WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Reducing adolescents' marihuana abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marihuana abuse is defined, and a model for a drug education program for abusers is presented. The program's rationale is that abusers should be taught responsible use as an approximation for an ultimate goal of abstinence. The program model is based on an interpersonal-skills training approach to clinical problems and has three components: facts about marihuana, problem-solving abilities, and interpersonal skills to enact decisions. The program teaches participants to become aware of and enact choices that have the greatest likelihood of avoiding marihuana abuse.

Smith TE

1983-01-01

2

[Pregabalin--a drug with abuse potential?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of pregabalin misuse associated with delusional ideas in a drug addict is reported. Pregabalin has been approved as an adjunct therapy for epilepsy, but also for neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorders and is widely used today. It has also been used in clinical trials to study its potential utility as a treatment for tobacco, alcohol and benzodiazepine addiction. Web sites, case reports and an epidemiological study (Swedish National Register of Adverse Drug Reactions) suggest that the drug may be abused, especially by substance-dependent individuals. Pregabalin was analyzed by LC/MS/MS following precipitation of serum proteins. Vigabatrin was used as internal standard. The concentration of 25 pg pregabalin/mL serum determined in the present case is the second highest value published so far after misuse of the substance. Due to paradoxical agitation, anxiety attacks and abnormal thinking, the man was exculpated. Further studies are required to assess the actual abuse potential of pregabalin.

Skopp G; Zimmer G

2012-01-01

3

Convergent and discriminant validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A number of hypotheses were generated predicting the relationship between the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory and factors on the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire. As expected, positive relationships were found between abuse and apprehension, tension, and anxiety, while a negative relationship was observed between abuse and stability. The 16PF factors of apprehension, tension, anxiety and stability, which had the strongest relationship with abuse, are factors descriptive of neuroticism. A regression and discriminant analysis, however, indicated these factors alone were not sufficient to accurately describe and predict abuse.

Robertson KR; Milner JS

1985-02-01

4

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... that the abuse is not your fault . Sometimes abusers manipulate those they're abusing by telling them ... is being abused, no matter how much the abuser tries to blame others. Abusers may manipulate somebody ...

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Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rat...

Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.

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Methods of Diminishing Co-Abuse Potential  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of diminishing or eliminating the co-abuse of a methylphenidate drug comprising identifying a patient or patient group suspected or likely to abuse said methylphenidate drug in combination with a substance known or suspected to give rise to l-ethylphenidate or psychotropic effect when ingested in the combination and making available to said patent or patient group said methylphenidate drug substantially free of l-threo methylphenidate.

KHETANI VIKRAM; FALECK HERBERT

7

METHODS OF DIMINISHING CO-ABUSE POTENTIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of diminishing or eliminating the co-abuse of a methylphenidate drug comprising identifying a patient or patient group suspected or likely to abuse said methylphenidate drug in combination with a substance known or suspected to give rise to l-ethylphenidate or psychotropic effect when ingested in the combination and making available to said patent or patient group said methylphenidate drug substantially free of l-threo methylphenidate.

KHETANI Vikram; FALECK Herbert

8

METHODS OF DIMINISHING CO-ABUSE POTENTIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of diminishing or eliminating the co-abuse of a methylphenidate drug comprising identifying a patient or patient group suspected or likely to abuse said methylphenidate drug in combination with a substance known or suspected to give rise to l- ethylphenidate or psychotropic effect when ingested in the combination and making available to said patent or patient group said methylphenidate drug substantially free of l-threo methylphenidate. TM KIPO & WIPO 2007

KHETANI VIKRAM; FALECK HERBERT

9

METHODS OF DIMINISHING CO-ABUSE POTENTIAL.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of diminishing or eliminating the co-abuse of a methylphenidate drug comprising identifying a patient or patient group suspected or likely to abuse said methylphenidate drug in combination with a substance known or suspected to give rise to l-ethylphenidate or psychotropic effect when ingested in the combination and making available to said patent or patient group said methylphenidate drug substantially free of l-threo methylphenidate.

KHETANI VIKRAM; FALECK HERBERT

10

Preliminary validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show that, with the 200.5 cutoff point, which is the average score of the whole Turkish sample, Abuse Scale correctly classified 83% of the participants in the abuse group and 78.8% of the participants in the control group, which gives 21.2% false-positive result. MMPI-PD to all group and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis is found to be significant for both groups. These results show us high reliability and validity of the abuse scale for Turkey.

Kutsal E; Pasli F; Isikli S; Sahin F; Yilmaz G; Beyazova U

2011-09-01

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Abuse Potential of Soma®: the GABAA Receptor as a Target  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soma® (carisoprodol) is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABAAR function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated.

Lorie A. Gonzalez; Michael B. Gatch; Michael J. Forster; Glenn H. Dillon

2009-01-01

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Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior, placing their infants at increased risk for poor parenting, abuse and neglect. Early home-based intervention in high-risk families may be beneficial to infant development.

Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

2011-01-01

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Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population.

Day DM; Hart TA; Wanklyn SG; McCay E; Macpherson A; Burnier N

2013-02-01

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Assessment of abuse potential of benzodiazepines from a prescription database using 'doctor shopping' as an indicator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are widely used for different purposes because of their pharmacological properties, but their abuse potential may represent a limitation to their use. Data suggest that this abuse potential may vary between products and available dosages. Doctor shopping (the simultaneous use of several physicians by a patient) is one of the most important ways in which prescription drugs, in particular benzodiazepines, are diverted. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential for abuse of several benzodiazepines using doctor shopping in a French administrative area as a proxy for abuse. METHODS: All prescriptions reimbursed during the year 2003 in Haute-Garonne, France (one million inhabitants) for benzodiazepines that were available in ambulatory care through community pharmacies as solid oral forms were extracted from a reimbursement database. The benzodiazepines were alprazolam (0.25 mg, 0.50 mg), bromazepam 6 mg, clonazepam 2 mg, clorazepate (5 mg, 10 mg, 50 mg), diazepam (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg), flunitrazepam 1 mg, lorazepam (1 mg, 2.5 mg) and tetrazepam 50 mg. For each patient, the quantities prescribed, dispensed and obtained by doctor shopping (i.e. overlap between prescriptions from different prescribers) were computed. Benzodiazepines were compared using their 'doctor shopping indicator' (DSI, the percentage of each drug obtained through doctor shopping among the total reimbursed quantity). RESULTS: About 128 000 patients received at least one benzodiazepine during the year. Four groups of benzodiazepines were identified according to their abuse potential: very high abuse potential (flunitrazepam, DSI = 42.8%); high abuse potential (diazepam 10 mg, DSI = 3.2%; clorazepate 50 mg, DSI = 2.7%); intermediate abuse potential (alprazolam 0.50 mg, bromazepam, clonazepam, DSI ranging from 1.8% to 1.9%); and low abuse potential (other benzodiazepines and dosages, DSI ranging from 0.3% to 1.1%). CONCLUSION: The DSI can be used to assess the relative abuse liability of benzodiazepines and to detect signals of new patterns of abuse in settings where centralized records of prescription or deliveries are available for the great majority of patients.

Pradel V; Delga C; Rouby F; Micallef J; Lapeyre-Mestre M

2010-07-01

15

Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse.

Schaefer GA; Mundt IA; Feelgood S; Hupp E; Neutze J; Ahlers CJ; Goecker D; Beier KM

2010-05-01

16

Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

2010-05-13

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Potencial de abuso de drogas dopaminérgicas Abuse potential of dopaminergic drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores fazem uma revisão do potencial de abuso de substâncias que atuam no sistema dopaminérgico, analisando possíveis etiologias e alertando para a necessidade da prescrição cautelosa dessas substâncias, sobretudo em pacientes com antecedente de abuso de outras substâncias psicoativas.The abuse potential of substances acting in the dopaminergic system was analyzed and some possible etiologies leading to this kind of abuse were considered. There is a need of caution when prescribing these substances, especially to patients who have a history of psychoactive substance abuse.

Guilherme R de Azevedo Focchi; Sandra Scivoletto; Marco Antônio Marcolin

2000-01-01

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Preclinical evaluation of the abuse potential of Pitolisant, a histamine H? receptor inverse agonist/antagonist compared with Modafinil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pitolisant, a histamine H? receptor inverse agonist/antagonist is currently under Phase III clinical trials for treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness namely in narcoleptic patients. Its drug abuse potential was investigated using in vivo models in rodents and monkeys and compared with those of Modafinil, a psychostimulant currently used in the same indications. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of Pitolisant on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion, locomotor sensitization were monitored. It was also tested in three standard drug abuse tests i.e. conditioned place preference in rats, self-administration in monkeys and cocaine discrimination in mice as well as in a physical dependence model. KEY RESULTS: Pitolisant did not elicit any significant changes in dopaminergic indices in rat nucleus accumbens whereas Modafinil increased dopamine release. In rodents, Pitolisant was without any effect on locomotion and reduced the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. In addition, no locomotor sensitization and no conditioned hyperlocomotion were evidenced with this compound in rats whereas significant effects were elicited by Modafinil. Finally, Pitolisant was devoid of any significant effects in the three standard drug abuse tests (including self-administration in monkeys) and in the physical dependence model. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: No potential drug abuse liability for Pitolisant was evidenced in various in vivo rodent and primate models, whereas the same does not seem so clear in the case of Modafinil.

Uguen M; Perrin D; Belliard S; Ligneau X; Beardsley PM; Lecomte JM; Schwartz JC

2013-06-01

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Potential for pregabalin abuse or diversion after past drug-seeking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregabalin, primarily used to manage neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, is categorized as a Schedule V drug (ie, lowest potential for abuse) in the US Drug Enforcement Administration's Controlled Substances Act. Because pregabalin is not recognized as a drug with high-abuse potential, data on pregabalin abuse and addiction are lacking. The authors report a case of a 35-year-old woman with a history of opioid-seeking behavior who was prescribed pregabalin for pain control. The patient requested an increase in her medication 2 months after beginning treatment and, after her physician denied her request, subsequently obtained pregabalin from other sources. Over a 28-day period, the patient received a total of 88,500 mg of pregabalin. After learning of the other prescriptions, the patient's physician became suspicious of pregabalin abuse or diversion. In accordance with state medical board guidelines, the patient was discharged from the practice and referred to a local detoxification center. PMID:21068226

Filipetto, Frank A; Zipp, Christopher P; Coren, Joshua S

2010-10-01

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Measures to prevent and reduce drug abuse among young people in Burma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Khant U

1985-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Abuse potential of non-nicotine tobacco smoke components: acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This review identified published animal studies evaluating the possible abuse potential of acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine based on five commonly used paradigms. These include their effects on midbrain dopamine (DA) levels, drug discrimination and substitution for known drugs of abuse, place conditioning, self-administration behavior, and somatic withdrawal symptoms. RESULTS: Acetaldehyde had mixed effects on midbrain DA levels and drug discrimination; however, it consistently produced a conditioned place preference and supported self-administration. The single available study on withdrawal found that cessation of acetaldehyde administration resulted in a somatic withdrawal syndrome. Nornicotine increased DA in the midbrain, especially in the nucleus accumbens. Although there are no data on place conditioning, it substituted for nicotine in drug discrimination testing, partially substituted for cocaine and amphetamine, and, though only a single study, supported self-administration. Anabasine increased midbrain DA levels and that it partially substituted for nicotine in drug discrimination testing. Cotinine increased midbrain DA levels and substituted for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: The existing literature suggests that acetaldehyde and nornicotine likely possess abuse potential, with anabasine having possible abuse potential. Although some cotinine data were available, it was insufficient to draw conclusions about possible abuse potential. Further research is needed to determine the role of minor alkaloids on tobacco dependence.

Hoffman AC; Evans SE

2013-03-01

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Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A) construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. METHODS/DESIGN: A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A) interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. DISCUSSION: This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A) care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i) determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii) develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii) identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv) design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v) document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale.

Warren C; Njuki R; Abuya T; Ndwiga C; Maingi G; Serwanga J; Mbehero F; Muteti L; Njeru A; Karanja J; Olenja J; Gitonga L; Rakuom C; Bellows B

2013-01-01

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Potential for tramadol abuse by patients visiting pharmacies in northern iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been almost three decades since tramadol was introduced to the market as a centrally acting analgesic. It is claimed to have weak opioid properties and a low dependence potential in opioid-addicted patients. This study was designed to investigate the suspicion of potential tramadol abuse among patients visiting pharmacies in Babol, one of the major cities in northern Iran. METHODS: Under supervision by pharmacists, a questionnaire designed to monitor drug abuse was filled out for every patient who requested tramadol from Babol's pharmacies during 6 months (Aug. 2007 till Feb. 2008). The data obtained were used to derive descriptive statistics and to make a comparison with results from other countries. RESULTS: Of 162 patients (or someone on their behalf) who had sought tramadol from a pharmacy, 92 (56%) patients did not have a prescription. At least 103 (64%) patients reported criteria for addiction (ie, for feeling of psychological well being, unable to cease taking the drug, more than two weeks of tramadol use). In total, 145 (89%) patients were aged younger than 30 years, and 90 (55%) patients were aged younger than 18 years. More than 63% of patients reported a history of addiction or drug abuse. Most of the patients with no prescription (88%) had abuse/addiction criteria. CONCLUSION: Patients who request tramadol from pharmacies in Babol seem to have a high potential for drug abuse, in particular those who do not have prescriptions. The high prevalence of people under 18 years of age seeking tramadol could be a worldwide trend. We recommend further governmental support for pharmacies to deal with tramadol abusers in northern Iran.

Zabihi E; Hoseinzaadeh A; Emami M; Mardani M; Mahmoud B; Akbar MA

2011-01-01

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Elder abuse through a prism of perceptions : perspectives of potential witnesses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overall aim of this thesis was to deepen understanding of elder abuse (EA) by exploring and comparing perceptions held by experts, older persons, representatives of potential support organizations, and family members. Experts’ perspectives (I) were examined through risk indicators and screening ...

Erlingsson, Christen

25

Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative attractiveness of 14 opioid analgesic products. Methods First, the concept of attractiveness was empirically defined with a group of prescription opioid abusers and experts in opioid abuse using a process called Concept Mapping. Abuse liability consisted of two components: factors intrinsic to the drug formulation (e.g., speed of onset, duration) and factors extrinsic to drug formulation (e.g., availability, availability of alternatives, cost). A 17-item Opioid Attractiveness Scale (OAS) was constructed, focusing on factors intrinsic to the drug product. Results A total of 144 individuals participated in tests of validity and reliability. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's ? = 0.85–0.94). Drug rankings based on OAS scores achieved good inter-rater agreement (Kendall's W 0.37, p Conclusion An initial examination of the psychometric properties of the OAS suggests that it is a valid and reliable scale. The OAS may be useful in providing important guidance on product features that are attractive to potential abusers.

Butler Stephen F; Benoit Christine; Budman Simon H; Fernandez Kathrine C; McCormick Cynthia; Venuti Synne; Katz Nathaniel

2006-01-01

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Reducing violence using community-based advocacy for women with abusive partners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intensive community-based advocacy intervention was designed and evaluated by randomly assigning 278 battered women to an experimental or control condition. Participants were interviewed 6 times over a period of 2 years. Retention rate averaged 95% over the 2 years. The 10-week postshelter intervention involved providing trained advocates to work 1-on-1 with women, helping generate and access the community resources they needed to reduce their risk of future violence from their abusive partners. Women who worked with advocates experienced less violence over time, reported higher quality of life and social support, and had less difficulty obtaining community resources. More than twice as many women receiving advocacy services experienced no violence across the 2 years postintervention compared with women who did not receive such services.

Sullivan CM; Bybee DI

1999-02-01

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Examining the effectiveness of home-based parent aide services to reduce risk for physical child abuse and neglect: six-month findings from a randomized clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study set out to carry out a feasible, real-world, randomized clinical trial to examine the benefits of home-based paraprofessional parent aide services in reducing physical abuse and neglect risk in high-risk parents. METHODS: Families were randomly assigned to receive either parent aide plus case management services (n = 73) or case management services only (n = 65), collecting in-home data on physical child abuse and neglect and proximal risk and protective factors, just prior to service initiation, and again after six months of services. RESULTS: Mothers receiving parent aide and case management services reported significant improvements from baseline to six-month follow-up in self-reported indicators of physical child abuse risk, as well as improvements on parental stress, mastery, depression, and anxiety, whereas mothers receiving only case management services did not. The slopes of such observed changes across groups, however, were not found to be statistically significantly different. No discernable improvements were found with regard to indicators of risk for child neglect. CONCLUSIONS: As the first randomized clinical trial examining the effectiveness of parent aide services, this study provides the first controlled evidence examining the potential benefits of this service modality. This study suggests promising trends regarding the benefit of parent aide services with respect to physical child abuse risk reduction and related predictors, but evidence does not appear to suggest that such services, as they are presently delivered, reduce child neglect. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: These findings support the continued use of parent aide services in cases of physical child abuse and also suggest careful consideration of the ways such services may be better configured to extend their impact, particularly with respect to child neglect risk.

Guterman NB; Tabone JK; Bryan GM; Taylor CA; Napoleon-Hanger C; Banman A

2013-08-01

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Marital conflict strategies predict child abuse potential in Dutch families from low socioeconomic backgrounds Partnerschaftliche Konfliktlösungsmuster bestimmen das Potential zur körperlichen Kindesmisshandlung in niederländischen Familien aus unteren Schichten  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Der Beitrag untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen Partnerschaftskonflikten und dem Potential zur physischen Misshandlung von Eltern aus N=86 Unterschichtfamilien in den Niederlanden. 17% der Eltern erreichten eine Punktzahl auf Milner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory, die dessen obere 5% Grenze übe...

Keuning, Martine; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Stams, Geert Jan; Groenewegen, Ingrid; Schuengel, Carlo

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A translational pharmacology approach to understanding the predictive value of abuse potential assessments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Within the drug development industry the assessment of abuse potential for novel molecules involves the generation and review of data from multiple sources, ranging from in-vitro binding and functional assays through to in-vivo nonclinical models in mammals, as well as collection of information from studies in humans. This breadth of data aligns with current expectations from regulatory agencies in both the USA and Europe. To date, there have been a limited number of reviews on the predictive value of individual models within this sequence, but there has been no systematic review on how each of these models contributes to our overall understanding of abuse potential risk. To address this, we analyzed data from 100 small molecules to compare the predictive validity for drug scheduling status of a number of models that typically contribute to the abuse potential assessment package. These models range from the assessment of in-vitro binding and functional profiles at receptors or transporters typically associated with abuse through in-vivo models including locomotor activity, drug discrimination, and self-administration in rodents. Data from subjective report assessments in humans following acute dosing of compounds were also included. The predictive value of each model was then evaluated relative to the scheduling status of each drug in the USA. In recognition of the fact that drug scheduling can be influenced by factors other than the pharmacology of the drug, we also evaluated the predictive value of each assay for the outcome of the human subjective effects assessment. This approach provides an objective and statistical assessment of the predictive value of many of the models typically applied within the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate abuse potential risk. In addition, the impact of combining information from multiple models was examined. This analysis adds to our understanding of the predictive value of each model, allows us to critically evaluate the benefits and limitations of each model, and provides a method for identifying opportunities for improving our assessment and prediction of abuse liability risk in the future.

Horton DB; Potter DM; Mead AN

2013-09-01

30

Getting a grip on drinking behavior: training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)--the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study investigated whether training WM restores control over drinking behavior. Forty-eight problem drinkers performed WM training tasks or control tasks during 25 sessions over at least 25 days. Before and after training, we measured WM and drinking behavior. Training WM improved WM and reduced alcohol intake for more than 1 month after the training. Further, the indirect effect of training on alcohol use through improved WM was moderated by participants' levels of automatic impulses: Increased WM reduced alcohol consumption in participants with relatively strong automatic preferences for alcohol. These findings are consistent with the theoretical framework and demonstrate that training WM may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol use by increasing control over automatic impulses to drink alcohol.

Houben K; Wiers RW; Jansen A

2011-07-01

31

Getting a grip on drinking behavior: training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)--the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study investigated whether training WM restores control over drinking behavior. Forty-eight problem drinkers performed WM training tasks or control tasks during 25 sessions over at least 25 days. Before and after training, we measured WM and drinking behavior. Training WM improved WM and reduced alcohol intake for more than 1 month after the training. Further, the indirect effect of training on alcohol use through improved WM was moderated by participants' levels of automatic impulses: Increased WM reduced alcohol consumption in participants with relatively strong automatic preferences for alcohol. These findings are consistent with the theoretical framework and demonstrate that training WM may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol use by increasing control over automatic impulses to drink alcohol. PMID:21685380

Houben, Katrijn; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita

2011-06-17

32

Revisiting the issue of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory's internal consistency in adolescent samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is generally considered to be a reliable screening tool for assessing child physical abuse risk, there is concern that it may lack internal consistency when completed by adolescents (Blinn-Pike and Mingus, J Adolesc 2000;23:107-11). This concern has been reflected in subsequent reviews summarizing the CAP's psychometric properties (Walker and Davies, J Fam Violence 2010;25:215-27), and calls for data on the reliability of the CAP Inventory as completed by adolescents have been issued (Blinn-Pike, J Adolesc Health 2002;30:148). The purpose of this study was to provide additional data examining the internal consistency of the CAP Inventory as completed by adolescents in a variety of contexts. METHOD: This study included five samples comprising 3,281 adolescent and adult respondents who completed the CAP Inventory. Two samples included at-risk mothers who were enrolled in home-visiting services and were participating in program evaluations. Three samples included college students the majority of whom were nonparents participating in the research to explore the risk of physical abuse among children. RESULTS: The analyses showed high internal consistency estimates for the CAP Inventory abuse scale as completed by adolescent mothers (Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient range = .90-.96). Moreover, regardless of the sampling technique, parental status, or demographic characteristics, our analyses revealed overall good to excellent internal consistency estimates for the CAP Inventory abuse scale as completed by adolescent respondents. Indeed, the internal consistency estimates obtained from adolescent respondents were similar to the estimates obtained for adult respondents in each of these same samples. CONCLUSION: Our results provide strong support for a claim of good to excellent internal consistency of the CAP Inventory with adolescent samples.

Wells BM; Crouch JL; Schubert R; Irwin LM; Risser HJ; Skowronski JJ

2011-04-01

33

Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on ?1, ?2 ?1? and a2? glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation.

Kirson D; Cornelison GL; Philpo AE; Todorovic J; Mihic SJ

2013-08-01

34

Sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child sexual abuse is a common pediatric problem that concerns all pediatric health care providers. Management of child sexual abuse is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. Specialized health providers can provide consultation, but this availability does not minimize the role of the referring physician who often has ongoing contact with the family. Physicians are mandated to report cases of suspected or confirmed sexual abuse. In the majority of cases, a child’s statement about sexual abuse is the strongest evidence that abuse has occurred. Physical examination is normal in the majority of sexual abuse victims. Accurate, evidence-based interpretation of physical and laboratory findings is essential. Normal examinations, normal variants, and findings indicative of sexual contact must be differentiated. Forensic evidence collection and prophylactic treatments may be indicated when patients present within 72 hours of an abusive episode, and patients should be triaged accordingly. Potentially negative psychosocial outcomes should be addressed for patients and their families on initial evaluation and follow-up.

Fortin K; Jenny C

2012-01-01

35

Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP). “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

Ramona Stone; Sarah Hendrix

2010-01-01

36

Abuse potential and psychoactive effects of ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray (Sativex), a new cannabinoid medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is a growing consensus that cannabis dependence is a substantial and underappreciated problem. The key component responsible for the euphoric effects of cannabis and its dependence potential is ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC-containing cannabinoid medicines theoretically pose a risk of abuse and dependence. AREAS COVERED: In order to evaluate the potential of Sativex to cause cannabis-like psychoactivity, abuse or dependence relevant data from all published papers have been reviewed along with the integrated safety analysis for Sativex use in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on file at GW Pharmaceuticals. EXPERT OPINION: In clinical trials, intoxication scores have been low and euphoria reported by only 2.2% of patients. Tolerance has not occurred, abrupt withdrawal has not resulted in a formal withdrawal syndrome, and no cases of abuse or diversion have been reported to date. A formal abuse liability study of Sativex in experienced cannabis smokers showed some abuse potential in comparison with placebo at higher doses, but scores were consistently lower than equivalent doses of THC. Evidence to date suggests that abuse or dependence on Sativex is likely to occur in only a very small proportion of recipients.

Robson P

2011-09-01

37

Potential for reducing oil shale mining costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cliffs Engineering, located in Rifle, Colorado, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. Cliffs has had a pioneering involvement in oil shale going back to 1964, at which time, in conjunction with Standard Oil Company of Ohio and TOSCO, Cliffs became a participant in Colony. This paper deals with ideas to reduce the capital and operating costs for mining of shale. This, of course, cannot be contemplated in isolation from capital and operating costs of the retorting section and other areas of the operation. Hence, these are also considered. However, it is the enormous capital required for the enormous production which challenges the industry to ponder and scheme for ideas to reduce that capital, and which recently caused one project of multi-billion dollar scope to be shelved. Current state of the art foresees no tremendous reductions-merely a number of alternatives which can whittle away at the not insignificant mining segment.

De Gabriele, R.M.

1982-01-01

38

Topical review on the abuse and misuse potential of tramadol and tilidine in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Tramadol and tilidine (in combination with naloxone) are used as weak opioid analgesics in Germany. Tramadol is not scheduled in the German Narcotic Drugs Act. Tilidine is scheduled, whereas Tilidine in fixed combinations with naloxone is exempt from some of the provisions of the Narcotic Drugs Act. Recent reports on misuse of both substances led to an evaluation of their potential for misuse, abuse, and dependency by the expert advisory committee established by the German Federal Government, resident at the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. METHODS: A subcommittee formulated key questions and identified available data sources for each of these questions. Additional information was solicited where necessary, including a survey among a panel of pharmacists, a survey in an addiction clinic, analysis of prescription patterns, and information from the boards of pharmacists of the federal states and the Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation. RESULTS: Analgesic efficiency in the treatment of acute and chronic pain has been proven for both tramadol and tilidine/naloxone. For tramadol, high evidence has been confirmed in systematic reviews, and tramadol is listed in national and international guidelines on acute and chronic pain management. Animal and human studies found a low potential for misuse, abuse, and dependency for both substances. Information from 2 tramadol safety databases allowed calculation of the incidence of abuse or dependency as 0.21 and 0.12 cases per million defined daily dosages (DDDs), with lower incidences in recent years. For tilidine/naloxone, the incidence was calculated as 0.43 cases per million DDDs for oral solution and 0.18 for slow-release tablets. In an online survey among German pharmacies as well as in the reports from state pharmacy boards, fraud attempts were repeated more frequently with tilidine/naloxone than with tramadol in the last 2 years. The Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigations reported prescription fraud only with tilidine/naloxone and predominantly in the region of Berlin. Dependency on tramadol or tilidine/naloxone is reported only rarely from addiction counseling centers. One third of the patients surveyed in an addiction clinic reported experiences with tramadol or tilidine/naloxone, but mostly with duration of less than 4 weeks and with a medical prescription based on a reasonable indication. Also, occasional illegal use of opioid analgesics as a substitute of heroin was reported. An evaluation of pooled data from statutory health insurance companies found 2.5% of persons receiving at least 1 prescription of tramadol or the combination of tilidine and naloxone in 2009 (1.6% with tramadol and 1.0% with tilidine/naloxone). High usage with more than 180 DDDs per year was found in 8.6% of patients treated with tramadol and 17.2% of patients with tilidine/naloxone. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the subcommittee of the expert advisory committee found a low potential for misuse, abuse, and dependency for tramadol, and a low prevalence in clinical practice. Considerable less information is available for the combination of tilidine and naloxone. However, the cumulation of evidence indicated a higher risk of misuse, abuse, and dependency for tilidine/naloxone solution, but not for slow-release tablets.

Radbruch L; Glaeske G; Grond S; Münchberg F; Scherbaum N; Storz E; Tholen K; Zagermann-Muncke P; Zieglgänsberger W; Hoffmann-Menzel H; Greve H; Cremer-Schaeffer P

2013-07-01

39

Reduced anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal volumes in child abuse-related complex PTSD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with smaller hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes. We investigated whether child abuse-related complex PTSD--a severe form of PTSD with affect dysregulation and high comorbidity--showed similar brain volume reductions. METHOD: We used voxel-based morphometry to measure gray matter concentrations in referred outpatients with child abuse-related complex PTSD (n = 31) compared to matched healthy nontraumatized controls (n = 28). Complex PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the Structured Clinical Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress. All respondents were scanned on a 1.5-T magnetic resonance system at the VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between September 2005 and February 2006. RESULTS: As was hypothesized, patients with child abuse-related complex PTSD showed reductions in gray matter concentration in right hippocampus (P(SVC corrected) = .04) and right dorsal ACC (P(SVC corrected) = .02) compared to controls. In addition, a reduction in gray matter concentration in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was found. Severity of child abuse and PTSD-hyperarousal correlated negatively with ACC volume. Impulsivity correlated negatively with hippocampus volume, and anger, with hippocampus and OFC volume. Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder--compared to comorbid cluster C personality disorder--accounted for more extensive reductions in the ACC and OFC volume. CONCLUSIONS: In complex PTSD, not only the hippocampus and the ACC but also the OFC seem to be affected, even in the absence of comorbid borderline personality disorder. These results suggest that neural correlates of complex PTSD are more severe than those of classic PTSD.

Thomaes K; Dorrepaal E; Draijer N; de Ruiter MB; van Balkom AJ; Smit JH; Veltman DJ

2010-12-01

40

Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... drugs. It is often mistakenly assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they ... impact on the reward circuit, which reduces the abuser’s ability to enjoy not only the drugs but ...

42

Substance abuse issues in oral and maxillofacial practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Substance abuse has far-reaching consequences for individuals, their families, and the community. Medications with abuse potential play an important role in the management of pain and are widely prescribed by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Reducing the likelihood of abuse and providing appropriate pain management for the known abuser are critical aspects of perioperative patient management. Health care providers are not immune to substance abuse and may, in fact, be at an elevated risk. Identification of impaired providers is essential to help them find the appropriate treatment and counseling and to prevent harm to their patients, family, friends, or associates.

DeFalco RJ; Erlichman M; Tickoo S; Passik SD

2010-11-01

43

Cigarette smoking as a target for potentiating outcomes for methamphetamine abuse treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cigarette smoking occurs frequently among individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. Preclinical and clinical evidence has suggested that the common co-abuse of MA and cigarettes represents a pharmacologically meaningful pattern. METHODS: The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion treatment for MA dependence (bupropion n = 36; placebo n = 37). A hierarchical logistic modelling approach assessed the efficacy of bupropion for reducing MA use separately among smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, relations between cigarettes smoked and MA use were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking status did not affect treatment responsiveness in either the bupropion condition or the placebo condition. In the placebo condition, increased cigarette use was associated with an increased probability of MA use during the same time period. This effect was not observed in the bupropion condition. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Initial smoking status did not impact treatment outcomes. Among smokers, results suggest that bupropion may dissociate cigarette and MA use. The effect was modest and a precise pharmacological mechanism remains elusive. Cholinergic systems may be relevant for MA use outcomes. Future studies should continue to assess the role of smoking in MA treatment outcomes.

Brensilver M; Heinzerling KG; Swanson AN; Telesca D; Furst BA; Shoptaw SJ

2013-01-01

44

Validation of a reduced Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de examinar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión en español del Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), se aplicó éste, junto a la Double Standard Scale, la Rape Supportive Attitude Scale y el Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R, a 813 mujeres peruanas distribuidas en tres muestras diferentes: población general (n = 300), mujeres que no habían denunciado abuso (n = 300) y mujeres que habían denunciado abuso (n = 213).Después de poner a prueba mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio siete estructuras factoriales distintas del ISA, este estudio instrumental propone una versión reducida de 19 ítems agrupados en dos subescalas (Abuso no físico y Abuso físico), que obtienen excelentes coeficientes de fiabilidad de consistencia interna (0,93 y 0,89, respectivamente). La puntuación de ambas subescalas correlaciona en sentido positivo con doble moral sexual, actitud favorable hacia la violación y las dimensiones psicopatológicas del SCL-90-R. Asimismo, las puntuaciones en el ISA ponen de manifeesto que las mujeres con menor nivel cultural y ocupaciones laborales menos cualificadas sufren más abuso dentro de la pareja. Se proponen puntos de corte en las puntuaciones para detectar tanto el abuso no físico, como el físico en el contexto de las relaciones de pareja.

Juan Carlos Sierra; Fredy S. Monge; Pablo Santos-Iglesias; María Paz Bermúdez; José María Salinas

2011-01-01

45

Cariprazine (RGH-188), a D?-preferring dopamine D?/D? receptor partial agonist antipsychotic candidate demonstrates anti-abuse potential in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Cariprazine (RGH-188) is a D?-preferring dopamine D?/D? receptor partial agonist antipsychotic candidate for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania. Substance abuse is a frequent comorbidity of both disorders and is associated with serious health issues. Based on preclinical efficacy, dopamine D? and D? receptor partial agonists and antagonists are assumed to have relapse-preventing potential in human cocaine addiction. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the anti-abuse potential of cariprazine in cocaine self-administration paradigms. Aripiprazole and bifeprunox were used as comparators because of their pharmacological similarity to cariprazine. METHODS: The effects of compounds on cocaine's rewarding effect were investigated in a continuous self-administration regimen. The relapse-preventing potential of drugs was studied in rats with a history of cocaine self-administration after a period of complete abstinence in a relapse to cocaine-seeking paradigm. RESULTS: Cariprazine, as well as aripiprazole and bifeprunox, were able to reduce the rewarding effect of cocaine (minimum effective doses were 0.17, 1, and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively) and attenuated relapse to cocaine seeking with half maximal effective dose [ED??] values of 0.2, 4.2, and 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results may predict a relapse-preventing action for cariprazine in humans in addition to its already established antipsychotic and antimanic efficacy.

Román V; Gyertyán I; Sághy K; Kiss B; Szombathelyi Z

2013-03-01

46

Pharmaceutical composition for eliminating or reducing potential iridic pigmentation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a pharmaceutical composition suitable for long-term treatment or prophylactic management of ocular hypertension and glaucoma in a human patient by long-term topical ocular administration, which comprises a prostaglandin related compound as an active ingredient. The composition can eliminate or reduce potential iridic pigmentation.

UENO RYUJI

47

Validade de Criterio do Inventario de Potencial para Abuso Infantil (CAP)/ Validez de Criterio del Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP)/ Criterion Validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese É grande o interesse pelo tema da violência contra a criança, porém são escassas suas formas de avaliação, dificultando o desenvolvimento de intervenções. O Inventário de Potencial de Abuso Infantil (CAP) é considerado eficaz na identificação precoce de pais considerados em risco de agredirem fisicamente seus filhos e uma boa ferramenta para avaliar intervenções na área dos maus-tratos contra (more) crianças e adolescentes. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a validade de critério do Inventário CAP, por meio da comparação de seus resultados entre cuidadores considerados de alto risco para abuso infantil e cuidadores de baixo risco para o abuso infantil. Dois grupos de pais foram participantes, sendo um grupo composto por 20 pais denunciados por agressões físicas e o outro grupo de 20 pais não agressores de igual nível socioeconômico e educacional. Os resultados indicaram que o inventário é capaz de avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos propostos, demonstrando ser um bom instrumento para o trabalho de serviços de proteção à criança epara a avaliação de intervenções e políticas públicas ou pesquisas. Abstract in spanish Existe gran interés en el tema de la violencia contra los niños, pero son raras las formas de evaluación, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de intervenciones.El Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP) se considera eficaz en la identificación temprana de padres considerados en riesgo de agredir físicamente a sus hijos y buena herramienta para evaluar las intervenciones en el área de abuso contra niños. Este estudio tuvo co (more) mo objetivo realizar la validez de criterio del Inventario CAP, por una comparación de sus resultados con padres de alto riesgo y padres sin riesgo para el abuso contra los niños. Participaron dos grupos: un de 20 padres que habían practicado el abuso físico y otro de 20 no agresores, del mismo nivel socioeconómico y educativo. Los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es capaz de evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos propuestos y ha demostrado ser una buena herramienta para el trabajo de los servicios de protección de la infancia, evaluación de las intervenciones y políticas públicas o de investigación. Abstract in english Even though there is great interest in the field of child abuse, there are few methods to assess it, which hinders the development of interventions. The Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is considered effective in the early identification of parents at risk of physically abusing their children, and a good tool to evaluate interventions in the field of child abuse. This study's objective was to perform the CAP Inventory's criterion validity by comparing the results obt (more) ained by caregivers at a high risk of abusing their children with those obtained by caregivers at a low risk for child abuse. Two groups of parents participated in the study: a group of 20 parents reported for physically abusing their children and a group of 20 non-offending parents with the same socio-economic and educational levels. The results indicated the instrument is able to discriminate between the two groups, showing it to be a good tool for use in child protection services, to assess interventions, public policies, and research.

Patrian, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Rios, Karyne de Souza Augusto; Williams, Lucia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

2013-04-01

48

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.Methods: Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h), peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h). Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry.Results: There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons), suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing) were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically significant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.Keywords: drug abuse, opioid, oxycodone, niacin

Webster LR; Rolleri RL; Pixton GC; Sommerville KW

2012-01-01

49

The therapeutic potential of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists as analgesics without abuse liability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans. PMID:23421672

Lin, Ann P; Ko, Mei-Chuan

2012-11-06

50

The therapeutic potential of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists as analgesics without abuse liability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans.

Lin AP; Ko MC

2013-02-01

51

The potential for using excise taxes to reduce smoking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examine the potential for reducing cigarette smoking through increases in cigarette excise taxes by estimating the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. Using information on individual smoking behavior from the 1976 Health Interview Survey, we estimate the adult price elasticity of demand for cigarettes to be -0.42. We find that price has its greatest effect on the smoking behavior of young males and that it operates primarily on the decision to smoke rather than via adjustments in the quantity of cigarettes smoked. An excise tax increase would discourage smoking by successive cohorts of young adults, and those reduced smoking levels would be reflected in aggregate smoking as these cohorts mature.

Lewitt EM; Coate D

1982-08-01

52

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs.

1992-01-01

53

Potential developments for saving energy and reducing pollutant emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is concerned with the potential for saving energy and reducing pollutant emissions. The starting point is the current state-of-the-art, which has been reached by continuous development and proven in practice. The aim is to identify the measures that are most likely to produce further progress. This is done by using a range of data from current practice to estimate the effectiveness of such measures.

Nebel, R. [Nikolaus Sorg, Lohr am Main (Germany)

2000-11-01

54

Efficacy of a woman-focused intervention to reduce HIV risk and increase self-sufficiency among African American crack abusers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study compares 3- and 6-month outcomes of a woman-focused HIV intervention for crack abusers, a revised National Institute on Drug Abuse standard intervention, and a control group. METHODS: Out-of-drug-treatment African American women (n = 620) who use crack participated in a randomized field experiment. Risk behavior, employment, and housing status were assessed with linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: All groups significantly reduced crack use and high-risk sex at each follow-up, but only woman-focused intervention participants consistently improved employment and housing status. Compared with control subjects at 6 months, woman-focused intervention participants were least likely to engage in unprotected sex; revised standard intervention women reported greatest reductions in crack use. CONCLUSIONS: A woman-focused intervention can successfully reduce risk and facilitate employment and housing and may effectively reduce the frequency of unprotected sex in the longer term.

Wechsberg WM; Lam WK; Zule WA; Bobashev G

2004-07-01

55

The potential for using excise taxes to reduce smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the potential for reducing cigarette smoking through increases in cigarette excise taxes by estimating the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. Using information on individual smoking behavior from the 1976 Health Interview Survey, we estimate the adult price elasticity of demand for cigarettes to be -0.42. We find that price has its greatest effect on the smoking behavior of young males and that it operates primarily on the decision to smoke rather than via adjustments in the quantity of cigarettes smoked. An excise tax increase would discourage smoking by successive cohorts of young adults, and those reduced smoking levels would be reflected in aggregate smoking as these cohorts mature. PMID:10263952

Lewitt, E M; Coate, D

1982-08-01

56

Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Daniel Rubino Pain Center of Devon, Devon, PA, USA Context: With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (MS-sNT) (EMBEDA®, King Pharmaceuticals® Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, in March 2011), a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations: Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients' treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results: The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion: The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable optimization of pain-related outcomes, resulting in improved quality of life for patients and fostering patient acceptance of formulations designed to help address opioid abuse/misuse issues in the community at large. Keywords: morphine abuse, universal precautions, drug abuse

Rubino D

2011-01-01

57

Trimethylangelicin reduces IL-8 transcription and potentiates CFTR function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic inflammatory response in the airway tract of patients affected by cystic fibrosis is characterized by an excessive recruitment of neutrophils to the bronchial lumina, driven by the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. We previously found that 5-methoxypsoralen reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription in bronchial epithelial cell lines, with an IC(50) of 10 ?M (Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bezzerri V, Bianchi N, Mazzon M, Mancini I, Giri MG, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G. Int Immunopharmacol 9: 1411-1422, 2009). Here, we extended the investigation to analogs of 5-methoxypsoralen, and we found that the most potent effect is obtained with 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), which inhibits P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription at nanomolar concentration in IB3-1, CuFi-1, CFBE41o-, and Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell lines. Analysis of phosphoproteins involved in proinflammatory transmembrane signaling evidenced that TMA reduces the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase-1 and AKT2/3, which we found indeed involved in P. aeruginosa-dependent activation of IL-8 gene transcription by testing the effect of pharmacological inhibitors. In addition, we found a docking site of TMA into NF-?B by in silico analysis, whereas inhibition of the NF-?B/DNA interactions in vitro by EMSA was observed at high concentrations (10 mM TMA). To further understand whether NF-?B pathway should be considered a target of TMA, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed, and we observed that TMA (100 nM) preincubated in whole living cells reduced the interaction of NF-?B with the promoter of IL-8 gene. These results suggest that TMA could inhibit IL-8 gene transcription mainly by intervening on driving the recruitment of activated transcription factors on IL-8 gene promoter, as demonstrated here for NF-?B. Although the complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TMA deserves further investigation, an activity of TMA on phosphorylating pathways was already demonstrated by our study. Finally, since psoralens have been shown to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated chloride transport, TMA was tested and found to potentiate CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. In conclusion, TMA is a dual-acting compound reducing excessive IL-8 expression and potentiating CFTR function.

Tamanini A; Borgatti M; Finotti A; Piccagli L; Bezzerri V; Favia M; Guerra L; Lampronti I; Bianchi N; Dall'Acqua F; Vedaldi D; Salvador A; Fabbri E; Mancini I; Nicolis E; Casavola V; Cabrini G; Gambari R

2011-03-01

58

Improving positive parenting skills and reducing harsh and abusive parenting in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Family and youth violence are increasingly recognized as key public health issues in developing countries. Parenting interventions form an important evidence-based strategy for preventing violence, both against and by children, yet most rigorous trials of parenting interventions have been conducted in high-income countries, with far fewer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review, conducted in line with Cochrane Handbook guidelines, investigated the effectiveness of parenting interventions for reducing harsh/abusive parenting, increasing positive parenting practices, and improving parent-child relationships in LMICs. Attitudes and knowledge were examined as secondary outcomes. A range of databases were systematically searched, and randomized trials included. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of included studies were described according to type of delivery mode and outcome. Twelve studies with 1580 parents in nine countries reported results favoring intervention on a range of parenting measures. The validity of results for most studies is unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. However, findings from the two largest, highest-quality trials suggest parenting interventions may be feasible and effective in improving parent-child interaction and parental knowledge in relation to child development in LMICs, and therefore may be instrumental in addressing prevention of child maltreatment in these settings. Given the well-established evidence base for parenting interventions in high-income countries, and increasingly good evidence for their applicability across cultures and countries, there is now an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies, focusing on youth outcomes as well as parenting, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.

Knerr W; Gardner F; Cluver L

2013-08-01

59

Reduced genual corpus callosal white matter integrity in pathological gambling and its relationship to alcohol abuse or dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated functional prefrontal cortical (PFC) abnormalities in pathological gambling (PG) and other psychiatric disorders characterized by impaired impulse control; e.g., cocaine dependence and bipolar disorder. These abnormalities are accompanied by impairments in white matter microstructures in the anterior (genual) corpus callosum (CC) in cocaine dependence and bipolar disorder. Prior studies have not examined white matter integrity in PG. We predicted impairments in genual CC white matter in PG. METHODS: Nineteen participants with PG and 19 matched control participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter integrity in the CC, as assessed using fractional anisotropy (FA). RESULTS: In PG subjects as compared to control subjects, reduced FA values in the left and right genu of the CC were observed. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that PG status - in addition to age and past alcohol abuse/dependence (AA/AD) - was a significant predictor of genual FA values. Among PG participants, left and right genu FA values were negatively correlated with scores on the Behavioral Activation System Fun-Seeking (BAS-FS) subscale. Limitations. Limitations include a reliance on self-report measures of impulsivity and related constructs and a relatively small sample of PG subjects with past AA/AD. CONCLUSION: Findings of decreased FA values in the genu of the CC in PG subjects suggest that, like with other disorders of behavioral dyscontrol, white matter microstructural abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of PG. These differences appear particularly relevant to individuals with remitted AA/AD, highlighting the importance of considering co-occurring substance use disorders when investigating PG.

Yip SW; Lacadie C; Xu J; Worhunsky PD; Fulbright RK; Constable RT; Potenza MN

2013-03-01

60

Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. RESULTS: Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. CONCLUSION: Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations.

Hill SC; Dwyer AJ; Kaler SG

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product m...

Butler Stephen F; Benoit Christine; Budman Simon H; Fernandez Kathrine C; McCormick Cynthia; Venuti Synne; Katz Nathaniel

62

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based". There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) to M(5)). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knock-out mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M(1)-M(5) receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS.

Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane

2011-01-01

63

Reduction of sperm whale ferrylmyoglobin by endogenous reducing agents: potential reducible loci of ferrylmyoglobin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reactivity of the endogenous antioxidants ascorbate, ergothioneine, and urate toward the high oxidation state of sperm whale myoglobin, ferrylmyoglobin-formed upon oxidation of metmyoglobin by H2O2--was evaluated by optical spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. Depending on whether these antioxidants were present in the reaction mixture before or after the addition of H2O2 to a metmyoglobin suspension, two different effects were observed: (a) In the former instances, ascorbate, ergothioneine, and urate reduced efficiently the oxoferryl moiety in ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin and prevented dimer formation, a process which requires intermolecular cross-link involving specific tyrosyl residues. In addition, all the reducing compounds inhibited--albeit with different efficiencies--dityorosine-dependent fluorescence build up produced via dimerization of photogenerated tyrosyl radicals. (b) In the latter instances, the antioxidants reduced the preformed sperm whale ferrylmyoglobin to a modified metmyoglobin, the spectral profile of which was characterized by a blue shift of the typical 633 nm absorbance of native metmyoglobin. In addition, under these experimental conditions, the antioxidants did not affect dimer formation, thus indicating the irreversible character of the process. The dimeric form of sperm whale myoglobin--separated from the monomeric form by gel electrophoresis of a solution in which ergothioneine was added to preformed ferrylmyoglobin--revealed optical spectral properties in the visible region identical to that of the modified myoglobin. This suggests that the dimeric form of the hemoprotein is redox active, inasmuch as the oxoferryl complex can be reduced to its ferric form. These results are discussed in terms of the potential reactivity of these endogenous antioxidants toward the reducible loci of ferrylmyoglobin, the oxoferryl moiety, and the apoprotein radical.

Arduini A; Mancinelli G; Radatti GL; Damonti W; Hochstein P; Cadenas E

1992-10-01

64

Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

65

Marijuana Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Plan Print Home » Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana Abuse Marijuana Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Explores the latest research on marijuana, including the scope of marijuana use in the ...

66

Comprehensive drug screening in blood for detecting abused drugs or drugs potentially hazardous for traffic safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive drug screening procedure for detecting drugs in the blood samples of car drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, is presented. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and benzodiazepines were screened by an immunological EMIT ETS system after acetone precipitation. Gas chromatographic methods were used to screen and quantitate basic, neutral and acidic drugs. The free amino groups of basic drugs were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysis was performed by a dual channel gas chromatograph combined with a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector. Phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide was used as a methylathing agent for acidic substances before analysis with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus detector. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry was used as a common confirmation method. Tetrahydrocannabinol was quantitated after bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatization, opiates after pentafluoropropionic anhydride derivatization and benzoylecgonine after pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol derivatization. Excluding benzodiazepines, which were confirmed with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector, the other basic drugs as well as the acidic drugs were confirmed after the same derivatization procedures as in the screening methods. Alcohols were quantitated in triplicate by gas chromatography using three different kinds of columns. Although urine is the most important specimen for screening abused drugs, it has only limited use in forensic toxicology. The described system is most useful for analyzing a wide range of substances, including illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants and phenothiazenes in forensic samples when urine is not available. PMID:8819994

Lillsunde, P; Michelson, L; Forsstrom, T; Korte, T; Schultz, E; Ariniemi, K; Portman, M; Sihvonen, M L; Seppala, T

1996-02-01

67

Exploring the effect of N-substitution in nor-lobelane on the interaction with VMAT2: discovery of a potential clinical candidate for treatment of methamphetamine abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of N-substituted lobelane analogues was synthesized and evaluated for their [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding affinity at the vesicular monoamine transporter and for their inhibition of vesicular [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Compound 19a, which contains an N-1,2(R)-dihydroxypropyl group, had been identified as a potential clinical candidate for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse.

Zheng G; Horton DB; Penthala NR; Nickell JR; Culver JP; Deaciuc AG; Dwoskin LP; Crooks PA

2013-03-01

68

Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

Williams-Petersen MG; Myers BJ; Degen HM; Knisely JS; Elswick RK Jr; Schnoll SS

1994-10-01

69

Alternative Drugs of Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

2013-05-01

70

Alternative Drugs of Abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

Sutter ME; Chenoweth J; Albertson TE

2013-05-01

71

Inhalant Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Connect with NIDA : Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ... Strategic Plan Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ...

72

Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

1996-12-31

73

Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

1992-06-01

74

Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.

Ehret C; Maupetit P; Petrzilka M; Klecak G

1992-06-01

75

Missing potential opportunities to reduce repeat COPD exacerbations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and/or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been shown to reduce COPD exacerbation risk. Using data from a large integrated health-care system, we sought to examine whether these medication classes were initiated after an exacerbation of COPD. METHODS: We identified patients who experienced an inpatient or outpatient COPD exacerbation within the Veterans Affairs Integrated Service Network (VISN)-20. We assessed the addition of a new inhaled therapy (an ICS, LABA or both) within 180 days after the exacerbation. We assessed independent predictors of adding treatment using logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 45,780 patients with COPD, of whom 2,760 patients experienced an exacerbation of COPD. Of these individuals, 2,570 (93.1 %) were on either none or only one long-acting medication studied (LABA or ICS). In the subsequent 180-day period after their exacerbation, only 875 (34.1 %) patients had at least one of these additional therapies dispensed from a VA pharmacy. Among patients who were treated in the outpatient setting, older age [OR 0.98/year, 95 % CI (0.97-0.99)], current tobacco use [OR 0.74, 95 % CI (0.60-0.90)], greater use of ipratropium bromide [OR 0.97/canister, 95 % CI (0.96-0.98)], prior COPD exacerbation [OR 0.55, 95 % CI (0.46-0.67)], depression [OR 0.77, 95 % CI (0.61-0.98)], CHF [OR 0.74, 95 % CI (0.57-0.97)], and diabetes (OR 0.77 (0.60-0.99)] were associated with lower odds of additional therapy. Patients who were treated in the hospital had similar associated predictors. CONCLUSION: Among patients treated for an exacerbation of COPD, we found relatively few were subsequently prescribed inhaled therapies known to reduce exacerbations.

Melzer AC; Feemster LM; Uman JE; Ramenofsky DH; Au DH

2013-05-01

76

R-modafinil (armodafinil): a unique dopamine uptake inhibitor and potential medication for psychostimulant abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: (±)-Modafinil has piqued interest as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and stimulant dependence. The R-enantiomer of modafinil might have unique pharmacological properties that should be further investigated. METHODS: (±)-Modafinil and its R-(-)- and S-(+)-enantiomers were synthesized and tested for inhibition of [(3)H] dopamine (DA) uptake and [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding in human dopamine transporter (DAT) wild-type and mutants with altered conformational equilibria. Data were compared with cocaine and the atypical DA uptake inhibitor, JHW 007. R- and S-modafinil were also evaluated in microdialysis studies in the mouse nucleus accumbens shell and in a cocaine discrimination procedure. RESULTS: (±)-, R-, and S-modafinil bind to the DAT and inhibit DA uptake less potently than cocaine, with R-modafinil having approximately threefold higher affinity than its S-enantiomer. Molecular docking studies revealed subtle differences in binding modes for the enantiomers. R-modafinil was significantly less potent in the DAT Y156F mutant compared with wild-type DAT, whereas S-modafinil was affected less. Studies with the Y335A DAT mutant showed that the R- and S-enantiomers tolerated the inward-facing conformation better than cocaine, which was further supported by [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]-methanethiosulfonate reactivity on the DAT E2C I159C. Microdialysis studies demonstrated that both R- and S-modafinil produced increases in extracellular DA concentrations in the nucleus accumbens shell less efficaciously than cocaine and with a longer duration of action. Both enantiomers fully substituted in mice trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. CONCLUSIONS: R-modafinil displays an in vitro profile different from cocaine. Future trials with R-modafinil as a substitute therapy with the potential benefit of cognitive enhancement for psychostimulant addiction are warranted.

Loland CJ; Mereu M; Okunola OM; Cao J; Prisinzano TE; Mazier S; Kopajtic T; Shi L; Katz JL; Tanda G; Newman AH

2012-09-01

77

Individualized guidelines: the potential for increasing quality and reducing costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines focus on a particular risk factor and specify criteria for categorizing persons into a small number of treatment groups. OBJECTIVE: To compare current guidelines with individualized guidelines (that use readily available characteristics from each person to calculate the risk reduction expected from treatment and to identify persons for treatment in ranked order of decreasing expected benefit), in the context of blood pressure management. DESIGN: Analysis of person-specific, longitudinal data. SETTING: The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study. PARTICIPANTS: Persons aged 45 to 64 years without preexisting cardiovascular disease who currently do not receive antihypertensive treatment. INTERVENTION: Treatment according to the criteria of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7 guidelines); individualized guidelines, or treatment in decreasing order of expected benefit; and random care, or treatment of persons selected at random. MEASUREMENTS: Number of myocardial infarctions (MIs) and strokes and medical costs. RESULTS: Compared with treating people according to random care, individualized guidelines could prevent the same number of MIs and strokes as JNC 7 guidelines at savings that are 67% greater than using JNC 7 guidelines, or it could prevent 43% more MIs and strokes for the same cost as treatment according to JNC 7 guidelines. The superiority of individualized guidelines was not sensitive to a wide range of assumptions about costs, treatment effectiveness, level of risk for cardiovascular disease in the population, or effects on workflow. The degree of superiority was sensitive to the accuracy of the method used to rank patients and to its span (the proportion of the population for whom all of the outcomes of interest can be calculated). LIMITATIONS: Specific results apply to the effects of blood pressure management on MI and stroke in the ARIC Study population. The methods for calculating individual benefits require quantitative evidence about the relationships among risk factors, long-term outcomes, and treatment effects. CONCLUSION: Use of individualized guidelines can help to increase the quality and reduce the cost of care.

Eddy DM; Adler J; Patterson B; Lucas D; Smith KA; Morris M

2011-05-01

78

Design, synthesis and interaction at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 of lobeline analogs: potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of psychostimulant abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is considered as a new target for the development of novel therapeutics to treat psychostimulant abuse. Current information on the structure, function and role of VMAT2 in psychostimulant abuse are presented. Lobeline, the major alkaloidal constituent of Lobelia inflata, interacts with nicotinic receptors and with VMAT2. Numerous studies have shown that lobeline inhibits both the neurochemical and behavioral effects of amphetamine in rodents, and behavioral studies demonstrate that lobeline has potential as a pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. Systematic structural modification of the lobeline molecule is described with the aim of improving selectivity and affinity for VMAT2 over neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and other neurotransmitter transporters. This has led to the discovery of more potent and selective ligands for VMAT2. In addition, a computational neural network analysis of the affinity of these lobeline analogs for VMAT2 has been carried out, which provides computational models that have predictive value in the rational design of VMAT2 ligands and is also useful in identifying drug candidates from virtual libraries for subsequent synthesis and evaluation.

Crooks PA; Zheng G; Vartak AP; Culver JP; Zheng F; Horton DB; Dwoskin LP

2011-01-01

79

Substance abuse and movement disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complex relation between movement disorders and substance abuse is reviewed. First, we discuss the wide variety of movement disorders that occur as a direct consequence of acute use or withdrawal of drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. Second, we describe the recent advances in the comorbid relationship between alcoholism and two movement disorders: essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the abuse potential of the dopaminergic agents, apomorphine and levodopa, in patients with Parkinson's disease.

San Luciano M; Saunders-Pullman R

2009-09-01

80

Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

2011-01-17

 
 
 
 
81

Spouse Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational back...

Dixon, Louise

82

Effect of reduced water activity and reduced matric potential on the germination of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reduction in water activity (a(w)) is used as a microbiological hurdle to prevent food spoilage. To minimize the levels of salt and sugar, which are commonly used to reduce a(w), the potential of food structure as a microbiological hurdle needs to be assessed. The concept of matric potential (Psi(m)) is used to measure the effect of food structure on water movement. This study reports the effect of reduced a(w) and reduced Psi(m) on the germination of xerophilic fungi (represented by Eurotium herbariorum) and non-xerophilic fungi (represented by Aspergillus niger) on model glycerol agar media. Germination curves were plotted with the percentage of germinated spores against time. The germination time (t(G)), which is defined as the time at which 50% of the total viable spores have germinated, was estimated using the Gompertz model. Total viable spores was defined as those spores that were able to germinate under the optimum a(w) and Psi(m) conditions for each species, i.e. 0.95 a(w) and 2.5% agar for E. herbariorum and 0.98 a(w) and 2.5% agar for A. niger. As a(w) decreased from 0.90 to 0.85 a(w), t(G) increased significantly for both the xerophilic fungi and non-xerophilic species at equivalent matric potential values. When matric potential was reduced from -12 kPa (2.5% agar) to -38 kPa (12.5% agar), t(G) of A. niger was significantly extended at 0.90 a(w); however, t(G) remained the same for A. niger at 0.85 a(w), and for E. herbariorum at 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90 a(w). This study demonstrated that the germination time for non-xerophilic and xerophilic fungi was extended by reduced a(w), however the effect of reduced Psi(m) was limited.

Huang Y; Begum M; Chapman B; Hocking AD

2010-05-01

83

Effect of reduced water activity and reduced matric potential on the germination of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in water activity (a(w)) is used as a microbiological hurdle to prevent food spoilage. To minimize the levels of salt and sugar, which are commonly used to reduce a(w), the potential of food structure as a microbiological hurdle needs to be assessed. The concept of matric potential (Psi(m)) is used to measure the effect of food structure on water movement. This study reports the effect of reduced a(w) and reduced Psi(m) on the germination of xerophilic fungi (represented by Eurotium herbariorum) and non-xerophilic fungi (represented by Aspergillus niger) on model glycerol agar media. Germination curves were plotted with the percentage of germinated spores against time. The germination time (t(G)), which is defined as the time at which 50% of the total viable spores have germinated, was estimated using the Gompertz model. Total viable spores was defined as those spores that were able to germinate under the optimum a(w) and Psi(m) conditions for each species, i.e. 0.95 a(w) and 2.5% agar for E. herbariorum and 0.98 a(w) and 2.5% agar for A. niger. As a(w) decreased from 0.90 to 0.85 a(w), t(G) increased significantly for both the xerophilic fungi and non-xerophilic species at equivalent matric potential values. When matric potential was reduced from -12 kPa (2.5% agar) to -38 kPa (12.5% agar), t(G) of A. niger was significantly extended at 0.90 a(w); however, t(G) remained the same for A. niger at 0.85 a(w), and for E. herbariorum at 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90 a(w). This study demonstrated that the germination time for non-xerophilic and xerophilic fungi was extended by reduced a(w), however the effect of reduced Psi(m) was limited. PMID:20231042

Huang, Yang; Begum, Mariam; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

2010-03-02

84

Redundant states, reduced potentials, and extra nodes in the radial wave function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First-principle scattering calculations which include antisymmetrization of a projectile with respect to identical particles in the target result in a nonsymmetric nonlocal effective potential. Such a potential can lead to redundant states in the scattering wave function. In this case the potential is required to satisfy a consistency condition. We discuss this condition and the manner in which it can be imposed. We also discuss the replacement of this potential by a reduced symmetric nonlocal effective potential which does not produce redundant states. This reduced potential generates a scattering wave function orthogonal to the redundant states. If the original equation has one redundant state, the phase shift at zero energy is ?, resulting in an extra node in the zero-energy wave function. The reduced effective potential must retain this extra node. This characteristic of the reduced effective potential is illustrated with an example. We show that the extra node produced by the potential in the example comes either from a spurious state or a bound state of that potential

1980-01-01

85

DRUG ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is one of the major problems facing the worldtoday. Care providers and clinicians are faced with ever changing patterns of drug abuse and hence need to stayabreast of the latest developments. Research in this area in Pakistan is direly needed. Aims: This study wasundertaken with an idea of collecting basic data to assess the extent and variety of drug abuse in patients presentingto the researchers, and to assess the changes during a five-year interval. Design of study: Non-interventionalcomparative study. Setting: Department of Psychiatry, District Headquarters Hospital, Faisalabad Period: From1996to 2001. Materials & Methods: The sample consisted of patients admitted for treatment in the years 1996 & 2001.Statistical analysis was carried out using the software package SSPS utilizing tests such as the chi square andstudent’s t-test. Results: In this department, drug abuse is more frequently reported among urban, literate, marriedmales during young adulthood. Tobacco and cannabis are most frequently reported. Sex, curiosity and peer pressureare the main motivations involved in starting drug abuse. Besides these stable findings, some changes have occurredduring five years; polydrug abuse has become more frequent and the socioeconomic status of this patient group isdeteriorating. Conclusions: The problem of drug abuse is still rampant, if not increasing with time. The patterns of drugabuse are becoming more complicated, posing new challenges for health care planners and providers. More researchneeds to be undertaken in this area.

IMTIAZ AHMAD DOGAR

2005-01-01

86

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

... means any form of violence such as hitting, punching, pulling hair, and kicking. Abuse can occur in ... including slapping, pushing, grabbing, shaking, smacking, kicking, and punching tries to control different aspects of your life, ...

87

Drug abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

1991-01-01

88

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

89

Twins abused by their father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50)

Celal; Fatma; Resmiye; Cengiz; Derya; Yutaka

2011-01-01

90

Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.

Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: wynne@bnl.gov; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2007-10-15

91

POTENTIAL INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SORGHUM LINES GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOR REDUCED LIGNIN CONTENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential increased resistance to Fusarium species in sorghum lines genetically modified for reduced lignin content. Deanna L. Funnell and Jeffery F. Pedersen, Grain, Forage and Bioenergy Research, USDA-ARS; Departments of Plant Pathology (DLF) and Agronomy (JFP), University of Nebraska. Lincoln, 6...

92

The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N) and phosphorous (T-P) loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

Jiro Kogi; Mariko Miyamoto; Jay Bolthouse; Makoto Yokohari

2010-01-01

93

Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

Siikamäki J; Newbold SC

2012-01-01

94

Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted. PMID:23627786

Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Yazar-Klosinski, B Berra

2013-03-01

95

Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted.

Jerome L; Schuster S; Yazar-Klosinski BB

2013-03-01

96

Substance abuse and movement disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex relation between movement disorders and substance abuse is reviewed. First, we discuss the wide variety of movement disorders that occur as a direct consequence of acute use or withdrawal of drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. Second, we describe the recent advances in the comorbid relationship between alcoholism and two movement disorders: essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the abuse potential of the dopaminergic agents, apomorphine and levodopa, in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:20443774

San Luciano, Marta; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

2009-09-01

97

Evaluating the Potential for Watershed Restoration to Reduce Nutrient Loading to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

A literature review of best management practices to reduce nutrient loading was performed to provide information for resource managers in the Klamath Basin, Oregon. Although BMPs have already been implemented in the watershed, some sense of their effectiveness in reducing phosphorus loading and their cost for installation and maintenance is still lacking. This report discusses both causes of nutrient loading and a wide-variety of BMPs used to treat or reduce causal factors. We specifically focused on cattle grazing as the principal land-use and causal factor for nutrient loading in the Klamath Basin above Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Several BMP types, including stream corridor fencing, riparian buffer strips and constructed wetlands, seem to have potential for reducing phosphorus loading that may result from cattle grazing. However, no single BMP is likely to be the most effective in all locations or situations.

McCormick, Paul; Campbell, Sharon G.

2007-01-01

98

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the subjective abuse potential and cognitive effects of nabiximols oromucosal spray in subjects with a history of recreational cannabis use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the abuse potential and cognitive effects of nabiximols (Sativex, GW Pharma Ltd. Salisbury, UK), an oromucosal spray primarily containing delta?9?tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). METHODS: This was a single?dose, randomized, double?blind, crossover study comparing nabiximols (4, 8, and 16 consecutive sprays: 10.8, 21.6, and 43.2 mg THC, respectively) with dronabinol 20 and 40 mg (synthetic THC: Marinol, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Brussels, Belgium) and matching placebos in 23 recreational cannabis users. Subjective and cognitive/psychomotor measures were administered over 24 h post?dose. RESULTS: Dronabinol was significantly different from placebo on abuse potential measures, thereby confirming study validity. Nabiximols 10.8 mg was not significantly different from placebo on primary measures but was different on some secondary measures. Nabiximols 21.6 mg was significantly greater than placebo on some primary/secondary measures, whereas nabiximols 43.2 mg showed significant effects on most measures. Nabiximols 10.8 mg was significantly lower than dronabinol doses on most measures ( p < 0.05). Dronabinol 20 mg effects were numerically higher than nabiximols 21.6 mg but were statistically significant only for some measures. Dronabinol 40 mg and nabiximols 43.2 mg were generally not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS: Both dronabinol and nabiximols had significant abuse potential compared with placebo at higher doses. Nabiximols showed similar or slightly less abuse potential compared with dronabinol. Therefore, the abuse potential of nabiximols should be no higher than that of dronabinol.

Schoedel KA; Chen N; Hilliard A; White L; Stott C; Russo E; Wright S; Guy G; Romach MK; Sellers EM

2011-04-01

99

Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

2013-05-01

100

Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered.

Davis KG; Orta Anés L

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N?O], methane [CH?], and carbon dioxide [CO?]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N?O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N?O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission.

Johnson JM; Archer DW; Weyers SL; Barbour NW

2011-09-01

102

Designing opioids that deter abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are more challenging than they appear at first glance. Furthermore, we need to find ways to correlate behavioral observations of drug liking to actual use and abuse patterns. This may involve revisiting some pharmacodynamic concepts in light of drug effect rather than peak concentration. In this paper we present several new opioid analgesic agents designed to resist or deter abuse using physical barriers, the inclusion of an opioid agonist or antagonist, an aversive agent, and a prodrug formulation. Further, this paper also provides insight into the challenges facing drug discovery in this field. Designing and screening for opioids intended to resist or deter abuse is an important step to meet the public health challenge of burgeoning prescription opioid abuse.

Raffa RB; Pergolizzi JV Jr; Muñiz E; Taylor R Jr; Pergolizzi J

2012-01-01

103

Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 15 to 17  

Science.gov (United States)

... scripting in your web browser. February 9, 2012 Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 15 to 17 In Brief ... and reduce the negative long-term consequences of substance abuse among these youth. This report uses data from ...

104

Evaluation of the hemostatic potential including thrombin generation of three different therapeutic pathogen-reduced plasmas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several pathogen inactivation methods currently applied to therapeutic plasma may result in products with different hemostatic properties. This study aims at evaluating and comparing the hemostatic potential of different therapeutic plasma preparations currently available in France. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied three types of pathogen-reduced plasma for transfusion (MB/light, Amotosalen/UVA, industrial S/D plasma). Quarantine, non-pathogen-reduced plasma, was used as a control. This study compared more specifically the content in FVIII, fibrinogen (clottable and antigen assays) and ADAMTS-13 and evaluated the intrinsic hemostatic properties using a thrombin generation test [Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT)] at high and low concentrations of tissue factor to assess the maximum quantity of thrombin generated or the contribution of FVIII and FIX in the amplification phase of thrombin generation, respectively. RESULTS: The median FVIII concentration was >70 IU/dl for each preparation. Endogenous thrombin potential values were significantly different among the methods of plasma preparation (P<0·001) but were all in the range of the values measured in donors' plasma. Control by the thrombomodulin-activated protein C system was preserved in all preparations (>50% inhibition of endogenous thrombin potential). Fibrinogen concentrations were all within normal range but fibrinogen levels were lower in the plasmas treated with photochemical methods. ADAMTS-13 levels were preserved. CONCLUSION: The hemostatic potential appears well preserved in all therapeutic plasmas tested but there are some differences between preparations, the clinical relevance of which remains to be elucidated.

Hacquard M; Lecompte T; Belcour B; Geschier C; Jacquot C; Jacquot E; Schneider T

2012-05-01

105

Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

2008-01-01

106

Peer abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a) is intended to cause harm or distress, (b) occurs repeatedly over time, and (c) occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4)

Müjgan

2011-01-01

107

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17

108

A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of mo...

Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J. G.

109

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

110

Child abuse - physical  

Science.gov (United States)

... and social class. It is impossible to tell abusers from non-abusers by looking at their appearance or background. ... adult caregivers. The authorities will determine whether the abuser gets psychiatric help, such as parenting training and ...

111

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse is the deliberate exposure of minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced ... Society was reluctant to deal with child sexual abuse a few ... is difficult to determine how often child sexual abuse occurs, ...

112

Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy. PMID:22307280

Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

2012-01-01

113

Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: ? We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. ? We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. ? Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

2011-01-01

114

Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... This Guide Home > Topics & States > Topics > Substance Abuse Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions What is substance abuse? What ... Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2008? What is substance abuse? Substance abuse is the use of a mood ...

115

The clinical efficacy and abuse potential of combination buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of opioid dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a chronic relapsing condition for which long-term opioid substitution treatment (OST) is effective. However, safety and community acceptance of OST is compromised by diversion of prescribed medication. The development of a formulation combining buprenorphine and naloxone is designed to reduce the likelihood of intravenous misuse, and the therefore the value of the medication if diverted to the black market. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for 4:1 buprenorphine-naloxone as an efficacious OST, and as a deterrent to diversion and intravenous misuse. METHODS: The literature on buprenorphine-naloxone in a 4:1 ratio is reviewed. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The addition of naloxone does not appear to affect the efficacy of buprenorphine as a maintenance drug. While offering some deterrence of injection through precipitated withdrawal, there are many circumstances where injecting of buprenorphine-naloxone is reinforcing rather than aversive. The combination will reduce, but not eliminate, intravenous misuse; clinicians therefore need to monitor patients in OST, and be selective in providing patients with medication to be taken without observation.

Mammen K; Bell J

2009-10-01

116

The potential for industrial energy efficiency technology to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the industrial portion of a Department of Energy (DOE) study that assessed the potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. The objectives of this portion of the study were (1) to assess the contribution that an invigorated effort to move efficient technology into the industrial market could make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2010, and (2) to describe the role of research and development (R and D) in providing a stream of advanced technologies after 2010 that can continue to reduce industrial energy intensity and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the authors first provide some background information on the approach to the assessment and how that approach is shaped by the complexities of the US industrial sector and the limitations of the available analytical tools for this sector. The authors then discuss the preliminary results of a model-based analysis through 2010. The study from which this paper is drawn (Boyd et al. 1997) supplements these results with descriptions of examples of technologies that, were they to come into widespread use in the US industrial sector before 2010, could achieve the model scenario results. It also describes examples of advanced technologies that, with continued R and D, could contribute to saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond 2010. In this paper the authors include a summary table of the technology examples described in the study.

Woodruff, M.G.; Boyd, G.A.; Roop, J.M.

1997-07-01

117

Potential of vegetation in reducing summer cooling loads in residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of trees and other vegetation to reduce building cooling loads has been recorded in a number of studies, but the meso- and microclimate changes producing such savings are not well understood. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to model the effects of landscaping on temperature, humidity, windspeed and solar gain in urban climates using information from existing agricultural and meteorological studies, with particular attention placed on quantifying the effects of plant evapotranspiration. The climate model is then used in conjunction with the DOE-2.1C building simulation program to calculate the net reductions in air-conditioning requirements due to trees and other vegetation.

Huang, Y.J.; Akbari, H.; Taha, H.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

1987-09-01

118

The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their proven usefulness in agriculture, they possess potential in solving environmental problems. Some examples are highlighted. PGPB may prevent soil erosion in arid zones by improving growth of desert plants in reforestation programs; in turn, this reduces dust pollution. PGPB supports restoration of mangrove ecosystems that lead to improve fisheries. PGPB participate in phytoremediation techniques to decontaminate soils and waters. These include: phytodegradation, phytotransformation, bioaugmentation, rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phycoremediation, and phytostabilization, all leading to healthier environments. This review describes the state-of-the-art in these fields, examples from peer-reviewed literature, pitfalls and potentials, and proposes open questions for future research.

de-Bashan LE; Hernandez JP; Bashan Y

2012-10-01

119

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

120

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: The mean wear (±se) was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm) and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm). CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

Melissa Thiemi Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessment of the abuse potential of MDMA in the Conditioned Place Preference Paradigm: Role of CB1 receptors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous reports have highlighted the role of the endocannabinoid system in the addictive potential of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine). A previous report showed that CB1 knockout (KOCB1) mice do not acquire MDMA self-administration, despite developing conditioned place preference (CPP). This contradiction could be due to the particular procedure of place conditioning used. The present work compares MDMA-induced CPP in KOCB1 mice using unbiased and biased procedures of place conditioning. In the unbiased procedure, MDMA induced CPP and reinstatement of the extinguished preference in wild type (WT) mice, but not in KOCB1 mice. In contrast, in a biased protocol of CPP, MDMA produced preference in both types of mice. The anxiolytic response induced by MDMA in the elevated plus maze (EPM) was observed only in KOCB1 mice and may have been responsible, at least partially, for the CPP in the biased procedure. A neurochemical analysis revealed that KOCB1 mice presented higher striatal DA and DOPAC levels in response to MDMA, but no alterations in their levels of monoamine transporters. In line with previous self-administration studies, our data suggest that CB1 receptors play an important role in the reinforcing effects of MDMA, and that the experimental procedure of CPP employed should be taken into account when drawing conclusions.

Rodríguez-Arias M; Valverde O; Daza-Losada M; Blanco-Gandía MC; Aguilar MA; Miñarro J

2013-08-01

122

Identification of proteolytic bacteria from thai traditional fermented foods and their allergenic reducing potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to identify proteolytic bacteria from Thai traditional fermented foods and investigate their allergenic reducing potentials to wheat and milk allergens. Nine bacteria were isolated from fermented foods as follows: fermented soybean seeds (Thua Nao), fermented soybean paste (Thua Nao), wheat flour dough of steamed stuffed bun (Sa La Pao), and soaked rice from Thai fermented rice-noodle (Kha Nhom Jeen) processing. Both phenotypic and genotypic identifications were used in this study. It was found that all isolates were Gram-positive rods. Seven isolates were matched and identified as Bacillus subtilis by both techniques, and the remaining 2 isolates were phenotypically and genotypically identified as B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, respectively. The concentrated crude enzyme of B. subtilis DB and SR could reduce allergenicity of gliadin by hydrolyzing the allergenic gliadin fragments detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, the enzyme of B. subtilis DB could also reduce allergenicity of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) detected by hydrolyzing the major allergenic epitope of beta-LG at Gln(35)-Ser(36) position. B. subtilis DB and SR can be applied for the production of hypoallergenic wheat flour or milk food products. PMID:18460136

Phromraksa, P; Nagano, H; Boonmars, T; Kamboonruang, C

2008-05-01

123

Warning drivers about potential congestion as a means to reduce frustration-driven aggressive driving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to examine the consequences of forewarning drivers about impending congestion on aggressive driving behavior. Some have argued that aggressive driving stems from frustration experienced on the roadway (often due to congestion), and that by warning drivers about congestion, frustration, and consequently aggressive driving, can be reduced. METHODS: The study employed an experimental design, where participants (whose dispositional driver anger was measured using the Driver Anger Scale) were instructed to operate an instrumented vehicle along a prescribed route containing construction. Participants were randomly assigned either to receive a warning about the construction or to receive no warning about the congestion. Measures of aggressive driving behavior were extracted from video (shot from a camera hidden behind the vehicle's license plate) and from an ongoing accelerometer. RESULTS: A total of 49 participants completed the study. Analyses of combined measure of aggressive driving behavior data revealed a statistically significant main effect for dispositional driver anger (with participants scoring higher on the scale actually driving more aggressively), as well as interactions between driver anger and forewarning. Accordingly, forewarning about potential congestion reduced aggressive driving behavior for participants high in dispositional anger but increased aggressive behavior for participants who were low on dispositional anger. CONCLUSION: Some of the results-particularly the increase in aggressive driving among participants low in dispositional driver anger who were warning about congestion-were unexpected. The interaction effect suggests that the strategy providing warnings about upcoming congestion will not necessarily reduce frustration among all drivers.

Johnson MB; McKnight S

2009-08-01

124

Investigation of the potential for using electrochemical technology to reduce drill bit wear  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent work has shown that an important drill bit wear mechanism in aqueous environments is electrochemical in nature. The synergistic effects of corrosion and abrasion are responsible for a large percentage of bit wear in laboratory studies. It has been shown that measured wear rates can be reduced by factors of two to five with the application of a voltage potential which opposes and exceeds the galvanic potential generated by the corrosion cells existing downhole. The present study investigates the potential for applying this technique in the downhole environment. The results demonstrate that a downhole generator sub powered by drilling fluid is a possible electrical power source. Graphite is chosen as the optimal nonsacrificial anode material for this application. Steel is also shown to be a possible anode material, but the anode would be sacrificial in this case, requiring periodic replacement. The electrical power required to achieve the desired effect for 4-1/2 inch drill bit is determined to be on the order of one milliwatt. Additionally, up to 250 feet of 4 inch drill pipe could be protected from corrosion with power levels on the order of 150 milliwatts. These relatively low power levels suggest that dry cell batteries could alternatively be employed as the power source; however, the temperature limitations of commercially available batteries would have to be overcome for geothermal applications.

Hinkebein, T.E.; Glowka, D.A.

1982-02-01

125

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two hum (more) an dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

2012-06-01

126

Propylthiouracil treatment reduces long-term potentiation in area CA1 of neonatal rat hippocampus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rat pups were made hypothyroid by exposure to propylthiouracil in drinking water beginning at 1 week of age, and the degree of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal area CA1 determined from brain slices of animals ranging in age from 2 to 6 weeks. Serum T3 levels were less than 20% of that of age matched controls after 3 weeks of treatment, and remained at that level. Relative to the age-matched controls, LTP was reduced significantly after 2 weeks of treatment. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that LTP magnitude is a reflection of cognitive function, which is known to be depressed in hypothyroid conditions in both animals and man.

Niemi WD; Slivinski K; Audi J; Rej R; Carpenter DO

1996-05-01

127

Doxorubicin-Induced Vascular Toxicity - Targeting Potential Pathways May Reduce Procoagulant Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow. Methods The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in vitro. For in vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. Results Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01). Conclusions DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity.

Ben Aharon, Irit; Bar Joseph, Hadas; Tzabari, Moran; Shenkman, Boris; Farzam, Nahid; Levi, Mattan; Shalgi, Ruth; Stemmer, Salomon M.; Savion, Naphtali

2013-01-01

128

Molecular characterization of chromium (VI) reducing potential in Gram positive bacteria isolated from contaminated sites  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is highly toxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic to man and other animals. Some bacterial species have the ability to reduce Cr(VI) to a stable speciation state of trivalent chromium [Cr(III)], which is insoluble and comparatively less toxic. Therefore, the reduction of Cr(VI) thus provides potential as a means for environmental bioremediation of Cr(VI) pollution. In the present study bacteria isolated from chromium and diesel contaminated sites were found to have the ability to rapidly reduce highly toxic concentrations of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) when grown in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. Partial chromate reductase gene sequences were retrieved after PCR amplification of genomic DNA extracted from three Gram positive isolates which were highly similar (>99% sequence similarity) to chromate reductase genes found in Gram negative bacteria, more specifically those identified from Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. whole-genome studies. The isolated bacteria were putatively identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Arthrobacter aurescens strain MM10, Bacillus atrophaeus strain MM20, and Rhodococcus erythropolis strain MM30.

Patra RameshC; Malik Seidu; Beer Michael; Megharaj Mallavarapu; Naidu Ravi

2010-10-01

129

The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2004-05-01

130

Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

Bogen Karen; Biener Lois; Garrett Catherine A; Allen Jane; Cummings K Michael; Hartman Anne; Marcus Stephen; McNeill Ann; O'Connor Richard J; Parascandola Mark; Pederson Linda

2009-01-01

131

Potential for reducing electricity demand for lighting in households: An exploratory socio-technical study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Illuminance data were collected from 18 UK dwellings during 1-week periods in spring 2007, to establish when luminaires were used and to calculate electricity consumption for lighting. Householders were also interviewed about lighting use and choices. The potential for reducing lighting electricity consumption by replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is assessed. Mean weekly electricity consumption for lighting was 3.756 kW h and mean proportion of total electricity consumption used for lighting was 6.55%. It is notable, however, that participants generally expressed high levels of environmental awareness and that electricity consumption figures for less environmentally-aware households may differ. On average, households could have reduced lighting electricity consumption by 50.9% if all incandescent bulbs were replaced with CFLs. Even householders making extensive use of efficient lighting technologies expressed concerns about these technologies' performance, but seemed willing to tolerate perceived shortcomings for environmental reasons. However, the study raises questions about whether people without strong environmental motivations can be convinced that efficient lighting technologies will meet their needs. It also raises questions about the effectiveness of policies phasing out general lighting service incandescent bulbs, as there is a risk that householders may switch to tungsten halogen bulbs rather than low-energy options.

Wall, Rob [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rdw3000@yahoo.com; Crosbie, Tracey [Centre for Construction Innovation and Research, School of Science and Technology, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley TS1 3BA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t.crosbie@tees.ac.uk

2009-03-15

132

Potential for reducing electricity demand for lighting in households. An exploratory socio-technical study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Illuminance data were collected from 18 UK dwellings during 1-week periods in spring 2007, to establish when luminaires were used and to calculate electricity consumption for lighting. Householders were also interviewed about lighting use and choices. The potential for reducing lighting electricity consumption by replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is assessed. Mean weekly electricity consumption for lighting was 3.756 kW h and mean proportion of total electricity consumption used for lighting was 6.55%. It is notable, however, that participants generally expressed high levels of environmental awareness and that electricity consumption figures for less environmentally-aware households may differ. On average, households could have reduced lighting electricity consumption by 50.9% if all incandescent bulbs were replaced with CFLs. Even householders making extensive use of efficient lighting technologies expressed concerns about these technologies' performance, but seemed willing to tolerate perceived shortcomings for environmental reasons. However, the study raises questions about whether people without strong environmental motivations can be convinced that efficient lighting technologies will meet their needs. It also raises questions about the effectiveness of policies phasing out general lighting service incandescent bulbs, as there is a risk that householders may switch to tungsten halogen bulbs rather than low-energy options. (author)

Wall, Rob [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Crosbie, Tracey [Centre for Construction Innovation and Research, School of Science and Technology, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley TS1 3BA (United Kingdom)

2009-03-15

133

Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections.

Randall J; Cable J; Guschina IA; Harwood JL; Lello J

2013-10-01

134

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs.

Siikamäki J; Sanchirico JN; Jardine SL

2012-09-01

135

Gender differences in the EEG of abstinent cocaine abusers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gender differences in the EEG were explored in cocaine-abusing individuals not seeking treatment. Twenty currently abstinent cocaine-abusing females aged 21-41 were studied. Their cocaine use history was matched to 20 currently abstinent cocaine-abusing males. Twelve female and 20 male non-drug-abusing individuals served as a control group. Resting eyes closed EEG was recorded from 8 leads. The males who used cocaine had elevated EEG beta (p<0.0125) and reduced alpha (p<0.0125) when compared to the cocaine-abusing females and control subjects. These findings suggest that the EEG of cocaine-abusing women may be more normal than that of cocaine-abusing men. Such gender-specific differences for cocaine-abusing populations may require gender-specific treatment to improve outcome.

King DE; Herning RI; Gorelick DA; Cadet JL

2000-01-01

136

DRUG ABUSE BY THE TEENAGERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in thecrime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impairjudgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assaultand impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability,addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.With most drug users being in the productive age group of 18-35 years, the loss in terms ofhuman potential is incalculable.

G.S.VENUMADHAVA

2013-01-01

137

What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity) and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP). Consequently the smoking-related mortality burden is higher among these populations. Regarding the gap in mortality between low and high socioeconomic groups, 21% and 11% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking in 1996–99. Regarding the gap in mortality between M?ori and non-M?ori/non-Pacific, 5% and 8% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking. The estimates from both these studies are probably moderate underestimates due to misclassification bias of smoking status. Despite the modest relative contribution of smoking to these gaps, the absolute number of smoking-attributable deaths is sizable and amenable to policy and health sector responses. There is some evidence, from New Zealand and elsewhere, for interventions that reduce smoking by low-income populations and indigenous peoples. These include tobacco taxation, thematically appropriate mass media campaigns, and appropriate smoking cessation support services. But there are as yet untried interventions with major potential. A key one is for a tighter regulatory framework that could rapidly shift the nicotine market towards pharmaceutical-grade nicotine (or smokeless tobacco products) and away from smoked tobacco.

Wilson Nick; Blakely Tony; Tobias Martin

2006-01-01

138

Mediating toxic emotions in the workplace - the impact of abusive supervision.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study explores whether abusive supervision can effectively predict employees' counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and the role of toxic emotions at work as a potential mediator of these relationships in nursing settings. BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying is widespread in nursing. Despite the growing literature on abusive supervision and employees' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour, few studies have examined the relationships between abusive supervision and these work behaviours from the viewpoint of the victimed employee's emotion process. METHODS: This study adopted a two-stage survey of 212 nurses, all of whom were employed by hospitals in Taiwan. Hypotheses were tested through the use of hierarchical multiple regression. RESULTS: The results showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with toxic emotions. Moreover, toxic emotions could effectively predict nurses' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Finally, it was found that toxic emotions partially mediated the negative effects of abusive supervision on both work behaviours. CONCLUSION: Toxic emotions at work are a critical mediating variable between abusive supervision and both counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Hospital administrators can implement policies designed to manage events effectively that can spark toxic emotions in their employees. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Work empowerment may be an effective way to reduce counterproductive work behaviour and to enhance organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses when supervisors do not promote a healthy work environment for them.

Chu LC

2013-08-01

139

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH?) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH? is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH? emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH? yield. Measuring CH? emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH? emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH? predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH? output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane produced per unit feed is not affected by RFI level), as well as the limitations of predicting the biological consequences of selection. To overcome these limitations, an international effort is required to bring together data on feed intake and methane emissions of dairy cows.

Haas Yd; Windig JJ; Calus MP; Dijkstra J; Haan Md; Bannink A; Veerkamp RF

2011-12-01

140

Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research: Methodological Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse prevention intervention research is continuing to evolve as more specific and complex measurements are needed to assess and identify the factors which influence the 'potential' drug user. Additionally, prevention intervention research has becom...

C. G. Leukefeld W. J. Bukoski

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-01-01

142

Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ? From 1990 to 2008, CO2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ? Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ? The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ? The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ? Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

2012-01-01

143

Markers suggest reduced malignant potential of subsquamous intestinal metaplasia compared with Barrett's esophagus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Esophageal subsquamous intestinal metaplasia (SSIM) is frequently observed in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and can also be found in patients after endoscopic ablative treatments for dysplastic BE. While these 'buried glands' appear identical to BE glands, features of SSIM and its malignant potency have yet to be fully elucidated. To determine differences in malignant potential between nondysplastic BE and SSIM, the Automated Cellular Imaging System was used to assess and compare changes in DNA content between SSIM and BE. Samples were further immunostained for Ki67 and Lgr5 to gauge general proliferative and possible stem cell features, respectively, in SSIM cells compared with BE glands. No significant differences were found between SSIM and BE with regards to DNA ploidy aberrance. However, significant differences were noted between SSIM and BE upon immunohistochemical analysis. SSIM was found to be negative for both Ki67 and Lgr5 while BE was positive for both markers. SSIM cells appear to be relatively quiescent and behave differently from BE, suggesting a reduced proclivity toward cancer progression.

Basavappa M; Weinberg A; Huang Q; Mashimo H

2013-06-01

144

Reduced oral ethanol avoidance in mice lacking transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethanol is a known oral trigeminal stimulant and recent data indicate that these effects are mediated in part by transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). The importance of this receptor in orally mediated ethanol avoidance is presently unknown. Here, we compared orosensory responding to ethanol in TRPV1-deficient and wild type mice in a brief-access paradigm that assesses orosensory influences by measuring immediate licking responses to small stimulus volumes. TRPV1(-/-) and control mice were tested with six concentrations of ethanol (3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 40%), capsaicin (0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mM), sucrose (0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 M), and quinine (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mM) and psychophysical concentration-response functions were generated for each genotype and stimulus. TRPV1 knockouts displayed reduced oral avoidance responses to ethanol regardless of concentration, insensitivity to capsaicin, and little to no difference in sweet or bitter taste responding relative to wild type mice. These data indicate that the TRPV1 channel plays a role in orosensory-mediated ethanol avoidance, but that other receptor mechanisms likely also contribute to aversive oral responses to alcohol.

Ellingson JM; Silbaugh BC; Brasser SM

2009-01-01

145

Reduced oral ethanol avoidance in mice lacking transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol is a known oral trigeminal stimulant and recent data indicate that these effects are mediated in part by transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). The importance of this receptor in orally mediated ethanol avoidance is presently unknown. Here, we compared orosensory responding to ethanol in TRPV1-deficient and wild type mice in a brief-access paradigm that assesses orosensory influences by measuring immediate licking responses to small stimulus volumes. TRPV1(-/-) and control mice were tested with six concentrations of ethanol (3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 40%), capsaicin (0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 mM), sucrose (0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 M), and quinine (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mM) and psychophysical concentration-response functions were generated for each genotype and stimulus. TRPV1 knockouts displayed reduced oral avoidance responses to ethanol regardless of concentration, insensitivity to capsaicin, and little to no difference in sweet or bitter taste responding relative to wild type mice. These data indicate that the TRPV1 channel plays a role in orosensory-mediated ethanol avoidance, but that other receptor mechanisms likely also contribute to aversive oral responses to alcohol. PMID:18839303

Ellingson, Jarrod M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Brasser, Susan M

2008-10-07

146

A study on the potential of metal corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria in animal buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to cause metal corrosion in animal buildings was examined in this study. An analysis was done on the bacterial colonization and the corrosion products on the surfaces of metals exposed to three animal buildings and one environmentally controlled building over a two-year period. Data from this study showed that the levels of SRB on metal surfaces were low after two-year's exposure (maximum count: 1.7 x 10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2}). SRB colonization levels after two years were not sufficient to corrode metal products exposed in animal environments. In addition, metal surface analysis data using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the corrosion compounds formed on the surfaces of different metals were not due to the SERB-induced corrosion mechanisms. These compounds were mainly oxides and carbonates (FeO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe(CO){sub 5} on iron samples; ZnO and ZnCO{sub 3} on galvanized steel samples: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, and ZnCO{sub 3} on Galvalume samples), and were normally generated due to the classic types of corrosion mechanisms. Some sulfur was present to form ZnS on the galvanized steel samples, but might not be attributed to SRB. The origin of this sulfur was not clear.

Zhu, J.; Riskowski, G.L.; Mackie, R.I.

1999-06-01

147

Comparing different types of child abuse and spouse abuse offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined differences in offenders' background characteristics, personal and interpersonal problems, and family climate between three types of child abuse offenders (neglecters, physical abusers, and psychological abusers) and two forms of spouse abuse offenders (physical abusers and psychological abusers) in two large samples (child abuse n = 2,910; spouse abuse; n = 7,035) of cases officially identified over a 8-year period (1988-1995) by the U.S. Air Force Family Advocacy Program. Comparisons addressed demographic factors, personal and interpersonal problems, and aspects of family climate. Among child abusers, results supported the conclusion that types of child abuse varied with offender demographics and family climate factors. For spouse abusers, however, types of abuse were not as distinctly different in terms of the comparison variables. In general, therefore, for child abuse--but not for spouse abuse--findings challenge the view of abuse as a unitary phenomenon.

Pittman JF; Lee CY

2004-04-01

148

Controversies and challenges of ritual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children who have survived ritual abuse have endured physical, psychological, and sexual trauma; brain-washing; and mind-altering drugs. Their trust in adults has been eroded. Their coping strategies include anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation. Although reports of ritual abuse initially seem hard to believe, nurses have a responsibility to detect clues to abuse, diagnose the child's responses, and recognize controversial issues regarding ritual abuse. To evaluate ritual abuse, nurses should avoid interview strategies that influence the child's recall (e.g., coaching, suggestions) and recognize that some reports are discounted as false memories because they emerge from fantasy, distortions, innocent deceptions, false beliefs, lies, or adult coaching. Nurses play an important role in case finding and treatment. They can evaluate clues to ritual abuse to reduce sources of error in assessment, build a child's trust, monitor their own attitudes toward ritual abuse, and intervene to increase self-esteem, empathy, boundary establishment, and coping. Nurses have an important opportunity to detect and begin healing the wounds caused by a child's abuse.

Valente S

2000-11-01

149

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts \\ Substance Abuse and SCI Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and SCI How Family Life Changes After SCI ...

150

Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home » Publications » Research Reports » Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction Methamphetamine: Abuse and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Provides an overview of the latest scientific findings on methamphetamine, including short- and long-term health consequences, effects ...

151

Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... Connect with NIDA : Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ... Strategic Plan Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ...

152

Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse-12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

Stylianou AM; Postmus JL; McMahon S

2013-11-01

153

Measuring Abusive Behaviors: Is Economic Abuse a Unique Form of Abuse?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse-12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

Stylianou AM; Postmus JL; McMahon S

2013-08-01

154

Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse-12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse. PMID:23946140

Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah

2013-08-14

155

Childhood sexual and physical abuse histories, PTSD, depression, and HIV risk outcomes in women injection drug users: a potential mediating pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We explored links between childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/depression, and women injection drug users' (IDUs') risk in 113 women recruited from two syringe exchange sites. More than half (56%) reported CSA, 68% CPA, 23% likely were depressed-only, and 53% likely had PTSD/depression. CSA was associated with sexual (p = 0.003) and drug risk (p = 0.05); CPA was not. CSA was associated with PTSD/depression (p = 0.03); PTSD/depression was associated with sexual (p < 0.01) and drug (p < 0.03) risk. After PTSD/depression adjustment, CSA was no longer associated with sexual or drug risk. These results suggest that women IDUs' CSA-to-risk path is mediated by PTSD/depression.

Plotzker RE; Metzger DS; Holmes WC

2007-11-01

156

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) stimulates autophagy in vascular endothelial cells: a potential role for reducing lipid accumulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea that has beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Autophagy is a cellular process that protects cells from stressful conditions. To determine whether the beneficial effect of EGCG is mediated by a mechanism involving autophagy, the roles of the EGCG-stimulated autophagy in the context of ectopic lipid accumulation were investigated. Treatment with EGCG increased formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? was required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation was significantly impaired by knockdown of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ?. This effect is most likely due to cytosolic Ca(2+) load. To determine whether EGCG affects palmitate-induced lipid accumulation, the effects of EGCG on autophagic flux and co-localization of lipid droplets and autophagolysosomes were examined. EGCG normalized the palmitate-induced impairment of autophagic flux. Accumulation of lipid droplets by palmitate was markedly reduced by EGCG. Blocking autophagosomal degradation opposed the effect of EGCG in ectopic lipid accumulation, suggesting the action of EGCG is through autophagosomal degradation. The mechanism for this could be due to the increased co-localization of lipid droplets and autophagolysosomes. Co-localization of lipid droplets with LC3 and lysosome was dramatically increased when the cells were treated with EGCG and palmitate compared with the cells treated with palmitate alone. Collectively, these findings suggest that EGCG regulates ectopic lipid accumulation through a facilitated autophagic flux and further imply that EGCG may be a potential therapeutic reagent to prevent cardiovascular complications.

Kim HS; Montana V; Jang HJ; Parpura V; Kim JA

2013-08-01

157

Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15  

Science.gov (United States)

The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

Government Accountability Office, 2007

2007-01-01

158

Thymus and adrenal glands in elder abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endogenous glucocorticoid-induced thymic involution is generally considered to be an important finding for determining child abuse. The present study investigated the weight of the thymus and the adrenal glands in elder abuse cases to identify a potential marker for elder abuse. There was no significant difference in the thymus and the adrenal weight between elder abuse and control cases. However, the elder abuse cases in which the duration of abuse was less than 3 months showed a significant increase in the adrenal weight in comparison to control cases. In such cases, histopathological findings showed a loss of intracellular light granules from the zona fasciculata, which might indicate a loss of cholesterol due to the overproduction of glucocorticoid. These results might imply that the elderly, who were maltreated for less than 3 months, were in the early phase of a long-term stress state during which stress-induced overproduction of glucocorticoid was observed in adrenal glands as indicated by Selye. Our results suggest that an increase in adrenal weight may be a potential marker for elder abuse of relatively short periods, especially less than a few months.

Hayashi T; Bunai Y; Ago K; Ago M; Ogata M

2011-12-01

159

Brain MR imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims.

1988-12-02

160

Establishing a domestic abuse care pathway: guidance for practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Domestic abuse is an increasing public health concern, and the relationship between such abuse and poor health is now recognised. Guidance produced in 2012 by Co-ordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse, the Identification and Referral to Improve Safety programme, and the Royal College of General Practitioners encourages general practices to establish a domestic abuse care pathway, so that the correct processes for identifying and responding to domestic abuse are followed. A care pathway is necessary because there is evidence that healthcare professionals' responses to domestic abuse are not always helpful. This guidance has the potential to improve the way that healthcare professionals in primary care respond to domestic abuse. While supporting the guidance, suggestions are made for nurses to develop the care pathway further.

Bradbury-Jones C; Taylor J

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA), is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

R.J. Schneider; P. Ardenghi

2010-01-01

162

Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso/ Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatu (more) ra contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países. Abstract in english The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA), is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SD (more) I abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

Schneider, R.J.; Ardenghi, P.

2010-09-01

163

Testosterone: use, misuse and abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Testosterone is among the oldest drugs in medicine. It has a long efficacy and safety record for its prime role of androgen replacement therapy in men with androgen deficiency. Testosterone and synthetic analogue androgens have also been used in pharmacological androgen therapy (PAT) to produce androgenic effects on marrow, muscle or bone. Although PAT is increasingly being superseded by newer, more expensive drugs, androgens remain cost-effective in many older applications. Androgen misuse is the systematic over-prescribing for unproven medical indications. Misuse is increasingly evident for male ageing ("andropause") and some other clinical conditions. Further trials for new indications for androgens require reliable safety data, but rising costs may make it increasingly attractive to circumvent the need for evidence by promoting off-label mass marketing. Androgen abuse is the illicit self-administration of often massive doses of androgens for non-medical purposes - notably power sports and body building. In parallel with effective detection reducing androgen abuse in elite sports, more focus is needed on non-sporting cosmetic, recreational and occupational androgen abuse. Despite ongoing androgen misuse and abuse, testosterone remains under-prescribed for younger men with classical androgen deficiency that frequently remains undiagnosed.

Handelsman DJ

2006-10-01

164

Testosterone: use, misuse and abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone is among the oldest drugs in medicine. It has a long efficacy and safety record for its prime role of androgen replacement therapy in men with androgen deficiency. Testosterone and synthetic analogue androgens have also been used in pharmacological androgen therapy (PAT) to produce androgenic effects on marrow, muscle or bone. Although PAT is increasingly being superseded by newer, more expensive drugs, androgens remain cost-effective in many older applications. Androgen misuse is the systematic over-prescribing for unproven medical indications. Misuse is increasingly evident for male ageing ("andropause") and some other clinical conditions. Further trials for new indications for androgens require reliable safety data, but rising costs may make it increasingly attractive to circumvent the need for evidence by promoting off-label mass marketing. Androgen abuse is the illicit self-administration of often massive doses of androgens for non-medical purposes - notably power sports and body building. In parallel with effective detection reducing androgen abuse in elite sports, more focus is needed on non-sporting cosmetic, recreational and occupational androgen abuse. Despite ongoing androgen misuse and abuse, testosterone remains under-prescribed for younger men with classical androgen deficiency that frequently remains undiagnosed. PMID:17137434

Handelsman, David J

2006-10-16

165

The potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns and nonenergy emissions. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation, switching from a more carbon-intensive energy source mix to a less intensive mix, and reducing nonenergy emissions. Based on the difference between the two scenarios' results, our conclusions are that it is possible to reduce global warming by over 50% using a combination of conservation and efficiency improvements, increased use of nuclear, geothermal, and solar/renewable energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions. 34 refs.

Aronson, E.A.; Edenburn, M.W.

1989-12-01

166

Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.

Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

2007-01-01

167

African-American crack abusers and drug treatment initiation: barriers and effects of a pretreatment intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Individual and sociocultural factors may pose significant barriers for drug abusers seeking treatment, particularly for African-American crack cocaine abusers. However, there is evidence that pretreatment interventions may reduce treatment initiation barriers. Th...

Wechsberg Wendee M; Zule William A; Riehman Kara S; Luseno Winnie K; Lam Wendy KK

168

Reducing methane emissions from coal mines in China: the potential for coalbed methane development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China`s coalbed methane resources and opportunities for coalbed methane recovery and utilization are assessed. The report also includes an examination of the potential role of coalbed methane in China`s energy economy, and profiles of selected regions with strong coalbed methane potential. It describes the technological advances and experience in coalbed methane development in selected countries which can be considered by the Chinese. Policies to encourage coalbed methane development in China are also discussed.

Sun Maoyuan; Huang Shengchu; Zhu Chao; Li Hongye; Gao Quinchen; Kruger, D.W.; Pilcher, R.C.; Bibler, C.; Lottman-Craigg, L.; Marshall, J.S. [China Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse, Beijing (China)

1995-10-01

169

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

2010-01-01

170

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

1999-01-01

171

Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

2013-08-01

172

Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

1992-01-01

173

Preventing sexually abused young people from becoming abusers, and treating the victimization experiences of young people who offend sexually.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to prevent those sexually abused boys who are at risk of abusing other children from doing so, and to assess whether factors associated with an experience of sexual abuse in young people who are offending can be dealt with as a key aspect of therapeutic work alongside treatment of offending behavior. METHOD: The author examined cross-sectional and longitudinal research which demonstrates the impact on sexually abused children of living in a climate of violence, suffering physical abuse, exposure to abuse of maternal figures, and suffering disruption and poor quality of care and supervision. These factors are confirmed in prospective research. RESULTS: The application of these findings to therapeutic programs for boys who are sexually abused is described, including the assessment of care needs as well as the specific therapeutic work with the young person, and work to modify the family context. The specific treatment of victimization experiences in young people who have committed sexual offenses is also examined, with recommendations for modification of treatment approaches suggested. CONCLUSION: It is vital in therapeutic work with boy victims of sexual abuse that the issue of their abusive potential be considered, even if a relatively small proportion of such boys will go on to abuse others. Given that boys who do sexually abuse are likely to have grown up in a climate of violence and poor care, methods of dealing with such victimization experiences need to be developed alongside offending focused treatments.

Bentovim A

2002-06-01

174

Prevention of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts to prevent child sexual abuse have taken a distinctly different path from efforts to prevent the physical abuse of children. Currently, child sexual abuse prevention is virtually synonymous with group-based instruction for children on personal safety, and it appears that most schools and many after-school programs provide some form of group-based sexual abuse prevention education. Many evaluations have assessed the impact of these efforts. Seventeen studies employing random assignment to treatment and control groups are summarized in Table 1 on page 206, and 21 additional studies using quasi-experimental designs are briefly reviewed in the article text. Most studies conclude that children do learn from the experience, although such learning is neither universal nor comprehensive. Most evaluations measure the child's knowledge but are unable to assess whether a gain in knowledge will lead to a sustained beneficial change in the child's behavior. In an effort to focus on behavior change, child safety programs increasingly utilize role playing and participant modeling. A major benefit of personal safety education programs may be an increased rate of disclosures by children of past or present abuse. A major area of concern may be the potential for safety education programs to engender fear and anxiety in children Research on negative impacts is limited, and results have been mixed. The author concludes that prevention programs overall have beneficial impacts, which are strongest for children 7 to 12 years old. Characteristics of promising programs are summarized. The article concludes with suggestions for expanding prevention efforts to include public and parent education, life skills training for young adults, support groups for vulnerable children and adults, and intervention for identified victims and perpetrators.

Daro DA

1994-01-01

175

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practi...

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

176

Response to comments on "Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commenters objected to the way that we counted matings and offspring to calculate Bateman slopes and disagreed with our contention that predation on offspring can decrease the potential for sexual selection. We clarify what may have been misunderstandings to argue that our methods, analyses, and conclusions are correct.

Byers J; Dunn S

2013-05-01

177

Childhood abuse and stress generation: the mediational effect of depressogenic cognitive styles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, each uniquely predicted negative dependent events in individuals with a history of depression. The role of negative inferential styles as a potential mediator was also assessed. A sample of 66 adults with a history of depression completed self-report measures of childhood abuse history and negative inferential styles at baseline. The "contextual threat" method was used to assess the occurrence of negative life events over a 4-month prospective follow-up period. Childhood emotional abuse, but not sexual or physical abuse, prospectively predicted greater stress generation. Negative inferential styles mediated this relation. These findings suggest that targeting negative cognitive styles in clinical settings, especially in patients with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may be important for reducing the occurrence of negative life events, thereby possibly decreasing risk for depression recurrence.

Liu RT; Choi JY; Boland EM; Mastin BM; Alloy LB

2013-04-01

178

A potential practical approach to reduce Ara h 6 allergenicity by gamma irradiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peanut allergen Ara h 6 was isolated and irradiated at 1, 3, 5, or 10 kGy, and a whole peanut protein extract (WPPE) was also treated by irradiation. Alteration in structure of Ara h 6 was characterised by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE, and antigenicity was evaluated by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA with anti-Ara h 6 polyclonal antibody. Irradiation induced significant changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of Ara h 6, and the antigenicity of both purified Ara h 6 and WPPE were reduced upon increasing the irradiation doses. Moreover, a good correlation between the loss in ?-helix and IgG binding to Ara h 6 was observed. This indicated that irradiation might be an efficient approach to reduce or eliminate peanut allergenicity.

Luo C; Hu C; Gao J; Li X; Wu Z; Yang A; Chen H

2013-02-01

179

The unaccounted yet abundant nitrous oxide-reducing microbial community: a potential nitrous oxide sink.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a major radiative forcing and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas emitted from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It can be transformed to nitrogen gas (N(2)) by bacteria and archaea harboring the N(2)O reductase (N(2)OR), which is the only known N(2)O sink in the biosphere. Despite its crucial role in mitigating N(2)O emissions, knowledge of the N(2)OR in the environment remains limited. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the nosZ gene coding the N(2)OR in genomes retrieved from public databases. The resulting phylogeny revealed two distinct clades of nosZ, with one unaccounted for in studies investigating N(2)O-reducing communities. Examination of N(2)OR structural elements not considered in the phylogeny revealed that the two clades differ in their signal peptides, indicating differences in the translocation pathway of the N(2)OR across the membrane. Sequencing of environmental clones of the previously undetected nosZ lineage in various environments showed that it is widespread and diverse. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate that this clade was most often at least as abundant as the other, thereby more than doubling the known extent of the overall N(2)O-reducing community in the environment. Furthermore, we observed that the relative abundance of nosZ from either clade varied among habitat types and environmental conditions. Our results indicate a physiological dichotomy in the diversity of N(2)O-reducing microorganisms, which might be of importance for understanding the relationship between the diversity of N(2)O-reducing microorganisms and N(2)O reduction in different ecosystems.

Jones CM; Graf DR; Bru D; Philippot L; Hallin S

2013-02-01

180

SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

Ahmed Nadeem; Bano Rubeena; Agarwal V.K; Kalakoti Piyush

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000): 393-407

Muge Gulen; Abdulkadir Akturk; Selen Acehan; Mustafa Sencer Segmen; Ayca Acikalin; Aysegul Bilen

2013-01-01

182

Podiatric medical considerations in dealing with elder abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The geriatric population is expanding at a rapid rate. With greater numbers of elderly patient visits to the podiatric medical office, the likelihood of difficult psychosocial problems increases. Elder abuse is potentially a serious health risk and the need for the podiatric physician to identify and report elder abuse is a professional and, in many cases, a legal responsibility. The authors identify the signs and symptoms of elder abuse and methods to address this difficult and perplexing problem.

Anetzberger G; Robbins JM

1994-07-01

183

Potential of Best Practice to Reduce Impacts from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon  

Science.gov (United States)

The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Powers, Bill

2013-01-01

184

Potential health benefit of reducing household solid fuel use in Shanxi province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use has severe health effects. 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where most people rely on solid fuels for cooking and heating. We estimate exposure by combining information on the amount of time spent in different microenvironments and estimates of the particle concentrations (PM{sub 10}) in these environments. According to our estimates, 70% of the exposure experienced by the rural population is due to indoor air pollution (IAP). The urban coal using population experience a 17% increase in exposure from IAP. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to quantify variability and uncertainty in the exposure, morbidity and mortality estimates. We find that applying Monte Carlo simulations reduces the estimated uncertainty compared to analytical methods based on approximate distributions and the central limit theorem. We find that annually about 4% (geometric S.D. {sigma}{sub g}, 3.2) and 35% ({sigma}{sub g}, 2.6) of the deaths in the urban and rural populations, respectively, could be avoided by switching to clean fuels. Upgrading the stoves in rural areas to the standard found in urban areas is estimated to reduce mortality by 23% ({sigma}{sub g}, 3.1). Moreover, we estimate that chronic respiratory illness (CRI) in children can be reduced by, respectively, about 9% ({sigma}{sub g}, 2.5) and 80% ({sigma}{sub g} 1.9) by switching to clean fuels in the urban and rural areas. Upgrading the stoves in rural areas is estimated to reduce CRI in children with about 58% ({sigma}{sub g} 2.3). For adults the reduction in CRI was estimated to be 6% ({sigma}{sub g} 2.4) and 45% ({sigma}{sub g} 1.8) for the urban and rural population following a fuel switch, and 31% ({sigma}{sub g} 2.4) for the rural population from stove improvements. Contrary to our expectations we find small gender differences in exposure. We ascribe that to comparable kitchen and living area concentrations and similar indoor occupation times for the genders. Young children and the elderly spend the most time indoors, and have the highest daily exposure in the coal using population. The rural population experience higher exposure than the urban population, even though the outdoor air is significantly cleaner in rural areas. (author)

Staff Mestl, Heidi Elizabeth [Oslo University College, Faculty of Engineering, P.O. Box 4 St. Olavs plass, Cort Adelersgt. 30, 0130 Oslo (Norway); Aunan, Kristin [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, P.O. Box 1129 Blindern, Gaustadalleen 21, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Seip, Hans Martin [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, Sem Saelands vei 26, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

2006-12-15

185

The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

Monsler, M.J.

1987-02-25

186

The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

1987-01-01

187

A constrained reduced-dimensionality search algorithm to follow chemical reactions on potential energy surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A constrained reduced-dimensionality algorithm can be used to efficiently locate transition states and products in reactions involving conformational changes. The search path (SP) is constructed stepwise from linear combinations of a small set of manually chosen internal coordinates, namely the predictors. The majority of the internal coordinates, the correctors, are optimized at every step of the SP to minimize the total energy of the system so that the path becomes a minimum energy path connecting products and transition states with the reactants. Problems arise when the set of predictors needs to include weak coordinates, for example, dihedral angles, as well as strong ones such as bond distances. Two principal constraining methods for the weak coordinates are proposed to mend this situation: static and dynamic constraints. Dynamic constraints are automatically activated and revoked depending on the state of the weak coordinates among the predictors, while static ones require preset control factors and act permanently. All these methods enable the successful application (4 reactions are presented involving cyclohexane, alanine dipeptide, trimethylsulfonium chloride, and azafulvene) of the reduced dimensionality method to reactions where the reaction path covers large conformational changes in addition to the formation/breaking of chemical bonds. Dynamic constraints are found to be the most efficient method as they require neither additional information about the geometry of the transition state nor fine tuning of control parameters.

Lankau, Timm; Yu, Chin-Hui

2013-06-01

188

A constrained reduced-dimensionality search algorithm to follow chemical reactions on potential energy surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A constrained reduced-dimensionality algorithm can be used to efficiently locate transition states and products in reactions involving conformational changes. The search path (SP) is constructed stepwise from linear combinations of a small set of manually chosen internal coordinates, namely the predictors. The majority of the internal coordinates, the correctors, are optimized at every step of the SP to minimize the total energy of the system so that the path becomes a minimum energy path connecting products and transition states with the reactants. Problems arise when the set of predictors needs to include weak coordinates, for example, dihedral angles, as well as strong ones such as bond distances. Two principal constraining methods for the weak coordinates are proposed to mend this situation: static and dynamic constraints. Dynamic constraints are automatically activated and revoked depending on the state of the weak coordinates among the predictors, while static ones require preset control factors and act permanently. All these methods enable the successful application (4 reactions are presented involving cyclohexane, alanine dipeptide, trimethylsulfonium chloride, and azafulvene) of the reduced dimensionality method to reactions where the reaction path covers large conformational changes in addition to the formation/breaking of chemical bonds. Dynamic constraints are found to be the most efficient method as they require neither additional information about the geometry of the transition state nor fine tuning of control parameters.

Lankau T; Yu CH

2013-06-01

189

Intergroup contact as a tool for reducing, resolving, and preventing intergroup conflict: Evidence, limitations, and potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting examples from conflict zones around the world. Rather than accepting, as some scholars do, that conflict is inevitable, we argue that intergroup contact, in its various forms, can play a pivotal and preemptive role in conflict prevention. We suggest that a blunt application of contact theory, particularly when groups are of unequal status, can have some unfortunate consequences, and contact interventions can, and should, be designed to overcome these pitfalls. We argue that, ultimately, contact is a powerful tool that needs to be used alongside other means of conflict reduction, resolution, and prevention in order to frame sound public policy and build lasting peace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Al Ramiah A; Hewstone M

2013-10-01

190

The potential for reducing urban air temperatures and energy consumption through vegetative cooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A network of 23 weather stations was used to detect existing oases in Southern California. Four stations, separated from one another by 15--25 miles (24--40 km), were closely examined. Data were strongly affected by the distance of the stations from the Pacific Ocean. This and other city-scale effects made the network inadequate for detection of urban oases. We also conducted traverse measurements of temperature and humidity in the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in Los Angeles County on September 8--10, 1993. Near-surface air temperatures over vegetated areas were 1--2{degrees}C lower than background air temperatures. We estimate that vegetation may lower urban temperatures by 1{degrees}C, while the establishment of vegetative canopies may lower local temperatures by an additional 2{degrees}C. An increase in vegetation in residential neighborhoods may reduce peak loads in the Los Angeles area by 0.3 GW, and reduce energy consumption by 0.2 BkWh/year, saving $20 million annually. Large additional savings would result from regional cooling.

Kurn, D.M.; Bretz, S.E.; Huang, B.; Akbari, H.

1994-05-01

191

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.W.MORRIS,S.C.MOSKOWITZ,P.D.

2001-09-01

192

Reducing the power loss potential in commercial vehicles. Verringerung des Verlustleistungspotentials bei Nutzfahrzeugen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to aerodynamic drag, the rolling resistances constitute the highest power loss potential. In this paper a selection of representative standard-production tyres of a heavyduty tractor/semitrailer combination is used as an example to demonstrate the wide range of tyre rolling resistance and its influence on overall drag, fuel consumption and economy. The effects of all measures - improved aerodynamics, drive train optimization, tyres with low rolling resistance - on the fuel consumption and economy of the investigated tractor/semitrailer are quantified. In addition, the influence of important factors on tyre rolling resistance and fuel consumption is explained. (orig./HW)

Porth, D.; Kraemer, W.

1993-12-01

193

Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual selection is driven by competition for mates, and the advantage of a competitor is determined by the number of offspring it produces. Early experiments by Angus Bateman characterized this interaction, and the quantitative relationship between a male's number of mates and number of offspring is known as the Bateman slope. Sexual dimorphism, one of the most obvious results of sexual selection, largely requires a positive Bateman relationship, and the slope provides an estimate of the potential for sexual selection. However, natural selection from the environment can also influence male success, as can random effects, and some have argued for inclusion of the latter in calculations of mate success. Data from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) reveal the presence of a positive Bateman slope in each year of a 10-year study. We found no evidence that random effects skewed male mating success; however, substantial yearly variation in the Bateman slope due to predation on fawns was evident. These results support the validity of the Bateman relationship, yet they also demonstrate that environmental or extrinsic influences can limit the potential for sexual selection.

Byers J; Dunn S

2012-11-01

194

A potential new commercial method for processing leather to reduce environmental impact.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Current leather processing method involves dehairing and fibre opening employing lime and sulphide, which results in higher negative impact on the environment due to its uncleanness. This method of dehairing and fibre-opening process accounts for nearly 70-80% biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in tannery wastewater and also the generation of H(2)S gas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hence, an attempt has been made to reduce the environmental impact of the leather processing through a biochemical approach, employing proteolytic enzyme and sodium metasilicate for performing the above process more cleanly. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The developed process exhibits significant reduction in environmental parametres such as COD and total solid loads by 55% and 25%, respectively. This method completely avoids the formation of lime sludge. CONCLUSION: The functional properties of the leathers are also on par with conventionally processed leathers. Further, the process seems to be commercially viable.

Bhavan S; Rao JR; Nair BU

2008-06-01

195

Potentialities for reducing the concentration of benz(a)pyrene in resins of shale gas generators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is established that in reprocessing shale in gas-generators the concentration of benz(a)pyrene in generator resins is in limits of 40-100 mg/kg, and that it does not depend on the temperature regime and throughput for the units for shale. The main source of formation of benz(a)pyrene in gas generators is high-temperature pyrolysis in the furnace devices of uncondensed resins contained in the reverse gas. The concentration of the indicated carcinogen in the generator resin depends primarily on the efficiency of operation of the condensation systems of the gas-generator stations and with an increase in it, the content of benz(a)pyrene in the resin can be reduced to 40 mg/kg and lower.

Yefimov, V.M.; Aranovich, Yu.V.

1981-01-01

196

Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet.

Daugirdas JT

2013-01-01

197

Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Sinéad Lordan; R. Paul Ross; Catherine Stanton

2011-01-01

198

The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

Kingsley C. Anukam

2007-01-01

199

Demonstration of the lapachol as a potential drug for reducing cancer metastasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metastasis is the major process responsible for the death in cancer patients. In the search for more effective antineoplasic drugs, many substances are under investigation, among them lapachol. This study aims to examine the molecular and morphological alterations caused by lapachol treatment, as well as its effects on the intrinsic tissue invasive property of this cell line. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations of lapachol, and the resulting alterations on cellular protein profile, morphology and invasiveness property were studied. At 400 microg/ml, cellular viability remains unchanged, but lapachol induces alterations in the protein profile and inhibits the invasiveness of HeLa cells in CAM model. With these results, we can conclude that lapachol has a great potential of application in fighting metastasis. PMID:15643520

Balassiano, Ilana Teruszkin; De Paulo, Sheila Alves; Henriques Silva, Nathalie; Cabral, Maulori Curié; da Gloria da Costa Carvalho, Maria

2005-02-01

200

Demonstration of the lapachol as a potential drug for reducing cancer metastasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metastasis is the major process responsible for the death in cancer patients. In the search for more effective antineoplasic drugs, many substances are under investigation, among them lapachol. This study aims to examine the molecular and morphological alterations caused by lapachol treatment, as well as its effects on the intrinsic tissue invasive property of this cell line. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations of lapachol, and the resulting alterations on cellular protein profile, morphology and invasiveness property were studied. At 400 microg/ml, cellular viability remains unchanged, but lapachol induces alterations in the protein profile and inhibits the invasiveness of HeLa cells in CAM model. With these results, we can conclude that lapachol has a great potential of application in fighting metastasis.

Balassiano IT; De Paulo SA; Henriques Silva N; Cabral MC; da Gloria da Costa Carvalho M

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Wicked problems or wicked people? Reconceptualising institutional abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Institutional abuse is a global issue, sometimes ascribed to the behaviour of a few wicked people. It persists despite regulatory measures, interventions from enforcement and protection agencies, organisational policies and procedures. Therefore, the accurate recognition and early detection of abuse and taking corresponding steps to deal with perpetrators are critical elements in protecting vulnerable people who live in institutions. However, research is less clear about why and how abuse (re)occurs. Using the tame and wicked problem analysis of Rittell and Webber (1973) as a lens, we examine the ways institutional abuse is formulated in care settings. Drawing on case study data from eight care homes for older people, we show how solutions seeking to reduce institutional abuse and improve care quality can cause additional problems. The article reconceptualises institutional abuse through the lens of wicked problem analysis to illustrate the multifaceted and recurring, wicked problem characteristics of residential care provision.

Burns D; Hyde P; Killett A

2013-05-01

202

Effects of Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Listen to this page Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse hurts the people who take drugs AND the people around them, including families , kids , and ... HIV/AIDS Click here to learn more about effects of specific drugs . VIDEO: Why Are Drugs So ...

203

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed...

Muge Gulen; Abdulkadir Akturk; Selen Acehan; Mustafa Sencer Segmen; Ayca Acikalin; Aysegul Bilen

204

Adolescent substance abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have become a drug-oriented society. Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addition is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse.

Thorne CR; DeBlassie RR

1985-01-01

205

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and SCI Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and SCI How Family Life Changes After SCI ...

206

Elder Abuse Awareness Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

Goettler, Darla

207

"Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

Misch, Donald A.

2007-01-01

208

Recreational Drugs of Abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

Albertson TE

2013-07-01

209

Exploring the potential of an electronic documentation system to reduce length of stay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electronic patient records are important in patient data management. Aim of this 2-year study was to investigate the effect of an e-documentation system on the ED length of stay. The study compared three length of stay parameters with and without the use of a prototype e-documentation system. 99 of trauma patients were monitored with the use of the electronic system and 101 patients (control group) were monitored with traditional methods. Time between the admission and completion of care was significantly lower in the e-documentation group (100±92 minutes, control group: 149±29 minutes). Similar effect was also found to the total ED length of stay (127±93 vs. 206±41 minutes) and time between completion of care and ED exit (26±10 vs. 57±23 minutes). LOS was reduced with the e-documentation system. This is important for the quality of trauma patient care, since saving time during the first hours after the accident usually determines the outcome of trauma patients.

Mantas J; Zikos D; Diomidous M

2013-01-01

210

Gametocyte dynamics and the role of drugs in reducing the transmission potential of Plasmodium vivax.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Designing interventions that will reduce transmission of vivax malaria requires knowledge of Plasmodium vivax gametocyte dynamics. METHODS: We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial in northwestern Thailand and 2 trials in Papua, Indonesia, to identify and compare risk factors for vivax gametocytemia at enrollment and following treatment. RESULTS: A total of 492 patients with P. vivax infections from Thailand and 476 patients (162 with concurrent falciparum parasitemia) from Indonesia were evaluable. Also, 84.3% (415/492) and 66.6% (209/314) of patients with monoinfection were gametocytemic at enrollment, respectively. The ratio of gametocytemia to asexual parasitemia did not differ between acute and recurrent infections (P = .48 in Thailand, P = .08 in Indonesia). High asexual parasitemia was associated with an increased risk of gametocytemia during follow-up in both locations. In Thailand, the cumulative incidence of gametocytemia between day 7 and day 42 following dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine (DHA + PIP) was 6.92% vs 29.1% following chloroquine (P < .001). In Indonesia, the incidence of gametocytemia was 33.6% following artesunate + amodiaquine (AS + AQ), 7.42% following artemether + lumefantrine, and 6.80% following DHA + PIP (P < .001 for DHA + PIP vs AS + AQ). CONCLUSIONS: P. vivax gametocyte carriage mirrors asexual-stage infection. Prevention of relapses, particularly in those with high asexual parasitemia, is likely the most important strategy for interrupting P. vivax transmission.

Douglas NM; Simpson JA; Phyo AP; Siswantoro H; Hasugian AR; Kenangalem E; Poespoprodjo JR; Singhasivanon P; Anstey NM; White NJ; Tjitra E; Nosten F; Price RN

2013-09-01

211

The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

1991-01-01

212

Development and agronomical validation of new fertilizer compositions of high bioavailability and reduced potential nutrient losses.  

Science.gov (United States)

To optimize the economical cost of each unit of fertilizer applied and to reduce the environmental contamination caused by nutrient losses, the development of highly efficient granulated fertilizers is of great importance. This study proposes a strategy that consists of developing specific fertilizers having nutrient release patterns that are dependent on plant activity in the rhizosphere. This type of fertilizer is named "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" (RCF fertilizer). This fertilizer is based on the introduction of an organomineral matrix composed of metal [Mg (Ca is also possible), Zn (Fe and other metals are also possible)]-humic phosphates. The presence of this matrix modifies the nutrient release pattern of the fertilizer. In this way there are two main nutrient fractions: (i) a water-soluble fraction or "starter" fraction and (ii) a "rhizosphere-controlled" fraction insoluble in water but soluble by the action of the rhizospheric acids released by plants and microorganisms. This study shows the chemical and structural characterization of the organomineral matrix, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrient release rate of the RCF fertilizer, principally with respect to P and N. It is demonstrated how these properties of the matrix were also reflected in the significant reduction in both ammonia volatilization and N leaching in a pot system consisting of wheat plants cultivated in a calcareous soil and fertilized with a RCF fertilizer. PMID:17708642

Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; San Francisco, Sara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

2007-08-21

213

Development and agronomical validation of new fertilizer compositions of high bioavailability and reduced potential nutrient losses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To optimize the economical cost of each unit of fertilizer applied and to reduce the environmental contamination caused by nutrient losses, the development of highly efficient granulated fertilizers is of great importance. This study proposes a strategy that consists of developing specific fertilizers having nutrient release patterns that are dependent on plant activity in the rhizosphere. This type of fertilizer is named "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" (RCF fertilizer). This fertilizer is based on the introduction of an organomineral matrix composed of metal [Mg (Ca is also possible), Zn (Fe and other metals are also possible)]-humic phosphates. The presence of this matrix modifies the nutrient release pattern of the fertilizer. In this way there are two main nutrient fractions: (i) a water-soluble fraction or "starter" fraction and (ii) a "rhizosphere-controlled" fraction insoluble in water but soluble by the action of the rhizospheric acids released by plants and microorganisms. This study shows the chemical and structural characterization of the organomineral matrix, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrient release rate of the RCF fertilizer, principally with respect to P and N. It is demonstrated how these properties of the matrix were also reflected in the significant reduction in both ammonia volatilization and N leaching in a pot system consisting of wheat plants cultivated in a calcareous soil and fertilized with a RCF fertilizer.

Erro J; Urrutia O; San Francisco S; Garcia-Mina JM

2007-09-01

214

Psychological profile of male and female animal abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who reported two or more incidents of animal abuse; controls were 29 college students matched on age and gender. Participants completed self-report measures of criminal thinking, illegal behaviors, bullying, empathy, and the five-factor personality traits. Results indicated animal abusers had more previous criminal behaviors, were more likely to bully, and had the highest scores on the power orientation criminal thinking scale. Abuser by gender interactions were detected; female animal abusers scored significantly higher on several measures of criminal thinking, were found to be more likely to bully, and exhibited lower scores on measures of perspective taking and empathy compared to female controls. PMID:22007108

Schwartz, Rebecca L; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L

2011-10-16

215

Psychological profile of male and female animal abusers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who reported two or more incidents of animal abuse; controls were 29 college students matched on age and gender. Participants completed self-report measures of criminal thinking, illegal behaviors, bullying, empathy, and the five-factor personality traits. Results indicated animal abusers had more previous criminal behaviors, were more likely to bully, and had the highest scores on the power orientation criminal thinking scale. Abuser by gender interactions were detected; female animal abusers scored significantly higher on several measures of criminal thinking, were found to be more likely to bully, and exhibited lower scores on measures of perspective taking and empathy compared to female controls.

Schwartz RL; Fremouw W; Schenk A; Ragatz LL

2012-03-01

216

Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

Özlem Karaku?

2012-01-01

217

Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake and qualitatively by light microscopy of histological sections. One-way analyses of variance at the 0.05 level revealed no significant difference in strontium 85 uptake of the different groups, and no qualitative differences in osteoinduction could be detected by light microscopy. Ossicles consisting of bone and bone marrow were seen in the recovered implants of all groups.

Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M

1995-01-01

218

Drug abuse in Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apart from cannabis abuse in northern and southern Africa and khat chewing in north-eastern Africa, the history of drug abuse in Africa is relatively short. The abuse of drugs in Africa is nevertheless escalating rapidly from cannabis abuse to the more dangerous drugs and from limited groups of drug users to a wider range of people abusing drugs. The most common and available drug of abuse is still cannabis, which is known to be a contributing factor to the occurrence of a schizophrenic-like psychosis. The trafficking in and abuse of cocaine and heroin are the most recent developments in some African countries that had had no previous experience with these drugs. Efforts should be made to design and implement drug abuse assessment programmes to determine the real magnitude and characteristics of the problem and to monitor its trends. A lack of funds and a shortage of adequately trained personnel have made it difficult to implement drug abuse control programmes. In addition to formal drug control involving the implementation of legislation, there is an informal system of drug abuse control operating through the family, church, school, neighbourhood and work environment, as well as healthy recreational activities. It is suggested that efforts in African countries should be directed towards strengthening not only the formal drug control system but also informal control in order to compensate for the insufficient funds and the shortage of personnel trained in implementing formal drug control measures. It is very likely that the drug problems in African countries will worsen in future unless more effective measures are implemented to arrest the current situation.

Asuni T; Pela OA

1986-01-01

219

[Anabolic steroid abuse and mental disorder  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The literature on the psychiatric aspects of anabolic steroids (AS) abuse in the United States is reviewed. Since the 1980s the use of AS has become prevalent among adults and adolescents who are concerned with muscle size and strength, and the abuse of these agents is regarded as a serious drug problem. Researchers noticed that illicit, high-dose use of AS may produce not only somatic adverse effects but behavioral changes. Several studies using psychometry and questionnaires suggested that characteristic psychological phenomena such as increased aggression and irritability may be observed in AS abusers. Although the evidence determining the addictive potential of AS is limited, some authors provide evidence that the long-term use of AS may lead to a mental disorder which meets the DSM-III-R criteria of psychoactive substance abuse. Detailed case reports of AS-induced mental disorders are scarce, but characteristic symptoms, particularly major mood disturbances, have been recognized. Violent crimes committed by abusers taking large doses of AS have also been highlighted. In these cases the dangerous behavior appears to have been induced by aggression, grandiosity, and rage. This review indicates that empirical data specifying psychiatric effects of AS are not sufficient at present, and more attention needs to be paid to trends in AS abuse in Japan.

Nakatani Y; Udagawa M

1995-10-01

220

Potentiation of GABAA receptor activity by volatile anaesthetics is reduced by ?5GABAA receptor-preferring inverse agonists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that memory deficits in the early post-anaesthetic period can be prevented by pre-treatment with an inverse agonist that preferentially inhibits ?5 subunit-containing ?-aminobutyric acid type A (?5GABA(A)) receptors. The goal of this in vitro study was to determine whether inverse agonists that inhibit ?5GABA(A) receptors reduce anaesthetic potentiation of GABAA receptor activity. METHODS: Cultures of hippocampal neurones were prepared from Swiss white mice, wild-type mice (genetic background C57BL/6J and Sv129Ev) and ?5GABA(A)receptor null mutant (Gabra5-/-) mice. Whole-cell voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of the ?5GABA(A) receptor-preferring inverse agonists L-655,708 and MRK-016 on anaesthetic potentiation of GABA-evoked currents. RESULTS: L-655,708 (50 nM) reduced sevoflurane potentiation of GABA-evoked current in wild-type neurones but not Gabra5-/- neurones, and produced a rightward shift in the sevoflurane concentration-response plot [sevoflurane EC50: 1.9 (0.1) mM; sevoflurane+L-655,708 EC(50): 2.4 (0.2) mM, P<0.05]. Similarly, L-655,708 (50 nM) reduced isoflurane potentiation of GABA-evoked current [isoflurane: 4.0 (0.6) pA pF(-1); isoflurane+L-655,708: 3.1 (0.5) pA pF(-1), P<0.01]. MRK-016 also reduced sevoflurane and isoflurane enhancement of GABA-evoked current [sevoflurane: 1.5 (0.1) pA pF(-1); sevoflurane+MRK-016 (10 nM): 1.2 (0.1) pA pF(-1), P<0.05; isoflurane: 3.5 (0.3) pA pF(-1); isoflurane+MRK-016 (1 nM): 2.9 (0.2) pA pF(-1), P<0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: L-655,708 and MRK-016 reduced the potentiation by inhaled anaesthetics of GABAA receptor activated by a low concentration of GABA. Future studies are required to determine whether this effect contributes to the memory preserving properties of inverse agonists after anaesthesia.

Lecker I; Yin Y; Wang DS; Orser BA

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

Launay Guillaume; Mendez Raul; Wodak Shoshana; Simonson Thomas

2007-01-01

222

Estimating a mosquito repellent’s potential to reduce malaria in communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Probability models for assessing a mosquito repellent’s potential toreduce malaria transmission are not readily available to public health researchers. To provide ameans for estimating the epidemiological efficacy of mosquito repellents in communities, wedeveloped a simple mathematical model.Study design: A static probability model is presented to simulate malaria infection in a communityduring a single transmission season. The model includes five parameters—sporozoite rate, humaninfection rate, biting pressure, repellent efficacy, and product-acceptance rate.Interventions: The model assumes that a certain percentage of the population uses a personalmosquito repellent over the course of a seven-month transmission season and that this repellentmaintains a constant rate of protective efficacy against the bites of malaria vectors.Main outcome measures: This model measures the probability of evading malaria infection underdiverse circumstances, e.g. vector biting pressure, repellent efficacy, and product acceptance.Results & conclusion: Absolute protection using mosquito repellents alone requires high rates ofrepellent efficacy and product acceptance may vary. Using performance data from a highly effectiverepellent, the model estimates an 88.9% reduction of infections over a seven-month transmissionseason. A corresponding reduction in the incidence of super-infection in community members notcompletely evading infection can also be presumed. Thus, the model shows that mass distributionof a repellent with >98% efficacy and >98% product acceptance would suppress new malariainfections to levels lower than those achieved with insecticide treated nets (ITNs). A combinationof both interventions could create synergies that result in reductions of disease burden significantlygreater than with the use of ITNs alone.

A.E. Kiszewski, S.T. Darling

2010-01-01

223

The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the US, 34% of adults currently meet the criteria for the metabolic syndrome defined by elevated waist circumference, plasma triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose and/or blood pressure, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). While these cardiometabolic risk factors can be treated with medication, lifestyle modification is strongly recommended as a first-line approach. The purpose of this review is to focus on the effect of physical activity interventions and, specifically, on the potential benefits of incorporating higher intensity exercise. Several recent studies have suggested that compared with continuous moderate exercise (CME), high-intensity interval training (HIT) may result in a superior or equal improvement in fitness and cardiovascular health. HIT is comprised of brief periods of high-intensity exercise interposed with recovery periods at a lower intensity. The premise of using HIT in both healthy and clinical populations is that the vigorous activity segments promote greater adaptations via increased cellular stress, yet their short length, and the ensuing recovery intervals, allow even untrained individuals to work harder than would otherwise be possible at steady-state intensity. In this review, we examine the impact of HIT on cardiometabolic risk factors, anthropometric measures of obesity and cardiovascular fitness in both healthy and clinical populations with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The effects of HIT versus CME on health outcomes were compared in 14 of the 24 studies featuring HIT. Exercise programmes ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. All 17 studies that measured aerobic fitness and all seven studies that measured insulin sensitivity showed significant improvement in response to HIT, although these changes did not always exceed responses to CME comparison groups. A minimum duration of 12 weeks was necessary to demonstrate improvement in fasting glucose in four of seven studies (57%). A minimum duration of 8 weeks of HIT was necessary to demonstrate improvement in HDL-C in three of ten studies (30%). No studies reported that HIT resulted in improvement of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or TG. At least 12 weeks of HIT was required for reduction in blood pressure to emerge in five studies of participants not already being treated for hypertension. A minimum duration of 12 weeks was necessary to see consistent improvement in the six studies that examined anthropometric measures of obesity in overweight/obese individuals. In the 13 studies with a matched-exercise-volume CME group, improvement in aerobic fitness in response to HIT was equal to (5 studies), or greater than (8 studies) in response to CME. Additionally, HIT has been shown to be safe and effective in patients with a range of cardiac and metabolic dysfunction. In conclusion, HIT appears to promote superior improvements in aerobic fitness and similar improvements in some cardiometabolic risk factors in comparison to CME, when performed by healthy subjects or clinical patients for at least 8-12 weeks. Future studies need to address compliance and efficacy of HIT in the real world with a variety of populations.

Kessler HS; Sisson SB; Short KR

2012-06-01

224

Child Abuse in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2011-01-01

225

Hydrotime model can describe the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds to temperature and reduced water potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germination parameters of the response to temperature and water potential from four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines based on thermal-time and hydrotime concepts were estimated to verify to what extent they can predict germination under different thermal and water conditions. The cultivars IPR Uirapuru and IAPAR 81 (drought-tolerant), and Grauna and Carioca (not tolerant) were used. The isothermal assays were performed in a temperature gradient block, and the assays with different osmotic potentials (PEG 6000) were performed in germination chambers. Seeds from drought-tolerant cultivars spent less time to germinate at supra-optimum temperatures than non-tolerant ones, and the cultivar Uirapuru (drought-tolerant) germinated faster in response to reduced Y and low temperatures. The parameter Yb(50) did not discriminate between drought-tolerant and non-tolerant lines at the infra-optimum temperature range, but it can be used to identify drought-tolerant lines at high temperatures. In general, the hydrotime model reproduced the actual germination data relatively well, chiefly at higher temperatures. This study evidenced that the hydrotime model can be used to describe the germination of common bean seeds under reduced water potentials, and as a screening tool for drought-tolerant bean genotypes.

Victor José Mendes Cardoso; André Bianconi

2013-01-01

226

Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative heal...

Hunter Charlotte; Strike Carol; Barnaby Lorraine; Busch Adam; Marshall Chantel; Shepherd Susan; Hopkins Shaun

227

Potential of controlled anaerobic wastewater treatment in order to reduce the global emissions of methane and carbon dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An estimation is made of the current global methane and carbon dioxide emissions from waste water treatment and disposal. Furthermore, the potential of controlled anaerobic treatment to reduce these emissions is investigated. Considered waste waters are: domestic waste water and waste water from the food and beverage and pulp and paper industry. The current methane emission is estimated to be about 5 Tg/y, and is mainly the result of uncontrolled degradation of untreated waste water in developing countries. Carbon dioxide emission is estimated to be 15 Tg/y, which is mainly due to aerobic waste water treatment in the developed countries. Anaerobic waste water treatment, provided a minimization of the percentage methane loss and an optimal reuse of biogas, can significantly reduce the current emissions. 3 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

Lexmond, M.J.; Zeeman, G. [Department of Environmental Technology, Agricultural University of Wageningen, Wageningen (Netherlands)

1995-12-31

228

The potential mechanisms of reduced incidence of ventricular fibrillation as the presenting rhythm in sudden cardiac arrest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In the last two decades, the incidence of ventricular fibrillation has significantly decreased as the presenting rhythm in sudden cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that beta-adrenergic receptor blocker (beta-blocker) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, which were commonly used in the primary and secondary prevention strategies recommended by the American Heart Association during the same decades, decrease the duration of ventricular fibrillation after onset of cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Randomized prospective animal study. SETTING: University affiliated research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 450-550 g were administered either beta-blocker, propranolol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, or placebo for 2 wks. In the phase 1 study, ventricular fibrillation was induced by ligation of the proximal left coronary artery. In the phase 2 study, the experiments were repeated with the measurements of duration of monophasic action potential and threshold of ventricular fibrillation. Both propranolol and captopril significantly decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation in comparison with controls (p < 0.05). In the phase 2 study, both propranolol and captopril significantly increased the threshold of ventricular fibrillation (p < 0.05) and monophasic action potential (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Ventricular fibrillation remains as the leading causal rhythm of sudden cardiac arrest. However, the drugs widely used in primary and secondary coronary artery disease prevention strategies shortened the duration of ventricular fibrillation. This may result in the reduced incidence of ventricular fibrillation as the presenting rhythm in sudden cardiac arrest. Increased threshold of ventricular fibrillation and monophasic action potential after administration of those agents may be the potential mechanisms of reduced duration of ventricular fibrillation.

Wang H; Tang W; Ristagno G; Li Y; Sun S; Wang T; Weil MH

2009-01-01

229

Exploring Ce3+/Ce4+ cation ordering in reduced ceria nanoparticles using interionic-potential and density-functional calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of atomistic calculations using interionic potentials has been examined in detail with respect to the structures and energetic stabilities of ten configurational isomers (i.e., distinct Ce3+/Ce4+ cationic orderings) of a low energy octahedral ceria nanoparticle Ce19O32. The outcome of these calculations is compared with the results of corresponding density-functional (DF) calculations employing local and gradient corrected functionals with an additional corrective onsite Coulombic interaction applied to the f-electrons (i.e., LDA+U and GGA+U, respectively). Strikingly similar relative energy ordering of the isomers and atomic scale structural trends (e.g., cation-cation distances) are obtained in both the DF and interionic-potential calculations. The surprisingly good agreement between the DF electronic structure calculations and the relatively simple classical potentials is not found to be due to a single dominant interaction type but is due to a sensitive balance between long range electrostatics and local bonding contributions to the energy. Considering the relatively high computational cost and technical difficulty involved in obtaining charge-localized electronic solutions for reduced ceria using DF calculations, the use of interionic potentials for rapid and reliable preselection of the most stable Ce3+/Ce4+ cationic orderings is of considerable benefit. PMID:19691397

Migani, Annapaola; Neyman, Konstantin M; Illas, Francesc; Bromley, Stefan T

2009-08-14

230

Exploring Ce3+/Ce4+ cation ordering in reduced ceria nanoparticles using interionic-potential and density-functional calculations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of atomistic calculations using interionic potentials has been examined in detail with respect to the structures and energetic stabilities of ten configurational isomers (i.e., distinct Ce3+/Ce4+ cationic orderings) of a low energy octahedral ceria nanoparticle Ce19O32. The outcome of these calculations is compared with the results of corresponding density-functional (DF) calculations employing local and gradient corrected functionals with an additional corrective onsite Coulombic interaction applied to the f-electrons (i.e., LDA+U and GGA+U, respectively). Strikingly similar relative energy ordering of the isomers and atomic scale structural trends (e.g., cation-cation distances) are obtained in both the DF and interionic-potential calculations. The surprisingly good agreement between the DF electronic structure calculations and the relatively simple classical potentials is not found to be due to a single dominant interaction type but is due to a sensitive balance between long range electrostatics and local bonding contributions to the energy. Considering the relatively high computational cost and technical difficulty involved in obtaining charge-localized electronic solutions for reduced ceria using DF calculations, the use of interionic potentials for rapid and reliable preselection of the most stable Ce3+/Ce4+ cationic orderings is of considerable benefit.

Migani A; Neyman KM; Illas F; Bromley ST

2009-08-01

231

The Alaska Potential Places of Refuge Project : a key step in reducing the risk of vessel-source oil spills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described some of the challenges in identifying places of refuge where a leaking vessel may undergo repair. Such vessels need a sheltered area with enough water depth to repair or unload the oil in order to minimize the amount of spilled product. The Alaska Regional Response Team (ARRT) held a workshop to address the Alaska Potential Places of Refuge (PPOR) project that identifies potential docking, mooring and grounding locations for stricken vessels in specific geographic areas. The first PPOR project was recently completed for Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Other projects have been activated for the Kodiak region, with long-term plans to revisit Cook Inlet. This paper examined the relevance of PPOR planning to reduce risk of spills and reported on the process to develop the PWS PPOR as well as ongoing projects in other regions of the state. The ARRT guidelines offer a template for pre-identifying information needed to respond to requests for places of refuge. The locations are chosen based on risk assessment that addresses vessel traffic density, common vessel routes, sensitive areas, and historic casualty records. Once a potential site is selected, a nautical chart and aerial photo of the area is provided along with detailed information on specifics for accommodating vessels of various sizes, potential exposure to wind, currents and seas, nearby communities, contact information for stakeholders. Other site factors such as sensitive areas, health and safety, stakeholder concerns, and response and salvage factors are considered. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Iwamoto, L. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Anchorage, AK (United States); Robertson, T. [Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK (United States); Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

2006-07-01

232

Process Evaluation of a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program for State Prisoners: The W. J. Maxey Boys Training School.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the findings fiom the evaluation of a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Program intended to reduce substance abuse and recidivism among youth placed at Maxey Boys Training School. The purposes of the evaluation were to de...

M. Okasinski W. C. Birdsall

2000-01-01

233

Pediatric abusive head trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediatric abusive head trauma is a significant contributor to pediatric morbidity and mortality in the United States. Signs and symptoms can be vague, nonspecific, and difficult to recognize. This article increases the healthcare provider's level of suspicion and ability to recognize early warning signs of abuse. It also addresses evidence-based prevention strategies. This information is useful to nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physicians who work with children and families in any capacity.

Gordy C; Kuns B

2013-06-01

234

[Abuse in the elderly].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reflections on the UN decree of June 15 as International Day of No Abuse of the Elderly which have been enhanced by the celebration in Madrid, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, a day devoted to this topic with the aim of raising awareness among professionals working in health centers and other interest groups, groups of retirees and social services, health problems and abuse in the elderly

Alvarez Montilla V; Sáenz de Manjarrés RC; García Jiménez G; Luna Ramírez S; López Agueda V; Barrios Rueda E; Miñano Fernández MP

2011-10-01

235

Synthetic cathinone abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones.

Capriola M

2013-01-01

236

Synthetic cathinone abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

Capriola, Michael

2013-07-02

237

Activation of quisqualate metabotropic receptors reduces glutamate and GABA-mediated synaptic potentials in the rat striatum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of quisqualate (QUIS) metabotropic receptors in the synaptic transmission in the striatum was investigated using the cortico-striatal slice preparation. Low concentrations (1-30 microM) of trans-1-amino-cyclopentyl-1,3- dicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD), a selective agonist of QUIS metabotropic receptors, decreased glutamate-mediated synaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked in the striatum by the stimulation of cortico-striatal fibers. This agonist decreased also GABA-mediated depolarizing synaptic potentials evoked by intrastriatal stimulation in the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3- dione (CNQX); this effect was less potent than the action of t-ACPD on glutamate-mediated potentials. Low concentrations of t-ACPD did not affect the intrinsic membrane properties of striatal neurons and their postsynaptic responses to exogenous glutamate and GABA. Higher concentrations (50-100 microM) to t-ACPD caused membrane depolarizations and inward currents in several neurons. Our data suggest that low concentrations of t-ACPD selectively reduce synaptic transmission while higher concentrations of this agonist may cause a direct excitatory action on striatal neurons.

Calabresi P; Mercuri NB; Bernardi G

1992-05-01

238

Carrying the Pain of Abuse: Gender-Specific Findings on the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Obesity in Adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Results: Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR) = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 1.67). Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53). Conclusions: This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Fuller-Thomson E; Sinclair DA; Brennenstuhl S

2013-01-01

239

Substance abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse, which we previously reviewed, is updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse that are known to cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:23030352

Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San

2012-09-01

240

Substance abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse, which we previously reviewed, is updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse that are known to cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Deik A; Saunders-Pullman R; Luciano MS

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Measuring acceptable treatment failure rates for community-acquired pneumonia: potential for reducing duration of treatment and antimicrobial resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to establish the rates of treatment failure for community-acquired pneumonia that are acceptable to knowledgeable and experienced physicians, in order to facilitate the interpretation of existing studies and the design of new studies aimed at optimizing the duration of antibiotic therapy. Reducing the duration of antibiotic therapy is one strategy for reducing antibiotic exposure and thereby minimizing the potential for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. DESIGN: Survey soliciting the acceptable failure rate for treatment given to an adult patient with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia treated with standard-of-care therapy in the outpatient setting. Analysis was performed using a modification of established methods of contingent valuation analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred eighty infectious diseases physicians in North America who were also members of the Emerging Infections Network of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-five (55.1%) of 680 physicians responded to the survey. The median acceptable failure rate for treatment was 13.5%. Five hundred ten respondents (75.0%) found a failure rate of 7.3% acceptable, and 170 respondents (25.0%) found a failure rate of 19.8% acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the failure rates for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia that were acceptable to infectious disease physicians. This range of acceptable treatment failure rates may facilitate the design of studies aimed at optimizing the duration of antimicrobial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia.

Kaye KS; Harris AD; McDonald JR; Strausbaugh LJ; Perencevich E

2008-02-01

242

Bone cells from patients with quiescent Crohn's disease show a reduced growth potential and an impeded maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at increased risk of developing osteoporosis. The mechanism underlying bone loss in CD patients is only partly understood. Inflammation is thought to contribute by causing a disturbed bone remodeling. In this study, we aimed to compare functional characteristics of osteoblasts from CD patients and controls, as osteoblasts are one of the effector cells in bone remodeling. The study included 18 patients with quiescent CD and 18 healthy controls. Bone cells obtained from iliac crest biopsies were cultured in the absence and presence of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-10, and TGF-?. At various time points, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Bone cells from CD patients showed a prolonged culture period to reach confluence and a decreased cell number at confluence. CD patient-derived bone cell cultures produced higher alkaline phosphatase levels, whereas osteocalcin levels were considerably reduced compared to control cultures. At the proliferation level, the responsiveness to inflammatory cytokines was similar in bone cells from CD patients and controls. At the differentiation level, CD cultures showed an increased responsiveness to IL-6 and a decreased responsiveness to TGF-?. Responsiveness to the other cytokines tested was unaffected. In summary, we show a reduced growth potential and impeded maturation of bone cells from quiescent CD patients in vitro. These disease-related alterations combined with an unchanged sensitivity of CD patient-derived bone cells to inflammatory cytokines, provide a new insight in the understanding of CD-associated bone loss.

Oostlander AE; Bravenboer N; van Essen HW; Klein-Nulend J; Lems WF; Schulten BA; Dijkstra G; van der Woude CJ; van Bodegraven AA; Lips P

2012-07-01

243

Reducing the potential for migration of radioactive waste: Aqueous thermal degradation of the chelating agent disodium EDTA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common component of cleaning solutions used for decontamination of radioactive equipment, has been associated with increased migration of radionuclides into local groundwaters at some radwaste disposal sites. It has been proposed that predisposal thermal degradation of EDTA-containing aqueous solutions may reduce the potential for chelate-enhanced mobilization of radionuclides at these sites. Aqueous thermal degradation experiments with disodium EDTA have shown that the compound degrades rapidly at 200/sup 0/C with an activation energy of 114.3 +- 7.87 kJ/mol, and forms the decomposition product methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA). A comparison of the values for stability constants of transition metal and actinide complexes with EDTA, MIDA, and two other reported degradation products, indicates that the chelating efficiency of the degradation products is 6 to 22 orders of magnitude lower than that of EDTA at 25/sup 0/C. It is concluded that aqueous thermal degradation should significantly reduce the overall chelating efficiency of EDTA-containing solutions.

Boles, J.S.; Ritchie, K.; Crerar, D.A.

1987-01-01

244

Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

2007-01-01

245

Uses and Abuses of Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Potential Iatrogenic Impact of PROMs Implementation and How It Can Be Mitigated.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Having been a national advocate for the use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK for the last decade, I have become increasingly concerned that unless the potential iatrogenic impact of widespread policy requirement for use of PROMs (Department of Health, Children and Young People's Health Outcomes Strategy, 2012) is recognised and addressed their real potential benefits (Sapyta et al., J Clin Psychol 61(2):145-153, 2005) may never be realized. Drawing on examples from PROMs implementation in CAMHS in the UK (Wolpert et al., J Ment Health 21(2):165-173, 2012a; Child Adolesc Mental Health 17(3):129-130, 2012b). I suggest key ways forward if PROMs are to support best clinical practice rather than undermine it.

Wolpert M

2013-07-01

246

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01

247

Substance abuse in later life.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

D'Archangelo, E.

248

Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator  

Science.gov (United States)

... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Substance Abuse Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... State or Zip | Find Facilities by Name | State Substance Abuse Agencies | Frequently Asked Questions | Links | Comments or Questions | ...

249

Substance Abuse in the Military  

Science.gov (United States)

... Connect with NIDA : Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ... Strategic Plan Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants K2/ ...

250

Mephenesin: abuse and dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mephenesin is a muscle relaxant with poorly documented clinical value. Its sedative properties have been known since its introduction on the French market. Cases of abuse and dependence have been reported, particularly since the early 2010s. Some adults were reported to be taking up to 12 g of mephenesin per day, the equivalent of an entire box. Most of them had a history of dependence on various other psychotropic drugs. Withdrawal symptoms, including tremor, anxiety, and aggression, have been reported in 3 patients. A woman who was taking no other drugs died of bronchial aspiration following mephenesin overdose. Painful muscle spasm is sometimes relieved by a short rest period, or paracetamol. Repeated requests for mephenesin should alert health professionals to the possibility of abuse. It is best to avoid mephenesin altogether, especially when the patient has a history of abuse or dependence.

2013-05-01

251

Care workers' abusive behavior to residents in care homes: a qualitative study of types of abuse, barriers, and facilitators to good care and development of an instrument for reporting of abuse anonymously.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse in care homes is probably common but inherently difficult to detect. We developed the first questionnaire to ask care home workers to report abuse anonymously. METHOD: We held qualitative focus groups with 36 care workers from four London care homes, asking about abuse they had witnessed or perpetrated. RESULTS: The participants reported that situations with potentially abusive consequences were a common occurrence, but deliberate abuse was rare. Residents waited too long for personal care, or were denied care they needed to ensure they had enough to eat, were moved safely, or were not emotionally neglected. Some care workers acted in potentially abusive ways because they did not know of a better strategy or understand the resident's illness; care workers made threats to coerce residents to accept care, or restrained them; a resident at high risk of falls was required to walk as care workers thought otherwise he would forget the skill. Most care workers said that they would be willing to report abuse anonymously. Care workers were sent the newly developed Care Home Conflict Scale to comment on but not to complete and to report whether it was acceptable and relevant to them. Several completed it and reported abusive behavior. CONCLUSION: Lack of resources, especially care worker time and knowledge about managing challenging behavior and dementia were judged to underlie much of the abuse described. We describe the first instrument designed to measure abuse by care home workers anonymously; field-testing is the logical next step.

Cooper C; Dow B; Hay S; Livingston D; Livingston G

2013-05-01

252

Cough mixture abuse and rhabdomyolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cough mixture abuse is an emerging problem among young men in Oriental countries. Its metabolic consequences have been recognised only recently. Such abusers can develop severe folate deficiency, which may be related to peripheral and central nervous system defects. We report three cough mixture abusers with rhabdomyolysis. All suffered from folate deficiencies and also had a history of anti-psychotic drug use. This represents one more life-threatening side-effect from cough mixture abuse.

Tsang JS; Au WY

2012-02-01

253

Inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of substance use disorders in Cape Town, substance abuse treatment utilization is low among people from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. To improve substance abuse treatment utilization, it is important to identify any potential barriers to treatment initiation so that interventions to reduce these barriers can be implemented. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization within developing countries. Using the Behavioural Model of Health Services Utilization as an analytic framework, this study aimed to redress this gap by examining whether access to substance abuse treatment is equitable and the profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for people from poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods This study used a case-control design to compare 434 individuals with substance use disorders from disadvantaged communities who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of predisposing, treatment need and enabling/restricting variables thought to be associated with treatment utilization. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the unique contribution that the need for treatment, predisposing and enabling/restricting variable blocks made on substance abuse treatment utilization. Results Findings revealed that non-need enabling/restricting variables accounted for almost equal proportions of the variance in service utilization as the need for treatment variables. These enabling/restricting variables also attenuated the influence of the treatment need and predisposing variables domains on chances of treatment utilization. Several enabling/restricting variables emerged as powerful partial predictors of utilization including competing financial priorities, geographic access barriers and awareness of treatment services. Perceived severity of drug use, a need for treatment variable) was also a partial predictor of utilization. Conclusions Findings point to inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services among people from poor South African communities, with non-need factors being significant determinants of treatment utilization. In these communities, treatment utilization can be enhanced by (i) expanding the existing repertoire of services to include low threshold services that target individuals with less severe problems; (ii) providing food and transport vouchers as part of contingency management efforts, thereby reducing some of the financial and geographic access barriers; (iii) introducing community-based mobile outpatient treatment services that are geographically accessible; and (iv) employing community-based outreach workers that focus on improving awareness of where, when and how to access existing treatment services.

Myers Bronwyn J; Louw Johann; Pasche Sonja C

2010-01-01

254

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

Capriola M

2013-01-01

255

Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

A Loved One’s Substance Abuse Problem Too Hot to Handle? A Loved One’s Substance Abuse Problem What You Can Do Your brother has been ... facts. There are a lot of misconceptions about drug abuse and addiction. Many people can’t understand how ...

256

Intravenous methylphenidate abuse. Prototype for prescription drug abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data are presented from a case series of 22 patients who abused methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin-SR). The abuse pattern and symptoms of toxicity were similar to that seen with cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulfate addiction; yet, the morbidity and mortality seen in this case series were greater than usual for a group of patients involved in intravenous drug abuse. We describe the characteristics of the methylphenidate abuse syndrome in terms of the pharmacology of methylphenidate, the constituents of the Ritalin-SR preparation, and the disease of chemical dependence. We propose solutions to the problem of methylphenidate abuse. PMID:1849397

Parran, T V; Jasinski, D R

1991-04-01

257

Intravenous methylphenidate abuse. Prototype for prescription drug abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data are presented from a case series of 22 patients who abused methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin-SR). The abuse pattern and symptoms of toxicity were similar to that seen with cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulfate addiction; yet, the morbidity and mortality seen in this case series were greater than usual for a group of patients involved in intravenous drug abuse. We describe the characteristics of the methylphenidate abuse syndrome in terms of the pharmacology of methylphenidate, the constituents of the Ritalin-SR preparation, and the disease of chemical dependence. We propose solutions to the problem of methylphenidate abuse.

Parran TV Jr; Jasinski DR

1991-04-01

258

Analysis of the Sequence and Phenotype of Drosophila Sex combs reduced Alleles Reveals Potential Functions of Conserved Protein Motifs of the Sex combs reduced Protein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Drosophila Hox gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is required for patterning the larval and adult, labial and prothoracic segments. Fifteen Scr alleles were sequenced and the phenotypes analyzed in detail. Six null alleles were nonsense mutations (Scr2, Scr4, Scr11, Scr13, Scr13A, and Scr16) and one...

Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Percival-Smith, Anthony

259

Genetic and chemical targeting of epithelial-restricted with serine box reduces EGF receptor and potentiates the efficacy of afatinib.  

Science.gov (United States)

EGF receptor (EGFR) is elevated in more than 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, a majority of patients with HNSCC do not respond to anti-EGFR therapeutics. Insensitivity to EGFR inhibitors may be due to kinase-independent actions of EGFR and/or activation of Her2. Strategies to reduce EGFR and Her2 protein levels in concert may be an optimal approach to enhance the efficacy of current anti-EGFR molecules. In this study, knockdown of epithelial-restricted with serine box (ESX) decreased EGFR and Her2 promoter activity, expression, and levels. ESX was elevated in primary HNSCC tumors and associated with increased EGFR and Her2. Genetic ablation of ESX decreased EGFR and Her2 levels and enhanced the antiproliferative effects of EGFR/Her2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), lapatinib and afatinib. Biphenyl isoxazolidine, a novel small-molecule ESX inhibitor, reduced EGFR and Her2 levels and potentiated the antiproliferative efficacy of afatinib. Single-agent biphenyl isoxazolidine retarded the in vivo tumorigenicity of CAL27 cells. Importantly, the combination of biphenyl isoxazolidine and afatinib was significantly superior in vivo and resulted in a 100% response rate with a 94% reduction in tumor volume. Targeting EGFR/Her2 levels with an ESX inhibitor and EGFR/Her2 kinase activity with a TKI simultaneously is a highly active therapeutic approach to manage HNSCC. Our work provides evidence to support the further development of ESX inhibitors as an adjuvant to enhance the response rate of patients with HNSCC to current anti-EGFR/Her2 therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(8); 1515-25. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23723125

Zhang, Manchao; Taylor, Christopher E; Piao, Longzhu; Datta, Jharna; Bruno, Paul A; Bhave, Sanjay; Su, Tizhi; Lang, James C; Xie, Xiujie; Teknos, Theodoros N; Mapp, Anna K; Pan, Quintin

2013-05-30

260

Genetic and chemical targeting of epithelial-restricted with serine box reduces EGF receptor and potentiates the efficacy of afatinib.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

EGF receptor (EGFR) is elevated in more than 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, a majority of patients with HNSCC do not respond to anti-EGFR therapeutics. Insensitivity to EGFR inhibitors may be due to kinase-independent actions of EGFR and/or activation of Her2. Strategies to reduce EGFR and Her2 protein levels in concert may be an optimal approach to enhance the efficacy of current anti-EGFR molecules. In this study, knockdown of epithelial-restricted with serine box (ESX) decreased EGFR and Her2 promoter activity, expression, and levels. ESX was elevated in primary HNSCC tumors and associated with increased EGFR and Her2. Genetic ablation of ESX decreased EGFR and Her2 levels and enhanced the antiproliferative effects of EGFR/Her2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), lapatinib and afatinib. Biphenyl isoxazolidine, a novel small-molecule ESX inhibitor, reduced EGFR and Her2 levels and potentiated the antiproliferative efficacy of afatinib. Single-agent biphenyl isoxazolidine retarded the in vivo tumorigenicity of CAL27 cells. Importantly, the combination of biphenyl isoxazolidine and afatinib was significantly superior in vivo and resulted in a 100% response rate with a 94% reduction in tumor volume. Targeting EGFR/Her2 levels with an ESX inhibitor and EGFR/Her2 kinase activity with a TKI simultaneously is a highly active therapeutic approach to manage HNSCC. Our work provides evidence to support the further development of ESX inhibitors as an adjuvant to enhance the response rate of patients with HNSCC to current anti-EGFR/Her2 therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(8); 1515-25. ©2013 AACR.

Zhang M; Taylor CE; Piao L; Datta J; Bruno PA; Bhave S; Su T; Lang JC; Xie X; Teknos TN; Mapp AK; Pan Q

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

The potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: Buildings sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is used in buildings to provide a variety of services to users such as lighting, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and electricity for electronics and other equipment. In the US building energy consumption accounts for nearly one third of total primary energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions. The cost for these energy services, or end-uses, was over $200 billion in 1997. This paper summarizes a detailed assessment of the achievable cost-effective potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 in the US residential and commercial buildings sector based on the preliminary results of a study completed by the authors for the US Department of Energy (LBNL, ORNL, ANL, NREL, and PNNL, 1997). The authors analysis shows that substantial reductions in future greenhouse gas emissions can be realized through the use of more energy-efficient technologies and processes at a net reduction in the total cost of energy services. In an efficiency scenario, in which renewed efforts are undertaken to promote energy efficiency through enhanced public and private-sector R and D and market transformation activities, energy use drops by 1.9 quadrillion Btu (5%) from business-as-usual (BAU) levels and carbon emissions decline by 25 MtC (4%) from BAU forecasted levels. This represents a savings of $18 billion in fuel costs in 2010, which is purchased with an annualized incremental cost of $7 billion in efficiency improvements. In a high efficiency/low carbon scenario, which reflects an even greater commitment to reduce carbon emissions, results in 4.0 quads (11%) less energy use and 91 MtC (16%) fewer carbon emissions than the BAU scenario in 2010. This high efficiency/low carbon scenario represents a savings of $33 billion in fuel costs in 2010 resulting from an annualized incremental expenditure of $14 billion on efficiency improvements

1997-08-02

262

Neonatal Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardant BDE-47 Reduces Long-Term Potentiation and Postsynaptic Protein Levels in Mouse Hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Increasing environmental levels of brominated flame retardants raise concern about possible adverse effects, particularly through early developmental exposure. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying previously observed behavioral impairments observed after neonatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods C57Bl/6 mice received a single oral dose of 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on postnatal day (PND) 10 (i.e., during the brain growth spurt). On PND17–19, effects on synaptic plasticity, levels of postsynaptic proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP), and vesicular release mechanisms were studied ex vivo. We investigated possible acute in vitro effects of BDE-47 on vesicular catecholamine release and intracellular Ca2+ in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Results Field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) recordings in the hippocampal CA1 area demonstrated reduced LTP after exposure to 6.8 mg (14 ?mol)/kg body weight (bw) BDE-47, whereas paired-pulse facilitation was not affected. Western blotting of proteins in the postsynaptic, triton-insoluble fraction of hippocampal tissue revealed a reduction of glutamate receptor subunits NR2B and GluR1 and autophosphorylated-active Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII), whereas other proteins tested appeared unaffected. Amperometric recordings in chromaffin cells from mice exposed to 68 mg (140 ?mol)/kg bw BDE-47 did not reveal changes in catecholamine release parameters. Modest effects on vesicular release and intracellular Ca2+ in PC12 cells were seen following acute exposure to 20 ?M BDE-47. The combined results suggest a post-synaptic mechanism in vivo. Conclusion Early neonatal exposure to a single high dose of BDE-47 causes a reduction of LTP together with changes in postsynaptic proteins involved in synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus.

Dingemans, Milou M.L.; Ramakers, Geert M.J.; Gardoni, Fabrizio; van Kleef, Regina G.D.M.; Bergman, Ake; Di Luca, Monica; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H.S.; Vijverberg, Henk P.M.

2007-01-01

263

The potential of volunteers to implement non-pharmacological interventions to reduce agitation associated with dementia in nursing home residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Advanced dementia may be accompanied by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD stemming from pain, depression, or psychosis benefit from treatment with drugs, but in other cases, medications have limited efficacy and may elicit adverse effects. Therefore, more attention has been paid to non-pharmacological interventions, which have fewer risks and can be successful in reducing agitation and negative mood. However, these interventions are frequently not implemented in nursing homes due to staffing constraints. This study explores the potential of volunteers to further assist staff. METHODS: We interviewed 18 staff members and 39 volunteers in 17 aged care facilities in southeast Melbourne, Australia. RESULTS: Three-quarters of the facilities in this region worked with at least one regular volunteer. Both self-interest and altruistic reasons were identified as motives for volunteering. Volunteers were perceived by facility representatives as helpful to residents through provision of stimulation and company. However, they were discouraged from engaging with individuals with prominent BPSD. A majority of facility representatives and volunteers had experienced some difficulties in negotiating working relationships but most were easily resolved. A large majority of volunteers expressed an interest in learning new methods of interacting with residents. CONCLUSION: Despite their beneficial effects for agitated residents, non-pharmacological interventions are often not implemented in aged care facilities. Staff members often lack time but current volunteers in the sector are available, experienced, and interested in learning new methods of interacting. Volunteers therefore potentially are a valuable resource to assist with the application of new treatments.

van der Ploeg ES; Mbakile T; Genovesi S; O'Connor DW

2012-11-01

264

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

Aleksi? Jelena; Jovi? Slavoljub

2008-01-01

265

The choice of cement for the manufacture of concrete to be activated: the potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents trace element analyses of some candidate cements which might be used in the manufacture of Sizewell 'B' concrete. It completes a programme of work whose aim was to investigate the potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components. In particular, consideration has been given to the potential for reducing the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughters. (U.K.)

1985-01-01

266

[Methamphetamine abuse by smoking  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three cases of methamphetamine abuse by smoking were reported. The oral intake and the intravenous injection of the drug are usually adopted, and the smoking is recently found among the stimulant abusers in Japan. The stimulant is heated on a piece of aluminium foil with a lighter and its smoke is inhaled with a straw or a paper pipe. The intake means are identical to "crystal or ice" in Hawaii, although a special glass pipe or a cigarette is not used here. The effect of the drug obtained by smoking is more slack and mild than that by a intravenous injection, although the drug of the double dose is used in the smoking. Two cases changed the intake means from the injection to the smoking because of no guilty feeling and a lack of injection marks and evident proofs of illegal use. Therefore, abuse of methamphetamine by smoking is thought to increase in near future in Japan, and the delusion of arrest by policemen observed frequently in the stimulant abusers maybe decreases as a result of a decrease in the psychological stress of guilty.

Tohhara S; Kato A; Nakajima T

1990-12-01

267

Child abuse in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers.

Okeahialam TC

1984-01-01

268

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64)

Figen ?ahin; Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-01-01

269

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive compo...

Capriola M

270

Maltrato psicológico/ Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psico (more) lógico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make r (more) eference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

Gómez de Terreros Guardiola, M.

2006-04-01

271

Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

2006-01-01

272

Drug abuses in the military: correlates of successful rehabilitation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigated the relationships among motivation for drug abuse, successful rehabilitation, and personality/demographic variables. The Ss, 20 airmen who had completed successfully a local USAF Drug Abuse Rehabilitation Program, were administered the 16PF Qestionnaire, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Sensation Seeking Scale. Multivariate correlative analyses showed that those Ss who progressed most rapidly through the rehabilitation program could be best identified by their scores on the Sensation Seeking Scale, while specific subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and the 16PF contributed somewhat to the predictive value. It was concluded the the SSS has potential value in predicting successful rehabilitation of military drug abusers.

Bradley R; Redfering DL

1978-01-01

273

Overview and epidemiology of substance abuse in pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of licit or illicit substances during pregnancy has the potential to produce adverse health effects for the maternal-fetal dyad. In the United States, it is estimated that >4.4% of pregnant women abuse 1 or more substances during pregnancy. Social and environmental factors contribute significantly to increases in the prevalence and complexity of substance abuse disorders. Fear of reprisal prevents many women from accurately reporting substance use patterns and receiving appropriate medical and psychological care. This chapter details the epidemiology and risk factors associated with substance abuse during pregnancy and subsequent complications for the neonate.

Wendell AD

2013-03-01

274

Therapeutic Options to Reduce Lp-PLA2 Levels and the Potential Impact on Vascular Risk Reduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OPINION STATEMENT: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to pro-inflammatory mediators. Lp-PLA2 is highly expressed in the necrotic core of atherosclerotic plaques and has been associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability. Multiple studies have shown an association between elevated Lp-PLA2 levels and risk of both stroke and myocardial infarction, even after adjustment for standard vascular risk factors, and several professional organizations have recommended Lp-PLA2 as a potentially usefully tool to improve risk stratification for individual patients. Therapies directed at lowering Lp-PLA2 levels may represent a novel approach to reducing vascular risk, though direct clinical benefit from targeting treatment to Lp-PLA2 levels remains unproven. Statins appear to significantly lower Lp-PLA2 levels; fibrates and niacin may also lower Lp-PLA2 levels, though this is less well established. Darapladib, a potent, selective Lp-PLA2 inhibitor, is currently in phase III trials for prevention of recurrent vascular events in patients with coronary artery disease.

Ishida K; Cucchiara B

2013-06-01

275

The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author).

1984-01-01

276

Reduction of Iron Oxide Fines to Wustite with CO/CO2 Gas of Low Reducing Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

The reduction of iron oxide fines to wustite between 590 °C and 1000 °C with a CO-CO2 gas mixture of low reducing potential was studied. The reduction kinetics and the dominating reaction mechanism varied with the temperature, extent of reduction, and type of iron oxide. Reduction from hematite to wustite proceeded in two consecutive reaction steps with magnetite as an intermediate oxide. The first reduction step (hematite to magnetite) was fast and controlled by external gas mass transfer independently of the oxide type and the temperature employed. The second reduction step (magnetite to wustite) was the overall reaction-controlling step, and the reduction mechanism varied with the temperature and the oxide type. Moderately porous oxide fines followed the uniform internal reaction for the temperature range studied. For highly porous oxides, the second reduction step was controlled by external gas mass transfer above 700 °C. Below that temperature, a mixed regime that involves external gas mass transfer and limited mixed control, which comprises pore diffusion and chemical reaction, takes place. The rate equations for this mixed control reaction mechanism were developed, and the limited mixed control rate constant (klm) was computed. For denser oxides under uniform internal reaction, the product of the rate constant and pore surface area (k· S) was calculated.

Corbari, R.; Fruehan, R. J.

2010-04-01

277

Post-bottleneck inbreeding accumulation reduces fitness and adaptive potential in populations of Tribolium castaneum under environmental stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study used a model organism, Tribolium castaneum, to evaluate the effect of inbreeding accumulation on additive genetic variance and fitness related traits, owing to population bottleneck events, under laboratory conditions and environmental stressors. Demographic bottlenecks were imposed on 21 populations of T. castaneum, varying in intensity and duration, for up to five generations. After recovering to original census numbers, later generations of the populations were subjected to stressful environmental conditions. A significant decrease in additive genetic variance and heritability of pupa weight was observed in all populations as a result of the bottleneck. Fitness was quantified using adult weight, total progeny, fecundity and survivorship. When the estimated inbreeding accumulation in the populations approached 40%, there was evidence for a decrease in the mean of fitness-related traits. This relationship became statistically significant when the populations were under environmental stress. Populations with increased inbreeding accumulation demonstrated decreased survival of progeny under stress. The observed decrease in heritable variation could result in reduced potential for adaptation.

A.D. Franklin; F. Siewerdt

2011-01-01

278

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O{sub 2} and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O{sub 2} -O{sub 2} potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included.

Abbaspour, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mabbaspoor@wali.um.ac.ir; Goharshadi, Elaheh K. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emampour, Jalal S. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-08-01

279

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O2 and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O2 -O2 potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included.

2006-08-01

280

Protracted withdrawal from alcohol and drugs of abuse impairs long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (jcBNST) is activated in response to basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs through the stria terminalis and projects back to the anterior BLA and to the central nucleus of the amygdala. Here we show a form of long-term potentiation of the intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) of jcBNST neurons in response to high-frequency stimulation of the stria terminalis. This LTP-IE, which was characterized by a decrease in the firing threshold and increased temporal fidelity of firing, was impaired during protracted withdrawal from self-administration of alcohol, cocaine, and heroin. Such impairment was graded and was more pronounced in rats that self-administered amounts of the drugs sufficient to maintain dependence. Dysregulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has been implicated in manifestation of protracted withdrawal from dependent drug use. Administration of the selective corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF(1)) antagonist R121919 [2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7-dipropylamino-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine)], but not of the CRF(2) antagonist astressin(2)-B, normalized jcBNST LTP-IE in animals with a history of alcohol dependence; repeated, but not acute, administration of CRF itself produced a decreased jcBNST LTP-IE. Thus, changes in the intrinsic properties of jcBNST neurons mediated by chronic activation of the CRF system may contribute to the persistent emotional dysregulation associated with protracted withdrawal. PMID:19403807

Francesconi, Walter; Berton, Fulvia; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Hagihara, Kazuki; Thurbon, David; Lekic, Dusan; Specio, Sheila E; Greenwell, Thomas N; Chen, Scott A; Rice, Kenner C; Richardson, Heather N; O'Dell, Laura E; Zorrilla, Eric P; Morales, Marisela; Koob, George F; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

2009-04-29

 
 
 
 
281

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

2001-01-01

282

[Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many patients with chronic alcohol abuse present a clinical picture of malnourishment either because of reduced usual intake of essential nutrients or because alcohol precludes an appropriate digestion and absorption of the different essential elements, vitamins, and minerals. A usual example is vitamin A deficiency in these patients. Besides, ethanol metabolic pathways themselves (through the ADH and the MEOS system) generate toxic intermediate products (acetaldehyde, free radicals) interfering with normal metabolism of essential elements, mainly lipids, leading to cellular damage through lipid peroxidation mechanisms and impairment of the membrane fluidity, fat deposits (hepatocellular steatosis), inflammation secondary to oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, activation of stellate cells, fibrogenesis, etc. Nutritional supports may be effective to improve alcoholic liver disease. A balanced diet, vitamin supplements, and pharmacological therapy with antioxidants in order to recover depleted glutathione deposits are recommended. It is paramount that these patients have a multidisciplinary clinical approach to resolve the problem of alcohol dependency.

Moreno Otero R; Cortés JR

2008-05-01

283

Upregulation of CRABP1 in human neuroblastoma cells overproducing the Alzheimer-typical A?42 reduces their differentiation potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurodegeneration and changes in cellular processes, including neurogenesis. Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in AD. Owing to varying APP processing, several ?-amyloid peptides (A?) are generated. In contrast to the form with 40 amino acids (A?40), the variant with 42 amino acids (A?42) is thought to be the pathogenic form triggering the pathological cascade in AD. While total-A? effects have been studied extensively, little is known about specific genome-wide effects triggered by A?42 or A?40 derived from their direct precursor C99. Methods A combined transcriptomics/proteomics analysis was performed to measure the effects of intracellularly generated A? peptides in human neuroblastoma cells. Data was validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and a functional validation was carried out using RNA interference. Results Here we studied the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to increased or decreased A?42 and A?40 levels generated in human neuroblastoma cells. Genome-wide expression profiles (Affymetrix) and proteomic approaches were combined to analyze the cellular response to the changed A?42- and A?40-levels. The cells responded to this challenge with significant changes in their expression pattern. We identified several dysregulated genes and proteins, but only the cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1) was up-regulated exclusively in cells expressing an increased A?42/A?40 ratio. This consequently reduced all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation, validated by CRABP1 knock down, which led to recovery of the cellular response to RA treatment and cellular sprouting under physiological RA concentrations. Importantly, this effect was specific to the AD typical increase in the A?42/A?40 ratio, whereas a decreased ratio did not result in up-regulation of CRABP1. Conclusion We conclude that increasing the A?42/A?40 ratio up-regulates CRABP1, which in turn reduces the differentiation potential of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, but increases cell proliferation. This work might contribute to the better understanding of AD neurogenesis, currently a controversial topic.

Uhrig Markus; Brechlin Peter; Jahn Olaf; Knyazev Yuri; Weninger Annette; Busia Laura; Honarnejad Kamran; Otto Markus; Hartmann Tobias

2008-01-01

284

Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (P<.05). As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%??CI=1.43–2.75) and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%??CI=1.16–2.96) had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

Ananda P. Dasanayake; Saman Warnakulasuriya; Colin K. Harris; Derek J. Cooper; Timothy J. Peters; Stanley Gelbier

2010-01-01

285

Expectations test: trauma scales for sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to family violence, and posttraumatic stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gully's 2000 Expectations Test was developed as a tool to use with children ages 4 through 17 to measure social information processing. Prior research suggested it could help identify abused and emotionally traumatized children. Results from regression analyses were used to develop four scales that could be calculated simply. Prior research demonstrated excellent interrater reliability for the variables from the Expectations Test used in the regression analyses. The minimum Cronbach's alpha for any scale is .75. The minimum test-retest reliability is .88. Classification results indicated each scale can provide data to help evaluate children: Sexual Abuse Scale (sensitivity = 81% and specificity = 78%), Physical Abuse Scale (84% and 78%), Exposure to Family Violence Scale (65% and 63%), and Posttraumatic Stress Scale (86% and 54%). However, careful attention needs to be given to the potential limitations of these scales to prevent their misuse.

Gully KJ

2003-08-01

286

Pregabalin abuse among opiate addicted patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Pregabalin is a novel GABA-analogue approved for the treatment of partial onset seizures, neuropathic pain, and general anxiety disorder. Pregabalin has been classified as a Schedule V drug with a low risk of inflicting abuse or addiction. However, some publications have indicated that pregabalin may have a potential for abuse among patients with past or current opiate addiction. Thus, we hypothesized that pregabalin might be abused by patients who were undergoing an opiate replacement therapy and never had an indication for taking pregabalin on medical grounds. METHODS: Urine specimens from 124 patients with opiate dependency syndrome and from 111 patients with other addiction disorders (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cannabis, amphetamines) were screened for pregabalin by means of a mass spectrometer analysis. RESULTS: We found 12.1 % of all urine specimens from patients with opiate addiction to be positive for pregabalin. None of the patients concerned had a medical indication for using pregabalin. In the control group, 2.7 % of the patients were tested positively for pregabalin, due to their taking it regularly for chronic pain or general anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that pregabalin is liable to be abused among individuals with opiate dependency syndrome Thus, vigilance and caution are called for when patients with a past or current opiate dependency are exposed to treatment with pregabalin.

Grosshans M; Lemenager T; Vollmert C; Kaemmerer N; Schreiner R; Mutschler J; Wagner X; Kiefer F; Hermann D

2013-08-01

287

Prevalence of Physical and Sexual Abuse in Women and Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse and its respective factors in women and children referring to medical and health centers of Birjand county.Materials and Methods: A number of 301 women referring to medical and health centers of Birjand were entered into this analytical-descriptive study. Based on the research objectives, a self-administered questionnaire was prepared and approved in terms of content validity by experts of the field. The data were analyzed using SPSS-15, at a significance level of p ?0.05.Results: Results showed that 58.8% and 25.3% of the subjects experienced physical abuse and sexual abuse, respectively. 24.3% confirmed physical abuse and 1.7% confirmed sexual abuse of their children by their husbands. There was a significant relationship between physical and sexual abuse, and the education level, husband’s education level, addiction and commitment of husband, economical disputes, husband’s job, disputes over rearing children, mental disorders of husband, and the weakness of husband in controlling his motions (p=0.001).Conclusion: The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in women and children is relatively high, and based on the investigated related causes, it is necessary to reduce such prevalence through an appropriate planning.

Tahereh Farhadian

2012-01-01

288

Reduced current distribution of Psittacidae on the Mexican Pacific coast: potential impacts of habitat loss and capture for trade  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological niche models provide useful predictions of species distributions, but may fail to detect reductions in distribution due to factors other than habitat loss, such as hunting or trade. From 2001 to 2009, we conducted field-surveys along the Mexican Pacific coast to obtain presence–absence data for nine Psittacidae species. We applied Genetic Algorithm for Rule set Prediction (GARP) ecological niche modeling, using field-survey presence data to determine the potential current distribution of each species, and incorporated absence data to delineate extirpation areas. All parrot species showed a reduced current distribution, ranging from 9.6 to 79% reduction of estimated original distribution. The threatened and endemic species of Amazona oratrix, Amazona finschi, and Forpus cyanopygius suffered the greatest distribution reduction, higher than previously estimated by habitat-based models, suggesting that capture for trade may have caused extirpation of these species. The greatest extent of current distribution was occupied by Aratinga canicularis, Amazona albifrons and Ara militaris, which continue to occur throughout most of their original distribution. Amazona auropalliata, Aratinga strenua, and Brotogeris jugularis also occur throughout their restricted distribution in coastal Chiapas, and show a relatively small distribution reduction, but had the highest proportion of modified lands within their current distributions. Our results highlighted the regions of coastal Guerrero, northern Nayarit, and southern Sinaloa where parrot species have been extirpated even though GARP models predicted suitable habitat available. Ideally distribution models should be verified in the field to determine conservation priorities, and efforts should be directed to maintain populations of species with greatest distribution reductions.

Marín-Togo MC; Monterrubio-Rico TC; Renton K; Rubio-Rocha Y; Macías-Caballero C; Ortega-Rodríguez JM; Cancino-Murillo R

2012-02-01

289

Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-01-01

290

Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050), the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions) rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

Samuel J. G. Cooper; Joe Dowsett; Geoffrey P. Hammond; Marcelle C. McManus; John G. Rogers

2013-01-01

291

Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

Batri?evi? Ana

2011-01-01

292

Predictors of attributions of self-blame and internalizing behavior problems in sexually abused children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify predictors of two potential sequelae of child sexual abuse, self-blame attributions and internalizing behavior problems. METHODS: In the study, detailed information was collected on 218 victims of sexual abuse aged 4 to 17, involved in criminal cases, about their background, the abuse, and their mother's reaction following discovery of the abuse. RESULTS: Increased attributions of self-blame were predicted by the child having a close relationship with the perpetrator, experiencing severe sexual abuse (e.g., long-lasting abuse that involved penetration), perceiving the abuse as disgusting, and coping with the abuse by pretending it was not happening. Similar factors did not emerge as predictors of internalizing behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that different child and abuse characteristics predict the two sequelae often associated with childhood sexual abuse. Thus, although self-blame attributions and behavior problems are often considered similar consequences of sexual abuse, there appears a need to distinguish the two types of outcomes following sexual victimization in childhood.

Quas JA; Goodman GS; Jones D

2003-07-01

293

Crime and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity, developed by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, asks students to use geographical information systems (GIS) to examine the correlations between crime and substance abuse. On this site, visitors will find links to the web-based GIS viewer needed to see and manipulate the data (there are links to the viewer on many servers) and to a student version of the activity which has complete instructions and questions for students to answer.

2008-08-12

294

The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser

Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

1996-01-01

295

REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES RÉDUIRE LA MENACE : UTILISATION POTENTIELLE DE PHÉROMONES POUR CONTRÔLER LES ÉCREVISSES « SIGNAL » INVASIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations. Compte-tenu de la peste qui décime les espèces d’écrevisses européennes natives, il est d’une extrême importance de définir une méthode efficace de contrôle des espèces invasives d’écrevisse. De nombreuses techniques ont été tentées pour lutter contre ce problème grandissant, avec peu de succès. Les phéromones sont utilisées depuis de nombreuses années avec succès dans le contrôle d’insectes terrestres nuisibles. L’idée d’appliquer au milieu aquatique des méthodes utilisant des phéromones n’est pas nouvelle, mais n’a pas jusqu’alors été développée. Cet article présente les résultats préliminaires de campagnes de tests sur le terrain de pièges appâtés avec des phéromones de Pacifastacus leniusculus, et débat de l’application potentielle de phéromones pour contrôler les populations de P. leniusculus.

STEBBING P. D.; WATSON G. J.; BENTLEY M. G.; FRASER D.; JENNINGS R.; RUSHTON S. P.; SIBLEY P. J.

2008-01-01

296

Using the experience sampling method in the context of contingency management for substance abuse treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine how behavioral patterns are affected by the operant conditioning principles that drive CM. It may also lead to the identification of new target behaviors for CM in the context of substance abuse treatment. PMID:19192868

Husky, Mathilde M; Mazure, Carolyn M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M

2008-01-01

297

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

2002-04-01

298

Increased child abuse in twins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Premature birth, neonatal complications, isolation, financial pressures, exhaustion and increased family size increase the risk for child abuse. All these factors may be associated with the birth of twins. Of 310 abused/neglected children under the age of 4 in an abuse and at-risk for abuse/neglect registry, 16 were twins which is a significant increase over the rate of 6.2 predicted by the twin birth rate of 2% (p less than .001). Descriptive data from a chart review are presented.

Nelson HB; Martin CA

1985-01-01

299

What to Know about Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... who are teenagers or are drug or alcohol abusers. Although it is certainly true that child abuse ... and the closer the child’s relationship with the abuser, the more serious the emotional damage will be. ...

300

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates obtained from simulated gastrointestinal digestion of cowpea proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment of cowpea proteins (CP) on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates (CPH) obtained from in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of CP was evaluated. Hydrolysis of native and treated CP with gastrointestinal pepsin and pancreatin yielded CPH that displayed antioxidant activities based on oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA). CPH derived from the treated CP yielded higher ORAC values than CPH from untreated proteins. However, lower significant FRAP and SRSA values were observed for these samples compared to untreated CPH (p?ORAC. The results indicated that thermal and ultrasonic processing of CP can reduce the radical scavenging and reducing potential of the enzymatic hydrolysates possibly due to the decreased amounts of cysteine. Since the hydrolysates were generated with gastrointestinal enzymes, it is possible that the resulting compounds are produced to exert some health functions during normal consumption of cowpea. PMID:23354934

Quansah, Joycelyn K; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Saalia, Firibu K; Yada, Rickey Y

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

Lee YS; Han DH; Kim SM; Renshaw PF

2013-04-01

302

The potential of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).  

Science.gov (United States)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Treatments for patients with T2DM have the potential to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk. This review focuses on the potential of a new class of antidiabetic agents, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, to reduce CV risk in patients with T2DM through reductions in hyperglycemia, blood pressure (BP), and body weight. The results of clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors are summarized and discussed. PMID:23375850

Basile, Jan N

2013-02-01

303

The potential of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Treatments for patients with T2DM have the potential to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk. This review focuses on the potential of a new class of antidiabetic agents, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, to reduce CV risk in patients with T2DM through reductions in hyperglycemia, blood pressure (BP), and body weight. The results of clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors are summarized and discussed.

Basile JN

2013-05-01

304

How do people with intellectual disabilities view abuse and abusers?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what people with intellectual disabilities' views are concerning abuse. Data were gathered via individual interviews (n = 14) and focus groups (7 groups involving 47 people in total), which were then analysed via a process of sorting statements into themes followed by group discussion and analysis of these themes. Participants expressed a range of views regarding abuse, some of which revealed strong emotions: a number of participants indicated that abuse could make people feel as though their lives are not worth living. People with intellectual disabilities can discuss their feelings around abuse and recognise the impact this has on their lives. There is, however, a need for improved responses to disclosures of abuse and the provision of ongoing support to address psychological issues.

Northway R; Melsome M; Flood S; Bennett D; Howarth J; Thomas B

2013-10-01

305

Characteristics of Multi-Drug Abuse Incidents and Abuser Populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on drug abuse incidents for single drugs and combinations of two or more drug substances were analyzed to identify and compare both the drugs most frequently involved and the characteristics of the abuser populations. For the initial period of the Dr...

B. A. Gropper M. I. Kurke

1975-01-01

306

Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent research on the relationship between substance abuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. RECENT FINDINGS: Substance abuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. SUMMARY: Improved treatment for substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mental health needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create.

Pickard H; Fazel S

2013-07-01

307

Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

Middleton, Warwick

2013-01-01

308

Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

Middleton W

2013-01-01

309

Risk factors in child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. METHODOLOGY: The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS: 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases.

Davies EA; Jones AC

2013-04-01

310

Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas through the Use of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the potential for reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Texas by substituting high volumes of fly ash in concrete production and to identify the resulting benefits and challenges. Researchers reviewed the l...

C. Estakhri D. Saylak S. D. Mohidekar

2004-01-01

311

Lessons learned in the abuse of pain-relief medication: a focus on healthcare costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increasing prevalence of chronic pain with its major societal impact and the escalating use of opioids in managing it, along with their misuse, abuse, associated fatalities and costs, are epidemics in modern medicine. Over the past two decades, multiple lessons have been learned addressing various issues of abuse. Multiple measures have already been incorporated and more are expected to be incorporated in the future, which in turn may curtail the abuse of drugs and reduce healthcare costs, but these measures may also jeopardize access to appropriate pain treatment. This manuscript describes the lessons learned from the misuse, abuse and diversion of opioids, escalating healthcare costs and the means to control this epidemic.

Manchikanti L; Boswell MV; Hirsch JA

2013-05-01

312

Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders.

Maniglio R

2013-04-01

313

Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders. PMID:23262751

Maniglio, Roberto

2012-12-20

314

[Myocardial infarct following cocaine abuse  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The case is reported of a young male who presented with massive anterior myocardial infarction after sniffing cocaine. The cardiovascular complications of cocaine abuse are numerous (sudden death, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, myocarditis) and are being reported more and more frequently in the literature. Thoracic or abdominal pain in any patient known to abuse cocaine should be thoroughly investigated, despite the youth of these patients.

Gubser R; Goy JJ; de Torrenté A; Wacker J; Humair L

1988-11-01

315

Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults...

Golwala, Harsh

316

"Natural recovery" from alcohol abuse among college students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author reviews factors hypothesized to play a significant role in facilitating natural recovery and offers suggestions about how such findings might be used to shape campus structures and activities so as to reduce excessive alcohol consumption by college students.

Misch DA

2007-01-01

317

Suffering Compounded: The Relationship between Abuse History and Distress in Five Palliative Care Domains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Research with breast cancer patients suggests that abuse survivors experience more psychological distress and disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, than patients without abuse histories. However, we do not yet understand the impact of abuse on other palliative care domains for individuals with other cancer types. Objectives: This study explores the relationship between past abuse and distress in a group of cancer patients referred for palliative care. This study also explores differences in distress level and likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for major depression and generalized anxiety disorder between patients with and without abuse histories. Setting/Subjects: Data were from 164 new, palliative care outpatients who completed an initial clinician-administered assessment and the James Supportive Care Screening patient self-report. Design: Multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to explore differences between patients who reported an abuse history and those who did not on the number of items endorsed and associated distress on five palliative care domains. Chi-square tests were conducted to identify differences in diagnosis of depression and anxiety between patients with and without abuse histories. Results: Twenty-eight percent reported abuse histories. Patients with abuse histories endorsed more physical problems, psychological concerns, and spiritual concerns and greater distress related to psychological and spiritual concerns than patients without abuse histories. Patients with abuse histories more frequently received diagnoses of major depression disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions: These differences underscore the impact of abuse on the adjustment of cancer patients referred for palliative care. Assessment of patient abuse history by palliative care teams and referral for psychological treatment may help reduce patient distress.

Probst DR; Wells-Di Gregorio S; Marks DR

2013-10-01

318

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

Abbas Yavari

2009-01-01

319

A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

320

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The potential of a new air cleaner to reduce airborne microorganisms in pig house air: preliminary results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a need for technical solutions to reduce the concentrations of bioaerosols in the air and in the exhaust air of livestock buildings. A prototype of an air washer combined with a UV-irradiation system was positioned in a commercial pig fattening unit to test its efficiency of reducing culturable airborne microorganisms. No significant reduction in airborne bacteria and fungi was observed when untreated air passed through the device. However, when the air washer or the UV-irradiation system was activated, the concentrations of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic aerotolerant cocci were reduced significantly (p < 0.01). Washing the air reduced bacteria by 84 to 96% and the relative reduction due to UV-irradiation ranged between 55 and 90%. The highest relative reduction in airborne bacteria (90 to 99%) was detected when the air washer and the UV-irradiation systems were in simultaneous operation. The concentration of total airborne fungi was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) only when the air was washed and UV-irradiated. Although these preliminary results provided significant and comprehensible findings, long-term studies are required to assess the efficiency of the device in more detail.The combination of air washing and UV-irradiation seem to be a useful technique for abating airborne microorganisms within or emitting from piggery buildings. However, some technical problems remain, such as the deposition of particulate matter on the surface of UV-irradiators and the consumption of fresh water by the air washer. These issues must be resolved before the system may be implemented for general practice.

Schulz J; Bao E; Clauss M; Hartung J

2013-03-01

322

Drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, and AIDS. Dual and triple diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders commonly occur together. This form of dual diagnosis is notable because it complicates assessment and makes treatment more difficult for both psychiatric and drug abuse problems. Drugs can cause psychiatric disorders and can also be used as an attempt to "cure" them by self-medication. The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users has added a third potential clinical problem, that of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, to the difficulties already presented by drug abuse and psychiatric disorders. Patients with this triple diagnosis pose challenges to primary care physicians as well as addiction medicine specialists or psychiatrists. Assessment should include a drug abuse history, preferably corroborated by others, evaluation of the mental state, and examination focusing on signs of drug abuse and HIV infection. Treatment should include the management of HIV disease, abstinence from drug abuse, and access to psychiatric care. New systems of health care service, including interdisciplinary case management, may be needed to manage patients with a triple diagnosis.

Batki SL

1990-05-01

323

Psychostimulant drug abuse and personality factors in medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants have a high abuse potential and are appealing to college students for enhancing their examination performance. AIM: This study was designed to examine the prevalence of psychostimulant drug abuse among medical students and to test the hypothesis that medical students who use psychostimulant drugs for non-medical reasons are characterized by a sensation seeking and aggressive-hostility personality and exhibit lower empathy. METHODS: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire and the Jefferson scale of empathy were completed anonymously on-line by 321 medical students in 2010-2011 academic year. RESULTS: A total of 45 students (14%) reported that they had abused psychostimulant medications either before or during medical school. RESULTS of multivariate analysis of variance provided support for one of our research hypothesis: students who reported using psychostimulant compared to the rest, obtained a significantly higher average score on the aggressive-hostility personality factor. No other significant differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to confirm the rate of psychostimulant drug abusers among medical students in other medical schools. In particular, it is desirable to examine if such psychostimulant drug abusers are likely to abuse other substances in medical school and later in their professional career.

Bucher JT; Vu DM; Hojat M

2013-01-01

324

Are researchers bound by child abuse reporting laws?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss issues concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in research settings. METHOD: An overview of existing Federal and State statutes regarding mandatory reporting of child abuse is presented. A critical review of the literature addresses the following issues: (1) whether researchers have a moral duty to place the health and safety of children above concerns about confidentiality and the benefits of obtaining new knowledge; (2) whether the Certificate of Confidentiality preempts reporting requirements; (3) whether researchers who are not health professionals (such as child developmentalists, psychobiologists, neuroscientists) should be required to report; and (4) whether researchers should be required to expand their protocols to include more in-depth investigation of potential abuse. RESULTS: Existing child abuse reporting laws do not specifically designate researchers as among the category of individuals mandated to report suspected child abuse. Currently, Human Subject Protection Committees and Federal funding agencies are tending to interpret reporting laws as applying to researchers, including requiring that research subjects are informed of this responsibility in consenting procedures. It is unclear whether the Certificate of Confidentiality preempts child abuse reporting laws. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend that legislatures specifically designate researchers as mandated reporters to ensure more uniform reporting practices in research settings. For both investigators and Human Subject Protection Committees, inclusion of researchers among the categories of those mandated to report would also help address issues of immunity from civil and criminal liability for "good faith" reports that turn out to be false and injurious.

Steinberg AM; Pynoos RS; Goenjian AK; Sossanabadi H; Sherr L

1999-08-01

325

Predictors of substance abuse treatment outcome in hospitalized veterans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Historically patients consulted for the substance abuse treatment from the medical surgical floors have a very low show rate for the substance abuse treatment. The authors performed retrospective chart review to find predictors of substance abuse treatment outcome in hospitalized veterans at Atlanta VA Medical Center. METHODS: The medical records from all the patients who were admitted to the medical/surgical floor with substance abuse consults from January-December 2009 were reviewed. A total of 235 consults were received. Those records were examined to find the predictors for substance abuse treatment. RESULTS: Multiple variables were tested for significance - patient demographics, housing status, employment, reason for hospitalization, toxicology screens, co-morbid psychiatric and medical conditions, physician visits, and patients on waiting list. All variables were given cut-off point for the p-value of .10. These variables were then included in the logistic regression model. It was found that homelessness (?2 = 16.14 and p < .0001) was the only individual variable that showed a statistically significant correlation with starting the program. It was found that homelessness (?2 = 19.21 and p < .0001) was the only individual variable that showed statistically significant correlation with completing the program. CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Our study supports that for veterans with substance abuse, housing was the only consistent predictor to enter intensive outpatient program (IOP), complete IOP, and start aftercare. Our study demonstrates the need for and potential benefit of providing stable housing for the homeless veterans.

Vayalapalli S; Fareed A; Byrd-Sellers J; Stout S; Casarella J; Drexler K

2013-07-01

326

Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences.

Steine IM; Harvey AG; Krystal JH; Milde AM; Grønli J; Bjorvatn B; Nordhus IH; Eid J; Pallesen S

2012-02-01

327

Prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in veterans with psychiatric diagnoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the prevalence of childhood (? 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p < 0.0001). More patients with depressive disorders reported sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.

Koola MM; Qualls C; Kelly DL; Skelton K; Bradley B; Amar R; Duncan EJ

2013-04-01

328

Measuring Readiness to Change among Individuals in Residential Therapeutic Community Programs for Treatment of Substance Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The "Stages of Change Scale-Substance Abuse" (SCS-SA) was developed to measure readiness to change among individuals in treatment for substance abuse and was field tested with 457 participants. Factor analysis on SCS-SA items defined 4 subscales: Precontemplation, Determination, Participation, and Relapse. The SCS-SA appears to have potential in…

Cardoso, Elizabeth Da Silva; Chan, Fong; Berven, Norman L.; Thomas, Kenneth R.

2003-01-01

329

Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as ...

Barr, Ronald G.

330

Process for the production of an abuse-proofed solid dosage form  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a process for the production of an abuse-proofed solid dosage form containing at least one active ingredient with potential for abuse and a synthetic or natural polymer with a breaking strength of =500 N, characterised in that a corresponding mixture is processed by melt extrusion with the assistance of a planetary-gear extruder.

ARKENAU-MARIC ELISABETH; BARTHOLOMAUS JOHANNES

331

Process for production of an abuse-proofed solid dosage form  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a process for the production of an abuse-proofed solid dosage form containing at least one active ingredient with potential for abuse and a synthetic or natural polymer with a breaking strength of =500 N, characterised in that a corresponding mixture is processed by melt extrusion with the assistance of a planetary-gear extruder.

ARKENAU ELISABETH; BARTHOLOMAUS JOHANNES

332

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

|Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

2008-01-01

333

Potentiation of CB 1954 cytotoxicity by reduced pyridine nucleotides in human tumour cells by stimulation of DT diaphorase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The toxicity of CB 1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide] towards human cells was greatly enhanced by NADH (when foetal calf serum was present in the culture medium) and by nicotinamide riboside (reduced) (NRH), but not by nicotinate riboside (reduced). Co-treatment of human cells with CB 1954 and NADH resulted in the formation of crosslinks in their DNA. The toxicity produced by other DNA crosslinking agents was unaffected by reduced nicotinamide compounds. When caffeine was included in the medium, a reduction in the cytotoxicity of CB 1954 occurred. The toxicity experienced by human cell lines after exposure to CB 1954 and NADH was proportional to their levels of the enzyme DT diaphorase NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), EC 1.6.99.2. It is concluded that NRH, which we have shown to be a co-factor for rat DT diaphorase (Friedlos et al., Biochem Pharmacol 44: 25-31, 1992), is generated from NADH by enzymes in foetal calf serum, and stimulates the activity of human DT diaphorase towards CB 1954.

Friedlos F; Biggs PJ; Abrahamson JA; Knox RJ

1992-11-01

334

Potentiation of CB 1954 cytotoxicity by reduced pyridine nucleotides in human tumour cells by stimulation of DT diaphorase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of CB 1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide] towards human cells was greatly enhanced by NADH (when foetal calf serum was present in the culture medium) and by nicotinamide riboside (reduced) (NRH), but not by nicotinate riboside (reduced). Co-treatment of human cells with CB 1954 and NADH resulted in the formation of crosslinks in their DNA. The toxicity produced by other DNA crosslinking agents was unaffected by reduced nicotinamide compounds. When caffeine was included in the medium, a reduction in the cytotoxicity of CB 1954 occurred. The toxicity experienced by human cell lines after exposure to CB 1954 and NADH was proportional to their levels of the enzyme DT diaphorase NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), EC 1.6.99.2. It is concluded that NRH, which we have shown to be a co-factor for rat DT diaphorase (Friedlos et al., Biochem Pharmacol 44: 25-31, 1992), is generated from NADH by enzymes in foetal calf serum, and stimulates the activity of human DT diaphorase towards CB 1954. PMID:1449531

Friedlos, F; Biggs, P J; Abrahamson, J A; Knox, R J

1992-11-01

335

The misuse and abuse of propofol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Media attention on the misuse of propofol increased significantly when the drug was implicated in the death of pop music superstar Michael Jackson in 2010. The misuse and abuse of propofol among healthcare providers has been reported worldwide, with some misuse resulting in death. Propofol policies guiding healthcare worker re-entry into the workplace after misusing propofol have received rare attention in the research literature. The paucity of information regarding propofol-specific re-entry policies suggests that little research has addressed this problem and the lack of research and policy guidance can contribute to unsafe re-entry and even death. This paper focuses on healthcare providers because they have an easy access to propofol and therefore are vulnerable to misusing or abusing the drug. To accomplish this, the pharmacology and misuse/abuse potential of propofol and the influence of the 12-step recovery paradigm in the re-entry literature are reviewed. In conclusion, existing research and policy are drawn upon to suggest employment re-entry guidelines for healthcare workers.

Monroe T; Hamza H; Stocks G; Scimeca PD; Cowan R

2011-01-01

336

Germination response of Hylocereus setaceus (Salm-Dyck ex DC: ) Ralf Bauer (Cactaceae) seeds to temperature and reduced water potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The germination response of Hylocereus setaceus seeds to isothermic incubation at different water potentials was analysed by using the thermal time and hydrotime models, aiming to describe some germination parameters of the population and to test the validity of the models to describe the response of the seeds to temperature and water potential. Hylocereus setaceus seeds germinated relatively well in a wide range of temperatures and the germination was rate limited from 11 to 20 degrees C interval and beyond 30 degrees C until 40 degrees C, in which the germination rate respectively shifts positively and negatively with temperature. The minimum or base temperature (T(b)) for the germination of H. setaceus was 7 degrees C, and the ceiling temperature varied nearly from 43.5 to 59 degrees C depending on the percent fraction, with median set on 49.8 degrees C. The number of degrees day necessary for 50% of the seeds to germinate in the infra-optimum temperature range was 39.3 degrees C day, whereas at the supra-optimum interval the value of theta = 77 was assumed to be constant throughout. Germination was sensitive to decreasing values of psi in the medium, and both the germinability and the germination rate shift negatively with the reduction of psi, but the rate of reduction changed with temperature. The values of base water potential (psi(b)) shift to zero with increasing temperatures and such variation reflects in the relatively greater effect of low psi on germination in supra optimum range of T. In general, the model described better the germination time courses at lower than at higher water potentials. The analysis also suggest that Tb may not be independent of psi and that psi(b(g)) may change as a function of temperature at the infra-otimum temperature range. PMID:20231970

Simão, E; Takaki, M; Cardoso, V J M

2010-02-01

337

Germination response of Hylocereus setaceus (Salm-Dyck ex DC: ) Ralf Bauer (Cactaceae) seeds to temperature and reduced water potentials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The germination response of Hylocereus setaceus seeds to isothermic incubation at different water potentials was analysed by using the thermal time and hydrotime models, aiming to describe some germination parameters of the population and to test the validity of the models to describe the response of the seeds to temperature and water potential. Hylocereus setaceus seeds germinated relatively well in a wide range of temperatures and the germination was rate limited from 11 to 20 degrees C interval and beyond 30 degrees C until 40 degrees C, in which the germination rate respectively shifts positively and negatively with temperature. The minimum or base temperature (T(b)) for the germination of H. setaceus was 7 degrees C, and the ceiling temperature varied nearly from 43.5 to 59 degrees C depending on the percent fraction, with median set on 49.8 degrees C. The number of degrees day necessary for 50% of the seeds to germinate in the infra-optimum temperature range was 39.3 degrees C day, whereas at the supra-optimum interval the value of theta = 77 was assumed to be constant throughout. Germination was sensitive to decreasing values of psi in the medium, and both the germinability and the germination rate shift negatively with the reduction of psi, but the rate of reduction changed with temperature. The values of base water potential (psi(b)) shift to zero with increasing temperatures and such variation reflects in the relatively greater effect of low psi on germination in supra optimum range of T. In general, the model described better the germination time courses at lower than at higher water potentials. The analysis also suggest that Tb may not be independent of psi and that psi(b(g)) may change as a function of temperature at the infra-otimum temperature range.

Simão E; Takaki M; Cardoso VJ

2010-02-01

338

Abusive supervision and nursing performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This is a report on a 2008 investigation of the influence of abusive supervision on nursing performance among registered nurses in an urban South Florida county. The findings suggest implications for patient satisfaction. BACKGROUND: Research suggests that a myriad of negative personal and workplace consequences result when a supervisor is abusive. Researchers have reported frustration, anxiety, stress, psychological distress, problem drinking, family problems, less organizational commitment, fewer organizational citizenship behaviors, and greater intention to resign. Abusive supervision affects an estimated 13.5% of U.S. workers and costs U.S. corporations an estimated $23.8 billion annually. However, there was little understanding of abusive supervision's impact on performance, including within health care. METHODS: This study utilized an anonymous mail questionnaire of a random sample of 6,500 registered nurses in an urban South Florida county. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the responses. The survey instrument was self-reporting. RESULTS: The study found that targeted subordinates reacted with noncompliance with significant organizational performance norms. The incidence of abusive supervision was 46.6%, with 36.6% of the nurses reporting negative influence on performance and compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Supervisory abuse is a problem to the healthcare organizations because of the counterproductive behaviors that resulted. Concern is specifically suggested regarding possible negative influences to patient satisfaction. This article offers a change model and recommendations to curtail abusive supervision.

Estes BC

2013-01-01

339

Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point. PMID:22973853

Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

2012-10-01

340

Prevention of alcohol abuse-related birth effects--II. Targeting and pricing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current public health measures to reduce the occurrence of fetal alcohol abuse syndrome (FAAS) and alcohol abuse-related birth effects (AARBEs) have been ineffective, because they target alcohol consumption, rather than alcohol abuse. The present discussion contends that the most effective public health strategy for reducing FAAS and AARBEs is a combination of more specific public health messages that target alcohol abuse, coupled with higher taxes on alcohol beverages. Although alcohol consumption by alcohol abusers has been thought to be inelastic to price changes, recent studies have found that both heavy drinking and binge drinking are sensitive to alcohol price changes, and price elasticities are relatively high for heavy drinkers who are aware of the consequences of their drinking. Although price increases may have a disproportionate impact on lower socioeconomic groups, this article concludes that they are justifiable from both a utilitarian and a categorical imperative perspective.

Abel EL

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Prevention of alcohol abuse-related birth effects--II. Targeting and pricing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current public health measures to reduce the occurrence of fetal alcohol abuse syndrome (FAAS) and alcohol abuse-related birth effects (AARBEs) have been ineffective, because they target alcohol consumption, rather than alcohol abuse. The present discussion contends that the most effective public health strategy for reducing FAAS and AARBEs is a combination of more specific public health messages that target alcohol abuse, coupled with higher taxes on alcohol beverages. Although alcohol consumption by alcohol abusers has been thought to be inelastic to price changes, recent studies have found that both heavy drinking and binge drinking are sensitive to alcohol price changes, and price elasticities are relatively high for heavy drinkers who are aware of the consequences of their drinking. Although price increases may have a disproportionate impact on lower socioeconomic groups, this article concludes that they are justifiable from both a utilitarian and a categorical imperative perspective. PMID:9719401

Abel, E L

342

The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself.

Stevens A; Yang H; Carin L; Arslan I; Browning ND

2013-10-01

343

Potential negative effects of perspective-taking efforts in the context of close relationships: increased bias and reduced satisfaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three experiments demonstrated that trying to appreciate a close other's unique point of view (imagine-other perspective taking) increases the extent to which individuals overestimate their own transparency to the close other, that is, how many of their values, preferences, traits, and feelings are readily apparent to him or her. Trying to be objective and pay careful attention to cues from a close other, which inhibits perspective taking, instead had the opposite effect. Mediation analyses suggested that increased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the positive effect of imagine-other perspective taking on perceived transparency, and decreased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the negative effect of trying to be objective on these judgments. These effects on perceived transparency had important implications for relationship well-being: Enhanced perceived transparency of negative feelings prompted by imagine-other perspective taking during a back-and-forth exchange with a romantic partner led to systematic discrepancies between individuals' own and their partner's experience of the exchange and reduced relationship satisfaction; trying to be objective instead reduced perceived transparency and thereby increased satisfaction. Notably, initial closeness with another person enhanced rather than tempered the egocentric effects of perspective taking. Taken together, these results suggest that positive motivations to nurture a close relationship and be sensitive to a loved one might sometimes be better channeled toward paying closer attention to his or her behavior than toward perspective taking.

Vorauer JD; Sucharyna TA

2013-01-01

344

4.5 Tesla magnetic field reduces range of high-energy positrons -- Potential implications for positron emission tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have theoretically and experimentally investigated the extent to which homogeneous magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla reduce the spatial distance positrons travel before annihilation (positron range). Computer simulations of a noncoincident detector design using a Monte Carlo algorithm calculated the positron range as a function of positron energy and magnetic field strength. The simulation predicted improvements in resolution, defined as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line-spread function (LSF) for a magnetic field strength up to 7 Tesla: negligible for F-18, from 3.35 mm to 2.73 mm for Ga-68 and from 3.66 mm to 2.68 mm for Rb-82. Also a substantial noise suppression was observed, described by the full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM) for higher positron energies. The experimental approach confirmed an improvement in resolution for Ga-68 from 3.54 mm at 0 Tesla to 2.99 mm FWHM at 4.5 Tesla and practically no improvement for F-18 (2.97 mm at 0 Tesla and 2.95 mm at 4.5 Tesla). It is concluded that the simulation model is appropriate and that a homogeneous static magnetic field of 4.5 Tesla reduces the range of high-energy positrons to an extent that may improve spatial resolution in positron emission tomography.

Wirrwar, A.; Vosberg, H. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Herzog, H.; Halling, H.; Weber, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Mueller-Gaertner, H.W. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin

1997-04-01

345

DRUG ABUSE- A MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse is an improper use of a therapeutic or non therapeutic drug resulting impulses to use that leads to significant problems or distress. Drug dependence is used to cover both drugs of addiction i.e. which cause both psychological and physiological dependence, as well as drugs which only cause habit formation i.e., which cause only psychological dependence. A part from medical problems drug abuse is a constant threat to family, society, nation and the world. This paper will aim to explore its different definitions and related issues.Keywords: Drug abuse, Dependence, Addiction.

Birendra Kumar Mandal; Bishwa Nath Yadav

2012-01-01

346

Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

The prospect for performance improvement in the 62 operating light water reactors was examined. It is found that in the short term, capacity factor improvement of about 16 percent can be achieved, in response to a short term energy crisis. In the long term a gain of 18 percent can be achieved. Such gains represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. Potential increases in the operating power level of these units, are evaluated. This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day.

Koppe, R. H.; Olson, E. A. J.; Vanhowe, K. R.

1980-09-01

347

Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

1981-09-01

348

Childhood sexual abuse, adult psychiatric morbidity, and criminal outcomes in women assessed by medium secure forensic service.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of this group were victims of a subsequent sexual assault in adulthood. The perpetrators were all male. The majority of intrafamilial cases resulted in victims being raised in environments outside the family home. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with later relationship, educational, and occupational difficulties. Significant associations were also seen with personality disorder, self-harm, and substance misuse. Treating services need to recognize the potential importance of childhood sexual abuse in their models of care given the complexity of the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosocial needs and its impact on successful rehabilitation. PMID:23428151

Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

2013-01-01

349

Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging cerebral GABAA receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

1996-01-01

350

Science and policy in substance abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP) is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

Stephan Arndt

2006-01-01

351

Science and policy in substance abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP) is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

Arndt Stephan

2006-01-01

352

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels. Ansatzpunkte und Potentiale zur Minderung des Treibhauseffektes aus Sicht der fossilen Energietraeger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs.

Ziegler, A.; Schlemm, F.; Cremer, G.; Fabri, J.; Grosser, A.; Wiegand, D.; Engelhard, J.; Altmann, B.R.

1992-02-01

353

Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the chinese community?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.

Wong JY; Tiwari A; Fong DY; Yuen KH; Humphreys J; Bullock L

2013-07-01

354

Mu opioid receptor activation reduces inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells of rat and guinea pig.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using intracellular recording techniques, we characterized synaptic responses of CA3 pyramidal cells to mu and kappa agonists in hippocampal slices from rats and guinea pigs. In rat CA3 pyramidal cells, the mu selective agonist (N-MePhe3,D-Pro4)-morphiceptin (PLO17) inhibited both the early and the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and increased excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitudes. Voltage clamp analysis of synaptic currents indicated that the excitatory postsynaptic current were not increased by PLO17, showing that the apparent increase in EPSPs was a result of a decrease in the underlying IPSP. The kappa agonists trans-(+)-3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]-benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate and dynorphin A (1-17) had no effect on EPSPs or IPSP conductances measured in rat pyramidal cells. Maximal inhibition of IPSPs by PLO17 resulted in a bursting response to stimulation in rat but not guinea pig CA3 pyramidal cells. In guinea pig CA3 pyramidal cells, PLO17 also inhibited IPSP conductances but did not affect EPSP amplitudes. In contrast to the lack of effect in rat pyramidal cells, trans-(+)-3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]-benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (100 nM) inhibited the late IPSP conductance without influencing the EPSP or the early IPSP conductance of guinea pig pyramidal cells. Dynorphin A (1-17) (0.01-10 microM) did not affect resting membrane properties or evoked synaptic conductances in either preparation. Mu receptor activationin the CA3 of rats and guinea pigs results in the inhibition of inhibitory synaptic input to pyramidal cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Caudle RM; Chavkin C

1990-03-01

355

Effect of potential therapeutic agents in reducing oxidative stress in pulmonary tissues of recurrent airway obstruction-affected and clinically healthy horses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: To determine and compare the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in pulmonary tissues of horses affected with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and clinically healthy horses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of potential therapeutic agents in reducing ROS and RNS in the tissues of these horses. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that RAO-affected horses would have high levels of reactive species and that the test agents would reduce them. The objectives were as follows: 1) to determine the level of ROS and RNS in pulmonary tissues (bronchial and arterial rings) of RAO-affected and clinically healthy horses; and 2) to determine the ability of pentoxifylline, pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate and a combined use of endothelin A and B receptor antagonists (BQ123 and BQ788, respectively) in reducing reactive species. METHODS: Arterial and bronchial rings were collected from the diaphragmatic lung lobe of each horse immediately after euthanasia. The levels of ROS and RNS were measured in control tissues and those incubated with test agents, using an electron paramagnetic resonance instrument. RESULTS: The levels of ROS and RNS were significantly greater in arterial and bronchial tissues of RAO-affected than of clinically healthy horses. Pentoxifylline and endothelin antagonists reduced both ROS and RNS in tissues from RAO-affected horses. Basal levels of reactive species in clinically healthy horses were not affected by these agents. No difference in the level of reactive species was observed between arterial and bronchial tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Horses affected by RAO had higher ROS and RNS than clinically healthy horses. Pentoxifylline and endothelin antagonists effectively reduced ROS and RNS in pulmonary tissues of RAO-affected horses. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: The study suggested a potential use for pentoxifylline and endothelin antagonists in treating RAO-affected horses. As endothelin is involved in physiological functions, therapeutic use of its antagonists is cautioned.

Venugopal C; Mariappan N; Holmes E; Kearney M; Beadle R

2013-01-01

356

Child abuse rating system for archival information in severe mental illness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Assessing and addressing child abuse histories are one of the grand challenges in psychiatric rehabilitation. Archival information, e.g., comprehensive psychosocial evaluations, objective testing, court documents, and medical chart information can provide useful and objective historical accounts. It is essential to develop a reliable and valid child abuse rating system for archival information. PURPOSE AND METHODS: This study aimed to examine the reliability and predictive validity of a highly structured and specific child abuse rating system used to code archival information for 150 psychiatric inpatients with severe mental illness (SMI). RESULTS: The child abuse rating system produced reliable ratings across raters and subtypes of child abuse were highly inter-related. More than half (56.5%) of the sample with SMI was identified to have one or more types of child abuse history; specifically, child sexual abuse (CSA, 36%), child physical abuse (CPA, 27.3%), emotional maltreatment (EM, 36%), failure to provide (FTP, 10.7%), and lack of supervision (LOS, 32%). Female participants (50%) with SMI had higher rates of CSA than male participants (20.8%). Subtypes of child abuse history were related to poorer premorbid functioning, but the relationships varied across different types of child abuse. In addition, CSA and EM were related to greater suspiciousness/hostility. CONCLUSION: The child abuse rating system for archival data fills an important gap in existing methodology and, in conjunction with a self-report measure, is expected to improve the assessment and understanding of the prevalence of child abuse among adults with SMI. Potential limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Choi KH; Reddy LF; Spaulding W

2012-08-01

357

InP/ZnS-graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as fascinating materials for potential optoelectronic applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our recent studies on metal-organic nanohybrids based on alkylated graphene oxide (GO), reduced alkylated graphene oxide (RGO) and InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are presented. The GO alkylated by octadecylamine (ODA) and the QD bearing a dodecane thiol (DDT) ligand are soluble in toluene. The nanocomposite alkylated-GO-QD (GOQD) is readily formed from the solution mixture. Treatment of the GOQD composite with hydrazine affords a reduced-alkylated-GO-QD (RGOQD) composite. The structure, morphology, photophysical and electrical properties of GOQDs and RGOQDs are studied. The micro-FTIR and Raman studies demonstrate evidence of the QD interaction with GO and RGO through facile intercalation of the alkyl chains. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of the GOQD composite show heaps of large QD aggregates piled underneath the GO sheet. Upon reduction to RGOQDs, the QDs become evenly distributed on the graphene bed and the size of the clusters significantly decreases. This also facilitates closer proximity of the QDs to the graphene domains by altering the optoelectronic properties of the RGOQDs. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm QDs being retained in the composites, though a small elemental composition change takes place. The XPS and the fluorescence spectra show the presence of an In(Zn)P alloy while the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show characteristics of the tetragonal indium. The photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs in GOQD and RGOQD films determined by the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) experiment demonstrates almost complete fluorescence quenching in RGOQDs. The conductance studies demonstrate the differences between GOQDs and RGOQDs. Investigation on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFET) characteristics shows the composite to exhibit p-type channel material properties. The RGOQD exhibits much superior electrical conductance as a channel material compared to the GOQD due to the close proximity of the QDs in the RGOQD to the graphene surface. The transfer characteristics, memory properties, and on/off ratios of the devices are determined. A mechanism has been proposed with reference to the Fermi energies of the composites estimated from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies.

Samal M; Mohapatra P; Subbiah R; Lee CL; Anass B; Kim JA; Kim T; Yi DK

2013-08-01

358

Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 ?g/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated throughout the jatropha waste-handling process. However additional tests such as digestibility as well as acceptability of the treated jatropha seed cake should be conducted using both in vivo and in vitro studies before recommending the jatropha seed cake as a source of renewable animal feed and other value-added products.

Sadubthummarak U; Parkpian P; Ruchirawat M; Kongchum M; Delaune RD

2013-01-01

359

Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 ?g/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated throughout the jatropha waste-handling process. However additional tests such as digestibility as well as acceptability of the treated jatropha seed cake should be conducted using both in vivo and in vitro studies before recommending the jatropha seed cake as a source of renewable animal feed and other value-added products. PMID:23998310

Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

2013-01-01

360

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates obtained from simulated gastrointestinal digestion of cowpea proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment of cowpea proteins (CP) on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates (CPH) obtained from in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of CP was evaluated. Hydrolysis of native and treated CP with gastrointestinal pepsin and pancreatin yielded CPH that displayed antioxidant activities based on oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA). CPH derived from the treated CP yielded higher ORAC values than CPH from untreated proteins. However, lower significant FRAP and SRSA values were observed for these samples compared to untreated CPH (p?reduce the radical scavenging and reducing potential of the enzymatic hydrolysates possibly due to the decreased amounts of cysteine. Since the hydrolysates were generated with gastrointestinal enzymes, it is possible that the resulting compounds are produced to exert some health functions during normal consumption of cowpea.

Quansah JK; Udenigwe CC; Saalia FK; Yada RY

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

Ahmadi A

2012-08-01

362

Potential for reducing CO2 from fossil fuel through biomass; Biomass riyo ni yoru CO2 sakugen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study is conducted to find out in what degree CO2 originating in fossil fuel may be reduced by use of biomass substituting for fossil fuel. According to an annual report of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), there is approximately 13,000Mha of land on the earth. One third is arable, another is occupied by forest and woodland, and the third is classified as miscellaneous. In the study, the above-said forest and woodland minus forests already incorporated into the carbon cycle system is defined as the afforestable area. Such afforestable area accounts for 744Mha across the world, of which 68% is found in advanced countries. Developing countries are rich in forests, but not in land for new afforestation. CO2 reduction is calculated in case biomass is utilized, in which calculation power generation by combustion and gasification is replaced by coal-fired power generation, and fermented ethanol is replaced by gasoline. The results of the calculation indicate that the amount of CO2 of 2.4Gt-C/y originating in coal may totally be retrenched while 25-85% of CO2 of 0.412Gt-C/y due to gasoline consumption by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member nations may again be retrenched. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Dote, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1998-07-01

363

Reduced intraepidermal nerve fibre density in lesional and nonlesional prurigo nodularis skin as a potential sign of subclinical cutaneous neuropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a highly pruritic condition characterized by multiple hyperkeratotic nodules. Previous immunohistochemical studies demonstrated increased numbers of dermal nerve fibres. OBJECTIVES: Given that the sensation of pruritus is transmitted mainly by thin, unmyelinated epidermal nerves, the aim of our study was to investigate the intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) density. METHODS: Biopsies taken from lesional and nonlesional skin of 53 patients (37 women and 16 men; mean ± SD age 60·6 ± 14·9 years) with PN of diverse origin were immunostained for protein gene product 9·5. According to the guideline of the European Federation of Neurological Societies, the IENF density per millimetre was determined and compared with that in 20 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Lesional and uninvolved PN skin biopsies showed significantly decreased IENF density (P < 0·001) regardless of patient age, origin of PN, intensity or quality of pruritus. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoplasia of epidermal sensory nerves independently of clinical parameters is a new finding in PN and suggests involvement of epidermal nerves in PN pathophysiology. To date, it cannot be ruled out that reduced IENF density is due to repeated scratching. However, the presence of hypoplasia in nonlesional PN skin suggests the presence of a subclinical small fibre neuropathy.

Schuhknecht B; Marziniak M; Wissel A; Phan NQ; Pappai D; Dangelmaier J; Metze D; Ständer S

2011-07-01

364

nab-Paclitaxel potentiates gemcitabine activity by reducing cytidine deaminase levels in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel, an albumin-stabilized paclitaxel formulation, demonstrates clinical activity when administered in combination with gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). The limited availability of patient tissue and exquisite sensitivity of xenografts to chemotherapeutics have limited our ability to address the mechanistic basis of this treatment regimen. Here, we used a mouse model of PDA to show that the coadministration of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine uniquely demonstrates evidence of tumor regression. Combination treatment increases intratumoral gemcitabine levels attributable to a marked decrease in the primary gemcitabine metabolizing enzyme, cytidine deaminase. Correspondingly, paclitaxel reduced the levels of cytidine deaminase protein in cultured cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated degradation, resulting in the increased stabilization of gemcitabine. Our findings support the concept that suboptimal intratumoral concentrations of gemcitabine represent a crucial mechanism of therapeutic resistance in PDA and highlight the advantages of genetically engineered mouse models in preclinical therapeutic trials. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides mechanistic insight into the clinical cooperation observed between gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Frese KK; Neesse A; Cook N; Bapiro TE; Lolkema MP; Jodrell DI; Tuveson DA

2012-03-01

365

Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:22855041

Ahmadi, Amirhossein

2012-08-02

366

TNF potentiates anticancer activity of bortezomib (Velcade) through reduced expression of proteasome subunits and dysregulation of unfolded protein response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bortezomib (Velcade) exploits proteasome inhibition as a unique mechanism of anticancer activity. The effectiveness of bortezomib is, however, limited, therefore, the search for therapeutic regimens combining bortezomib with other agents. In the present work we demonstrate enhanced anticancer activity of bortezomib by its combination with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the experimental model of C-26 colon carcinoma in mice. This interaction likely relies on the induction of a dysregulated response to ER stress, leading to apoptosis of cancer cells, evidenced by caspase-3 cleavage, p53 accumulation as well as increased SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. ER stress induced by the combination of TNF and bortezomib is corroborated by upregulation of BiP, PDI and calnexin as well as cleavage of caspase-12; however, in contrast to the classic pathway, it is also associated with decreased phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha and prevention of XBP-1 splicing. TNF prevented the upregulation of Hsp27 induced by bortezomib, which may contribute to enhanced ER stress. Moreover, TNF interfered with bortezomib-induced upregulation of distinct subunits of the 26S proteasome. Bortezomib concentration used in this study was not sufficient to prevent TNF from inducing nuclear translocation of p65/RelA; however, the combination of both agents reduced total p65/RelA levels. Combined treatment of tumor-bearing mice with bortezomib and TNF not only inhibited tumor growth but also significantly prolonged animal survival. Therefore, combination of bortezomib with TNF is an attractive option for further clinical studies.

Nowis D; McConnell EJ; Dierlam L; Palamarchuk A; Lass A; Wójcik C

2007-07-01

367

Substance abuse among registered nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stressful conditions under which nurses work, due in part to the nursing shortage, are among the risk factors that contribute to nurses' abuse of illicit drugs. Nurses differ from the general population in that they work in an environment where they not only have access to controlled substances, but also are exposed to death and dying, the stress of which can increase the risk of drug abuse. However, practicing while impaired places patients' lives at risk and decreases staff morale.

Epstein PM; Burns C; Conlon HA

2010-12-01

368

The prescription drug abuse epidemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well. PMID:22939296

Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie

2012-09-01

369

The prescription drug abuse epidemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well.

Yu HY

2012-09-01

370

Reducing accident potential by improving the ergonomics and safety of locomotive and safety of locomotive and FSV driver cabs by retrofit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to reduce accident potential in existing underground haulage and transport operations two research projects were commissioned. The projects were supported jointly by British Coal and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Ergonomics Action Programme. The aims of the two projects were to identify and prove practical retrofit improvements that would reduce human error potential and, thereby, accident potential in existing FSV and locomotive operations. More specifically, the plan was to take six long-life locomotives and FSVs from the existing BCC fleet and examine them against the existing recommendations for `ideal` ergonomics. For each unit, a series of viable retrofits would be defined and suitable modifications implemented and tested in operational conditions. The work is fully documented in Rushworth`s reports. This article outlines the major findings and the method used to produce and implement solutions. The method is also considered in the context of its wider potential for dealing with the safety risks associated with mining operations involving other types of equipment. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rushworth, A.M.; Simpson, G.C. [International Mining Consultants Limited (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management Unit

1994-12-01

371

Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day.

Koppe, R.H.; Olson, E.A.J.; Van Howe, K.R.

1980-09-30

372

Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day.

1980-01-01

373

Behavioural consequences of child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. MAIN MESSAGE: A child's behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children-physically, emotionally, and psychologically-and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. CONCLUSION: Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children.

Al Odhayani A; Watson WJ; Watson L

2013-08-01

374

Glucocorticoid receptor and molecular chaperones in the pathogenesis of adrenal incidentalomas: potential role of reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity depends on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock proteins (Hsps). We investigated whether common GR genes (ER22/23EK, N363S, Bcl I, and 9?) and adrenocorticotropin receptor promoter polymorphisms influence susceptibility for unilateral adrenal incidentaloma (AI), plus GR and Hsp expression in tumorous (n = 19), peritumorous (n = 13) and normal adrenocortical (n = 11) tissues. Patients (n = 112), population-matched controls (n = 100) and tumor tissues (n = 32) were genotyped for these polymorphisms. Postdexamethasone serum cortisol was higher in patients (p < 0.001). GR gene variants, larger allele of Bcl I (odds ratio [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-5.1; p < 0.001] and minor allele of 9? (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.7; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of AI. In patients, the first allele is linked with larger tumors (p = 0.002) and the latter with higher postdexamethasone cortisol levels (p = 0.025). Both allele carriers had lesser waist circumference (p = 0.02), similar adrenocorticotropin and higher basal (p = 0.024) and postdexamethasone cortisol concentrations (p < 0.001). Tumorous and constitutional genotypes were similar. GR-D is the major receptor isoform in normal adrenal cortex by Western blotting. Loss of other receptor isoforms, decrease in immunostaining for GR (p < 0.0001), underexpression of chaperones (p ? 0.01) and the presence of inducible Hsp70 were found in adenomas. In conclusion, GR gene variants, C allele of Bcl I and minor allele of 9?, are associated with AIs. Their concurrent presence in patients reduces GC sensitivity. Normal adrenal cortex preferentially expresses GR-D. In adenomas, the lack of other GR isoforms and underexpression of heat shock proteins perhaps permanently impair GC signaling, which could promote dysregulated cortisol production and tumor growth. The innate GC sensitivity probably modifies these effects. PMID:23196783

Damjanovic, Svetozar S; Antic, Jadranka A; Ilic, Bojana B; Cokic, Bojana Beleslin; Ivovic, Miomira; Ognjanovic, Sanja I; Isailovic, Tatjana V; Popovic, Bojana M; Bozic, Ivana B; Tatic, Svetislav; Matic, Gordana; Todorovic, Vera N; Paunovic, Ivan

2013-01-22

375

Glucocorticoid receptor and molecular chaperones in the pathogenesis of adrenal incidentalomas: potential role of reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity depends on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock proteins (Hsps). We investigated whether common GR genes (ER22/23EK, N363S, Bcl I, and 9?) and adrenocorticotropin receptor promoter polymorphisms influence susceptibility for unilateral adrenal incidentaloma (AI), plus GR and Hsp expression in tumorous (n = 19), peritumorous (n = 13) and normal adrenocortical (n = 11) tissues. Patients (n = 112), population-matched controls (n = 100) and tumor tissues (n = 32) were genotyped for these polymorphisms. Postdexamethasone serum cortisol was higher in patients (p < 0.001). GR gene variants, larger allele of Bcl I (odds ratio [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-5.1; p < 0.001] and minor allele of 9? (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.7; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of AI. In patients, the first allele is linked with larger tumors (p = 0.002) and the latter with higher postdexamethasone cortisol levels (p = 0.025). Both allele carriers had lesser waist circumference (p = 0.02), similar adrenocorticotropin and higher basal (p = 0.024) and postdexamethasone cortisol concentrations (p < 0.001). Tumorous and constitutional genotypes were similar. GR-D is the major receptor isoform in normal adrenal cortex by Western blotting. Loss of other receptor isoforms, decrease in immunostaining for GR (p < 0.0001), underexpression of chaperones (p ? 0.01) and the presence of inducible Hsp70 were found in adenomas. In conclusion, GR gene variants, C allele of Bcl I and minor allele of 9?, are associated with AIs. Their concurrent presence in patients reduces GC sensitivity. Normal adrenal cortex preferentially expresses GR-D. In adenomas, the lack of other GR isoforms and underexpression of heat shock proteins perhaps permanently impair GC signaling, which could promote dysregulated cortisol production and tumor growth. The innate GC sensitivity probably modifies these effects.

Damjanovic SS; Antic JA; Ilic BB; Cokic BB; Ivovic M; Ognjanovic SI; Isailovic TV; Popovic BM; Bozic IB; Tatic S; Matic G; Todorovic VN; Paunovic I

2012-01-01

376

TNF potentiates anticancer activity of bortezomib (Velcade) through reduced expression of proteasome subunits and dysregulation of unfolded protein response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bortezomib (Velcade) exploits proteasome inhibition as a unique mechanism of anticancer activity. The effectiveness of bortezomib is, however, limited, therefore, the search for therapeutic regimens combining bortezomib with other agents. In the present work we demonstrate enhanced anticancer activity of bortezomib by its combination with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the experimental model of C-26 colon carcinoma in mice. This interaction likely relies on the induction of a dysregulated response to ER stress, leading to apoptosis of cancer cells, evidenced by caspase-3 cleavage, p53 accumulation as well as increased SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. ER stress induced by the combination of TNF and bortezomib is corroborated by upregulation of BiP, PDI and calnexin as well as cleavage of caspase-12; however, in contrast to the classic pathway, it is also associated with decreased phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha and prevention of XBP-1 splicing. TNF prevented the upregulation of Hsp27 induced by bortezomib, which may contribute to enhanced ER stress. Moreover, TNF interfered with bortezomib-induced upregulation of distinct subunits of the 26S proteasome. Bortezomib concentration used in this study was not sufficient to prevent TNF from inducing nuclear translocation of p65/RelA; however, the combination of both agents reduced total p65/RelA levels. Combined treatment of tumor-bearing mice with bortezomib and TNF not only inhibited tumor growth but also significantly prolonged animal survival. Therefore, combination of bortezomib with TNF is an attractive option for further clinical studies. PMID:17373661

Nowis, Dominika; McConnell, Elizabeth J; Dierlam, Lindsey; Palamarchuk, Alla; Lass, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Cezary

2007-07-15

377

Abused inhalants enhance GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abused inhalants are widely used, especially among school-age children and teenagers, and are 'gateway' drugs leading to the abuse of alcohol and other addictive substances. In spite of this widespread use, little is known about the effects produced by inhalants on the central nervous system. The similarity in behavioral effects produced by inhalants and inhaled anesthetics, together with their common chemical features, prompted this study of inhalant actions on a well-characterized anesthetic target, GABA synapses. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were conducted on CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal brain slices to measure effects on resting membrane properties, action potential discharge, and GABA-mediated inhibitory responses. Toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene depressed CA1 excitability in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. This depression appeared to involve enhanced GABA-mediated inhibition, evident in its reversal by a GABA receptor antagonist. Consistent with this, the abused inhalants increased inhibitory postsynaptic potentials produced using minimal stimulation of stratum radiatum inputs to CA1 neurons, in the presence of CNQX and APV to block excitatory synaptic responses and GGP to block GABA(B) responses. The enhanced inhibition appeared to come about by a presynaptic action on GABA nerve terminals, because spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency was increased with no change in the amplitude of postsynaptic currents, both in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin used to block interneuron action potentials and cadmium used to block calcium influx into nerve terminals. The toluene-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was blocked by dantrolene or ryanodine, indicating that the abused inhalant acted to increase the release of calcium from intracellular nerve terminal stores. This presynaptic action produced by abused inhalants is shared by inhaled anesthetics and would contribute to the altered behavioral effects produced by both classes of drugs, and could be especially important in the context of a disruption of learning and memory by abused inhalants.

MacIver MB

2009-09-01

378

Abused inhalants enhance GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abused inhalants are widely used, especially among school-age children and teenagers, and are 'gateway' drugs leading to the abuse of alcohol and other addictive substances. In spite of this widespread use, little is known about the effects produced by inhalants on the central nervous system. The similarity in behavioral effects produced by inhalants and inhaled anesthetics, together with their common chemical features, prompted this study of inhalant actions on a well-characterized anesthetic target, GABA synapses. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were conducted on CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal brain slices to measure effects on resting membrane properties, action potential discharge, and GABA-mediated inhibitory responses. Toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene depressed CA1 excitability in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. This depression appeared to involve enhanced GABA-mediated inhibition, evident in its reversal by a GABA receptor antagonist. Consistent with this, the abused inhalants increased inhibitory postsynaptic potentials produced using minimal stimulation of stratum radiatum inputs to CA1 neurons, in the presence of CNQX and APV to block excitatory synaptic responses and GGP to block GABA(B) responses. The enhanced inhibition appeared to come about by a presynaptic action on GABA nerve terminals, because spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency was increased with no change in the amplitude of postsynaptic currents, both in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin used to block interneuron action potentials and cadmium used to block calcium influx into nerve terminals. The toluene-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was blocked by dantrolene or ryanodine, indicating that the abused inhalant acted to increase the release of calcium from intracellular nerve terminal stores. This presynaptic action produced by abused inhalants is shared by inhaled anesthetics and would contribute to the altered behavioral effects produced by both classes of drugs, and could be especially important in the context of a disruption of learning and memory by abused inhalants. PMID:19494804

MacIver, M Bruce

2009-06-03

379

Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 ± 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 ± 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 ± 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 ± 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 ± 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 ± 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 ± 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 ± 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 ± 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 ± 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was

2009-01-01

380

Religiosity and Substance Abuse: Need for Systematic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|Religion plays a significant role in human life, yet its potential to influence health and health-related conditions is not well studied. This article cites several studies that examine the correlation between religiosity and substance abuse. This article also suggests that more systematic researches are needed to validate the correlation of…

Sharma, Manoj

2006-01-01