shape from the spectral data in the frame of the R-matrix scattering theory using the Bargmann-type analytical solutions. A simple multi-channel model of the inverse problem is proposed for the investigating the convergence of reconstruction procedure for the interaction matrix, which couples the channels. 8 refs.; 5 figs

1989-01-01

216

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential stan...

Woodcock, Hannah V.; Molyneaux, Philip L.; Maher, Toby M.

2013-01-01

217

What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity) and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP). C...

Wilson Nick; Blakely Tony; Tobias Martin

2006-01-01

218

Estimating costs and potentials of different methods to reduce the Swedish phosphorus load from agriculture to surface water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews 17 measures to reduce phosphorus leakage from Swedish agriculture to surface waters. Our aim is to evaluate the possible contribution from agriculture to achieve environmental goals including the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Using a regional approach integrating the variability in field specific characteristics, typical costs and national potential for the included measures may be estimated without identifying, e.g., suitable individual fields for implementation. The result may be helpful to select suitable measures but may also influence the design of environmental targets before they are determined. We find that the cheapest measures are reduced phosphorus content in animal food and fertilizer application supervision in pig farms, both measures with annual potentials of around 50t each, and costs of euro7 to euro11 kg(-1)yr(-1). The total potential of the listed measures is an annual phosphorus reduction to surface waters of 242t. If the most expensive measures are excluded (>euro1000 kg(-1)yr(-1)) and including retention in lakes the phosphorus transport to the sea could be reduced by 165 t yr(-1). This amount can be compared with the Swedish commitment in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) to reduce input to the Baltic Proper by 290 t yr(-1). PMID:19896159

Malmaeus, J M; Karlsson, O M

2010-01-01

219

Potentiation of left ventricular function at a reduced exercise level: Assessment by radionuclide ventriculography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many patients can't maintain peak workload (P) for prolonged imaging. The authors evaluated the effect of a reduced workload following maximal supine bicycle exercise on left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion in 16 pts. with CAD (?50% stenosis in ?1 major coronary artery) and 9 normals who underwent symptom-limited RVG. After acquisition of resting and maximal exercise LAO views, the pts. exercise level was decreased to 60% of the peak workload achieved. A repeat LAO view was then obtained at the reduced workload (post peak) (PP) 4-8 min. after the P. A significant increase in ejection fraction from Peak to PP was seen in the entire patient group, from 62-66% (p<.005). Pts. with CAD increased from 58% to 62% (p<.01), while normals tended to increase from 69% to 73% (p=.16). PP wall motion also tended to improve compared with Peak wall motion in 12 cases studied. PPEF-PEF was not significantly different between patients with CAD and normals. The PPEF-rest EF difference (PPEF-REF) was significantly different at 13.8 in normals and 7 in pts. with CAD (p<.015). The Peak EF-rest EF difference (PEF-REF) was 9.8 in normals and 2.3 in pts. with CAD (p<.02). PPEF-REF, PEF-REF, and the presence of CAD wre correlated with Peak exercise level in watts (r=.56-.68; p=<.03). Thus, the PPEF-REF and PEF-REF were related to both exercise level and presence of CAD in this series. Improved EF occurs with PP workloads in pts. with CAD and tends to occur in normals. Wall motion also tends to improve in both groups. These occurrences must be considered in interpreting RVGs obtained at reduced workloads after Peak exercise has been achieved

1984-06-05

220

A dipole polarizable potential for reduced and doped CeO{sub 2} obtained from first principles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO{sub 2}. We use a dipole polarizable potential (DIPPIM: the dipole polarizable ion model) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of density functional theory calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO{sub 2} and by comparing them against experimental values. The values for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) are within 10-15% of the experimental ones, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic scale properties of CeO{sub 2} in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size limitations.

Burbano, Mario; Watson, Graeme W [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Marrocchelli, Dario; Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Tuller, Harry L [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Norberg, Stefan T [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Hull, Stephen [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Madden, Paul A, E-mail: dmarrocc@mit.edu, E-mail: watsong@tcd.ie [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

2011-06-29

 
 
 
 
221

Reduced and oxidised scytonemin: theoretical protocol for Raman spectroscopic identification of potential key biomolecules for astrobiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scytonemin is an important UV-radiation protective biomolecule synthesised by extremophilic cyanobacteria in stressed terrestrial environments. Scytonemin and its reduced form have been both isolated experimentally and the Raman spectrum for scytonemin has been assigned and characterised experimentally both in extracts and in living extremophilic cyanobacterial colonies. Scytonemin is recognised as a key biomarker molecule for terrestrial organisms in stressed environments. We propose a new, theoretically plausible structure for oxidised scytonemin which has not been mentioned in the literature hitherto. DFT calculations for scytonemin, reduced scytonemin and the new structure modelled and proposed for oxidised scytonemin are reported along with their Raman spectroscopic data and ?max UV-absorption data obtained theoretically. Comparison of the vibrational spectroscopic assignments allows the three forms of scytonemin to be detected and identified and assist not only in the clarification of the major features in the experimentally observed Raman spectral data for the parent scytonemin but also support a protocol proposed for their analytical discrimination. The results of this study provide a basis for the search for molecules of this type in future astrobiological missions of exploration and the search for extinct and extant life terrestrially. PMID:23981417

Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G M

2014-01-01

222

Use of different organic wastes in reducing the potential leaching of propanil, isoxaben, cadusafos and pencycuron through the soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examined the effect of four different organic wastes (OW)-composted sheep manure (CSM), spent coffee grounds (SCG), composted pine bark (CPB) and coir (CR)-on the potential groundwater pollution of propanil and isoxaben (herbicides), cadusafos (insecticide) and pencycuron (fungicide) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, leaching studies were conducted using disturbed soil columns filled with a clay loam soil (Hipercalcic calcisol). The addition of organic matter (OM) drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of agro-industrial and composted OW in reducing the groundwater pollution by pesticide drainage. PMID:24901963

Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Vela, Nuria; Navarro, Simón

2014-08-01

223

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

2013-01-01

224

Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

2009-04-01

225

The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

Kingsley C. Anukam

2007-10-01

226

Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Catherine Stanton

2011-06-01

227

Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

Petkovi? Nikola

2010-01-01

228

UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

2014-03-01

229

Development and agronomical validation of new fertilizer compositions of high bioavailability and reduced potential nutrient losses.  

Science.gov (United States)

To optimize the economical cost of each unit of fertilizer applied and to reduce the environmental contamination caused by nutrient losses, the development of highly efficient granulated fertilizers is of great importance. This study proposes a strategy that consists of developing specific fertilizers having nutrient release patterns that are dependent on plant activity in the rhizosphere. This type of fertilizer is named "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" (RCF fertilizer). This fertilizer is based on the introduction of an organomineral matrix composed of metal [Mg (Ca is also possible), Zn (Fe and other metals are also possible)]-humic phosphates. The presence of this matrix modifies the nutrient release pattern of the fertilizer. In this way there are two main nutrient fractions: (i) a water-soluble fraction or "starter" fraction and (ii) a "rhizosphere-controlled" fraction insoluble in water but soluble by the action of the rhizospheric acids released by plants and microorganisms. This study shows the chemical and structural characterization of the organomineral matrix, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrient release rate of the RCF fertilizer, principally with respect to P and N. It is demonstrated how these properties of the matrix were also reflected in the significant reduction in both ammonia volatilization and N leaching in a pot system consisting of wheat plants cultivated in a calcareous soil and fertilized with a RCF fertilizer. PMID:17708642

Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; San Francisco, Sara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

2007-09-19

230

Abuse against elderly in India - The role of education  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India – all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against seniors. This study focuses on the role of education on the prevalence of elderly abuse in India. Methods We conduct an analysis of cross sectional primary data that contains information on elderly abuse. The households in the sample were randomly selected from the seven demographically oldest states in India. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. A total of 9852 elderly from 8329 households were interviewed. The statistical analysis is based on logistic regression to understand the independent relation of education with abuse against the elderly. Results Our findings reveal that 11% of 60+ year olds have experienced at least one type of elderly abuse (Physical 5.3%, Verbal 10.2%, Economic 5.4%, Disrespect 6%, Neglect 5.2%). The most common perpetrator is the son, who is reported to be responsible for the abuse among 41% of male victims and 43% of female victims. Formal education among elderly beyond a certain level (8 years) has a strong relation with reduced violence against elderly. Conclusions Our findings suggest that level of schooling among elderly is strongly negatively related to abuse against them. More members in the household reduces the chance of abuse while having a greater number of children increases the chance of abuse (neglect and verbal abuse). We find that education even after controlling for wealth and other relevant variables is the factor that most consistently lowers elderly abuse. However, the relation of education to abuse is limited to those with more than 8 years of schooling. This suggests that the ongoing educational expansion beyond the basic schooling years in India may lead to a decline in the incidence of elderly abuse.

2014-01-01

231

Child Abuse and Family Violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated bibliography contains abstracts of books, journal articles, and research reports dealing with child abuse, wife abuse, and family violence in general. The 62 citations represent documents published in the United States, Canada, and Great Br...

1978-01-01

232

National Center on Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and families. New annotated bibliographies related to recent elder abuse and neglect articles Read More Printable one-page ... convenes in DC Read More Forum on Global Elder Abuse and Its Prevention Read More Calendar Use our ...

233

Elucidation of bacteria found in car interiors and strategies to reduce the presence of potential pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

The human microbiome is influenced by a number of factors, including environmental exposure to microbes. Because many humans spend a large amount of time in built environments, it can be expected that the microbial ecology of these environments will influence the human microbiome. In an attempt to further understand the microbial ecology of built environments, the microbiota of car interiors was analyzed using culture dependent and culture independent methods. While it was found that the number and type of bacteria varied widely among the cars and sites tested, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium were nearly always the dominant genera found at the locations sampled. Because Staphylococcus is of particular concern to human health, the characteristics of this genus found in car interiors were investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and S. warnerii were the most prevalent staphylococcal species found, and 22.6% of S. aureus strains isolated from shared community vehicles were resistant to methicillin. The reduction in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in cars by using silver-based antimicrobial surface coatings was also evaluated. Coatings containing 5% silver ion additives were applied to steering wheels, placed in cars for five months and were found to eliminate the presence of culturable pathogenic bacteria recovered from these sites relative to controls. Together, these results provide new insight into the microbiota found in an important built environment, the automobile, and potential strategies for controlling the presence of human pathogens.

Stephenson, Rachel E.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Peters, Cindy; Nichols, Mark; Boles, Blaise R.

2014-01-01

234

Limited evidence suggests standard fluoride toothpaste reduces caries potential in preschool children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data sourcesCENTRAL, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS and BBO databases, the Brazilian database of thesis and dissertations (Banco de Teses CAPES), a Brazilian register of ethically approved projects involving human beings (SISNEP) and two registers of ongoing trials (Current Controlled Trials and Clinical-Trials.gov). Reference lists were also scanned for relevant papers. Study authors were contacted for additional information.Study selectionIndividual or cluster-randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials conducted in children under seven were included.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Risk of bias assessment was undertaken using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Meta-analyses of prevented fractions (PF) were performed to assess the effect of fluoride toothpaste on the dmft and dmfs. Meta-analyses were also performed to obtain a pooled relative risk (RR) to assess the effect of fluoride toothpastes on the proportion of children developing caries.ResultsEight studies were included. When standard F toothpastes were compared to placebo or no intervention, significant caries reduction at surface (PF = 31%; 95% CI 18-43; 2644 participants in five studies), tooth (PF = 16%; 95% CI 8-25; 2555 participants in one study) and individual (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.81-0.93; 2806 participants in two studies) level were observed. Low F toothpastes were effective only at surface level (PF = 40%; 95% CI 5-75; 561 participants in two studies).ConclusionsStandard F toothpastes are effective in reducing dental caries in the primary teeth of preschool children and thus their use should be recommended to this age group. PMID:24763164

Elkhadem, Ahmed; Wanees, Suzan

2014-03-01

235

Potential dependence of SERS spectra of reduced graphene oxide adsorbed on self-assembled monolayer at gold electrode  

Science.gov (United States)

The reduced graphene oxide was prepared at interface of Au electrode modified by positive charge bearing self-assembled monolayer of N-(6-mercapto)hexylpyridinium. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was employed to probe in situ the potential induced changes in parameters of D- and G-bands. We demonstrated that both D- and G-band wavenumbers linearly depend on the potential with slopes of 4.7 ± 0.3 and 5.9 ± 0.3 cm-1/V, respectively. The decrease in width of both bands was detected at more positive potentials. The effect was explained in terms of changes in the C-C bond length induced by the electrochemical doping.

Matulaitien?, Ieva; Barkauskas, Jurgis; Trusovas, Romualdas; Ra?iukaitis, Gediminas; Mažeikien?, Regina; Eicher-Lorka, Olegas; Niaura, Gediminas

2013-12-01

236

Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID:23820327

Rocha, Beatriz A

2013-09-01

237

Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

Wodak Shoshana

2007-07-01

238

Sex Differences in Drug Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

2008-01-01

239

Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

Rabi, Keren

2006-01-01

240

Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

Schuckit, Marc A.

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

Capriola M

2013-07-01

242

Iron (FeII) Chelation, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, and Immune Modulating Potential of Arisaema jacquemontii (Himalayan Cobra Lily)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of ethnomedicinally valuable species, namely, Arisaema jacquemontii of north-western Himalayan region. The tubers, leaves, and fruits of this plant were subjected to extraction using different solvents. In vitro antioxidant studies were performed in terms of chelation power on ferrous ions and FRAP assay. The crude methanol extract of leaves was found to harbour better chelating capacity (58% at 100??g/mL) and reducing power (FRAP value 1085.4 ± 0.11??MFe3+/g dry wt.) than all the other extracts. The crude methanol extract was thus further partitioned with solvents to yield five fractions. Antioxidant study of fractions suggested that the methanol fraction possessed significant chelation capacity (49.7% at 100??g/mL) and reducing power with FRAP value of 1435.4??M/g dry wt. The fractions were also studied for immune modulating potential where it was observed that hexane fraction had significant suppressive effect on mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation and remarkable stimulating effect on humoral response by 141% and on DTH response by 168% in immune suppressed mice as compared to the controls. Therefore, it can be concluded that A. jacquemontii leaves hold considerable antioxidant and immunomodulating potential and they can be explored further for the identification of their chemical composition for a better understanding of their biological activities.

Sudan, Rasleen; Bhagat, Madhulika; Singh, Jasvinder; Koul, Anupurna

2014-01-01

243

Iron (FeII) Chelation, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, and Immune Modulating Potential of Arisaema jacquemontii (Himalayan Cobra Lily).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of ethnomedicinally valuable species, namely, Arisaema jacquemontii of north-western Himalayan region. The tubers, leaves, and fruits of this plant were subjected to extraction using different solvents. In vitro antioxidant studies were performed in terms of chelation power on ferrous ions and FRAP assay. The crude methanol extract of leaves was found to harbour better chelating capacity (58% at 100? ? g/mL) and reducing power (FRAP value 1085.4 ± 0.11? ? MFe(3+)/g dry wt.) than all the other extracts. The crude methanol extract was thus further partitioned with solvents to yield five fractions. Antioxidant study of fractions suggested that the methanol fraction possessed significant chelation capacity (49.7% at 100? ? g/mL) and reducing power with FRAP value of 1435.4? ? M/g dry wt. The fractions were also studied for immune modulating potential where it was observed that hexane fraction had significant suppressive effect on mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation and remarkable stimulating effect on humoral response by 141% and on DTH response by 168% in immune suppressed mice as compared to the controls. Therefore, it can be concluded that A. jacquemontii leaves hold considerable antioxidant and immunomodulating potential and they can be explored further for the identification of their chemical composition for a better understanding of their biological activities. PMID:24895548

Sudan, Rasleen; Bhagat, Madhulika; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Jasvinder; Koul, Anupurna

2014-01-01

244

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

Aleksi? Jelena

2008-01-01

245

Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

2014-01-01

246

Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

2014-01-01

247

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-09-01

248

Subtypes of cocaine abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction. PMID:3774602

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

1986-09-01

249

Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

250

Psychopathology in chronic cocaine abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of 30 hospitalized cocaine abusers were studied, along with 124 hospitalized patients who were dependent upon opiates or central nervous system depressants. DSM-III diagnoses, family history data, demographic characteristics, and measures of current depressive symptomatology were compared in the two groups. Nineteen (63%) of the cocaine abusers met criteria for an Axis I diagnosis other than substance abuse; sixteen (53%) had affective disorder. These figures reflected a significantly higher prevalence rate of affective disorder among the cocaine abusers than among the opiate and depressant abusers. In addition, a significantly higher rate of affective disorder was found in the first degree relatives of the cocaine abusers when compared to the other group. Since these findings suggest that a substantial number of cocaine abusers may be suffering from other psychiatric disorders, careful diagnostic evaluation is indicated in this population. PMID:3788897

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M; Michael, J L; Sollogub, A C

1986-01-01

251

"Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

2010-01-01

252

The Alaska Potential Places of Refuge Project : a key step in reducing the risk of vessel-source oil spills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described some of the challenges in identifying places of refuge where a leaking vessel may undergo repair. Such vessels need a sheltered area with enough water depth to repair or unload the oil in order to minimize the amount of spilled product. The Alaska Regional Response Team (ARRT) held a workshop to address the Alaska Potential Places of Refuge (PPOR) project that identifies potential docking, mooring and grounding locations for stricken vessels in specific geographic areas. The first PPOR project was recently completed for Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Other projects have been activated for the Kodiak region, with long-term plans to revisit Cook Inlet. This paper examined the relevance of PPOR planning to reduce risk of spills and reported on the process to develop the PWS PPOR as well as ongoing projects in other regions of the state. The ARRT guidelines offer a template for pre-identifying information needed to respond to requests for places of refuge. The locations are chosen based on risk assessment that addresses vessel traffic density, common vessel routes, sensitive areas, and historic casualty records. Once a potential site is selected, a nautical chart and aerial photo of the area is provided along with detailed information on specifics for accommodating vessels of various sizes, potential exposure to wind, currents and seas, nearby communities, contact information for stakeholders. Other site factors such as sensitive areas, health and safety, stakeholder concerns, and response and salvage factors are considered. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Iwamoto, L. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Anchorage, AK (United States); Robertson, T. [Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK (United States); Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

2006-07-01

253

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

2001-04-01

254

Rural woman abuse and sexually transmitted disease: an ethical analysis of clinical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women who have experienced abuse are often offered individual and group psychotherapeutic interventions to help them overcome psychological aftereffects of abuse and avoid future abusive relationships. Clinical cases that are complicated by the existence of abuse and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) often involve ethical issues concerning patient privacy and legitimate breaches of confidentiality that can potentially harm the individual. There is little known about the experiences of abused rural women with STDs, underscoring the need for modification of existing interventions for this patient population. This paper presents the application of an ethical framework to an actual case involving an abused rural woman with an STD that utilizes the concepts of casuiStry, or case-based reasoning. A methodological tool for ethical analysis of the clinical dilemmas involving evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions for abused rural women with STDs is used to apply the concepts of casuistry to the development of the taxonomy of cases for clinical practice. PMID:11942194

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Artnak, Kathryn; Shain, Rochelle N; Piper, Jeanna

2002-01-01

255

Is seroquel developing an illicit reputation for misuse/abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been the subject of a series of case reports that suggest a potential for misuse/abuse. The available cases indicate a male predominance; oral, intranasal, or intravenous routes of administration; misuse/abuse in jail or inpatient psychiatric settings; and subjects with extensive histories of polysubstance abuse. While possible pharmacological explanations have been proffered, compared to the other atypical antipsychotics, there is no clear explanation for an alleged higher risk of misuse/abuse with quetiapine. Likewise, there are no available animal or human empirical studies to evaluate risk. At this juncture, clinicians in psychiatric and primary care settings can only remain alert to a potential risk, particularly in patients who meet the current demographic profile. PMID:20386631

Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

2010-01-01

256

Protracted withdrawal from alcohol and drugs of abuse impairs long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The juxtacapsular BNST (jcBNST) is activated in response to basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs through the stria terminalis and projects back to the anterior BLA and to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Here we show a form of long-term potentiation of the intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) of jcBNST neurons in response to high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the stria terminalis. This LTP-IE, which was characterized by a decrease in the firing threshold and increased temporal fidelity of ...

2009-01-01

257

78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse...Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Advisory Council on...

2013-12-06

258

Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored.

Rellini, Alessandra H.

2010-01-01

259

Prevalence of Physical and Sexual Abuse in Women and Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse and its respective factors in women and children referring to medical and health centers of Birjand county.Materials and Methods: A number of 301 women referring to medical and health centers of Birjand were entered into this analytical-descriptive study. Based on the research objectives, a self-administered questionnaire was prepared and approved in terms of content validity by experts of the field. The data were analyzed using SPSS-15, at a significance level of p ?0.05.Results: Results showed that 58.8% and 25.3% of the subjects experienced physical abuse and sexual abuse, respectively. 24.3% confirmed physical abuse and 1.7% confirmed sexual abuse of their children by their husbands. There was a significant relationship between physical and sexual abuse, and the education level, husband’s education level, addiction and commitment of husband, economical disputes, husband’s job, disputes over rearing children, mental disorders of husband, and the weakness of husband in controlling his motions (p=0.001.Conclusion: The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in women and children is relatively high, and based on the investigated related causes, it is necessary to reduce such prevalence through an appropriate planning.

Tahereh Farhadian

2012-10-01

260

Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug...

Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

Batri?evi? Ana

2011-01-01

262

Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

1984-01-01

263

The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser

Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

1996-01-01

264

Drug abuse and stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebrovascular disorders contribute to the morbidity and disability associated with illicit drug use. Drug abusers have an increased risk of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. In geographic areas with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, drug abuse is a frequent cause of stroke in the young adult. The illicit drugs more commonly associated with stroke are psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine. Less commonly implicated are opioids and psychotomimetic drugs, including cannabis. Toxicology screening for illicit drugs should be done in young patients with stroke with no obvious cause, or if suggested by history or examination. Although in some patients the mechanism of stroke is identified using neuroimaging and other modern diagnostic tools, in a sizeable fraction of cases the mechanism of stroke remains unclear. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hemodynamic and immunologic mechanisms in these cases. PMID:23299821

Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José M

2013-02-01

265

A profile of abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of 260 children considered to have been the victims of child abuse or neglect, or both, 149 suffered non-accidental injury, 71 had evidence of growth problems, 87 had developmental and speech delay, and 63 showed evidence of appreciable behaviour disturbance. While the overall prevalence of development and behaviour problems in the series was high there were particular associations noted between growth problems and developmental delay, between increasing age and behaviour disturbance, and bet...

1988-01-01

266

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone a...

Capriola M

2013-01-01

267

Determination of glucose oxidase oxidation-reduction potentials and the oxygen reactivity of fully reduced and semiquinoid forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oxidation-reduction potential values for the two electron transfers to glucose oxidase were obtained at pH 5.3, where the neutral radical is the stable form, and at pH 9.3, where the anion radical is the stable form. The midpoint potentials at 25 degrees were: pH 5.3 EFl1ox + e- H+ equilibrium EFlH. Em1 = -0.063 +/- 0.011 V EFlH. + e- + H+ equilibrium EFlredH2 Em2 = -0.065 +/- 0.007 V pH 9.3 EFlox + e- EFi- Em1 = -0.200 +/- 0.010 V EFi- + e- + H+ equilibrium EFlredH- Em2 = -0.240 +/- 0.005 V All potentials were measured versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). The potentials indicated that glucose oxidase radicals are stabilized by kinetic factors and not by thermodynamic energy barriers. The pK for the glucose oxidase radical was 7.28 from dead time stopped flow measurements and the extinction coefficient of the neutral semiquinone was 4140 M-1 cm-1 at 570 nm. Both radical forms reacted with oxygen in a second order fashion. The rate at 25 degrees for the neutral semiquinone was 1.4 X 10(4) M-1 s-1; that for the anion radical was 3.5 X 10(4) M-1 s-1. The rate of oxidation of the neutral radical changed by a factor of 9 for a temperature difference of 22 degrees. For the anion radical, the oxidation rate changed by a factor of 6 for a 22 degrees change in temperature. We studied the oxygen reactivity of the 2-electron reduced form of the enzyme over a wide wavelength range and failed to detect either oxygenated flavin derivatives or semiquinoid forms as intermediates. The rate of reoxidation of fully reduced glucose oxidase at pH 9.3 was dependent on ionic strength. PMID:27511

Stankovich, M T; Schopfer, L M; Massey, V

1978-07-25

268

Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

Kate?ina Randová

2010-09-01

269

Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

Furniss, T.; Bingley-miller, L.; Bentovim, A.

1984-01-01

270

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

2008-01-01

271

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

2008-01-01

272

Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture. PMID:18286807

Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

2007-12-13

273

Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

2007-01-01

274

Incest and Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

1982-01-01

275

Using court reports to enhance knowledge of sexual abuse in sport:A Norwegian case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sport scientists face difficulties in gaining access to data on sexual abuse in sport through conventional research sources and also in verifying media reports of such cases. One potential alternative source of data is court reports. The study reported here used a small number of court reports to examine issues confronting those researching sexual abuse in sport. Two questions were investigated: What do the court reports tell us about the perpetrators and their abuse strategies? How useful is...

Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Ceila; Kjølberg, Gustav

2013-01-01

276

Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV ...

Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-zhe

2011-01-01

277

Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignet...

Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2010-01-01

278

Substance Abuse Treatment Staff Perceptions of Intimate Partner Victimization Among Female Clients†  

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Providing intimate partner violence (IPV)-related services to women enrolled in substance abuse treatment programs has the potential to reach a population disproportionately affected by IPV. Integrating basic IPV services into substance abuse treatment, however, poses challenges to organizations and staff. Using focus groups, the authors examined the experiences and attitudes of substance abuse treatment staff towards clients with IPV victimization experiences in order to elucidate factors th...

Kunins, Hillary; Gilbert, Louisa; Whyte-etere, Antonette; Meissner, Paul; Zachary, Mary

2007-01-01

279

Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on microbial populations in the rumen indicated that 15% of Leucaena and Fliricidia; 20% of Sapindus and A. pintoi as well as 40% of S. aterrimum, affect negatively the protozoa population in the rumen. Gliricidia reduced this population from 45.71 to 2.57 x 105 cel/mL. Enterolobium, however, increased the number and activity of the cellulolytic fungus and total viable bacteria, although it did not exert defaunating effect, at least, under the experimental conditions in which the studies were conducted. The inclusion of 10 % of Tithonia decreased the methanogenic bacteria and increased the cellulolytic bacteria, but to reduce the protozoa population level of 20 % level was necessary. The defaunating effect observed with some plants could be due to that it was found a quadratic relationship between the content of condensed tannins and the population of ruminal protozoa. The results of methane production in relation to inclusion of 25% of foliages of S. saponaria, M. alba and Trichantera using P. purpureum as a pasture base, indicated that this foliages reduced methane production, significantly, in similar proportions to respect to pasture. Trichantera inhibit methane emissions in 41 % respect to Pennisetum (7,01 vs. 16.96 g/kg DM, respectively). The results suggest that the secondary compounds found in plants can to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and also reduce the methanogenic bacteria when the adequate levels in the diet are utilized. The use of tree and shrubs, as strategies of supplementation is an adequate option to reduce methane production and improve the animal nutrition of ruminants. (author)

2009-06-08

280

The potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: Buildings sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is used in buildings to provide a variety of services to users such as lighting, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and electricity for electronics and other equipment. In the US building energy consumption accounts for nearly one third of total primary energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions. The cost for these energy services, or end-uses, was over $200 billion in 1997. This paper summarizes a detailed assessment of the achievable cost-effective potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 in the US residential and commercial buildings sector based on the preliminary results of a study completed by the authors for the US Department of Energy (LBNL, ORNL, ANL, NREL, and PNNL, 1997). The authors analysis shows that substantial reductions in future greenhouse gas emissions can be realized through the use of more energy-efficient technologies and processes at a net reduction in the total cost of energy services. In an efficiency scenario, in which renewed efforts are undertaken to promote energy efficiency through enhanced public and private-sector R and D and market transformation activities, energy use drops by 1.9 quadrillion Btu (5%) from business-as-usual (BAU) levels and carbon emissions decline by 25 MtC (4%) from BAU forecasted levels. This represents a savings of $18 billion in fuel costs in 2010, which is purchased with an annualized incremental cost of $7 billion in efficiency improvements. In a high efficiency/low carbon scenario, which reflects an even greater commitment to reduce carbon emissions, results in 4.0 quads (11%) less energy use and 91 MtC (16%) fewer carbon emissions than the BAU scenario in 2010. This high efficiency/low carbon scenario represents a savings of $33 billion in fuel costs in 2010 resulting from an annualized incremental expenditure of $14 billion on efficiency improvements

1997-08-02

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic and chemical targeting of epithelial-restricted with serine box reduces EGF receptor and potentiates the efficacy of afatinib.  

Science.gov (United States)

EGF receptor (EGFR) is elevated in more than 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, a majority of patients with HNSCC do not respond to anti-EGFR therapeutics. Insensitivity to EGFR inhibitors may be due to kinase-independent actions of EGFR and/or activation of Her2. Strategies to reduce EGFR and Her2 protein levels in concert may be an optimal approach to enhance the efficacy of current anti-EGFR molecules. In this study, knockdown of epithelial-restricted with serine box (ESX) decreased EGFR and Her2 promoter activity, expression, and levels. ESX was elevated in primary HNSCC tumors and associated with increased EGFR and Her2. Genetic ablation of ESX decreased EGFR and Her2 levels and enhanced the antiproliferative effects of EGFR/Her2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), lapatinib and afatinib. Biphenyl isoxazolidine, a novel small-molecule ESX inhibitor, reduced EGFR and Her2 levels and potentiated the antiproliferative efficacy of afatinib. Single-agent biphenyl isoxazolidine retarded the in vivo tumorigenicity of CAL27 cells. Importantly, the combination of biphenyl isoxazolidine and afatinib was significantly superior in vivo and resulted in a 100% response rate with a 94% reduction in tumor volume. Targeting EGFR/Her2 levels with an ESX inhibitor and EGFR/Her2 kinase activity with a TKI simultaneously is a highly active therapeutic approach to manage HNSCC. Our work provides evidence to support the further development of ESX inhibitors as an adjuvant to enhance the response rate of patients with HNSCC to current anti-EGFR/Her2 therapeutics. PMID:23723125

Zhang, Manchao; Taylor, Christopher E; Piao, Longzhu; Datta, Jharna; Bruno, Paul A; Bhave, Sanjay; Su, Tizhi; Lang, James C; Xie, Xiujie; Teknos, Theodoros N; Mapp, Anna K; Pan, Quintin

2013-08-01

282

The potential of dual-energy virtual monochromatic imaging in reducing renal cyst pseudoenhancement. A phantom study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renal cyst pseudoenhancement, an artifactual increase of computed tomography (CT) attenuation for cysts with increased iodine concentrations in the renal parenchyma, complicates the classification of cysts and may thus lead to the mischaracterization of a benign non-enhancing lesion as an enhancing mass. The purpose of this study was to use a phantom model to assess the ability of dual-energy virtual monochromatic imaging to reduce renal pseudoenhancement. A water-filled cylindrical cyst model suspended in varying concentrations of iodine solution, to simulate varying levels of parenchymal enhancement, was scanned with a dual-energy CT scanner using the following three scanning protocols with different combinations of tube voltage: 80 and 140 kV; 80 and 140 kV with tin filter; and 100 and 140 kV with tin filter. Virtual monochromatic images were then synthesized for each dual-energy scan. Single-energy scan with a tube voltage of 120 kV was also performed to obtain polychromatic images as controls. Mean attenuation values (in Hounsfield units) of cyst proxies were measured on both polychromatic and virtual monochromatic images. Pseudoenhancement was considered to be present when the cyst attenuation level increased by more than 10 HU (Hounsfield Unit) as the background iodine concentration increased from 0.0% to 0.4%, 1.5%, or 2.5%. Our results revealed that pseudoenhancement was not observed on any of the monochromatic images, but appeared on polychromatic images at a background iodine concentration of 2.5%. We thus conclude that dual-energy virtual monochromatic images have a potential to reduce renal pseudoenhancement. (author)

2012-10-01

283

Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders. PMID:23262751

Maniglio, Roberto

2013-04-01

284

[Abuse and violence against the elderly].  

Science.gov (United States)

If the problem is not new in its nature, it happens frequently considering the increase of potential victims and aggressors. The elderly are special targets regarding to their fragility and life conditions. Abuse and neglect are related to physical, financial and care aspects. Common law aggressions happen on the public thoroughfare and at home. They lead frequently to delirium. In the bosom of the family 20% of old people are victims of physical brutality or moral cruelty. In the institutions their rate is poorly known and usually hidden. All the industrialized countries are preoccupied by this problem since a few years. Numerous speeches, journals and films are dedicated to these problems. The development of a real family politic in the elderly and an improvement of the education program for the personnel and an increase of the number of social care workers in the institutions may lead to a good prevention of abuse an neglect in the elderly. PMID:2271987

Hugonot, R

1990-01-01

285

Sibling Maltreatment: The Forgotten Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Great advances have been made in the study of family violence in the past 30 years. However, sibling abuse and its prevalence in the family have largely been overlooked. In this article, the major issues associated with sibling maltreatment are highlighted, and strategies for helping the victims and perpetrators of sibling abuse and their families…

Kiselica, Mark S.; Morrill-Richards, Mandy

2007-01-01

286

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although legal definitions of animal abuse vary, it is a crime in every State, and many States have enacted laws establishing certain forms of cruelty to animals as felony offenses. The forms of abuse to which animals may be subjected are similar to the f...

F. R. Ascione

2001-01-01

287

Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

2012-01-01

288

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

Abbas Yavari

2009-09-01

289

Activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 reduces ultraviolet B-induced prostaglandin E2 production in keratinocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a member of the TRP family, and is activated at temperatures below 22degC, or by cooling compounds such as menthol. In this study, it was found that a new role of TRPM8 activation on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an inflammatory cytokine and dendritogenesis stimulator of normal human melanocytes. Normal human keratinocytes were pretreated with menthol or incubated at 22degC for TRPM8 activation before ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. To examine the specificity between TRPM8 activation and PGE2 release, we inhibited TRPM8 with the antagonist (capsazepine), or introduced TRPM8 siRNA for a gene silencing experiment. UV-B irradiation significantly induced PGE2 release in normal human keratinocytes. Interestingly, activation of TRPM8 at 22degC or with menthol inhibited UV-B-induced PGE2 release. The effect of the TRPM8 agonist was completely blocked by pretreatment with the TRPM8 antagonist, capsazepine. When TRPM8 expression was suppressed by siRNA, UV-B irradiation still upregulated PGE2 in keratinocytes, but pretreatment of menthol or low temperature did not inhibit UV-B-induced PGE2. In conclusion, the activation of TRPM8 inhibits UV-B-induced PGE2 production in keratinocytes, and the activation of TRPM8 may reduce inflammatory responses in skin. (author)

2013-11-01

290

Post-bottleneck inbreeding accumulation reduces fitness and adaptive potential in populations of Tribolium castaneum under environmental stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study used a model organism, Tribolium castaneum, to evaluate the effect of inbreeding accumulation on additive genetic variance and fitness related traits, owing to population bottleneck events, under laboratory conditions and environmental stressors. Demographic bottlenecks were imposed on 21 populations of T. castaneum, varying in intensity and duration, for up to five generations. After recovering to original census numbers, later generations of the populations were subjected to stressful environmental conditions. A significant decrease in additive genetic variance and heritability of pupa weight was observed in all populations as a result of the bottleneck. Fitness was quantified using adult weight, total progeny, fecundity and survivorship. When the estimated inbreeding accumulation in the populations approached 40%, there was evidence for a decrease in the mean of fitness-related traits. This relationship became statistically significant when the populations were under environmental stress. Populations with increased inbreeding accumulation demonstrated decreased survival of progeny under stress. The observed decrease in heritable variation could result in reduced potential for adaptation.

A.D. Franklin

2011-03-01

291

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar

2008-01-01

292

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O{sub 2} and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O{sub 2} -O{sub 2} potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included.

Abbaspour, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mabbaspoor@wali.um.ac.ir; Goharshadi, Elaheh K. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emampour, Jalal S. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-08-01

293

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O2 and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O2 -O2 potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included

2006-08-01

294

An Analysis of Elder Abuse Rates in Milwaukee County  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The elder abuse and neglect burden in Milwaukee County is substantial with 3,384 reports made in 2006 to 2009. Current prevalence estimates are determined from reported cases only and are likely underestimated. Provider awareness of victim and perpetrator characteristics is necessary to increase recognition and response. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of elder abuse and neglect cases reported to the Milwaukee County Department on Aging in 2006 to 2009 was performed to provide a profile of the county’s elder abuse burden by victim, perpetrator, and reporter characteristics. Outcomes of investigations were described in terms of placement and community services offered. Results Victims in Milwaukee County tended to be over 75 (63%), female (64%), and white (61%). Frailty (72%), Alzheimer’s dementia (24%), and other co-morbidities (19%) were most commonly reported. Perpetrators were often adult children (48%) or a spouse (14%). 41% of self-neglectors suffered from life-threatening unfulfilled medical needs. Most reports were made by medical professionals and community agencies (45%), supporting the importance of awareness and reporting among those professionals. Only 13% of elder abuse victims were placed in nursing homes and assisted living centers; many received services to assist independent living. Discussion Although this study is limited to reported cases only, it provides a valuable profile of pertinent elder abuse characteristics in Milwaukee County. Conclusion Characteristics of vulnerable elders, potential abusers, and investigation outcomes have informed the development of educational modules for physicians and community service providers on this important social issue.

Thomson, Mary J.; Lietzau, Lauren K.; Doty, Megan M.; Cieslik, Linda; Williams, Ramona; Meurer, Linda N.

2013-01-01

295

History and current perspectives on the use of drug formulations to decrease the abuse of prescription drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is part of a supplemental issue of the journal devoted entirely to papers on how abuse liability of medications is affected by their formulation for medical use. This article reviews the history of abuse and addiction to medications in the United States and the legislation designed to control these problems. The provisions in legislation related specifically to formulations of medications designed to decrease their abuse potential will be noted. In addition, the role of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) as an organization initially founded to develop analgesic medications with less abuse potential than morphine is briefly reviewed. Examples of current approaches to the development of formulations of medications to decrease their abuse potential discussed in detail in the articles to follow are outlined. Finally, the use of behavioral economic analyses to better delineate the relative abuse potential of new medication formulations is discussed. PMID:16483729

Schuster, Charles R

2006-06-01

296

alcohol (alcohol abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

BrianJohnson

2011-12-01

297

Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Barriers to Elder Abuse Detection and Reporting in Primary Care Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore through interviews of healthcare professionals their perspectives on elder abuse to achieve a better understanding of the problems of reporting and generate ideas for improving the process. Through a mailed survey, nurses, physicians, and social workers were invited to participate in an interview. Nine nurses, 8 physicians, and 6 social workers were interviewed and thematic analysis was used to identify the following core themes: professional orientation, assessment, interpretation, systems, and knowledge and education. The impact by healthcare professionals in recognizing and reporting elder abuse and obtaining resources for those mistreated can be profound. Nurses tended to perceive elder abuse as uncommon and generally did not feel it was their role nor did they have time to assess patients for potential abuse. Physicians felt that other patient care issues, time limitations and maintaining trust in the clinician-patient relationship outweighed the importance of detecting and pursuing suspected cases of elder abuse. Social workers, although having the most knowledge and experience related to elder abuse, relied on nurses and physicians to detect potential abusive situations and to work with them in making appropriate referrals. The three disciplines acknowledged the need for more and better education about elder abuse detection and reporting. Participants suggested a reorganization of the external reporting system. More frequent and pragmatic education is necessary to strengthen practical knowledge about elder abuse.

SCHMEIDEL, AMY N.; DALY, JEANETTE M.; ROSENBAUM, MARCY E.; SCHMUCH, GRETCHEN A.; JOGERST, GERALD J.

2012-01-01

298

Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?  

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Abstract Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters ...

Hunter Charlotte; Strike Carol; Barnaby Lorraine; Busch Adam; Marshall Chantel; Shepherd Susan; Hopkins Shaun

2012-01-01

299

Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might be susceptible to biases that reflect the larger sociocultural context. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that…

Bolen, Rebecca

2002-01-01

300

Preventing Elder Abuse: Identificaton of High Risk Factors Prior to Placement Decisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that some elder abuse can be prevented by systematic assessment of the older person and the potential caregiver, as well as of the family constellation. Uses research findings to identify high-risk factors associated with elder abuse, factors that can be used to guide placement decisions. (Author/nB)

Kosberg, Jordan I.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

2009-01-01

302

Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-01-01

303

Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

Samuel J. G. Cooper

2013-06-01

304

Orthopaedic aspects of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is one of the most serious problems encountered by on-call orthopaedic surgeons. There are adverse sequelae to both overdiagnosing and underdiagnosing this condition. Orthopaedic surgeons generally manage orthopaedic aspects of child abuse but should be aware of the associated injuries, diagnoses, prognoses, and natural history of abuse. Because fractures are the second most common presenting injury in children after skin lesions, orthopaedic surgeons are often on the front lines of treatment. No specific fracture is pathognomonic of child abuse, although some patterns, such as posterior rib fractures, metaphyseal corner fractures, and fractures in various stages of healing, are highly suggestive of abuse. Although metabolic bone disease is much rarer than child abuse, the child should be tested so treatment can be initiated, if needed, or for the purpose of demonstrating due diligence in the event of court proceedings. A diagnosis of child abuse is an understandably contentious issue; therefore, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of injury patterns and differential diagnoses. PMID:23395044

Baldwin, Keith D; Scherl, Susan A

2013-01-01

305

Child physical abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

2014-04-01

306

REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES RÉDUIRE LA MENACE : UTILISATION POTENTIELLE DE PHÉROMONES POUR CONTRÔLER LES ÉCREVISSES « SIGNAL » INVASIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations. Compte-tenu de la peste qui décime les espèces d’écrevisses européennes natives, il est d’une extrême importance de définir une méthode efficace de contrôle des espèces invasives d’écrevisse. De nombreuses techniques ont été tentées pour lutter contre ce problème grandissant, avec peu de succès. Les phéromones sont utilisées depuis de nombreuses années avec succès dans le contrôle d’insectes terrestres nuisibles. L’idée d’appliquer au milieu aquatique des méthodes utilisant des phéromones n’est pas nouvelle, mais n’a pas jusqu’alors été développée. Cet article présente les résultats préliminaires de campagnes de tests sur le terrain de pièges appâtés avec des phéromones de Pacifastacus leniusculus, et débat de l’application potentielle de phéromones pour contrôler les populations de P. leniusculus.

STEBBING P. D.

2008-04-01

307

Abuse in the exercise of copyright:Is Mexico ready to use compulsory licensing as a remedy? :The potential of copyright exclusivity to affect competition and the readiness of competition law tools in Mexico to bring balance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with Compulsory Licences, both as a limitation provided by IP law and as a remedy provided by competition law. It focus on how such remedy have been provided by the European Commission as a solution to bring to an end the abusive use of copyright by copyright holders enjoying a dominant position. It further explores if such European development represents an option for developing countries and if Mexico is prepared to benefit from such development.The First Chapter presents...

Trevino, Carlos Alberto Vela

2006-01-01

308

Factors related to the process of seeking and completing treatment for drug abuse (qualitative methods in drug abuse research).  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drug abuse treatment. Yet many drug abusers do not enter treatment, many who do enter leave prematurely, and relapse following treatment is common. Understanding motivation for change and treatment readiness is key to understanding how to induct and engage drug users in treatment. To the extent that treatment programs focus initially on reducing drug use, rather than psychosocial problems that motivate individuals to seek treatment, treatment programs may fail to meet the primary needs of users and thus fail to attract or engage them. Outcomes of substance abuse treatment programs historically have been measured by successful program completion, reduced drug use and illegal activity, and improved social functioning (employment, education etc). There is minimal reference to client expectations of treatment and factors that influenced treatment-seeking behavior. Studies that have assessed client dropout from substance abuse treatment have generally focused upon quantitative measures that attempt to determine what types of clients drop out or stay, or what types of characteristics best predict client dropout. Qualitative methods are the most appropriate to fill these gaps in substance abuse treatment research. PMID:15988078

Otiashvili, D; Djordjevic, A; Morales, D; Parsons, A; Platt, E; Stempliuk, V

2005-05-01

309

Limited Agulhas Leakage as a potential trigger for reduced AMOC intensity before the onset of Heinrich events  

Science.gov (United States)

Interocean exchange of heat and salt around South Africa - the so called 'Agulhas Leakage' - is thought to be a key link in the maintenance of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). It takes place at the Agulhas Retroflection, largely by the intermittent shedding of enormous rings that penetrate into the South Atlantic Ocean. Recent palaeoceanographic studies suggest that variability in the latitudinal position of the subtropical front (STF) in the Southern Ocean, acts as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas retroflection and moreover, that a variable northward migration of the STF potentially modulated the severity of glacial periods by altering the amount of Agulhas leakage with consequences for the AMOC. Here we present a high-resolution record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from the southern Agulhas Plateau (sediment core MD02-2588, 41'19,90 S and 25'49,70 E, 2907 m water depth) covering the last 350,000 years. We find distinct millennial-scale events with high abundances of IRD. These IRD events are indicators for a northward shift of the Southern Ocean frontal system, thereby allowing sufficient cooling and iceberg survivability as far north as the Agulhas Plateau. Our proxy record suggests significant millennial scale variability of the frontal movements throughout the last three glacial cycles. Largest IRD peaks occur during marine isotope stage 8 (~300,000 years BP) and hence during a period for which an extreme northward shift in the STF has been identified previously. We compare our IRD record with records of millennial scale climate variability in the North Atlantic after careful synchronization of individual age models using benthic oxygen isotopes. In general, IRD peaks recorded on the Agulhas Plateau occur during globally cold conditions but in anti-phase with coldest events (Heinrich events) in the North Atlantic, which systematically occur at the culmination of large reductions in AMOC. This observation is in line with the concept of a bipolar seesaw behaviour of the glacial Atlantic. As IRD peaks recorded in MD02-2588 tend to precede IRD peaks in the North Atlantic they lend credence to the emerging viewwe speculate that the events in the South may have been active in triggering a reduced AMOC intensity that has been observed to occur before the onset of ice rafting events in the North. A reduced salt export into the Atlantic ocean associated with the southern IRD events may have augmented the destabilization of AMOC activity in the North Atlantic triggering feedbacks in that region, such as basin-wide subsurface warming, increased basal melt rates under an ice shelves fronting the Laurentide Ice Sheet, subsequent collapse allowing ice flow surges and eventually iceberg and freshwater discharge into the Labrador Sea that further amplified weakening of the AMOC.

Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Knorr, G.; Zahn, R.

2012-12-01

310

Science and policy in substance abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

Stephan Arndt

2006-01-01

311

Children's literature and child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the use of children's literature in the treatment of child abuse, a method referred to as bibliotherapy. Appropriate children's books are described that can be used in this approach. PMID:2403904

Pardeck, J T

1990-01-01

312

Affective illness in substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation and treatment of substance abusers are complicated tasks, requiring a multifaceted approach. In addition to the patient's substance abuse problems, a substantial minority appear to be suffering from concurrent, nondrug-related psychiatric disorders. The early identification of such individuals allows for the development of specific treatment strategies that address both the substance abuse and the associated nondrug psychopathology. On the other hand, attention to nondrug psychopathology should not preclude our simultaneously addressing the patient's substance abuse problem. Thus, manic depressive patients who are also alcoholic may need a treatment program that includes alcoholism counseling. Alcoholics Anonymous, and chronic administration of disulfiram in addition to lithium carbonate and a supportive psychotherapeutic relationship. As in other areas of medicine, attention to the "whole patient" is the sine qua non of good treatment. PMID:2877447

Mirin, S M; Weiss, R D

1986-09-01

313

Drugs of abuse--opiates.  

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Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...

1990-01-01

314

Attitudes towards child sexual abuse  

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The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand. Three studies are presented based on the same dat...

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

2008-01-01

315

Personality development after physical abuse.  

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Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

Oates, R. K.

1984-01-01

316

Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements...

Torrente, Mariana P.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

2012-01-01

317

PILL series. Management of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children deserve a childhood free from abuse, where their basic physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs are met. Child abuse is defined as any act of omission or commission by a parent or guardian that would endanger or impair the child's physical or emotional well-being, or that is judged by a mixture of community values and professionals to be inappropriate. A total of 247 cases of suspected child abuse in Singapore was investigated in 2012. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical neglect or emotional abuse accounted for 60%, 30% and 10% of these cases, respectively. Primary care providers play an important role in the early detection and referral of child abuse cases, which enable timely intervention to ensure the well-being of the child and prevent further abuse. Hospitals and other medical centres form the largest source of referrals of suspected child abuse. PMID:24154576

Wong, Pei Ying; How, Choon How; Wong, Peter Choong Yi

2013-10-01

318

Waste Management Options and Their Potential to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Lithuania and Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Master thesis connects two interrelated environmental issues – climate change and waste management. Both have been under discussion for few decades and are currently two of the top priorities on EU’s environmental agenda. The goal of this thesis is to find out in what ways waste management in Lithuania and Sweden can contribute towards reducing global warming and how the release of greenhouse gases could be reduced. Four different material flows – food, metal, plastic, and paper an...

Didjurgyte, Rasa

2013-01-01

319

Religiosity and Substance Abuse: Need for Systematic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Religion plays a significant role in human life, yet its potential to influence health and health-related conditions is not well studied. This article cites several studies that examine the correlation between religiosity and substance abuse. This article also suggests that more systematic researches are needed to validate the correlation of…

Sharma, Manoj

2006-01-01

320

A Model Intervention for Elder Abuse and Dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a two-year collaborative project that improved the reporting and management of potential and suspected elder abuse situations involving persons with dementia. The educational curriculum and cross training program as well as the handbook for caregivers are discussed. Project organization, implementation, and evaluation are also discussed…

Anetzberger, Georgia J.; Palmisano, Barbara R.; Sanders, Margaret; Bass, David; Dayton, Carol; Eckert, Sharen; Schimer, Maria R.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Corporal Punishment in the Schools--Discipline or Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Corporal punishment is one teacher-child interaction harmful to children. Corporal punishment inhibits learning, interferes with the accomplishment of each of the important developmental tasks of children and their teachers, and has the potential for physical harm to the child. Corporal punishment should be considered as child abuse and prohibited…

Friedman, David B.

322

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. PMID:18504566

Drubach, Laura A; Sapp, Mark V; Laffin, Stephen; Kleinman, Paul K

2008-07-01

323

Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses. PMID:22694135

Varga, Matthew D

2012-01-01

324

Sexual abuse of children in Leeds  

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Temporal trends in physical and sexual abuse of children within a geographically defined area were examined, and cases of suspected sexual abuse referred to paediatricians during 1984 were studied in detail. After remaining static for four years referrals due to all types of abuse trebled between 1979 and 1984, and referrals due to sexual abuse increased from none to 50 a year. In 1984, 50 children (39 girls) aged 1-16 were referred because of possible sexual abuse. Abuse was confirmed or con...

Turvill, P.

1986-01-01

325

GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA

2013-03-01

326

Disseminated neonatal herpetic infection simulating abusive anal trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential simulators of premortem trauma present problems of misinterpretation and possible false accusations of caregivers. A case of unsuspected neonatal herpes is reported with associated perianal ecchymosis that raises the possibility of sexual abuse. The decedent was an 8-day-old newborn infant who was born by Cesarean section and treated for 5 days postdelivery for sepsis. The newborn infant was discharged home but returned 2 days later with probable sepsis and new onset of perianal hemorrhage. She died 1 day later with autopsy, revealing neonatal disseminated herpetic infection with early anal involvement consisting of microscopic ulcerations with leukocytoclastic-like vasculitis and rare viral cytopathic changes. These histological changes produced grossly appearing anal ecchymosis with an absence of typical herpetic vesiculopapular lesions, which simulated abusive trauma. This case highlights the importance of considering occult neonatal herpes with associated perianal ecchymosis when presented with possible abusive anal trauma in a newborn infant. PMID:21496019

Panella, Michael

2011-07-01

327

A longitudinal twin study of effects of adolescent alcohol abuse on the neurophysiology of attention and orienting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long-term functional brain effects of adolescent alcohol abuse remain uncertain, partially because of difficulties in distinguishing inherited deficits from neuronal effects of ethanol and by confounds associated with alcohol abuse, especially nicotine exposure. We conducted a longitudinal twin study to determine neurocognitive effects of adolescent alcohol abuse, as measured with the auditory event-related potential (ERP) component P3, a putative marker of genetic vulnerability to alcoholism.

Koskinen, Sini M; Ahveninen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

328

Attention Disorder Drugs: Few Incidents of Diversion or Abuse Identified by Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children diagnosed with attention deficit disorders are commonly treated with stimulant medications, such as Ritalin or Adderall. These drugs are controlled substances under federal law because of their high abuse potential. Many of these stimulant drugs ...

2001-01-01

329

Critical Care Nurses' Perspectives on Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims to explore through interviews of critical care nurses their perspectives on elder abuse to achieve a better understanding of the problems of reporting and generate ideas for improving the process. Background In 44 states and the District of Columbia healthcare providers are required by law to report elder abuse but the patient, patient’s family, and healthcare providers all have barriers to reporting allegations of elder abuse. Design This study design is qualitative. Method Through a mailed survey, critical care nurses were invited to participate in a taped in-depth qualitative interview. Results Ten nurses were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to describe the following core themes: types of elder abuse, suspicions of elder abuse, reporting of elder abuse, barriers to reporting elder abuse, legislation, and improvement in practice. Conclusions Critical care nurses are aware of elder abuse and somewhat systematically evaluate for abuse at admission to their unit. They recognize signs and symptoms of abuse and are suspicious when it is warranted. They are aware of why an older person does not want to report abuse and take this into consideration when soliciting information. Facts, values, and experience influence personally defining abuse, suspicion, and dependence for each individual healthcare professional. Relevance to Clinical Practice Critical care unit protocols and/or policies and procedure for reporting elder abuse are needed in critical care settings and are warranted for providing quality of care.

Schmeidel Klein, Amy N.; Jogerst, Gerald J.

2012-01-01

330

A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

331

Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the Definition of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The literature shows a discrepancy in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy is the different ways in which CSA is assessed. While some studies explicitly ask potential participants whether they are sexual abuse survivors, others ask whether participants experienced specific unwanted sexual behaviors. Aim This study investigated the differences between women who self-identified as CSA survivors, women who experienced similar unwanted sexual experiences but did not identify as CSA survivors (NSA), and women with no history of sexual abuse (control). CSA was defined as unwanted touching or penetration of the genitals before the age of 16. Methods A sample of 699 college students anonymously completed a battery of questionnaires on sexuality and sexual abuse history. Main Outcome Measures Sexual function was measured with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and sexual satisfaction was measured with the Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Women. History of CSA was measured with a modified version of Carlin and Ward’s childhood abuse items. Results Differences emerged between women who experienced sexual abuse before age 16 and women who never experienced sexual abuse (control) on the personal distress subscale of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale. The CSA group (N = 89) reported greater sexual distress compared to the NSA (N = 98) group, and the NSA group reported more distress than the control group (N = 512). No significant group differences were observed in the FSFI. Characteristics of the abuse that predicted whether women identified as CSA survivors included vaginal penetration, fear at the time of the abuse, familial relationship with the perpetrator, and chronic frequency of the abuse. These abuse characteristics were associated with sexual satisfaction but not with sexual function. Conclusions Differences in levels of sexual satisfaction between women with and without a history of CSA were associated with the type of CSA definition adopted. It remains unexplained why the CSA group showed more personal distress about their sexuality but not more sexual dysfunction.

Rellini, Alessandra; Meston, Cindy

2008-01-01

332

The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse. PMID:23388449

Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

2013-08-01

333

Role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood abuse and probable PTSD in a sample of substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined associations among childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of 93 substance use disorder (SUD) patients in residential treatment. SUD patients with probable PTSD (vs. non-PTSD) reported (a) greater severity of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and (b) significantly higher levels of overall emotion dysregulation and the specific dimensions of difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset, difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when distressed, limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity. Additionally, significant positive associations were found between both childhood physical and emotional (but not sexual) abuse on the one hand and dimensions of emotion dysregulation on the other. Further analyses indicated that difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when distressed accounted for the associations of both childhood physical and emotional abuse with probable PTSD status. Findings of the present study highlight a potential mechanism underlying the relationships between both childhood emotional and physical abuse and PTSD in SUD patients. PMID:23643388

Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Lavender, Jason; Gratz, Kim L

2013-11-01

334

Substance Abuse and Child Abus/span>e-Neglect: Implications for Direct-Service Providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationship between substance abuse and child abus/span>e-neglect by analyzing child protective services workers' (N=21) responses to a questionnaire. Found significant demographic differences between substance- and nonsubstance-abuse child abusers, and differences in protective service workers' service plans for substance and…

Kameen, Marilyn C.; Thompson, Diane L.

1983-01-01

335

Child abuser stereotypes: consensus among clinicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the results of an investigation of nurses' stereotypes of child abusers. Ninety-four registered nurses completed a questionnaire that measured subjects' knowledge of child abus/span>e; professional contact with perpetrators and victims of abuse; knowledge of the causes of child abus/span>e; and child abuser stereotypes. Results reveal a consensus among the subjects as to the stereotypes associated with child abusers. This study supports the notion that nurses stereotype individuals on the basis of demographic characteristics. This study also raises questions regarding the bias that may result from the use of child abuser stereotypes. Clinical decision-making processes could become compromised if biased judgements are used in planning nursing care for clients diagnosed as child abusers. PMID:2930179

Krowchuk, H V

1989-02-01

336

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-02-01

337

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose–volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

2012-02-01

338

Potentiation of CB 1954 cytotoxicity by reduced pyridine nucleotides in human tumour cells by stimulation of DT diaphorase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of CB 1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide] towards human cells was greatly enhanced by NADH (when foetal calf serum was present in the culture medium) and by nicotinamide riboside (reduced) (NRH), but not by nicotinate riboside (reduced). Co-treatment of human cells with CB 1954 and NADH resulted in the formation of crosslinks in their DNA. The toxicity produced by other DNA crosslinking agents was unaffected by reduced nicotinamide compounds. When caffeine was included in the medium, a reduction in the cytotoxicity of CB 1954 occurred. The toxicity experienced by human cell lines after exposure to CB 1954 and NADH was proportional to their levels of the enzyme DT diaphorase NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), EC 1.6.99.2. It is concluded that NRH, which we have shown to be a co-factor for rat DT diaphorase (Friedlos et al., Biochem Pharmacol 44: 25-31, 1992), is generated from NADH by enzymes in foetal calf serum, and stimulates the activity of human DT diaphorase towards CB 1954. PMID:1449531

Friedlos, F; Biggs, P J; Abrahamson, J A; Knox, R J

1992-11-01

339

Gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for biomarkers of alcohol abuse in human hair.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the development of a new, faster analytical method for the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in human hair to detect potential alcohol abuse. FAEEs have been established as metabolites of ethanol consumption in humans and are embedded in the hair follicles during hair growth. The developed method has a total analysis time-including washing, extraction, concentration, separation, and detection-of less than 1 hour. Commonly used extraction procedures in the literature for these biomarkers are typically 15 hours. Analysis is performed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a GC separation time of less than 9 minutes. Using chemical ionization, mass spectrometric detection consists of selected reaction monitoring, which is widely considered to be one of the most selective and sensitive forms of mass spectrometric detection. Employing selected reaction monitoring helps to reduce interferences from the hair matrix, thereby making the method more selective for these biomarkers of interest. Limits of detection for each FAEE range from 0.002 to 0.030 ng/mg in hair. By using this faster extraction method, this research shows that this method could potentially be used to distinguish whether a person is a heavy drinker, moderate drinker, or nondrinker. The ability to rapidly analyze hair samples can be applied to a number of different areas, such as neonatal screening, parole violations, contributing factors in the cause of death, and any other application requiring the establishment of chronic versus acute alcohol abuse. PMID:20216108

Zimmermann, Carolyn M; Jackson, Glen P

2010-04-01

340

Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well.

Rognmo Kamilla

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Sexual abuse of the elderly mentally ill.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual abuse of the elderly may occur more commonly than is recognized. Reasons for the neglect of this area and possible risk factors are discussed. A definition of elder sexual abuse is proposed, and four case histories, each of which raises various issues about the nature, detection and management of sexual abuse, are described. In the absence of procedures for dealing with elder sexual abuse, professional staff need to be open to its occurrence and to be prepared to carry out thorough, sy...

Benbow, S. M.; Haddad, P. M.

1993-01-01

342

Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the...

Selen Acehan; Aysegul Bilen; Mehmet Oguzhan Ay; Muge Gulen; Akkan Avci; Ferhat Icme

2013-01-01

343

Sustained Release d-Amphetamine Reduces Cocaine but not ‘Speedball'-Seeking in Buprenorphine-Maintained Volunteers: A Test of Dual-Agonist Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine/Heroin Polydrug Abusers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine whether oral sustained release d-amphetamine (SR-AMP) reduces cocaine and opioid/cocaine combination (‘speedball'-like) seeking in volunteers with current opioid dependence and cocaine dependence. Following outpatient buprenorphine (BUP) 8?mg/day stabilization without SR-AMP, eight participants completed a 3-week in-patient study with continued BUP 8?mg/day maintenance and double-blind ascending SR-AMP weekly doses of 0, 30, and 60?mg/day, respec...

Greenwald, Mark K.; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Steinmiller, Caren L.

2010-01-01

344

Value of Intraoperative Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential Monitoring in Reducing the Auditory Morbidity Associated with Microvascular Decompression of Cranial Nerves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was performed to determine whether the intraoperative monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) during microvascular decompression operations is effective in preventing profound hearing loss or deafness in the ipsilateral ear. The authors retrospectively compared the auditory morbidity of posterior fossa microvascular decompression surgery for the treatment of tic douloureux and hemifacial spasm before and after the introduction of routine intraoperative BAE...

Wilkins, Robert H.; Radtke, Rodney A.; Erwin, C. William

1991-01-01

345

Experimental evidence that intra-specific competition in seagrass meadows reduces reproductive potential in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To better understand the biological controls that regulate sea urchin dynamics, we studied the effects of potential inter- and intra-specific competition for food on several biological variables of the main sea urchin in the Mediterranean (Paracentrotus lividus). We carried out a caging experiment in which we manipulated sea urchin density (natural vs. high density) and herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa) accessibility (free access vs. exclusion) in a Posidonia oceanica meadow. No evidence of comp...

2005-01-01

346

Inflammation reduces mechanical thresholds in a population of transient receptor potential channel A1-expressing nociceptors in the rat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inflammatory hypersensitivity is characterized by behavioural reductions in withdrawal thresholds to noxious stimuli. Although cutaneous primary afferent neurones are known to have lowered thermal thresholds in inflammation, whether their mechanical thresholds are altered remains controversial. The transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) is a receptor localized to putative nociceptive neurones and is implicated in mechanical and thermal nociception. Herein, we examined changes in the ...

Dunham, James P.; Kelly, Sara; Donaldson, Lucy F.

2008-01-01

347

Therapeutic potential for phenytoin: targeting Nav1.5 sodium channels to reduce migration and invasion in metastatic breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are heteromeric membrane protein complexes containing pore-forming ? subunits and smaller, non-pore-forming ? subunits. VGSCs are classically expressed in excitable cells, including neurons and muscle cells, where they mediate action potential firing, neurite outgrowth, pathfinding, and migration. VGSCs are also expressed in metastatic cells from a number of cancers. The Nav1.5 ? subunit (encoded by SCN5A) is expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell lines, w...

2012-01-01

348

Therapeutic potential for phenytoin : targeting Nav1.5 sodium channels to reduce migration and invasion in metastatic breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are heteromeric membrane protein complexes containing pore-forming ? subunits and smaller, non-pore-forming ? subunits. VGSCs are classically expressed in excitable cells, including neurons and muscle cells, where they mediate action potential firing, neurite outgrowth, pathfinding, and migration. VGSCs are also expressed in metastatic cells from a number of cancers. The Na(v)1.5 ? subunit (encoded by SCN5A) is expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell line...

2012-01-01

349

The neuropeptide proctolin potentiates contractions and reduces cGMP concentration via a PKC-dependent pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As in many other arthropods, the neuropeptide proctolin enhances contractures of muscles in the crustacean isopod Idotea emarginata. The enhancement of high K+-induced contractures by proctolin (1? mol l-1) was mimicked upon application of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol-12-myristate 1-acetate (PMA) and was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM-1). The potentiation was not inhibited by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Proctolin did not change the intrac...

2006-01-01

350

A discussion paper on the potential for reducing CO sub 2 emissions in Alberta, 1988--2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A CO{sub 2} reduction potential for Alberta is identified through more efficient energy utilization and fuel substitution. A specific scenario was used to provide a forecast of possible reductions to the year 2005. The model scenario was based on current CO{sub 2} inventory information, lists of energy conservation measures appropriate to Alberta, and a fixed set of assumptions including a 10-year simple payback for energy reduction measures, immediate implementation at 100% penetration, diminishing returns, current technology for future facilities, and 1988 energy prices. If no significant energy conservation measures are implemented, CO{sub 2} emissions in Alberta are forecast to increase from 124 megatonnes/y in 1988 to 177 megatonnes/y by 2005. Retrofit energy conservation measures in 1988 could achieve a savings of 250 PJ of fossil fuels and 21,639 GWh of electrical energy, with an average payback period of 3.1 years for the investment involved. The annual CO{sub 2} reduction resulting from the conservation measures envisioned would be 61.5 megatonnes in 2005, with retrofitting accounting for ca 56% of the savings. In that forecast, all energy end-use sectors show a reduction from 1988 emission levels; the industrial sector has the largest savings potential, nearly 60% of the total. By fuel type, electricity reduction potential contributes 60% of the total CO{sub 2} savings. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

1990-09-01

351

Neuropsychological Effects of Abuse of Inhalants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of 109 drug-abusing adolescents indicated that inhalant abusers performed significantly more poorly than polydrug abusers on 20 of 67 neuropsychological measures. Deficits were observed on both global (WAIS and WRAT) and specific measures (perception of speech sounds, visual suppression, sensory perception, and trails). (Author/SJL)

Korman, Maurice; And Others

1981-01-01

352

Attachment Theory and Child Abuse: Some Cautions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a response to Bolen's article, "Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?" (this issue). Heralds the article as a welcome addition to the child abuse field and further explores the issues pertaining to attachment theory and child abuse. (GCP)

Olafson, Erna

2002-01-01

353

Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

McDaniel, Garry L.

354

Elder Abuse: What's a Clinician To Do?  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidence rates are critically examined in light of varying definitions of what constitutes elder abuse. It is suggested that the clinician's position of mandatory reporting is an unrealistic response in many cases of elder abuse due to the lack of adequate support services for either the abuser or the elder. Outcome studies are used to support…

Reis, Bruce E.

355

Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

Salend, Elyse; And Others

1984-01-01

356

Physicians' Mandatory Reporting of Elder Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluated physicians' responses to Alabama state elder abuse reporting statutes in Alabama Protective Services Act of 1976. Survey responses from over 100 Alabama physicians suggest that they have reservations about their ability to diagnose abuse, operation of the law, and their willingness to report abuse. (Author/NB)

Daniels, R. Steven; And Others

1989-01-01

357

Elder abuse: dermatologic clues and critical solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elder abuse affects approximately 2% to 10% of older Americans. Unfortunately, it is often unrecognized and certainly underreported. Dermatologists have a unique role in the detection and reporting of elder abuse. An analysis of risk factors, clinical signs, reporting requirements, and prevention of elder abuse brings this issue into focus. PMID:23058735

Palmer, Matthew; Brodell, Robert T; Mostow, Eliot N

2013-02-01

358

Understanding elder abuse in family practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions.

Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

2012-01-01

359

Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... abusers are family members, most often an adult child or spouse. Abuse can also occur at a long term care ... enforcement are involved in uncovering and prosecuting elder abuse crimes. Moreover, many community coalitions and task forces have been formed to promote public awareness ...

360

Adderall abuse in Texas, 1998-2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of Adderall abuse calls received by several poison control centers in Texas during 1998-2004. Drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of all Adderall exposure calls, 12% involved abuse. The number of drug abuse calls received per year increased during the first part of 7-yr period but then declined. Male patients accounted for almost 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 69% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 66% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than nonabuse calls to involve exposures at another residence (6% vs. 3%), school (22% vs. 5%) and public areas (2% vs. 0.4%). Drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to be managed outside of a health care facility (18% vs. 51%) and to be classified as no adverse effect (23% vs. 48%). Adderall abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Adderall abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and involve more serious medical outcomes. PMID:17365619

Forrester, Mathias B

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Eating disorders in hospitalized substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 386 consecutive patients hospitalized for substance abuse, 15% of 143 women had a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa, compared to only 1% of 243 men. Women with eating disorders had significantly higher rates of stimulant abuse and lower rates of opioid abuse than women without eating disorders. PMID:1562008

Hudson, J I; Weiss, R D; Pope, H G; McElroy, S K; Mirin, S M

1992-01-01

362

Substance Abuse Policy. ERIC Digest, Number 80.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse affects American children across all geographic and economic boundaries and has been linked to poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out. Schools lacking clear alcohol and drug policies are more likely to experience problems with substance abuse. A districtwide substance abuse policy makes a public statement that…

Gaustad, Joan

363

Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension, or the chronic elevation in resting arterial blood pressure (BP), is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and estimated to affect ~1 billion adults worldwide. The goals of treatment are to lower BP through lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise training, healthy eating and reduced sodium intake), and if not solely effective, the addition of antihypertensive medications. In particular, increased physical exercise and decreased sedentarism are important strategies in the prevention and management of hypertension. Current guidelines recommend both aerobic and dynamic resistance exercise training modalities to reduce BP. Mounting prospective evidence suggests that isometric exercise training in normotensive and hypertensive (medicated and non-medicated) cohorts of young and old participants may produce similar, if not greater, reductions in BP, with meta-analyses reporting mean reductions of between 10 and 13 mmHg systolic, and 6 and 8 mmHg diastolic. Isometric exercise training protocols typically consist of four sets of 2-min handgrip or leg contractions sustained at 20-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction, with each set separated by a rest period of 1-4 min. Training is usually completed three to five times per week for 4-10 weeks. Although the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations remain to be fully clarified, improvements in conduit and resistance vessel endothelium-dependent dilation, oxidative stress, and autonomic regulation of heart rate and BP have been reported. The clinical significance of isometric exercise training, as a time-efficient and effective training modality to reduce BP, warrants further study. This evidence-based review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of isometric exercise training on resting BP. PMID:24174307

Millar, Philip J; McGowan, Cheri L; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Araujo, Claudio G; Swaine, Ian L

2014-03-01

364

The potential of five winter-grown crops to reduce root-knot nematode damage and increase yield of tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel; Ploeg, Antoon

2010-06-01

365

The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself. PMID:24151325

Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

2014-02-01

366

Abuse of dominance in the airport sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of the Competition Law in dealing the abuse of dominance in the European airport sector. Starting with discussion of whether airports are natural monopolies or may face real competition, it is followed by an analysis of special features about the sector and a comparison between the policies of the European Union Member States. It is found that above the variety of regulatory frameworks, scarce capacity issues and public subsidies, the EU Competition Law stands as a universal mechanism to protect customers from the abuse of the airports´ dominant position. However, in reviewing the case law it concludes that EU Competition Law has been rarely enforced in the sector, which seems to be the result not only of the lack of incentives for airports to explore their dominant position but also of the risk of reducing the revenues generated from their commercial activities. Another possible reason is related to the fact that some airlines have shown that airport switching can be a credible threat. Finally, it follows the agreement that competition is a “first best” policy which provides the firms with the strongest incentives to give consumers what they need in terms of price and quality. In the airport sector, it can be a good instrument against a regulator that has been acting in the interests of the national airline or even be part of a liberalization process.

Gustavo de Paula e Oliveira

2013-01-01

367

Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging cerebral GABAA receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

1996-01-01

368

Impairment and Abuse of Elderly by Staff in Long-Term Care in Michigan: Evidence from Structural Equation Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Elder abuse in long-term care has become a very important public health concern. Recent estimates of elder abuse prevalence are in the range of 2% to 10% (Lachs & Pillemer, 2004), and current changes in population structure indicate a potential for an upward trend in prevalence (Malley-Morrison, Nolido, & Chawla, 2006; Post et al., 2006). More…

Conner, Tom; Prokhorov, Artem; Page, Connie; Fang, Yu; Xiao, Yimin; Post, Lori A.

2011-01-01

369

Computational identification and analysis of arsenate reductase protein in Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 suggests potential microorganism for reducing arsenate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses a bioinformatics-based prediction of arsC gene product arsenate reductase (ArsC) protein in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 strain. A protein structure-based study encloses three-dimensional structural modeling of target ArsC protein, was carried out by homology modeling method. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in protein. The ten probable ligand binding sites were predicted for target protein structure and highlighted the common binding residues between target and template protein. It has been first time identified that modeled ArsC protein structure in C. sakazakii was structurally and functionally similar to well-characterized ArsC protein of Escherichia coli because of having same structural motifs and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigation revealed that ArsC from C. sakazakii can play significant role during arsenic resistance and potential microorganism for bioremediation of arsenic toxicity. PMID:23666632

Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Pandey, Paras Nath

2013-06-01

370

Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress Among Young People with ASD.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a waitlist. Following the intervention program, participants who were initially symptomatic reported significantly lower depression and stress scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in comparison to individuals on the waitlist. There was no significant change in anxiety related symptoms. The benefits were maintained at 3 and 9 month follow-up. Our findings demonstrate the potential of CBT in a small group setting for assisting young people with ASD who have symptoms of depression and stress. PMID:24634065

McGillivray, J A; Evert, H T

2014-08-01

371

InP/ZnS-graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as fascinating materials for potential optoelectronic applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our recent studies on metal-organic nanohybrids based on alkylated graphene oxide (GO), reduced alkylated graphene oxide (RGO) and InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are presented. The GO alkylated by octadecylamine (ODA) and the QD bearing a dodecane thiol (DDT) ligand are soluble in toluene. The nanocomposite alkylated-GO-QD (GOQD) is readily formed from the solution mixture. Treatment of the GOQD composite with hydrazine affords a reduced-alkylated-GO-QD (RGOQD) composite. The structure, morphology, photophysical and electrical properties of GOQDs and RGOQDs are studied. The micro-FTIR and Raman studies demonstrate evidence of the QD interaction with GO and RGO through facile intercalation of the alkyl chains. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of the GOQD composite show heaps of large QD aggregates piled underneath the GO sheet. Upon reduction to RGOQDs, the QDs become evenly distributed on the graphene bed and the size of the clusters significantly decreases. This also facilitates closer proximity of the QDs to the graphene domains by altering the optoelectronic properties of the RGOQDs. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm QDs being retained in the composites, though a small elemental composition change takes place. The XPS and the fluorescence spectra show the presence of an In(Zn)P alloy while the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show characteristics of the tetragonal indium. The photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs in GOQD and RGOQD films determined by the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) experiment demonstrates almost complete fluorescence quenching in RGOQDs. The conductance studies demonstrate the differences between GOQDs and RGOQDs. Investigation on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFET) characteristics shows the composite to exhibit p-type channel material properties. The RGOQD exhibits much superior electrical conductance as a channel material compared to the GOQD due to the close proximity of the QDs in the RGOQD to the graphene surface. The transfer characteristics, memory properties, and on/off ratios of the devices are determined. A mechanism has been proposed with reference to the Fermi energies of the composites estimated from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies. PMID:23963403

Samal, Monica; Mohapatra, Priyaranjan; Subbiah, Ramesh; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Anass, Benayad; Kim, Jang Ah; Kim, Taesung; Yi, Dong Kee

2013-10-21

372

Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 ?g/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated throughout the jatropha waste-handling process. However additional tests such as digestibility as well as acceptability of the treated jatropha seed cake should be conducted using both in vivo and in vitro studies before recommending the jatropha seed cake as a source of renewable animal feed and other value-added products. PMID:23998310

Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

2013-01-01

373

Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

Sloat, Robert S.

374

Heroin Abuse and Myocardial Infarction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information concerning acute myocardial infarction after heroin usage is limited and the actual mechanism of heroin-induced myocardial infarction is not well known. Only one report has been described noting the association between usage heroin and acute myocardial infarction in a young man with normal coronary arteries. We also reported a patient with normal coronary arteries and acute myocardial infarction after heroin abuse.

2010-01-01

375

Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

Johnson, Deborah G.

1994-01-01

376

Sharpened legislation on market abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

2005-01-01

377

Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

2007-01-01

378

Drugs of Abuse and Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

Learn about how neurons communicate with each other through neurotransmission. Learn how drugs of abuse affect this process. Below each question are links to other web resources. You will need to read several of them to get all the ideas. Write your answers in a separate WORD document and print it. 1) Using these references, make a list of 10 parts of a ...

Eve

2008-03-12

379

A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO{sub 3}. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of {sup 85}Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%.

Beresford, N.A. E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S

2000-12-01

380

Reducing the influence of spatial resolution to improve quantitative accuracy in emission tomography: A comparison of potential strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this paper is to compare strategies for reducing partial volume effects by either minimizing the cause (i.e. improving resolution) or correcting the effect. Correction for resolution loss can be achieved either by modelling the resolution for use in iterative reconstruction or by imposing constraints based on knowledge of the underlying anatomy. Approaches to partial volume correction largely rely on knowledge of the underlying anatomy, based on well-registered high-resolution anatomical imaging modalities (CT or MRI). Corrections can be applied by considering the signal loss that results by smoothing the high-resolution modality to the same resolution as obtained in emission tomography. A physical phantom representing the central brain structures was used to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the various strategies for either improving resolution or correcting for partial volume effects. Inclusion of resolution in the reconstruction model improved the measured contrast for the central brain structures but still underestimated the true object contrast (˜0.70). Use of information on the boundaries of the structures in conjunction with a smoothing prior using maximum entropy reconstruction achieved some degree of contrast enhancement and improved the noise properties of the resulting images. Partial volume correction based on segmentation of registered anatomical images and knowledge of the reconstructed resolution permitted more accurate quantification of the target to background ratio for individual brain structures.

Hutton, B. F.; Olsson, A.; Som, S.; Erlandsson, K.; Braun, M.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:22855041

Ahmadi, Amirhossein

2012-08-01

382

False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegat...

Meadow, R.

1993-01-01

383

Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

1980-01-01

384

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. A review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct problems are strong predictors of SUD, but not responsible for the entire associated risk between ADHD and SUD. Dopamine is thought to be one of the key neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of both ADHD and SUD. Methylphenidate has the dopamine transporter as its main target and brain circuits modulated by dopamine are involved in the development of addiction. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used pharmacological treatment for ADHD and, although this prescribed drug potentially can be abused, it actually seems to reduce the risk of SUD in patients with ADHD, rather than to increase the risk. Few studies have examined the risk of SUD in females with ADHD and some of them suggest a higher risk of SUD than in males with ADHD. However, more research is needed on these gender differences before any clear conclusions can be drawn.

Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders

2013-01-01

385

Treatment Effects for Common Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Current Meta-Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present meta-analysis examined the effects of psychosocial treatments at reducing deleterious outcomes of sexual abuse. The meta-analysis included a total of 35 published and unpublished studies written in English, focusing on youth under the age of 18, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for the most common negative outcomes of sexual abuse: PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Results revealed medium effect sizes for PTSD symptoms, externalizing ...

Trask, Emily V.; Walsh, Kate; Dilillo, David

2011-01-01

386

Early identification of alcohol abuse: 1. Critical issues and psychosocial indicators for a composite index.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional approaches to the medical management of alcohol-related disorders have met with limited success in altering the prevalence of alcohol abuse. Evidence suggests that identifying early those who drink to excess and intervening with low-cost educational and motivational programs could significantly reduce the prevalence of alcohol-related disabilities. However, physicians must take systematic steps to detect alcohol abuse. Part 1 of this two-part series discusses the need for early id...

Skinner, H. A.; Holt, S.; Israel, Y.

1981-01-01

387

Addressing elder abuse: review of societal responses in India and selected Asian countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

In India, during the last two decades, significant developments in societal responses to address elder abuse have emerged. There is greater emphasis on recognizing that older people may be subjected to abuse and neglect by family members and the community as well. Although there is growing interest in the collection of valid statistics on the incidence and prevalence of elder abuse, there is still a need for bringing better clarity on the conceptual understanding and refining definitions of elder abuse. The government, academic community, and the civil society are working toward understanding the underlying causes of elder abuse and neglect and are focusing on appropriate interventions to address it. This paper notes the developments in recognizing elder abuse and reviews the responses in addressing the issue from a legal, social, and public health perspective in India compared with some of the Asian countries, namely China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. While the paper highlights the Indian experience, it is also put in an Asian context where emerging demographics are raising many concerns related to the aging of the population, and the new dynamics of relationships at the family, community, and societal levels demand fresh approaches and thoughts toward improving the quality of life of older people and reducing their vulnerability toward the risk of abuse and neglect. PMID:23731939

Shankardass, Mala Kapur

2013-08-01

388

Substance Abuse among Students of Zanjan's Universities (Iran): A Knot of Today's Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In order to assess the status of drug abuse and likely addiction among university students, a descriptive study was designed. Methods 1200 subjects among the students of three universities in Zanjan were selected by stratified random sampling and their demographic information and history of substance abuse including hookah, cigarette, codeine, ibuprofen, alcohol, diazepam, tramadol, cannabis, opium, grass, heroin, crack, X pill, morphine, marijuana, Librium, and LSD were assessed by a standard questionnaire and were analyzed in 2010. Findings The mean age of students was 21.3 ± 2.3 years (ranged 18-38 years) and the mean age of drug abuse onset was 19.45 years old. 48.2% of male students and 23.4% of female had a history of drug abuse at least once. 6.3% of males and 1.2% of female subjects were addicted constantly which the difference was statically significant (P < 0.001). 32.7% were motivated by pain and 13.3% seeking for pleasure. Hookah with 18% and LSD with 1% had the lowest and highest percentage of drug use, respectively. Conclusion Substance abuse was higher in males than females. Drug abuse was higher among older students with higher degree, and with psychological disorder history. It seems that we require goal directed programs to control and reduce the prevalence of substance abuse, raise students’ awareness and increase students’ information about substance disadvantages especially in their entrance.

Goreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra

2013-01-01

389

Modest abuse-related subjective effects of zolpidem in drug-naïve volunteers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent case reports suggest that the short-acting benzodiazepine-like hypnotic zolpidem may have abuse potential among individuals who have no personal history of abusing drugs or alcohol, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for treating insomnia. The present study recruited drug-naïve volunteers to assess the subjective effects of multiple doses of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg) administered in a within-subject double-blind design. Participants (n=11) answered computerized qu...

Licata, Stephanie C.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Maclean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

2011-01-01

390

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist O-3223 reduces pain and inflammation without apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonists are well established to elicit antinociceptive effects, their psychomimetic actions and potential for abuse have dampened enthusiasm for their therapeutic development. Conversely, CB2 receptor-selective agonists have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation, without eliciting apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects. In the present study, we developed a novel ethyl sulfonamide THC analog, O-3223, and compared i...

Kinsey, Steven G.; Mahadevan, Anu; Zhao, Bingjun; Sun, Hang; Naidu, Pattipati S.; Razdan, Raj K.; Selley, Dana E.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lichtman, Aron H.

2011-01-01

391

Elder abuse and mistreatment in residential settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Older people living in a residential setting have the right to respectful care based on professional ethics. The aim of this study was to describe employees' and clients' lived experiences of elder abuse. A qualitative phenomenological method was used with 26 employees and 20 residents from four homes for elderly people in the town of Ostrava, Czech Republic, and two managers from outside these institutions. All complaints about elder abuse (n 5 11) received by Ostrava Municipal Authority during the period 2003 to 2007 were examined. Two main dimensions of the examined phenomenon were identified: forms of elder abuse and causes of elder abuse. Established forms of elder abuse were summarized as rights violation, financial abuse, psychological abuse, physical abuse and neglect. Causes of elder abuse included institution, employee and client characteristics. It is necessary in residential settings to create preventive policies that will focus on supervision regarding elderly people's rights violation and psychological and physical abuse, as well as on building organizational cultures that will respect ethical principles. PMID:19103695

Buzgová, Radka; Ivanová, Katerina

2009-01-01

392

Blame it on the supervisor or the subordinate? Reciprocal relations between abusive supervision and organizational deviance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on various theoretical perspectives, extant research has primarily treated subordinate organizational deviance as a consequence of abusive supervision. Yet, social interaction theories of aggression and victimization perspectives provide support for the opposite ordering, suggesting that subordinate organizational deviance may be an antecedent of abusive supervision. By using a cross-lagged panel design, we empirically test the potentially reciprocal relation between abusive supervision and subordinate organizational deviance. In Study 1, we measured both abusive supervision and organizational deviance at 2 separate times with a 20-month lag between measurement occasions and found evidence that subordinate organizational deviance leads to abusive supervision, but not vice versa. In Study 2, with a shorter time lag (i.e., 6 months), the reciprocal effects of abusive supervision and organizational deviance were supported. Furthermore, we found that the effects of abusive supervision on organizational deviance were moderated by subordinate self-control capacity and intention to quit such that the effects were only significant when subordinates had low self-control capacity and high intention to quit. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24377392

Lian, Huiwen; Ferris, D Lance; Morrison, Rachel; Brown, Douglas J

2014-07-01

393

Conceptualization, Reporting and Underreporting of Child Abuse in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 1,001 Hong Kong adults found a discrepancy between perceived prevalence and the ability to name different child abuse types without prompting. Only about 40 percent would report abuse cases to authorities. Those who would not report abuse were less likely to classify abuse situations as abusive. (Author/CR)

Lau, Joseph T. F.; Liu, Joseph L. Y.; Yu, Aaron; Wong, C. K.

1999-01-01

394

A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

Godkin, Michael A.; And Others

1989-01-01

395

A Profile of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…

Villas, Paul

396

A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

Anderson, Jeff; And Others

397

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

Ascione, Frank R.

398

Violence against Native Women in Substance Abuse Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…

Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

2006-01-01

399

Structural modifications of a 3-methoxy-2-aminopyridine compound to reduce potential for mutagenicity and time-dependent drug-drug interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

(S)-1-((4-(3-(6-Amino-5-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-1-isopropyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)propan-2-ol, 1, was recently identified as a potent inhibitor of the oncogenic kinase bRAF. Compounds containing 3-methoxy-2-aminopyridine, as in 1, comprised a promising lead series because of their high ligand efficiency and excellent ADME profile. However, following metabolic oxidation, compounds in this series also demonstrated two significant safety risks: mutagenic potential and time-dependent drug-drug interaction (TDI). Metabolite identification studies revealed formation of a reactive metabolite. We hypothesized that minimizing or blocking the formation of such a metabolite would mitigate the safety liabilities. Our investigation demonstrated that structural modifications which either reduced the electron density of the 3-methoxy-2-aminopyridine ring or blocked the reactive site following metabolic oxidation were successful in reducing TDI and AMES mutagenicity. PMID:23116892

Palmer, Cynthia; Pairish, Mason; Kephart, Susan; Bouzida, Djamal; Cui, Jingrong; Deal, Judith; Dong, Liming; Gu, Danlin; Linton, Angelica; McAlpine, Indrawan; Yamazaki, Shinji; Smith, Evan; John-Baptiste, Annette; Bagrodia, Shubha; Kania, Robert; Guo, Chuangxing

2012-12-15

400

Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is suffici...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Psychiatric complications of Erimin abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nimetazepam (Erimin) is a benzodiazepine which has become a new drug of abuse in Singapore. Three cases presenting with psychiatric complications had been treated as inpatients over a period of one and a half years (1986 to 1987) in Woodbridge Hospital and Tan Tock Seng Hospital. Their clinical presentations which included drug dependency, withdrawal psychosis and transient drug psychosis are described and discussed. PMID:2595393

Peh, L H; Mahendran, R

1989-02-01

402

Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

2010-01-01

403

Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare ...

Metsch, Lisa R.; Pollack, Harold A.

2005-01-01

404

Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abuse of methamphetamine a potent and highly addictive psychostimulant is a very serious problem in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse leads to devastating medical, psychological, and social consequences. Adverse health effects include memory lo...

2006-01-01

405

Heroin Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and its abuse has repercussions that extend far beyond the individual user. The medical and social consequences of drug abuse HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, fetal effects, crime, violence, and disruptions in family, workplace, ...

2005-01-01

406

Child Abus/span>e in Hong Kong Revisited after 15 Years: Characteristics of Victims and Abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the characteristics of victims and abusers in Hong Kong child abus/span>e cases in 1995 and compares findings with child abus/span>e cases in 1979. Results indicate an increase in female victims and in sexual abuse. In 1995, abusers were also more likely to be of either gender. (CR)

Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Davis, Cindy

1996-01-01

407

Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventative interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18–62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime...

Swogger, Marc T.; You, Sungeun; Cashman-brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

408

Comment on uses and abuses of house journals  

Science.gov (United States)

In “Uses and Abuses of House Journals” [Eos, October 3, 1995, p. 395] Raymond Hide lamented that “Meeting abstracts reputedly enjoy a much wider readership and are generally more influential with funding agencies and other bodies than are detailed accounts of scientific work published in fully refereed journals.” His linkage of this perceived reality to a call for the institution of “safeguards against the publication of such potentially damaging material” deserves rebuttal.

Brown, Robert D.

409

Congenital leukaemia after heavy abuse of permethrin during pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A single case is described of congenital leukaemia with 11q23/MLL rearrangement in a preterm female newborn. Because of arachnophobia, the mother had heavily abused aerosolised permethrin, a widely used household insecticide. Permethrin is considered comparatively safe, but, in view of the mother's history, its potential to induce cleavage of the MLL gene in cell culture was tested. Incubation of the BV173 cell line with 50 micro M permethrin readily induced MLL cleavage. PMID:12937054

Borkhardt, A; Wilda, M; Fuchs, U; Gortner, L; Reiss, I

2003-09-01

410

The abuse of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view. (U.K.)

1976-09-01

411

Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes. PMID:24025323

Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

2013-12-27

412

Abused Women : Health, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this thesis were to estimate the lifetime prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in a random population-based sample of women aged 18-60 years; to estimate current suffering thereof; and to investigate associations between abuse and health problems, more specifically to study abuse related variables associated with somatization and PTSD, respectively. The studies had a cross-sectional design. Studies I and II comprised 4150 women 18-60 years. Study III included 54...

Samelius, Charlotta

2007-01-01

413

Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findin...

Aygul Kissal; Ayse Beser

2009-01-01

414

Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and sexual abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS: The aetiology of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is unknown. A series of 42 cases of this uncommon condition is reported. The aim of this study was to identify associations of LSA and document the association with sexual abuse. METHODS: Information about the patients was obtained by retrospective case note review and some patients were contacted by telephone for further information. RESULTS: In 12 cases there was evidence of sexual abuse. The abused group were slightly older than t...

Warrington, S. A.; San Lazaro, C.

1996-01-01

415

Unintended Pregnancy in Opioid-abusing Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its three subtypes (mistimed, unwanted, ambivalent) among opioid-abusing women. In the general population, 31–47% of pregnancies are unintended; data on unintended pregnancy in opioid- and other drug-abusing women are lacking. Pregnant opioid-abusing women (N=946) screened for possible enrollment in a multi-site randomized controlled trial comparing opioid maintenance medications completed a standardized...

Heil, Sarah H.; Jones, Hendree E.; Arria, Amelia; Kaltenbach, Karol; Coyle, Mara; Fischer, Gabriele; Stine, Susan; Selby, Peter; Martin, Peter R.

2011-01-01

416

National profiling of elder abuse referrals.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

Clancy, Marguerite

2011-05-01

417

ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE AMONG INTERNEES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was designed to assess the various factors pertaining to alcohol and drug abuse among internees with the help of the youth survey questionnaire developed by the WHO. 22.67% of the males indulged in alcohol abuse atleast once a month. Correspondingly cannabis was abused by 9.33% of the boys which is the most commonly abased drug of addiction, followed by sedatives and tranquilizers.

Ponnudurai, R.; Somasundaram, O.; Indira, T. P.; Gunasekar, P.

1984-01-01

418

Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

2012-04-11

419

The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

2008-01-01

420