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Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent?  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi

1999-01-01

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Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey  

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This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

2011-01-01

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Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine  

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The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

2009-01-01

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Predicting abuse potential of stimulants and other dopaminergic drugs: Overview and recommendations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24662599

Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B

2014-12-01

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Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential  

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This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

2007-01-01

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Abuse Potential of Soma®: the GABAA Receptor as a Target  

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Full Text Available Soma® (carisoprodol is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABAA receptors (GABAAR. Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABAAR function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated.

Michael J. Forster

2009-01-01

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Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types  

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Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

2014-01-01

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Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

Kelley, Susan J.

2003-01-01

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Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability  

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Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes.

Hingson, R.; Zakocs, R.; Heeren, T.; Winter, M.; Rosenbloom, D.; Dejong, W.

2005-01-01

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Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any ... and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

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75 FR 9401 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Grants To Reduce Alcohol Abuse...  

Science.gov (United States)

...or receipt from a commercial carrier. (4) Any other proof...effectiveness of the Grants to Reduce Alcohol Abuse program. They are...target students who believe that alcohol abuse is harmful to their health...students who disapprove of alcohol abuse. These three...

2010-03-02

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Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.  

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Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

2000-01-01

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Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers  

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Abstract Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative att...

Fernandez Kathrine C; Budman Simon H; Benoit Christine; Butler Stephen F; McCormick Cynthia; Venuti Synne; Katz Nathaniel

2006-01-01

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Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

2010-01-01

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Community programme in Pakistan aimed at preventing and reducing drug abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

A voluntary organization called the Green December Movement was established in December 1983 to make better use of the resources available at the community level for the prevention and reduction of drug abuse in the North Western Frontier Province of Pakistan. As a result, two major treatment and rehabilitation centres have been set up, one in Peshawar and another in Mardan, that provide free treatment for drug addicts, including those from other parts of the province. To cope with the recent increase in heroin abuse in the province, the Green December Movement has succeeded in involving both men and women in community efforts to reduce drug abuse. Emphasis has been placed on the involvement of religious leaders in drug abuse prevention activities, particularly in alerting the population to drug problems, as well as in providing spiritual and psychosocial support for detoxified addicts, which helps them to stay away from drugs. The Green December Movement has recently gained national status, and branch offices have been established in Karachi and Quetta. In addition, the Green December Movement provides drug information adapted for various target groups and encourages students, teachers and out-of-school youth to participate in community activities aimed at preventing drug abuse. To this end, the Green December Movement closely co-operates with government agencies and non-governmental organizations concerned with drug problems in the community and has undertaken research on various aspects of the nature and extent of drug abuse, as well as on its prevention and treatment. An evaluation of the Green December Movement activities carried out so far has revealed positive results. PMID:3779177

Mufti, K A

1986-01-01

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Childhood abuse and migraine: epidemiology, sex differences, and potential mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migraine and maltreatment are both common conditions that are more prevalent in women. Epidemiological evidence supports an association between childhood abuse and headache, as well as pain in general, although some controversy exists based on methodological concerns of studying the influence of remote, traumatic, stigmatizing events in an often depressed population. There is a growing scientific body of knowledge regarding the neurobiological effects of abuse on brain function and structure that suggest a possible role of early life stress in the pathogenesis of migraine, and a differential impact based on sex. Advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms by which an adverse environment interacts with and changes the genome, may suggest new treatment strategies. PMID:21631473

Tietjen, Gretchen E; Peterlin, B Lee

2011-06-01

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Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative attractiveness of 14 opioid analgesic products. Methods First, the concept of attractiveness was empirically defined with a group of prescription opioid abusers and experts in opioid abuse using a process called Concept Mapping. Abuse liability consisted of two components: factors intrinsic to the drug formulation (e.g., speed of onset, duration and factors extrinsic to drug formulation (e.g., availability, availability of alternatives, cost. A 17-item Opioid Attractiveness Scale (OAS was constructed, focusing on factors intrinsic to the drug product. Results A total of 144 individuals participated in tests of validity and reliability. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's ? = 0.85–0.94. Drug rankings based on OAS scores achieved good inter-rater agreement (Kendall's W 0.37, p Conclusion An initial examination of the psychometric properties of the OAS suggests that it is a valid and reliable scale. The OAS may be useful in providing important guidance on product features that are attractive to potential abusers.

Fernandez Kathrine C

2006-02-01

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Elder abuse through a prism of perceptions : perspectives of potential witnesses  

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The overall aim of this thesis was to deepen understanding of elder abuse (EA) by exploring and comparing perceptions held by experts, older persons, representatives of potential support organizations, and family members. Experts’ perspectives (I) were examined through risk indicators and screening questions (a) located in EA literature and (b) selected by an international Delphi panel. Risk indicators most commonly found in the literature or selected by the panel were compiled into consens...

Erlingsson, Christen

2007-01-01

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Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. PMID:25262913

Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

2014-09-28

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Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP. “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

Ramona Stone

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast, which would be performed at the same time as standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy, is a breast conserving estrogen-receptor-independent option that may have the potential to significantly decrease the disturbingly high second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast of long-term breast cancer survivors.

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Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol  

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Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results ...

Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

2006-01-01

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Universal Reduced Potential Function for Diatomic Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential energy functions of 200 diatomic systems, with dissociation energies De ranging from few eV to hundreds of ?eV, are well described by a new three-parameter potential energy function. Identification of the evaluated values of a dimensionless quantity, ?n=(L2/Ln) [Ln=((n!De/fn))1/n, a scaled length parameter, and fn, the nth force constant evaluated at the equilibrium internuclear distance Re], is proposed as a reliable criterion to search for the universal scaling features of potentials and spectroscopic constants for bound diatomic systems. Our study suggests a useful approach to predicting future molecular spectroscopic constants

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Parental child abuse potential and subsequent coping competence in disadvantaged preschool children: moderating effects of sex and ethnicity.  

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This study evaluated the effects of abuse potential in parents on subsequent coping competence domains in their children, using a model empirically supported in a high-risk community sample by Moreland and Dumas (2007). Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity. Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. However, child abuse potential was not predictive of subsequent coping competence in any domain after controlling for previous levels of child coping competence. No moderating effects were found for sex and ethnicity, but results showed main effects of sex and ethnicity in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:22425165

Lopez, Cristina M; Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; de Arellano, Michael A

2012-03-01

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Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential  

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Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

2010-01-01

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Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic  

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Daniel Rubino Pain Center of Devon, Devon, PA, USA Context: With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed t...

Rubino D

2011-01-01

27

A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?  

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Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

2012-01-01

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A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors  

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This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2009-01-01

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Validation of a reduced Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse  

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Full Text Available Con el objetivo de examinar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión en español del Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA, se aplicó éste, junto a la Double Standard Scale, la Rape Supportive Attitude Scale y el Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R, a 813 mujeres peruanas distribuidas en tres muestras diferentes: población general (n = 300, mujeres que no habían denunciado abuso (n = 300 y mujeres que habían denunciado abuso (n = 213.Después de poner a prueba mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio siete estructuras factoriales distintas del ISA, este estudio instrumental propone una versión reducida de 19 ítems agrupados en dos subescalas (Abuso no físico y Abuso físico, que obtienen excelentes coeficientes de fiabilidad de consistencia interna (0,93 y 0,89, respectivamente. La puntuación de ambas subescalas correlaciona en sentido positivo con doble moral sexual, actitud favorable hacia la violación y las dimensiones psicopatológicas del SCL-90-R. Asimismo, las puntuaciones en el ISA ponen de manifeesto que las mujeres con menor nivel cultural y ocupaciones laborales menos cualificadas sufren más abuso dentro de la pareja. Se proponen puntos de corte en las puntuaciones para detectar tanto el abuso no físico, como el físico en el contexto de las relaciones de pareja.

Juan Carlos Sierra

2011-01-01

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Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequentwith craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

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The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse  

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Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

2015-01-01

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Who Owns Child Abuse?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

Gerald Cradock

2014-11-01

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Validade de Criterio do Inventario de Potencial para Abuso Infantil (CAP) / Criterion Validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) / Validez de Criterio del Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É grande o interesse pelo tema da violência contra a criança, porém são escassas suas formas de avaliação, dificultando o desenvolvimento de intervenções. O Inventário de Potencial de Abuso Infantil (CAP) é considerado eficaz na identificação precoce de pais considerados em risco de agredirem fisica [...] mente seus filhos e uma boa ferramenta para avaliar intervenções na área dos maus-tratos contra crianças e adolescentes. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a validade de critério do Inventário CAP, por meio da comparação de seus resultados entre cuidadores considerados de alto risco para abuso infantil e cuidadores de baixo risco para o abuso infantil. Dois grupos de pais foram participantes, sendo um grupo composto por 20 pais denunciados por agressões físicas e o outro grupo de 20 pais não agressores de igual nível socioeconômico e educacional. Os resultados indicaram que o inventário é capaz de avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos propostos, demonstrando ser um bom instrumento para o trabalho de serviços de proteção à criança epara a avaliação de intervenções e políticas públicas ou pesquisas. Abstract in spanish Existe gran interés en el tema de la violencia contra los niños, pero son raras las formas de evaluación, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de intervenciones.El Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP) se considera eficaz en la identificación temprana de padres considerados en riesgo de agredir físicamen [...] te a sus hijos y buena herramienta para evaluar las intervenciones en el área de abuso contra niños. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la validez de criterio del Inventario CAP, por una comparación de sus resultados con padres de alto riesgo y padres sin riesgo para el abuso contra los niños. Participaron dos grupos: un de 20 padres que habían practicado el abuso físico y otro de 20 no agresores, del mismo nivel socioeconómico y educativo. Los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es capaz de evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos propuestos y ha demostrado ser una buena herramienta para el trabajo de los servicios de protección de la infancia, evaluación de las intervenciones y políticas públicas o de investigación. Abstract in english Even though there is great interest in the field of child abuse, there are few methods to assess it, which hinders the development of interventions. The Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is considered effective in the early identification of parents at risk of physically abusing their children, [...] and a good tool to evaluate interventions in the field of child abuse. This study's objective was to perform the CAP Inventory's criterion validity by comparing the results obtained by caregivers at a high risk of abusing their children with those obtained by caregivers at a low risk for child abuse. Two groups of parents participated in the study: a group of 20 parents reported for physically abusing their children and a group of 20 non-offending parents with the same socio-economic and educational levels. The results indicated the instrument is able to discriminate between the two groups, showing it to be a good tool for use in child protection services, to assess interventions, public policies, and research.

Ana Carolina de Almeida, Patrian; Karyne de Souza Augusto, Rios; Lucia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

2013-04-01

34

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.Methods: Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h, peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h. Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry.Results: There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons, suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically significant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.Keywords: drug abuse, opioid, oxycodone, niacin

Webster LR

2012-08-01

35

Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... link below to find out how!. Apply Now Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse If you are in an ... Relationships Transitional Compensation: Help for Victims of Abuse Child Abuse 8 Tips for Coping With a Crying Baby ...

36

The therapeutic potential of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists as analgesics without abuse liability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans. PMID:23421672

Lin, Ann P; Ko, Mei-Chuan

2013-02-20

37

The Relationship between Major Life Events and the Potential for Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

High risk parenting and child abuse are the consequences of multiple and interactive factors. The occurrence of major life events such as death, divorce, marriage, and pregnancy frequently presents stressors that may ignite an already volatile family situation. This study was conducted to examine the incidence of reported major life events in…

Burdsal, Jeanne

38

Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Daniel Rubino Pain Center of Devon, Devon, PA, USA Context: With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (MS-sNT (EMBEDA®, King Pharmaceuticals® Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, in March 2011, a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations: Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients' treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results: The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion: The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable optimization of pain-related outcomes, resulting in improved quality of life for patients and fostering patient acceptance of formulations designed to help address opioid abuse/misuse issues in the community at large. Keywords: morphine abuse, universal precautions, drug abuse

Rubino D

2011-09-01

39

Possible ways of reducing dental erosive potential of acidic beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent consumption of acidic beverages is related to excessive tooth wear, namely dental erosion. Preventive measures may involve reduction or elimination of acidic drink consumption. However, the success of this approach is difficult to achieve as it is highly dependent on patient compliance. Therefore, a practical way of minimizing the erosive potential of popular acidic drinks may be their chemical modification. The aim of this article was to review the different methods of modification and their shortcomings. The available literature demonstrates that the erosive potential of most acidic beverages could be reduced. To date, the effectiveness of soluble calcium salts supplementation is the best established. However, modification can reduce the sensorial quality of the drink and shorten its shelf-life. There is also a need to evaluate the lowest effective and safe dose of the additive. PMID:24912931

Stefa?ski, T; Postek-Stefa?ska, L

2014-09-01

40

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

 
 
 
 
41

Hormone therapy and raloxifene reduce the coagulation inhibitor potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coagulation inhibitor potential (CIP) assay may detect major thrombophilia at a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 70-80%. Subnormal CIP might be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. This study compared the effect on CIP in plasma samples from postmenopausal women treated with four different regimens. Fibrin aggregation in plasma was monitored after activation with tissue factor. The effect of potentiated inhibition of coagulation was measured. Plasma samples from 202 healthy women randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with conventional-dose or low-dose hormone therapy, raloxifene or tibolone were examined. Major thrombophilias were excluded. Compared with baseline, the median level in CIP was reduced by 64% in the conventional-dose group, by 38% in the low-dose group and by 31% in the raloxifene group, whereas for those treated with tibolone the median CIP increased by 9%. The median changes in CIP were significant for both hormone therapy groups (P < 0.0001) and for the raloxifene group (P = 0.003), but not for the tibolone group (P = 0.653). The 12 women with heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation had a significantly reduced median CIP level (P < 0.0001) at baseline. Hormone therapy and raloxifene, associated with venous thromboembolism, reduce the CIP. Tibolone does not reduce the CIP. PMID:17581320

Andresen, Marianne S; Eilertsen, Anette L; Abildgaard, Ulrich; Sandset, Per Morten

2007-07-01

42

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based". There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) to M(5)). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knock-out mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M(1)-M(5) receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS.

Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane

2011-01-01

43

Trimethylangelicin reduces IL-8 transcription and potentiates CFTR function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic inflammatory response in the airway tract of patients affected by cystic fibrosis is characterized by an excessive recruitment of neutrophils to the bronchial lumina, driven by the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. We previously found that 5-methoxypsoralen reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription in bronchial epithelial cell lines, with an IC(50) of 10 ?M (Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bezzerri V, Bianchi N, Mazzon M, Mancini I, Giri MG, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G. Int Immunopharmacol 9: 1411-1422, 2009). Here, we extended the investigation to analogs of 5-methoxypsoralen, and we found that the most potent effect is obtained with 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), which inhibits P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription at nanomolar concentration in IB3-1, CuFi-1, CFBE41o-, and Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell lines. Analysis of phosphoproteins involved in proinflammatory transmembrane signaling evidenced that TMA reduces the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase-1 and AKT2/3, which we found indeed involved in P. aeruginosa-dependent activation of IL-8 gene transcription by testing the effect of pharmacological inhibitors. In addition, we found a docking site of TMA into NF-?B by in silico analysis, whereas inhibition of the NF-?B/DNA interactions in vitro by EMSA was observed at high concentrations (10 mM TMA). To further understand whether NF-?B pathway should be considered a target of TMA, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed, and we observed that TMA (100 nM) preincubated in whole living cells reduced the interaction of NF-?B with the promoter of IL-8 gene. These results suggest that TMA could inhibit IL-8 gene transcription mainly by intervening on driving the recruitment of activated transcription factors on IL-8 gene promoter, as demonstrated here for NF-?B. Although the complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TMA deserves further investigation, an activity of TMA on phosphorylating pathways was already demonstrated by our study. Finally, since psoralens have been shown to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated chloride transport, TMA was tested and found to potentiate CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. In conclusion, TMA is a dual-acting compound reducing excessive IL-8 expression and potentiating CFTR function. PMID:21148790

Tamanini, Anna; Borgatti, Monica; Finotti, Alessia; Piccagli, Laura; Bezzerri, Valentino; Favia, Maria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Francesco; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Fabbri, Enrica; Mancini, Irene; Nicolis, Elena; Casavola, Valeria; Cabrini, Giulio; Gambari, Roberto

2011-03-01

44

Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

Czyz Anne

2011-07-01

45

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. T...

Lr, Webster; Rl, Rolleri; Gc, Pixton; Kw, Sommerville

2012-01-01

46

Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

2014-05-01

47

Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical and sexual abuse in health care settings. In L.A. Baumhover & S.C. Beall (Eds.) Abuse, neglect and exploitation of older persons: Strategies for assessment and intervention, ( ...

48

Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substance abuse, however, is not fully understood. ...

49

Potential for reducing air pollution from oil refineries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Islamic Republic of Iran has to invest 95 billion US$ for her new oil refineries to the year 2045. At present, the emission factors for CO(2), NO( x ) and SO(2) are 3.5, 4.2 and 119 times higher than British refineries, respectively. In order to have a sustainable development in Iranian oil refineries, the government has to set emission factors of European Community as her goal. At present CO(2) per Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in the country is about 2.7 kg CO(2) as 1995's USD value that should be reduced to 1.25 kg CO(2)/GDP in the year 2015. Total capital investment for such reduction is estimated at 346 million USD which is equal to 23 USD/ton of CO(2). It is evident that mitigation of funds set by Clean Development Mechanism (3 to 7 USD/tons of CO(2)) is well below the actual capital investment needs. Present survey shows that energy efficiency promotion potential in all nine Iranian oil refineries is about 165,677 MWh/year through utilization of more efficient pumps and compressors. Better management of boilers in all nine refineries will lead to a saving of 273 million m(3) of natural gas per year. PMID:18066676

Karbassi, A R; Abbasspour, M; Sekhavatjou, M S; Ziviyar, F; Saeedi, M

2008-10-01

50

Child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

51

Early Detection of Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

Shearman, J. K.

1987-01-01

52

Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butaney of toluene, acetone and butane

53

Intelligent use and potential abuse of hormone assays in animal production research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunoassays provide sensitive and specific techniques to measure very low concentrations of hormones in biological fluids. Use of these procedures has provided comprehensive plasma profiles for most hormones and contributed to a better understanding or reproductive function. One future challenge for basic research is the development of new methods to monitor and quantitate target organ response rather than continuing to determine concentrations. In applied or production-oriented projects the difficulties and expenses associated with most hormone assays are usually not justified. One exception is sequential monitoring of plasma or milk progesterone concentrations in twice weekly or weekly samples which can be used to detect the occurrence of sexual maturity, the time of first postpartum ovulation, the true incidence of anoestrus, whether individual females have regular ovarian cycles, and as an early test for pregnancy. Past results indicate that most healthy, adequately fed dairy cows in temperate regions ovulate during the first three or four weeks postpartum. Under intensive management systems the major problem in reproductive management of dairy cattle is oestrus detection. In contrast, many beef cows have not ovulated by 60 days postpartum, so prolonged anoestrus is a serious problem in suckled cows. Very little is known about nutrition, disease or climatic stress effects or interactions on reproductive performance in tropical environments. Regular progesterone concentrations from individual cows, combined with condition scores, management evaluation and breeding plus health records should accurately define the current reproductive performance, potential and problems. Once the major factors limiting reproductive efficiency have been defined, research projects can concentrate on the development of practical solutions. Sequential progesterone assays can then be incorporated into experimental procedures to objectively determine ovarian response. (author)

54

Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

2011-03-01

55

A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)

2010-09-03

56

After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

"After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

2008-01-01

57

Fetal Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

Kent, Lindsey; And Others

1997-01-01

58

Skeletal trauma in child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries. PMID:24168118

Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

2013-11-01

59

Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical...

Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

2014-01-01

60

[Epidemiology of drug abuse and dependence].  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse or dependence in Japan has been characterized by three epidemics of methamphetamine abuse. In addition, solvent abuse has been predominant for a long time. Since 1995, with the start of the third epidemic of methamphetamine abuse, drug abuse or dependence in Japan has obviously changed, with an obvious decrease in solvent abuse; the stabilization of methamphetamine abuse; an increase in the abuse of such drugs as cannabis or MDMA, which do not have high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis; and the emergence of designer drugs. These changes imply a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Therefore, Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using both a criminal model and a medical model. PMID:20715473

Wada, Kiyoshi

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

1992-06-01

62

Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use  

Science.gov (United States)

Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

German, John

2006-04-01

63

Reducing carbon emissions with heat pumps. The UK potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an assessment of the potential for CO2 emission reductions that could be achieved in future by the use of heat pumps in the UK. Estimates include the direct and indirect impact on TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) that would result from expansion of the use of heat pumps in the commercial/institutional building sector in the UK up until the year 2020. The modelling takes into account anticipated trends in construction, in the penetration of air conditioning, equipment replacement rates, changing fuel mix for electricity generation and improvements in the performance of both heat pumps and fossil fuel systems. The work was commissioned by the IEA Heat Pump Centre and this project is perceived as a pilot study for a planned series of similar investigations to be conducted in other IEA Heat Pump Programme member countries.

Pout, C.; Bettle, R.; Snelson, K.; Bouma, J.

2002-04-01

64

Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

2012-01-01

65

Drug abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

66

Abusive Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust When Brian and Sarah began dating, her friends were envious. Brian was smart, sensitive, funny, ... harmed by another person. Continue Signs of Abusive Relationships Important warning signs that you may be involved ...

67

Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Victor insisted they add his name to their bank account so he could pay their bills. For the ... benefits, or using another person’s credit cards and bank accounts. Financial abuse includes changing names on a will, ...

68

Financial Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... of illness or embarrassment Abusers may assume that frail victims will not survive long enough to follow through on legal interventions, or that they will not make convincing witnesses Some older people are unsophisticated about financial matters Advances in ...

69

Reviewing Adolescent Marijuana Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the literature on marijuana use among adolescents which shows that experimentation is commonplace and regular use is not rare. Cited a distinction between marijuana use and abuse. Concluded that promoting abstinence might reduce credibility and suggested a prescription for responsible use. (LLL)

Smith, Thomas Edward

1984-01-01

70

REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

STEBBING P. D.

2003-04-01

71

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

72

Chronic binge alcohol consumption alters myogenic gene expression and reduces in vitro myogenic differentiation potential of myoblasts from rhesus macaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with skeletal muscle myopathy. Previously, we demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) consumption by rhesus macaques accentuates skeletal muscle wasting at end-stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. A proinflammatory, prooxidative milieu and enhanced ubiquitin proteasome activity were identified as possible mechanisms leading to loss of skeletal muscle. The possibility that impaired regenerative capacity, as reflected by the ability of myoblasts derived from satellite cell (SCs) to differentiate into myotubes has not been examined. We hypothesized that the inflammation and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle from CBA animals impair the differentiation capacity of myoblasts to form new myofibers in in vitro assays. We isolated primary myoblasts from the quadriceps femoris of rhesus macaques that were administered CBA or isocaloric sucrose (SUC) for 19 mo. Proliferation and differentiation potential of cultured myoblasts were examined in vitro. Myoblasts from the CBA group had significantly reduced PAX7, MYOD1, MYOG, MYF5, and MEF2C expression. This was associated with decreased myotube formation as evidenced by Jenner-Giemsa staining and myonuclei fusion index. No significant difference in the proliferative ability, cell cycle distribution, or autophagy was detected between myoblasts isolated from CBA and SUC groups. Together, these results reflect marked dysregulation of myoblast myogenic gene expression and myotube formation, which we interpret as evidence of impaired skeletal muscle regenerative capacity in CBA-administered macaques. The contribution of this mechanism to alcoholic myopathy warrants further investigation. PMID:24671243

Simon, Liz; LeCapitaine, Nicole; Berner, Paul; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Mussell, Jason C; Allerton, Timothy; Primeaux, Stefany D; Dufour, Jason; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J; Cefalu, William; Molina, Patricia E

2014-06-01

73

Twins abused by their father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

Celal

2011-12-01

74

GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been increasing attention in the United States to problems of abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), with some evidence for problems in other parts of the world as well. In vitro and animal research show that, while GHB shares some properties with abused central nervous system depressant drugs, it has unique aspects of its pharmacology as well, including actions at a specific neural receptor which probably mediates many of its effects. Abuse potential assessment of GHB using standard animal models has not yielded a picture of a highly abusable substance, but little human testing has yet been done. Very little systematic data exist on tolerance and dependence with GHB, but both have been seen in human users. Quantitative data on the prevalence of GHB abuse is incomplete, but various qualitative measures indicate that a mini-epidemic of abuse began in the late 1980s and continues to the present. GHB is often included with the group of 'club drugs', and can be used as an intoxicant. It also has been used as a growth promoter and sleep aid and has been implicated in cases of 'date rape', usually in combination with alcohol. Undoubtedly the easy availability of GHB and some of its precursors has contributed to its popularity. Recent changes in the control status of GHB in the US may reduce its availability with as yet unknown consequences for the scope of the public health problem. Drug abuse experts need to familiarize themselves with GHB as possibly representing a new type of drug abuse problem with some unique properties. PMID:11297827

Nicholson, K L; Balster, R L

2001-06-01

75

Inhibition of CREB activity in the dorsal portion of the striatum potentiates behavioral responses to drugs of abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The striatum participates in multiple forms of behavioral adaptation, including habit formation, other forms of procedural memory, and short and long-term responses to drugs of abuse. The CREB family of transcription factors has been implicated in various forms of behavioral plasticity, but its role in the dorsal portion of the striatum-has been little explored. We previously showed that in transgenic mice in which CREB function is inhibited in the dorsal striatum, bidirectional synaptic plasticity and certain forms of long-term procedural memory are impaired. Here we show, in startling contrast, that inhibition of striatal CREB facilitates cocaine- and morphine-place conditoning and enhances locomotor sensitization to cocaine. These findings propose CREB as a positive regulator of dorsal striatum-dependent procedural learning but a negative regulator of drug-related learning.

StefaniaFasano

2009-09-01

76

The Relative Abuse Liability of Oral Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Hydromorphone Assessed in Prescription Opioid Abusers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abuse of prescription opioids has risen precipitously in the United States. Few controlled comparisons of the abuse liability of the most commonly abused opioids have been conducted. This outpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential and potency of oral oxycodone (10, 20 & 40 mg), hydrocodone (15, 30 & 45 mg), hydromorphone (10, 17.5 & 25 mg) and placebo. Healthy adult volunteers (n=9) with sporadic pres...

Walsh, Sharon L.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Holtman, Joseph R.

2008-01-01

77

Capacidade discriminante do inventário de potencial de abuso na infância: dados numa amostra de progenitores portugueses / Discriminant ability of the child abuse potential inventory: data from a sample of Portuguese parents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem como objetivo testar a capacidade discriminante do Inventário de Potencial de Abuso na Infância (CAP), numa amostra de 641 progenitores portugueses. Trinta e sete por cento da amostra é constituída por progenitores maltratantes sinalizados às Comissões de Proteção de Crianças e Joven [...] s e avaliados através do Questionário de Avaliação do Mau Trato, Negligência e Abuso Sexual. Os resultados indicaram que os progenitores maltratantes reportam valores significativamente superiores na Escala de Abuso e em todas as suas dimensões. Do ponto de vista da capacidade discriminante, a função da Escala de Abuso Global classificou corretamente 79,9% e a função das subdimensões da Escala classificou corretamente 83,3% dos casos. Estes resultados revelam a potencialidade do instrumento na identificação de situações de potencial abuso na infância no contexto português. Abstract in english This study aims to test discriminant ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) in a sample of 641 Portuguese parents. Thirty-seven percent of the sample is composed by abusive parents reported to the Comissions for the Protection of Children and Young People and evaluated by an assessment [...] questionnaire of maltreatment, neglect and sexual abuse. Abusive parents showed significantly higher scores on the Abuse Scale and in all of its dimensions. Considering the discriminant analysis, the Abuse Scale correctly classified 79.9% of the cases and the function of sub dimensions correctly classified 83.3% of the cases. These results reveal the capacity of CAP in identifying cases of potential child abuse in the Portuguese context.

Maria Manuela, Calheiros; Eunice, Magalhães; Patrício, Costa.

2014-12-01

78

Abuse and misuse of antidepressants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elizabeth A Evans, Maria A Sullivan Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Background: Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI” and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine” in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results: A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous. Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion: The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and implemented. Keywords: antidepressant, prescription, misuse, abuse, nonmedical use, dependence, addiction

Evans EA

2014-08-01

79

New Drugs of Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

80

Substance Abuse Vaccines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional substance abuse treatments have only had limited success for drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine. New approaches, including vaccination to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, are in advanced stages of development. Although several potential mechanisms for the effects of anti-drug vaccines have been suggested, the most straightforward and intuitive mechanism involves binding of the drug by antibodies in the bloodstream, thereby blocking e...

Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Gardner, Tracie; Kosten, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

Intima Alrimawi

2014-01-01

82

Outpatient drug abuse treatment for Hispanic adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to review the state of the science in evidence-based drug abuse treatments for Hispanic adolescents, highlight scientific opportunities, and offer recommendations to further the field of drug abuse treatment for this population. The article is divided into seven sections: boundaries for this review, drug abuse and associated problems, behavioral treatment, cultural issues in hispanic adolescent behavioral drug abuse treatment, pharmacological treatment, gender differences in treatment, and scientific opportunities/recommendations. Although only one treatment approach, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, has been empirically shown to be efficacious in treating Hispanic adolescent drug abusers, with some modifications other treatments may also have the potential to be efficacious with Hispanic adolescents. Family-based approaches, which typically appear to be most efficacious with adolescents in general, may also have the greatest potential to treat drug abuse in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:16765535

Szapocznik, José; Lopez, Barbara; Prado, Guillermo; Schwartz, Seth J; Pantin, Hilda

2006-09-01

83

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

84

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

85

Abuse during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... It's been added to your dashboard . Abuse during pregnancy Abuse, whether emotional or physical, is never okay. ... or physical injuries. What can trigger abuse during pregnancy? For many families, pregnancy can bring about feelings ...

86

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Privacy Practices for Original Medicare Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when Medicare is billed ... have Medicare to sell you a Marketplace plan. Fraud is different from abuse . Abuse happens when doctors ...

87

Risk management in tianeptine abuse in Turkey: a national experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Although tianeptine has several advantages compared with tricyclic antidepressants, it should be carefully observed for abuse potential especially in patients with the history of dependence or abuse of any drug or alcohol.

nedim durmus

2013-01-01

88

Substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comorbidity of schizophrenia and substance abuse has attracted increasing attention in the past years, with multiple potential links, including genetic vulnerability, neurobiological aspects, side effects of medications, and psychosocial factors being under discussion. The link between the use of substances and the development of psychoses is demonstrated by the high prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia. Apart from alcohol misuse, substances commonly abused in this patient group...

Winklbaur, Bernadette; Ebner, Nina; Sachs, Gabriele; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele

2006-01-01

89

Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

2000-01-01

90

Risk management in tianeptine abuse in Turkey: a national experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Tianeptine is used in the treatment of major depressive episodes and has structural similarities with tricyclic antidepressants although it has different pharmacological properties and has abuse potential among patients with a history of dependence or abuse of any drug or alcohol. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety problems and risk management measures for tianeptine in Turkey in relation to its abuse potential. Methods: Adverse event reports noting tianeptine abuse ...

nedim durmus; gamze ozbilen; yelda kasap; oguzhan koyuncu; osman yildirim; guven artiran; saim kerman; demet aydinkarahaliloglu

2013-01-01

91

POTENTIAL INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SORGHUM LINES GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOR REDUCED LIGNIN CONTENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential increased resistance to Fusarium species in sorghum lines genetically modified for reduced lignin content. Deanna L. Funnell and Jeffery F. Pedersen, Grain, Forage and Bioenergy Research, USDA-ARS; Departments of Plant Pathology (DLF) and Agronomy (JFP), University of Nebraska. Lincoln, 6...

92

Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. PMID:25439639

Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

2014-11-01

93

Developmental Endophenotypes: Indexing Genetic Risk for Substance Abuse with the P300 Brain Event-Related Potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although substance use disorders are heritable, their complexity has made identifying genes underlying their development challenging. Endophenotypes, biologically informed quantitative measures that index genetic risk for a disorder, are being recognized for their potential to assist the search for disorder relevant genes. After outlining criteria for an endophenotype that includes developmental considerations, we review how the brain P300 response serves as an index of genetic risk for subst...

Iacono, William G.; Malone, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

94

Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

2014-03-01

95

A dipole polarizable potential for reduced and doped CeO2 obtained from first principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO2. We use a dipole polarizable potential (DIPPIM: the dipole polarizable ion model) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of density functional theory calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO2 and by comparing them against experimental values. The values for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) are within 10-15% of the experimental ones, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic scale properties of CeO2 in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size limitations.

96

Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evalu...

Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

2008-01-01

97

An Empirical Evaluation Of The Potential Of Public E-Procurement To Reduce Corruption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the significant potential benefits of e-procurement technology is reducing opportunities for corruption in public procurement processes. The authors identified anti-corruption capabilities of e-procurement through an extensive literature review and a theoretical model representing the impact of three latent variables: monopoly of power, information asymmetry, and transparency and accountability upon the dependent variable, the intent-to-adopt e-procurement. This research was guided by ...

Arjun Neupane; Jeffrey Soar; Kishor Vaidya

2014-01-01

98

Reduced Ulcerogenic Potential and Antiarthritic Effect of Chitosan–Naproxen Sodium Complexes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium–chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treate...

Ghosh, Pinaki; Bhise, Kiran S.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Bodhankar, S. L.; Kadam, Shivajirao S.

2012-01-01

99

Potential for reducing air-pollutants while achieving 2 °C global temperature change limit target.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the potential to reduce air pollutants while achieving the 2 °C global temperature change limit target above pre-industrial levels, by using the bottom-up optimization model, AIM/Enduse[Global]. This study focuses on; 1) estimating mitigation potentials and costs for achieving 2 °C, 2.5 °C, and 3 °C target scenarios, 2) assessing co-benefits of reducing air pollutants such as NOx, SO2, BC, PM, and 3) analyzing features of sectoral attributions in Annex I and Non-Annex I groups of countries. The carbon tax scenario at 50 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 can reduce GHG emissions more than the 3 °C target scenario, but a higher carbon price around 400 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 is required to achieve the 2 °C target scenario. However, there is also a co-benefit of large reduction potential of air pollutants, in the range of 60-80% reductions in 2050 from the reference scenario while achieving the 2 °C target. PMID:25028265

Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Akashi, Osamu; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Motoki, Yuko; Hibino, Go

2014-12-01

100

A case of drug abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.

Matteo Pacini

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

102

Tobacco specific nitrosamines and potential reduced exposure products for smokers: a preliminary evaluation of AdvanceTM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To develop a method for evaluating the carcinogen delivery of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) like AdvanceTM, a PREP marketed to reduce smokers' exposure to one tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSN), NNK, a potent lung carcinogen.

Breland, A.; Acosta, M.; Eissenberg, T.

2003-01-01

103

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17

104

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

105

Childhood sexual abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

Evrim Aktepe

1993-01-01

106

Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

107

Child neglect and psychological abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... also called psychological abuse) is a form of child abuse that occurs when someone intentionally does not provide ... disregard for the child's well being See also: Child abuse - physical Child abuse - sexual

108

Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies ...

VanDeMark Nancy R

2007-01-01

109

Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: ? We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. ? We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. ? Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

110

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

2010-01-01

111

Dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential is derived which sheds light on the determinant's dependence on these quantities. This is done via a partial zeta regularization, formally applying a general formula for the zeta determinant of a differential operator in one variable with operator-valued coefficients. The resulting expression generalizes the known one for the free fermion determinant, obtained via Matsubara frequency summation, to the case of a general background gauge field; moreover there is no undetermined overall factor. Rigorous versions of the result are obtained in a continuous time-lattice space setting. The determinant expression reduces to a remarkably simple form in the low temperature limit. A program for using this to obtain insight into the QCD phase transition at zero temperature and nonzero density is outlined

112

Reduced inflammatory potential of peritoneal macrophages recruited in mice pretreated with a glycolipid synthesis inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integral components of mammalian cell membranes, glycosphingolipids (GSL) reside in specialized plasma membrane microdomains critical for cell signaling. N-alkylated nojirimycins are compounds developed for GSL substrate deprivation therapy, blocking GSL synthesis by specifically inhibiting an essential enzyme, ceramide glucosyltransferase. Peritoneal macrophages recruited in mice pretreated with an inhibitory N-alkylnojirimycin displayed a reduced capacity to release either TNFalpha or interleukin-6 when re-exposed to whole killed E. coli in vitro. Cell viability and protein content were not affected. A nojirimycin analogue without GSL inhibitory capacity had no effect. The results show inhibition of GSL synthesis in vivo by an N-alkylnojirimycin can reduce the response to an inflammatory stimulus and indicate N-alkylnojirimycins have experimental and potential clinical value for modulating innate immune responses in vivo. PMID:16983496

Yohe, H C; Kitzmiller, T J; Bement, W J; Dwyer, B E; Sinclair, J F

2006-08-01

113

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

114

Prescription Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... and drugs > Prescription drug abuse Overview FAQ Prescription drug abuse Sometimes you may need prescription drugs to treat ... develops, or in how the body works. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (also called NAS). This is a group ...

115

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

116

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Mail you get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: ... Mail you get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse , current page Tips to prevent ...

117

[Institutional abuse in the health work environment: proposals to change this reality].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abuse, understood as the non-provisioning of fundamental rights, can affect workers' life quality and undermine their professional environments. This assay discusses institutional abuse and its effects on the work environment, and makes some proposals as to how alleviate them by stimulating the members of the health interdisciplinary team to improve and acknowledge their potential to transform and improve a reality perceived as unhealthy. It is essential that the health team strengthens its relationships and knowledge, reduces uneasiness, makes its routine flexible, and assesses specificities. This will allow making proposals in partnership for the improvement of inter- and intrapersonal relationships in health institutions, eventually building solidarity. PMID:19068587

Costenaro, Regina Gema Santini; Lacerda, Maria Ribeiro; Fereira, Carla Lizandra de Lima

2008-09-01

118

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?; Süleyman Gören

2007-01-01

119

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

Ya?ar T?ra?ç?

2007-01-01

120

Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.  

Science.gov (United States)

From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

Kosberg, Jordan I

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6, containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L or not (control, 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear. Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean wear (±se was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

Melissa Thiemi Kato

2012-06-01

122

Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

2012-01-01

123

Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Subsistence farmers are among the people most vulnerable to current climate variability. Climate models predict that climate change will lead to warmer temperatures, increasing rainfall variability, and increasing severity and frequency of extreme weather events. Agroforestry, or the intentional use of trees in the cropping system, has been proposed by many development practitioners as a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. This study explores whether and, if so, how agroforestry techniques can help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. From field research conducted in western Kenya, we find that households are not currently coping with climate-related hazards in a sustainable way. Farmers are aware of this, and believe that the most effective way to adapt to climate-related shocks is through improving their general standard of living. We evaluated agroforestry as one possible means of improving farmers’ well-being. By comparing farmers engaged in an agroforestry project with a control group of neighboring farmers, we find that involvement in agroforestry improves household’s general standard of living via improvements in farm productivity, off-farm incomes, wealth and the environmental conditions of their farm. We conclude that agroforestry techniques can be used as an effective part of a broader development strategy to help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate-related hazards.

Thorlakson Tannis

2012-10-01

124

Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)rition in tropical areas. (author)

125

Global progress and potentially effective policy responses to reduce maternal mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing maternal mortality within significant margins is a global imperative that reflects attainment of development goals. Progress in reducing maternal mortality, in particular among countries with notably high maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), has been substantially slower than the Millennium Development Goal target of an annual rate of 5.5% decline. The latest UN maternal mortality estimates show a reduction in MMR in a number of countries between 1990 and 2008. Understanding the factors associated with progress in countries that have reduced maternal mortality provides other countries and development partners with opportunities to consider and implement policies and interventions that could help accelerate progress. This paper reviews 6 countries that have demonstrated marked progress. The policies that have been effective include innovative financing measures; investment in human resources both in terms of strengthening pre-service education and emphasizing in-service training for healthcare providers; strengthening obstetric care by enhancing infrastructure and upgrading equipment, as well as improving quality of services; and investing in the broader determinants of maternal mortality, particularly family planning and women's education and socioeconomic empowerment. This range of actions, which includes a combination of facility and community-based approaches, provides a list of potentially effective strategies that could be considered when developing programs in other countries with slower progress. Strong political will and multistakeholder involvement and interventions are key in the development and implementation of these policies and actions. PMID:22883916

Mbizvo, Michael T; Say, Lale

2012-10-01

126

Reduced ulcerogenic potential and antiarthritic effect of chitosan-naproxen sodium complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to address the utility of naproxen sodium-chitosan spray-dried complexes for antiulcer and antiarthritic activities. The cold stress technique was used to examine the ulcerogenic potential of naproxen sodium (NPX) and spray-dried formulations in the different doses. The ulcerations reduced with the dose of spray-dried complexes of naproxen sodium and chitosan. The conspicuous hemorrhagic lesions were visible in the morphological features of the animal treated with naproxen 50 mg/kg (p.o.). Thus, the results suggest that the spray-dried naproxen sodium-chitosan complex (NPXF) was not corrosive to the gastric mucosa at high doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (p.o.) under stressful conditions. It is evident from the present investigation that NPXF does not possess any ulcerogenic potential in comparison to naproxen which, under stressful conditions, led to the hypersecretion of HCl, culminating to petichial hemorrhages in the gastric mucosa of the animals. The biphasic pattern was observed in the various arthritic parameters. The rise in paw volume, joint diameter, WBC count, arthritis score, and fall in body weight was significantly ameliorated in the animals treated with NPXF (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o). At the end of the study, slight erythema was visible in the naproxen-treated animals. However, no erythema, redness, or ulcers were visible in the animals treated with NPXF. Thus, the direct compression properties and reduced ulcerogenic activity, combined with the demonstrated solubilizing power and analgesic effect enhancer ability toward the drug, make naproxen sodium-chitosan spray-dried complexes particularly suitable for developing a reduced-dose, fast-release, solid oral dosage form of naproxen. PMID:22711255

Ghosh, Pinaki; Bhise, Kiran S; Paradkar, Anant R; Bodhankar, S L; Kadam, Shivajirao S

2012-09-01

127

Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

128

Internet abuse in the workplace: new trends in risk management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper empirically examines the effectiveness of emergent risk management practices that attempt to reduce and control employee Internet abuse and its potential for addiction. Over a 6-month period, 50 usable web-administered surveys were collected. Respondents ranged from human resource managers to company presidents. Data were stored in a database management system and analyzed utilizing statistical measures. Implementation levels of Internet use policies, management training, and clinical rehabilitation were examined and their level of perceived effectiveness to deter employee Internet abuse was evaluated. Organizational size and its impact on perceived effectiveness were also examined. This research will assist organizations in implementing effective corporate initiatives to improve employee Internet management practices. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are also explored. PMID:15006175

Young, Kimberly S; Case, Carl J

2004-02-01

129

Chemical extraction of organic carbon to reduce the leaching potential risk from MSWI bottom ash.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of extraction solvents, including organic and inorganic solvents, for organic carbon extraction from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash was evaluated. The total carbon (TC) extracted was used to ascertain the efficiency of extraction solvents and the reduction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching potential was used to evaluate the capacity of solvents to minimize environmental impacts of MSWI bottom ash over short- and long-term considerations in landfill sites. Extract final pH value was a prominent parameter affecting TC extraction. The higher efficiency was obtained at the lower extract final pH and acid or neutral condition was necessary to achieve approximately 30% of TC extraction from bottom ash. On the basis of the results of TC extraction, the efficiency of organic carbon reduction was evaluated using organic carbon leaching potential. Hydrochloric acid was the best solvent to extract organic carbon in controlled pH conditions. Hydrochloric acid reduced the organic carbon leaching potential of MSWI bottom ash by about 68% at neutral leaching pH. PMID:16023784

Guimaraes, A L; Okuda, T; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

2005-10-17

130

Brain MR imaging in child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

131

Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

Lukasse, Mirjam

2011-01-01

132

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a [...] crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p

Melissa Thiemi, Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf.

2012-06-01

133

Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481?mWm?2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems. PMID:25531093

Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

2014-01-01

134

Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm-2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.

Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

2014-12-01

135

Reduced graphene oxide anodes for potential application in algae biophotovoltaic platforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481?mWm(-2) using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems. PMID:25531093

Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C; Periasamy, Vengadesh

2014-01-01

136

Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40mg/m(3); 3h/day×5 d/week×2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25V; RVSS) or high voltage (30V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks. PMID:25549921

Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

2015-02-01

137

Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NOx, 0.07 million tonnes in SOx and 4.1 million tonnes in CO2. These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ? Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. ? We examine noon reports fromns. ? We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ? A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ? Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ? Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

138

Potential for reducing electricity demand for lighting in households: An exploratory socio-technical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Illuminance data were collected from 18 UK dwellings during 1-week periods in spring 2007, to establish when luminaires were used and to calculate electricity consumption for lighting. Householders were also interviewed about lighting use and choices. The potential for reducing lighting electricity consumption by replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is assessed. Mean weekly electricity consumption for lighting was 3.756 kW h and mean proportion of total electricity consumption used for lighting was 6.55%. It is notable, however, that participants generally expressed high levels of environmental awareness and that electricity consumption figures for less environmentally-aware households may differ. On average, households could have reduced lighting electricity consumption by 50.9% if all incandescent bulbs were replaced with CFLs. Even householders making extensive use of efficient lighting technologies expressed concerns about these technologies' performance, but seemed willing to tolerate perceived shortcomings for environmental reasons. However, the study raises questions about whether people without strong environmental motivations can be convinced that efficient lighting technologies will meet their needs. It also raises questions about the effectiveness of policies phasing out general lighting service incandescent bulbs, as there is a risk that householders may switch to tungsten halogen bulbs rather than low-energy optionss rather than low-energy options

139

Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

McNeill Ann

2009-10-01

140

Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15  

Science.gov (United States)

The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

Government Accountability Office, 2007

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals.

Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H

2014-01-01

142

Checklist Usage as a Guidance on Read-Back Reducing the Potential Risk of Medication Error  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hospital as a last line of health services shall provide quality service and oriented on patient safety, one responsibility in preventing medication errors. Effective collaboration and communication between the profession needed to achieve patient safety. Read-back is one way of doing effective communication. Before-after study with PDCA TQM approach. The samples were on the medication chart patient medical rd rd records in the 3 week of May (before and the 3 week in July (after 2013. Treatment using the check list, asked for time 2 minutes to read-back by the doctors and nurses after the visit together. Obtained 57 samples (before and 64 samples (after. Before charging 45.54% incomplete medication chart on patient medical records that have the potential risk of medication error to 10.17% after treatment with a read back check list for 10 weeks, with 77.78% based on the achievement of the PDCA TQM approach. Checklist usage as a guidance on Read-back as an effective communication can reduce charging incompleteness drug records on medical records that have the potential risk of medication errors, 45.54% to 10.17%.

Ida Bagus N. Maharjana

2014-06-01

143

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

144

Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA permit comparable measures among species. We conclude that estimates of AOO based on fine-resolution distribution models are more robust tools for risk assessment than traditional systems, allowing a better understanding of species ranges at habitat level.

Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David

2012-01-01

145

Skin manifestations of child abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

Ermertcan Aylin

2010-01-01

146

Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress : 5 year follow-up of a randomized trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points as repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress was found between groups at 1 and 5 year follow-up. Difference in trajectories was found for the two groups (time*treatment group interaction, CR-PTSD, P = 0.012 and GSI, P = 0.021). Level of PTSD symptoms on the CR-PTSD was validated at 5 year follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, ?2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch.

Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids

147

Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

Straus, Murray A.

2000-01-01

148

The history and current state of drug abuse in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug abuse in Japan began after World War II and has been characterized by three epidemics of methamphetamine abuse; in addition, solvent abuse has been prominent for a long time. Since 1995, with the beginning of the third epidemic of methamphetamine abuse, drug abuse or dependence in Japan changed, with a marked decrease in solvent abuse, stabilization of methamphetamine abuse, an increase in the abuse of such drugs as cannabis or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (which do not have high potential of causing drug-induced psychosis), and the emergence of designer drugs. Furthermore, the abuse of medical drugs such as Ritalin became a major issue in 2007. These changes reveal an increase in the abuse of drugs that do not as easily produce a psychotic state, underlain with a shift from personal conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not. Japan, therefore, needs to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only a medical model, but also a criminal model as well. PMID:21272011

Wada, Kiyoshi

2011-01-01

149

Who Owns Child Abuse?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

Gerald Cradock

2014-01-01

150

Causes of Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

Erhan Deveci, S.; Yasemin Acik

2003-01-01

151

Causes of Child Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

S. Erhan Deveci

2003-08-01

152

Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors)

153

Elder Abuse and Neglect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

Muge Gulen

2013-06-01

154

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Notice of Privacy Practices for Original Medicare Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when ...

155

SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

Bano Rubeena

2009-12-01

156

Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora" and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA, is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

R.J. Schneider

2010-09-01

157

Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises  

Science.gov (United States)

... version of this document . The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

158

Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: Examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

2014-12-15

159

Methods to identify and reduce potential surface stream water losses into abandoned underground mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods to identify and subsequently seal surface water loss zones in stream channels were tested by the United States Bureau of Mines at Staub Run, a first-order stream near Frostburg, Maryland, that partially overlies abandoned coal mine workings. Conventional stream gauging was conducted to establish discharge patterns before and after stream sealing. Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys were performed within the stream channel to identify zones of increased relative water saturation to depths less than 15 m. Zones of increased conductivity were generally found to be associated with areas exhibiting statistically significant ( P ? 0.05) gauged flow losses. Conversely, zones that exhibited declining conductivity delineated areas where between-station flows were not significantly different. Using this information on potential loss zones, an experimental grouting procedure was applied by injecting an expandable polyurethane grout to a depth less than one meter into the alluvial streambed over a 180-m section of the stream channel. Before grouting, the study section exhibited a 24 I/sec flow loss; first-phase grouting reduced this to a 14 I/sec flow loss; with a second-phase grouting the losses were only 3 I/sec.

Ackman, Terry E.; Jones, J. Richard

1991-05-01

160

Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ? From 1990 to 2008, CO2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ? Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ? The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ? The key factor forICE-vehicles. ? The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ? Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

 
 
 
 
161

Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: clinical evaluation methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

Gray, Jennifer N; Breland, Alison B; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

2008-09-01

162

Is Seroquel Developing an Illicit Reputation for Misuse/Abuse?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been the subject of a series of case reports that suggest a potential for misuse/abuse. The available cases indicate a male predominance; oral, intranasal, or intravenous routes of administration; misuse/abuse in jail or inpatient psychiatric settings; and subjects with extensive histories of polysubstance abuse. While possible pharmacological explanations have been proffered, compared to the other atypical antipsychotics, there is no clear explanati...

Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

2010-01-01

163

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

164

Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

1994-01-01

165

Substance Abuse/Use  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sexual Risk of HIV When One Partner Is HIV+ Substance Abuse/Use Pregnancy & Childbirth Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Blood ... Sexual Risk of HIV When One Partner Is HIV+ Substance Abuse/Use Pregnancy & Childbirth Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Blood ...

166

National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... 1998) found that more than 500,000 persons aged 60+ were victims of domestic abuse and that ... tens of billions of dollars annually in health care, social services, ... the field to foster coordinated approaches to reduce elder abuse, neglect and ...

167

Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

2013-01-01

168

Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

2012-03-01

169

Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

170

Absence of a set of plasmid-encoded genes is predictive of reduced pathogenic potential in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene content of 14 strains of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was compared using a DNA microarray. A consistent difference occurred in a block of four genes on the ~36 Kb plasmid, with these being present in six virulent strains and absent in eight strains with reduced pathogenic potential. These genes encoded a predicted radical S-adenosylmethionine domain protein, a glycosyl transferase group 1-like protein, an NAD dependent epimerase and a dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 2-5 epimerase: they may be involved in rhamnose biosynthesis and glycosylation. The absence of these plasmid genes in B. hyodysenteriae isolates is predictive of reduced pathogenic potential. PMID:25512147

La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Thomson, Jill R; Hampson, David J

2014-01-01

171

Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

2012-01-01

172

Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

2013-01-01

173

Sequelae of abuse. Health effects of childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering, and rape.  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence against women is endemic in the United States. One third to one half of all women will experience one or more types of abuse in their lifetime, most often at the hands of a family member or an intimate or formerly intimate partner. One in 12 women is battered during pregnancy. Abuse survivors are disproportionately frequent users of health care services because of acute and chronic physical, somatic, emotional, and behavioral sequelae of abuse. Health care practitioners are often the first contact abuse survivors have with a potentially helping professional. It is, therefore, essential that health care providers learn to identify and to intervene appropriately with survivors of abuse. This article reviews and compares the health effects of three of the most common types of violence against women: childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering, and rape. Sequelae are divided into six categories: physical/medical, somatic, emotional/ psychological, social/interpersonal, behavioral/sexual, and pregnancy-related effects. The health effects discussed in this article include research findings, as well as effects noted in clinical practice. Recommendations are made for routine screening of all women for past and current abuse, as well as for intervention strategies. PMID:8990716

Bohn, D K; Holz, K A

1996-01-01

174

Erythropoietin use and abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858

John, M Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J

2012-03-01

175

Prebiotic Potential of Reduced Oxidation State Phosphorus. The H-Phosphinate-Pyruvate System  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus (P) is central to life as we know it but problems with using geologically available orthophosphate en route to life remain. Here we discuss how reduced oxidation state P-chemistry may offer additional possibilities for prebiotic chemistry.

Bryant, D. E.; Marriott, K. E. R.; MacGregor, S. A.; Fishwick, C. W. G.; Kilner, C.; Bullough, E. K.; Pasek, M. A.; Kee, T. P.

2010-04-01

176

Amplitude cancellation reduces the size of motor unit potentials averaged from the surface EMG.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of selected physiological parameters on amplitude cancellation in the simulated surface electromyogram (EMG) and the consequences for spike-triggered averages of motor unit potentials derived from the interference and rectified EMG signals. The surface EMG was simulated from prescribed recruitment and rate coding characteristics of a motor unit population. The potentials of the motor units were detected on the skin over a hand muscle with a bipolar electrode configuration. Averages derived from the EMG signal were generated using the discharge times for each of the 24 motor units with lowest recruitment thresholds from a population of 120 across three conditions: 1) excitation level; 2) motor unit conduction velocity; and 3) motor unit synchronization. The area of the surface-detected potential was compared with potentials averaged from the interference, rectified, and no-cancellation EMGs. The no-cancellation EMG comprised motor unit potentials that were rectified before they were summed, thereby preventing cancellation between the opposite phases of the potentials. The percent decrease in area of potentials extracted from the rectified EMG was linearly related to the amount of amplitude cancellation in the interference EMG signal, with the amount of cancellation influenced by variation in excitation level and motor unit conduction velocity. Motor unit synchronization increased potentials derived from both the rectified and interference EMG signals, although cancellation limited the increase in area for both potentials. These findings document the influence of amplitude cancellation on motor unit potentials averaged from the surface EMG and the consequences for using the procedure to characterize motor unit properties. PMID:16397060

Keenan, Kevin G; Farina, Dario; Merletti, Roberto; Enoka, Roger M

2006-06-01

177

Intergroup contact as a tool for reducing, resolving, and preventing intergroup conflict: evidence, limitations, and potential.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting examples from conflict zones around the world. Rather than accepting, as some scholars do, that conflict is inevitable, we argue that intergroup contac...

Al Ramiah, A.; Hewstone, M.

2013-01-01

178

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH4 is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH4 emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH4 yield. Measuring CH4 emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH4 emission. However, improvements can be made th...

Haas, Y.; Windig, J. J.; Calus, M. P. L.; Dijkstra, J.; Haan, M. H. A.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R. F.

2011-01-01

179

BIOPULPING AND ITS POTENTIAL TO REDUCE EFFLUENT LOADS FROM BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mixed hardwood chips were treated with lignin-degrading fungi to study the effect of fungal pretreatment on bleaching characteristics of kraft pulp. Pretreated wood chips were subjected to reduced active alkali doses in comparison to untreated chips. Comparable results were obtained for pretreated chips with reduced alkali dose as was obtained with higher dose of alkali in case of untreated chips. Fungal treatment made the process more energy-efficient, and 4.8% less chlorine was consumed in ...

Ravi Dutt Yadav; Smita Chaudhry; Saurabh Sudha Dhiman

2010-01-01

180

Physical Activity as a Potential Mechanism Through Which Social Support May Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social support has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been suggested that the protective effect of social support is mediated through the autonomic nervous system and/or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, but data are sparse, especially in diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pathways through which social support may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Baseline data from The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Famil...

Fischer Aggarwal, Brooke A.; Liao, Ming; Mosca, Lori

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Perceptions of elder abuse: voices of professionals and volunteers in Sweden--an exploratory study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine perceptions of elder abuse in groups representing organizations considered potential sources of help and support for abused elders in Sweden. Focus group interviews were conducted with representatives from: the police; primary care; municipal eldercare; a church; a caregiver support organization; and a crime victim support organization. Data were analysed through qualitative content analysis. Although participants discussed elder abuse from the position of their respective organization/group, analysis revealed a preponderance of shared perceptions between groups. A descriptive framework of elder abuse was developed and four themes emerged including: good intentions in abusive situations; older generation's responsibility for elder abuse; failing to report abuse; and prevention of abuse. Findings included perceptions of victim blaming and a tolerance for elder abuse. Participants perceived that anyone could be provoked to abuse, and that abusers can also be considered victims in abusive situations. Further research on elder abuse perceptions is recommended among involved family members, in order to address elder abuse in ways that will allow recognition among both those providing and those receiving assistance. PMID:16756520

Erlingsson, Christen L; Carlson, Sharon L; Saveman, Britt-Inger

2006-06-01

182

Domestic Abuse and Child Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

2014-01-01

183

Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important arboviruses of humans and cause significant disease. Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fc? receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. Here we describe results from the development and testing of cross-reactivity reduced DENV-2 DNA vaccine candidates that contain substitutions in immunodominant B cell epitopes of the fusion peptide and domain III of the envelope protein. Results Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. Sera from mice immunized with wild-type, fusion peptide-, or domain III- substitution containing vaccines enhanced heterologous DENV infection in vitro, unlike sera from mice immunized with a vaccine containing a combination of both fusion peptide and domain III substitutions. Passive transfer of immune sera from mice immunized with fusion peptide and domain III substitutions also reduced the development of severe DENV disease in AG129 mice when compared to mice receiving wild type immune sera. Conclusions Reducing cross-reactivity in the envelope glycoprotein of DENV may be an approach to improve the quality of the anti-DENV immune response.

Hughes Holly R

2012-06-01

184

Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

Lampert, Jo

2012-01-01

185

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could not be loaded. The ... theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when ...

186

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page ... page File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & ...

187

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy Statement Terms of Use © 2011 – ...

188

What is Elder Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

... the breasts or genital area can occur from sexual abuse. Sudden changes in financial situations may be the result of exploitation. Bedsores, unattended medical needs, poor hygiene, and unusual ...

189

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient ...

190

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ...

191

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... quality of life? What is the relationship between alcohol use and spinal cord injuries? How is the rehabilitation process affected by substance abuse? What's your best advice for patients and families ...

192

Sexual Abuse of Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

Csapo, Marg

1988-01-01

193

Child abuse - sexual  

Science.gov (United States)

... minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced or talked into sex or sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling)

194

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... aren't medically necessary . A complaint about the quality of care you got from a doctor, hospital, ... or abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can help you if ...

195

Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... is that methamphetamine abuse can be prevented and addiction to the drug can be treated. People can ... Know Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction ?Research Reports This series of reports simplifies the ...

196

Drug abuse in athletes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

Cl, Reardon; Creado S

2014-01-01

197

Vaccines for Cocaine Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by ...

Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

198

Argon indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulation: reduced potential phototoxicity with a fixed safety filter.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new argon indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulator is presented which uses a red helium-neon laser aiming beam. An interference filter protects the operator from green or blue-green treatment beam reflections without impairing visualisation of the aiming beam or significant retinal anatomy. The protective filter is fixed in place, eliminating the weight, noise, and potential failure of mechanically switched filters. The red aiming beam has a negligible potential for producing photochemical ...

Whitacre, M. M.; Manoukian, N.; Mainster, M. A.

1990-01-01

199

BIOPULPING AND ITS POTENTIAL TO REDUCE EFFLUENT LOADS FROM BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixed hardwood chips were treated with lignin-degrading fungi to study the effect of fungal pretreatment on bleaching characteristics of kraft pulp. Pretreated wood chips were subjected to reduced active alkali doses in comparison to untreated chips. Comparable results were obtained for pretreated chips with reduced alkali dose as was obtained with higher dose of alkali in case of untreated chips. Fungal treatment made the process more energy-efficient, and 4.8% less chlorine was consumed in comparison to the control process. Pretreatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was responsible for reduction of 4.7% in lignin contents, 14.3% permanganate number, and overall reduction of 15.5 kg/T of Cl2 consumption. The pollution load in terms of COD and BOD at the CD stage was reduced by 32.6% and 41.5% respectively, whereas 12% reduction in AOX compounds was observed in effluent of pretreated pulp.

Ravi Dutt Yadav

2010-02-01

200

Catalase activity as a potential indicator of the reducer component of small closed ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamics of catalase activity has been shown to reflect the growth curve of microorganisms in batch cultivation (celluloselythic bacteria Bacillus acidocaldarius and bacteria of the associated microflora Chlorella vulgaris). Gas and substrate closure of the three component ecosystems with spatially separated components ``producer-consumer-reducer'' (Chl. vulgaris-Paramecium caudatum-B. acidocaldarius, two bacterial strains isolated from the associated microflora Chl. vulgaris) demonstrated that the functioning of the reducer component can be estimated by the catalase activity of microorganisms of this component.

Sarangova, A. B.; Somova, L. A.; Pisman, T. I.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

Reed, Nathaniel P.

1974-01-01

202

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

1999-01-01

203

Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

204

Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

2014-05-01

205

Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2015-03-01

206

Dialectical behavior therapy for substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, "clear mind," and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies. PMID:18497717

Dimeff, Linda A; Linehan, Marsha M

2008-06-01

207

Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

2009-01-01

208

Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. Corn Belt?  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture is both an anthropogenic source of CO2, CH4, and N2O, and a sink for CO2 and CH4. Management can impact agriculture's net global warming potential (GWP) by changing source and/or sink. This study compared GWP among three crop management systems: business as usual (BAU), optimum greenhous...

209

Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

2012-01-01

210

Reduced numbers of switched memory B cells with high terminal differentiation potential in Down syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with Down syndrome have increased susceptibility to infections and a high frequency of leukemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that immunodeficiency and immune dysfunction are integral parts of the syndrome. A reduction in B-cell numbers has been reported, associated with moderate immunodeficiency and normal immunoglobulin levels. Here we compared B-cell populations of 19 children with Down syndrome with those in healthy age-matched controls. We found that all steps of peripheral B-cell development are altered in Down syndrome, with a more severe defect during the later stages of B-cell development. Transitional and mature-naïve B-cell numbers are reduced by 50% whereas switched memory B cells represent 10-15% of the numbers in age-matched controls. Serum IgM levels were slightly reduced, but all other immunoglobulin isotypes were in the normal range. The frequency of switched memory B cells specific for vaccine antigens was significantly lower in affected children than in their equivalently vaccinated siblings. In vitro switched memory B cells of patients with Down syndrome have an increased ability to differentiate into antibody-forming cells in response to TLR9 signals. Tailored vaccination schedules increasing the number of switched memory B cells may improve protection and reduce the risk of death from infection in Down syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25472482

Carsetti, Rita; Valentini, Diletta; Marcellini, Valentina; Scarsella, Marco; Marasco, Emiliano; Giustini, Ferruccio; Bartuli, Andrea; Villani, Alberto; Ugazio, Alberto G

2014-12-01

211

The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

2014-02-11

212

Use of different organic wastes in reducing the potential leaching of propanil, isoxaben, cadusafos and pencycuron through the soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examined the effect of four different organic wastes (OW)-composted sheep manure (CSM), spent coffee grounds (SCG), composted pine bark (CPB) and coir (CR)-on the potential groundwater pollution of propanil and isoxaben (herbicides), cadusafos (insecticide) and pencycuron (fungicide) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, leaching studies were conducted using disturbed soil columns filled with a clay loam soil (Hipercalcic calcisol). The addition of organic matter (OM) drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of agro-industrial and composted OW in reducing the groundwater pollution by pesticide drainage. PMID:24901963

Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Vela, Nuria; Navarro, Simón

2014-01-01

213

Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

214

Hiding in plain view: the potential for commonly used drugs to reduce breast cancer mortality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many medications have been developed for one purpose but then are found to have other clinical activities. There is tremendous interest in whether non-cancer medications may potentially have effects on breast cancer survival. In this review article, we have presented and evaluated the evidence for several commonly used over-the-counter and prescription medications - including aspirin (and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, st...

Holmes, Michelle D.; Chen, Wendy Y.

2012-01-01

215

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions....

Siikama?ki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.

2012-01-01

216

Oxytocin Reduces Background Anxiety in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oxytocin reportedly decreases anxious feelings in humans and may therefore have therapeutic value for anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD patients have exaggerated startle responses, a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats may have face validity as an animal model to examine the efficacy of oxytocin in treating these symptoms. Oxytocin (0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0??g, subcutaneously) was given either 30?min before fear conditioning, immediately after fe...

Missig, Galen; Ayers, Luke W.; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B.

2010-01-01

217

Clofazimine Analogs with Efficacy against Experimental Tuberculosis and Reduced Potential for Accumulation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global tuberculosis crisis urgently demands new, efficacious, orally available drugs with the potential to shorten and simplify the long and complex treatments for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease. Clofazimine, a riminophenazine used for many years to treat leprosy, demonstrates efficacy in animal models of tuberculosis via a novel mode of action. However, clofazimine's physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties contribute to side effects that limit its use; in particular, an...

Lu, Yu; Zheng, Meiqin; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Zhao, Weijie; Li, Peng; Xu, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Jin, Haixia; Yin, Dali; Huang, Haihong; Upton, Anna M.; Ma, Zhenkun

2011-01-01

218

Effectiveness of alternative treatments for reducing potential viral contaminants from plasma-derived products.  

Science.gov (United States)

An issue of great importance and continuing concern with regard to all products derived from human plasma is their safety from potential contaminants in the source material from which they are purified. Since viral contaminants are a major safety consideration with these products, a number of different methods, including dry heating, vapor heating, filtration and nanofiltration, ultraviolet and gamma irradiation, pasteurization, solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment, sodium thiocyanate treatment, and chromatography (immunoaffinity, metal chelation, affinity, and ion exchange), have been developed to remove or inactivate potentially contaminating viruses. Pasteurization and S/D treatment have emerged as the dominant viral inactivation methods. Results summarized in this review demonstrate that pasteurization is the broadest and most rigorous currently available method for removal of potential viral contaminants from plasma-derived products. S/D treatment requires control over a large number of manufacturing parameters and has no ability to inactivate nonlipid-enveloped viruses. Pasteurization requires control over only a small number of manufacturing variables, is easily monitored, and remains effective even if deviations are encountered from specified protein and stabilizer concentrations and temperature. In addition, pasteurization is effective against a wide range of lipid- and nonlipid-enveloped viruses. PMID:12062540

Chandra, Sudhish; Groener, A; Feldman, F

2002-03-01

219

The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

220

The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

Monsler, M.J.

1987-02-25

 
 
 
 
221

Potential health benefit of reducing household solid fuel use in Shanxi province, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use has severe health effects. 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where most people rely on solid fuels for cooking and heating. We estimate exposure by combining information on the amount of time spent in different microenvironments and estimates of the particle concentrations (PM{sub 10}) in these environments. According to our estimates, 70% of the exposure experienced by the rural population is due to indoor air pollution (IAP). The urban coal using population experience a 17% increase in exposure from IAP. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to quantify variability and uncertainty in the exposure, morbidity and mortality estimates. We find that applying Monte Carlo simulations reduces the estimated uncertainty compared to analytical methods based on approximate distributions and the central limit theorem. We find that annually about 4% (geometric S.D. {sigma}{sub g}, 3.2) and 35% ({sigma}{sub g}, 2.6) of the deaths in the urban and rural populations, respectively, could be avoided by switching to clean fuels. Upgrading the stoves in rural areas to the standard found in urban areas is estimated to reduce mortality by 23% ({sigma}{sub g}, 3.1). Moreover, we estimate that chronic respiratory illness (CRI) in children can be reduced by, respectively, about 9% ({sigma}{sub g}, 2.5) and 80% ({sigma}{sub g} 1.9) by switching to clean fuels in the urban and rural areas. Upgrading the stoves in rural areas is estimated to reduce CRI in children with about 58% ({sigma}{sub g} 2.3). For adults the reduction in CRI was estimated to be 6% ({sigma}{sub g} 2.4) and 45% ({sigma}{sub g} 1.8) for the urban and rural population following a fuel switch, and 31% ({sigma}{sub g} 2.4) for the rural population from stove improvements. Contrary to our expectations we find small gender differences in exposure. We ascribe that to comparable kitchen and living area concentrations and similar indoor occupation times for the genders. Young children and the elderly spend the most time indoors, and have the highest daily exposure in the coal using population. The rural population experience higher exposure than the urban population, even though the outdoor air is significantly cleaner in rural areas. (author)

Staff Mestl, Heidi Elizabeth [Oslo University College, Faculty of Engineering, P.O. Box 4 St. Olavs plass, Cort Adelersgt. 30, 0130 Oslo (Norway); Aunan, Kristin [CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, P.O. Box 1129 Blindern, Gaustadalleen 21, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Seip, Hans Martin [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, Sem Saelands vei 26, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

2006-12-15

222

Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

Slan, Beverly

1984-01-01

223

A constrained reduced-dimensionality search algorithm to follow chemical reactions on potential energy surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A constrained reduced-dimensionality algorithm can be used to efficiently locate transition states and products in reactions involving conformational changes. The search path (SP) is constructed stepwise from linear combinations of a small set of manually chosen internal coordinates, namely the predictors. The majority of the internal coordinates, the correctors, are optimized at every step of the SP to minimize the total energy of the system so that the path becomes a minimum energy path connecting products and transition states with the reactants. Problems arise when the set of predictors needs to include weak coordinates, for example, dihedral angles, as well as strong ones such as bond distances. Two principal constraining methods for the weak coordinates are proposed to mend this situation: static and dynamic constraints. Dynamic constraints are automatically activated and revoked depending on the state of the weak coordinates among the predictors, while static ones require preset control factors and act permanently. All these methods enable the successful application (4 reactions are presented involving cyclohexane, alanine dipeptide, trimethylsulfonium chloride, and azafulvene) of the reduced dimensionality method to reactions where the reaction path covers large conformational changes in addition to the formation/breaking of chemical bonds. Dynamic constraints are found to be the most efficient method as they require neither additional information about the geometry of the transition state nor fine tuning of control parameters.

Lankau, Timm; Yu, Chin-Hui

2013-06-01

224

Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:23431429

Baldwin, David S.; Palazzo, M. Carlotta; Masdrakis, Vasilios G.

2013-01-01

225

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.W.MORRIS,S.C.MOSKOWITZ,P.D.

2001-09-01

226

Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: United Kingdom. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention and remediatio...

Gray, A.; Read, S.; Mcgale, P.; Darby, S.

2009-01-01

227

Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates”) without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liabili...

Kate?ina Randová

2010-01-01

228

Reducing the power loss potential in commercial vehicles. Verringerung des Verlustleistungspotentials bei Nutzfahrzeugen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to aerodynamic drag, the rolling resistances constitute the highest power loss potential. In this paper a selection of representative standard-production tyres of a heavyduty tractor/semitrailer combination is used as an example to demonstrate the wide range of tyre rolling resistance and its influence on overall drag, fuel consumption and economy. The effects of all measures - improved aerodynamics, drive train optimization, tyres with low rolling resistance - on the fuel consumption and economy of the investigated tractor/semitrailer are quantified. In addition, the influence of important factors on tyre rolling resistance and fuel consumption is explained. (orig./HW)

Porth, D.; Kraemer, W.

1993-12-01

229

Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

Arokach, Ami

2006-01-01

230

Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

2009-04-01

231

Reduced neophobia: a potential mechanism explaining the emergence of self-medicative behavior in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. For instance, emerging behavioral evidence suggests that ruminants self-select medicinal compounds and foods that reduce parasitic burdens. However, the mechanism/s leading to self-medicative behaviors in sick animals is still unknown. We hypothesized that when homeostasis is disturbed by a parasitic infection, consumers should respond by increasing the acceptability of novel foods relative to healthy individuals. Three groups of lambs (N=10) were dosed with 0 (Control-C), 5000 (Medium-M) and 15000 (High-H) L3 stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus. When parasites had reached the adult stage, all animals were offered novel foods and flavors in pens and then novel forages at pasture. Ingestive responses by parasitized lambs were different from non-parasitized Control animals and they varied with the type of food and flavor on offer. Parasitized lambs consumed initially more novel beet pulp and less novel beet pulp mixed with tannins than Control lambs, but the pattern reversed after 9d of exposure to these foods. Parasitized lambs ingested more novel umami-flavored food and less novel bitter-flavored food than Control lambs. When offered choices of novel unflavored and bitter-flavored foods or different forage species to graze, parasitized lambs selected a more diverse array of foods than Control lambs. Reductions in food neophobia or selection of a more diverse diet may enhance the likelihood of sick herbivores encountering novel medicinal plants and nutritious forages that contribute to restore health. PMID:24955494

Egea, A Vanina; Hall, Jeffery O; Miller, James; Spackman, Casey; Villalba, Juan J

2014-08-01

232

Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator  

Science.gov (United States)

... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Substance Abuse Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... State or Zip | Find Facilities by Name | State Substance Abuse Agencies | Frequently Asked Questions | Links | Comments or Questions | ...

233

Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

Petkovi? Nikola

2010-01-01

234

The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

Kingsley C. Anukam

2007-10-01

235

Reduced Serum and Hypoxic Culture Conditions Enhance the Osteogenic Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current protocols for inducing osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in culture for tissue engineering applications depend on the use of biochemical supplements. However, standard in vitro culture conditions expose cells to ambient oxygen concentrations and high levels of serum (21 % O2, 10 % FBS) that do not accurately recapitulate the physiological milieu. While we and others have examined MSC behavior under hypoxia, the synergistic effect of low serum levels, such as those present in ischemic injury sites, on osteogenic differentiation has not been clearly examined. We hypothesized that a concomitant reduction of serum and O2 would enhance in vitro osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by more accurately mimicking the fracture microenvironment. We show that serum deprivation, in conjunction with hypoxia, potentiates osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. These data demonstrate the role of serum levels in regulating osteogenesis and its importance in optimizing MSC differentiation strategies. PMID:25173881

Binder, Bernard Y K; Sagun, John E; Leach, J Kent

2014-08-31

236

Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Catherine Stanton

2011-06-01

237

Sex Differences in Drug Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

2007-01-01

238

Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hannah V Woodcock,1,2 Philip L Molyneaux,1,3 Toby M Maher1–31Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, 2Centre for Respiratory Research, University College London, 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120 is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF. These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited.Keywords: interstitial lung disease, BIBF 1120, clinical trials, usual interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbation

Woodcock HV

2013-06-01

239

Community-based intervention to reduce pesticide exposure to farmworkers and potential take-home exposure to their families.  

Science.gov (United States)

The US EPA Worker Protection Standard requires pesticide safety training for farmworkers. Combined with re-entry intervals, these regulations are designed to reduce pesticide exposure. Little research has been conducted on whether additional steps may reduce farmworker exposure and the potential for take-home exposure to their families. We conducted an intervention with 44 strawberry harvesters (15 control and 29 intervention group members) to determine whether education, encouragement of handwashing, and the use of gloves and removable coveralls reduced exposure. Post-intervention, we collected foliage and urine samples, as well as hand rinse, lower-leg skin patch, and clothing patch samples. Post-intervention loading of malathion on hands was lower among workers who wore gloves compared to those who did not (median=8.2 vs. 777.2 microg per pair, respectively (Ppesticide exposure to workers contacting strawberry foliage containing dislodgeable residues. Additionally, wearing gloves and removing work clothes before returning home could reduce transport of pesticides to worker homes. Behavioral interventions are needed to reduce consumption of strawberries in the field. PMID:18368011

Bradman, Asa; Salvatore, Alicia L; Boeniger, Mark; Castorina, Rosemary; Snyder, John; Barr, Dana B; Jewell, Nicholas P; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Striley, Cynthia; Eskenazi, Brenda

2009-01-01

240

Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in signficant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electroylte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1--10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subesquent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geolognd chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption

 
 
 
 
241

Local bismuth thiols potentiate antibiotics and reduce infection in a contaminated open fracture model.  

Science.gov (United States)

ObjectiveThis proof-of-concept study tested the hypothesis that combining bismuth-thiols (BTs) with systemic antibiotics will more effectively reduce infection in an animal model of contaminated open fracture than systemic antibiotics alone.MethodsAn implant-stabilized segmental defect rat model was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and then treated with surgical debridement 6 hours after injury and 3 days of systemic cefazolin. A single dose of BTs suspended in a hydrogel was administered to the wound immediately after debridement. After 14 days, the bone and implant were harvested for microbiological analysis.ResultsA single, local dose of 0.05 mg of BT (MB-8-2), when combined with systemically administered cefazolin, decreased infection, without any noticeable local or systemic toxicity, from 60% to 10% (p = 0.002) with only 0.02% of the recovered bacteria quantity of the cefazolin-only group (p implants. Local delivery of BTs is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of systemically administered antibiotics in preventing and treating infections of open fractures. PMID:24978943

Penn-Barwell, Jowan G; Baker, Brett; Wenke, Joseph C

2014-06-26

242

Periodontal treatment: potential to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and/or mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of morbidity and mortality globally. They are some multifactorial diseases and most of which may be primarily associated with atherosclerotic lesions. Periodontal disease is an infection of tooth-supporting tissues, which is highly prevalent in populations. Continuing studies have revealed that periodontal disease is another important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The host-mediated inflammatory response to periodontal pathogens and their components, release of matrix metalloproteinases, alteration in lipoprotein metabolism and poor dietary habits may contribute to the atheroma pathogenesis in patients with periodontal disease. Based on these data, we hypothesized that periodontal treatment, along with the primary and secondary prevention of traditional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, obesity and lack of exercise), might reduce morbidity and/or mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Evidences from recent studies have supported our hypotheses partly. Further well-designed, double blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials with larger sample size in this area are still needed. PMID:19329257

Yao, ZhiWen; Yang, Jun; Pan, LingZhan; Chen, ZhiQing

2009-07-01

243

UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

2014-03-01

244

Peri-operative platelet function testing: the potential for reducing ischaemic and bleeding risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pivotal role of platelet activation and reactivity during atherothrombotic event occurrence associated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is well established. Numerous translational research studies have established a threshold level of platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy above which a higher risk for ischaemic event occurrence has been observed. The clinical validity of these threshold values in reducing ischemic event occurrence with modified P2Y12 receptor therapy is currently under investigation in large-scale clinical trials. The association between on-treatment platelet reactivity measured by an ex vivo assay and the occurrence of bleeding events is less established. Currently, there is limited evidence of an association between platelet inhibition and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)- related bleeding in patients on clopidogrel therapy indicating that preoperative platelet function monitoring may guide both the timing of elective CABG and the administration of blood products in patients needing surgery. However, in the absence of a large-scale prospective clinical trial, routine platelet function monitoring and modification of timing of surgery based on platelet function monitoring are currently not recommended. PMID:21505715

Gurbel, Paul A; Mahla, Elisabeth; Tantry, Udaya S

2011-08-01

245

Development and agronomical validation of new fertilizer compositions of high bioavailability and reduced potential nutrient losses.  

Science.gov (United States)

To optimize the economical cost of each unit of fertilizer applied and to reduce the environmental contamination caused by nutrient losses, the development of highly efficient granulated fertilizers is of great importance. This study proposes a strategy that consists of developing specific fertilizers having nutrient release patterns that are dependent on plant activity in the rhizosphere. This type of fertilizer is named "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" (RCF fertilizer). This fertilizer is based on the introduction of an organomineral matrix composed of metal [Mg (Ca is also possible), Zn (Fe and other metals are also possible)]-humic phosphates. The presence of this matrix modifies the nutrient release pattern of the fertilizer. In this way there are two main nutrient fractions: (i) a water-soluble fraction or "starter" fraction and (ii) a "rhizosphere-controlled" fraction insoluble in water but soluble by the action of the rhizospheric acids released by plants and microorganisms. This study shows the chemical and structural characterization of the organomineral matrix, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrient release rate of the RCF fertilizer, principally with respect to P and N. It is demonstrated how these properties of the matrix were also reflected in the significant reduction in both ammonia volatilization and N leaching in a pot system consisting of wheat plants cultivated in a calcareous soil and fertilized with a RCF fertilizer. PMID:17708642

Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; San Francisco, Sara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

2007-09-19

246

Luminally active, nonabsorbable CFTR inhibitors as potential therapy to reduce intestinal fluid loss in cholera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas such as cholera involve chloride secretion by enterocytes into the intestinal lumen by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. We previously identified glycine hydrazide CFTR blockers that by electrophysiological studies appeared to block the CFTR anion pore at its lumen-facing surface. Here, we synthesize highly water-soluble, nonabsorbable malondihydrazides by coupling 2,4-disulfobenzaldehyde, 4-sulfophenylisothiocyante, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties to 2-naphthalenylamino-[(3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) methylene] propanedioic acid dihydrazide, and aminoacethydrazides by coupling PEG to [(N-2-naphthalenyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-glycine-2-[(3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazide. Compounds rapidly, fully and reversibly blocked CFTR-mediated chloride current with Ki of 2-8 microM when added to the apical surface of epithelial cell monolayers. Compounds did not pass across Caco-2 monolayers, and were absorbed by 90% cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in mouse intestinal loops, without inhibiting intestinal fluid absorption. These orally administered, nonabsorbable, nontoxic CFTR inhibitors may reduce intestinal fluid losses in cholera. PMID:16317066

Sonawane, N D; Hu, Jie; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Verkman, A S

2006-01-01

247

Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

A Loved One’s Substance Abuse Problem Too Hot to Handle? A Loved One’s Substance Abuse Problem What You Can Do Your brother has been ... of Addiction The Perils of Peers Prevention Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

248

Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

Schuckit, Marc A.

1977-01-01

249

Prevalence and correlates of elder abuse among older women in rural and urban communities in South Western Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elderly women face the same health, economic, and social issues that all elderly people face, but often encounter more challenges compared with men and are more prone to abuse. Elder abuse has hitherto been uncharacterized among women in South Western Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to describe the prevalence, patterns, and factors associated with elder abuse among elderly women in Nigeria. The abuse of elderly women is quite prevalent in the two communities studied, especially physical abuse. Positive predictors of elder abuse were urban dwelling, financial dependency, and a high level of educational attainment. Appropriate interventions should be targeted toward reducing the occurrence. PMID:22946597

Cadmus, Eniola O; Owoaje, Eme T

2012-01-01

250

Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

251

Methylglyoxal reduces mitochondrial potential and activates Bax and caspase-3 in neurons: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the oxidative stress generated from amyloid ?-peptide (A?) aggregates. It produces protein nitrotyrosination, after the reaction with nitric oxide to form peroxynitrite, being triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) one of the most affected proteins. TPI is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Methylglyoxal (MG) is a by-product of TPI activity whose production is triggered when TPI is nitrotyrosinated. MG is harmful to cells because it glycates proteins. Here we found protein glycation when human neuroblastoma cells were treated with A?. Moreover glycation was also observed when neuroblastoma cells overexpressed mutated TPI where Tyr165 or Tyr209, the two tyrosines close to the catalytic center, were changed by Phe in order to mimic the effect of nitrotyrosination. The pathological relevance of these findings was studied by challenging cells with A? oligomers and MG. A significant decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, one of the first apoptotic events, was obtained. Therefore, increasing concentrations of MG were assayed searching for MG effect in neuronal apoptosis. We found a decrease of the protective Bcl2 and an increase of the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax levels. Our results suggest that MG is triggering apoptosis in neurons and it would play a key role in AD neurodegeneration. PMID:25102327

Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Valls-Comamala, Victòria; Muñoz, Francisco J

2014-09-19

252

Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake and qualitatively by light microscopy of histological sections. One-way analyses of variance at the 0.05 level revealed no significant difference in strontium 85 uptake of the different groups, and no qualitative differences in osteoinduction could be detected by light microscopy. Ossicles consisting of bone and bone marrow were seen in the recovered implants of all groups.

Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M

1995-01-01

253

Estimating a mosquito repellent’s potential to reduce malaria in communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Probability models for assessing a mosquito repellent’s potential toreduce malaria transmission are not readily available to public health researchers. To provide ameans for estimating the epidemiological efficacy of mosquito repellents in communities, wedeveloped a simple mathematical model.Study design: A static probability model is presented to simulate malaria infection in a communityduring a single transmission season. The model includes five parameters—sporozoite rate, humaninfection rate, biting pressure, repellent efficacy, and product-acceptance rate.Interventions: The model assumes that a certain percentage of the population uses a personalmosquito repellent over the course of a seven-month transmission season and that this repellentmaintains a constant rate of protective efficacy against the bites of malaria vectors.Main outcome measures: This model measures the probability of evading malaria infection underdiverse circumstances, e.g. vector biting pressure, repellent efficacy, and product acceptance.Results & conclusion: Absolute protection using mosquito repellents alone requires high rates ofrepellent efficacy and product acceptance may vary. Using performance data from a highly effectiverepellent, the model estimates an 88.9% reduction of infections over a seven-month transmissionseason. A corresponding reduction in the incidence of super-infection in community members notcompletely evading infection can also be presumed. Thus, the model shows that mass distributionof a repellent with >98% efficacy and >98% product acceptance would suppress new malariainfections to levels lower than those achieved with insecticide treated nets (ITNs. A combinationof both interventions could create synergies that result in reductions of disease burden significantlygreater than with the use of ITNs alone.

A.E. Kiszewski, S.T. Darling

2010-12-01

254

Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

Wodak Shoshana

2007-07-01

255

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could not be loaded. The ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when ...

256

Elder Abuse FAQS  

Science.gov (United States)

... not reported) in 2013. 17 A study from Germany had an overall rate of 3.1%: 2. ... M. (2007). Elder Abuse and Neglect in an Urban Chinese Population. Journal of Elder ... Development and psychometric properties of the Geriatric Mistreatment Scale. ...

257

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... quality of care you got from a doctor, hospital, or other provider or facility isn't considered fraud or abuse. Your Beneficiary and Family Centered Care Quality Improvement Organization (BFCC-QIO) can help you if you have ...

258

Report Fraud and Abuse  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could not be loaded. The Medicare.gov Home ... Reporting fraud , current page Health plan rules , current page File a complaint Identity ... Medicare Report fraud & abuse Medicare fraud happens when ...

259

Sexual abuse and incest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2012-09-01

260

Subtypes of cocaine abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction. PMID:3774602

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

1986-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... When sexual abuse occurs within the family, the child may fear the anger, jealousy or shame of other family members, or be ... make the child extremely fearful of telling, and only when a special effort has helped the child to feel safe, can the child talk freely. ...

262

Substance Abuse and SCI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient ... website has more than 1,000 videos of family members answering real-life questions about how they cope with a spinal ...

263

Two New Case Reports of Propofol Abuse and a Pattern Analysis of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propofol has become the most widely used sedation and anesthetic drug worldwide. Previously it was thought to lack abuse and dependence potential.  Increased awareness of actual propofol abuse cases, however, is providing greater understanding of the associated (or perceived motivations and rewards of propofol abuse.  We report the details of two new propofol abuse cases including the motivations for choosing this drug, abuse practices, subjective experiences, and outcomes.  An exploration of reported objective and subjective patterns in propofol abuse case reports was conducted using a modified  process of thematic (pattern analysis. These patterns include: healthcare providers are the most frequent propofol abusers, hospital drug diversion is a primary access, abuse regimens consist of frequent injections, there often exists underlying psychological unrest, typically there is a history of prior drug and alcohol abuse, abusers are seeking relief from anxiety and stress along with restful sleep, abusers report a craving desire, death is frequently an outcome, and rehabilitation programs can be effective treatments. We conclude restrictive control of propofol is necessary to better monitor and control its abuse.

Mark D Welliver

2012-03-01

264

Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

2006-04-01

265

Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

2006-04-01

266

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

Aleksi? Jelena

2008-01-01

267

Physical design analysis and mainstream smoke constituent yields of the new potential reduced exposure product, Marlboro UltraSmooth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) purport to lower toxicant emissions, but without clinical and long-term health outcome data, claims for reduced harm status of PREPs depend heavily on standard machine yield smoke constituent data. Two prototypes of the new carbon-filtered PREP Marlboro UltraSmooth (MUS) were investigated using both standard (FTC/ISO) and intensive (Health Canada) machine methods to measure gas/vapor- and particulate-phase smoke constituents. Basic physical design characteristics that may influence smoke constituent yields, such as ventilation, pressure drop (resistance to draw), quantity of tobacco, and quantity and type of carbon, were measured. The possible presence of added chemical flavorant compounds was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. MUS prototypes were found to have several key differences in physical design compared with a conventional cigarette, including higher ventilation, lower draw resistance, and in the case of the Salt Lake City prototype, the use of vitreous carbon beads and the presence of chemical flavorants on both the beads and an embedded filter fiber. When tested under the standard regimen, gas-phase constituents of MUS prototypes were reduced compared with a conventional low-yield cigarette. However, far smaller reductions in gas-phase constituents were observed under the intensive regimen, suggesting that the carbon technology used in MUS is less effective when smoked under more intensive conditions. Particulate-phase constituents were not reduced by the carbon filter under either machine-smoking regimen. The data suggest that MUS has been designed to reduce toxic yields while preserving consumer appeal. However, MUS is less effective in reducing toxic smoke constituents when smoked under intensive conditions. PMID:17978995

Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Thomas, Brian F; Connolly, Gregory N

2007-11-01

268

Child sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive resand Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

269

Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

2014-01-01

270

Psychopathology in chronic cocaine abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of 30 hospitalized cocaine abusers were studied, along with 124 hospitalized patients who were dependent upon opiates or central nervous system depressants. DSM-III diagnoses, family history data, demographic characteristics, and measures of current depressive symptomatology were compared in the two groups. Nineteen (63%) of the cocaine abusers met criteria for an Axis I diagnosis other than substance abuse; sixteen (53%) had affective disorder. These figures reflected a significantly higher prevalence rate of affective disorder among the cocaine abusers than among the opiate and depressant abusers. In addition, a significantly higher rate of affective disorder was found in the first degree relatives of the cocaine abusers when compared to the other group. Since these findings suggest that a substantial number of cocaine abusers may be suffering from other psychiatric disorders, careful diagnostic evaluation is indicated in this population. PMID:3788897

Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M; Michael, J L; Sollogub, A C

1986-01-01

271

Child sexual abuse: a review of the recent literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research of child sexual abuse has considerably evolved and continues to evolve exponentially. Professionals in various fields are required to be updated in the latest guidelines in practice, as well as in research. The present paper summarizes the most recent scientific literature on child sexual abuse, mainly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, focusing on central issues, namely, the international prevalence of the phenomenon, its negative consequences, and the offender's characteristics; referring to the potential victim's profile. Finally, the paper summarizes the recent recommendations and implications for practice and research in child sexual abuse. PMID:25243505

Ben Natan, M

2015-03-01

272

Quantum dots sensitized titanium dioxide decorated reduced graphene oxide for visible light excited photoelectrochemical biosensing at a low potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low potential and competitive photoelectrochemical biosensing platform was developed using quantum dots sensitized titanium dioxide decorated reduced graphene oxide (TiO2-RGO) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were prepared through electrostatic interaction between mercaptoacetic acid wrapped CdSe quantum dots with negative charge and TiO2-RGO hybrids with positive charge obtained via ultrasonic and acid treatments. Electron microscopes and spectroscopes were used to characterize the functionalized nanocomposites films of CdSe/TiO2-RGO, and the fabrication process of the photoelectrochemical biosensor. Based on the high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of CdSe/TiO2-RGO nanocomposites films, after introducing biological recognition and competitive immunoreaction, a low potential and competitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection was fabricated. The synergic effect of horseradish peroxide and benzo-4-chlorohexadienone decreased the background signal, leading to signal amplification. Under the light irradiation of 430 nm and the applied potential of 0 V, the biosensor detected CEA with a linear range from 0.003 to 100 ng mL(-1) and the detection limit was estimated to be 1.38 pg mL(-1) at a S/N of 3. It was satisfactory for clinical sample detection. The proposed competitive and low potential photoelectrochemical biosensor under irradiation of visible light exhibited good performance, which has a promising prospect in clinical diagnose. PMID:24291752

Zeng, Xianxiang; Bao, Jianchun; Han, Min; Tu, Wenwen; Dai, Zhihui

2014-04-15

273

Economic well-being and elder abuse in rajshahi district of bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the distribution of wealth and then tests associations between elder abuse and wealth in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Data from 896 respondents (60 years old and over) were collected in April 2009. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index, and logistic regressions were performed to test the associations between wealth and elder abuse. Results reveal that about 62% of individuals from poor households face abuse of some kind, whereas only 6% of individuals from rich households do. The test of the relationship between elder abuse and wealth also suggests that individuals from rich households were more likely not to be abused than individuals from poor households. Results of this study may be useful to policy makers developing policies and programs aimed at preventing elder abuse and reducing inequalities in elder abuse in Rajshahi district as well as in the whole of Bangladesh. PMID:25651557

Tareque, Md Ismail; Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Koshio, Atsushi; Kawahara, Kazuo

2015-02-01

274

Exploring the Relationship between Positive Work Experiences and Women's Sense of Self in the Context of Partner Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we examined the relationships among partner abuse, work quality, and women's sense of self. In particular, we explored the potential for women's work to serve as an alternative source of feedback for the self in the context of partner abuse. The sample consisted of 100 working women who reported experiencing a range of partner abuse.…

Lynch, Shannon M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

2004-01-01

275

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment st...

Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

2008-01-01

276

Multivariate Comparison of Male and Female Adolescent Substance Abusers with Accompanying Legal Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: The factors that distinguish adolescent male and female substance abusers with and without legal problems were investigated. METHOD: Youths (N = 4,071) admitted for substance abuse treatment were administered the revised Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) to measure severity of health, behavior, and social adjustment problems. RESULTS: Legal problems were more frequent among boys; however, severity of disturbance was greater in girls on 9 of 10 scales. Substance abusing girls and boys with legal problems reported more severe behavior, substance abuse, family adjustment, and peer relationship problems than substance abusing peers without legal problems. Quality of peer relationship mediated the association of family dysfunction, substance abuse and behavior problems with legal problems in boys only. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and legal status both need to be taken into account to potentiate treatment prognosis of substance abusing youths. PMID:21686313

Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Mezzich, Ada; Patton, David

2011-05-01

277

Rosuvastatin reduces MMP-7 secretion by human monocyte-derived macrophages: potential relevance to atherosclerotic plaque stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by their actions on atherogenic lipid profiles and by pleiotropic effects. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a new statin, rosuvastatin (Crestor), on sterol synthesis and the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Rosuvastatin dose-dependently inhibited sterol synthesis from acetate with an IC(50) of 70 nM. In addition, MMP-7 levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 50% (P pyrophosphate (Fpp) or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) fully overcame the inhibitory effect of rosuvastatin on MMP-7. Neither quantitative PCR nor transient transfection of HMDM with a luciferase reporter construct under the control of human MMP-7 promoter (2300 bp of the 5' region on MMP-7 gene) showed a decrease in MMP-7 mRNA following treatment with rosuvastatin (10(-6)M). However, the inhibitory effect of the statin occurred at the post-transcriptional level as determined by actinomycin D experiment. In conclusion, several studies have reported a high expression of active MMP-7 in human atherosclerotic plaques indicating a potential role in the weakening of the fibrous cap, predisposing it to rupture. The effect of rosuvastatin in reducing MMP-7 might protect fibrous caps from degradation and in turn stabilize atheromatous plaques. PMID:15135256

Furman, Christophe; Copin, Corinne; Kandoussi, Mejid; Davidson, Robert; Moreau, Martine; McTaggiart, Fergus; Chapman, M John; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rouis, Mustapha

2004-05-01

278

Drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, and AIDS. Dual and triple diagnosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders commonly occur together. This form of dual diagnosis is notable because it complicates assessment and makes treatment more difficult for both psychiatric and drug abuse problems. Drugs can cause psychiatric disorders and can also be used as an attempt to "cure" them by self-medication. The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users has added a third potential clinical problem, that of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, to t...

Batki, S. L.

1990-01-01

279

Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant capacity and reducing potential of polyherbal drug- Bh?ra?gy?di  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Present work was designed to investigate antioxidant activity of polyherbal formulation in search for new, safe and inexpensive antioxidant. Clerodendrum serratum, Hedychium spicatum and Inula racemosa, were extensively used in ayurvedic medicine and were investigated together in the form of polyherbal compound (Bh?ra?gy?di) for their antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared from the above samples and was tested for total reducing power and in vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS+ assay, Superoxide anion scavenging activity assay and lipid per-oxidation assay. Result: Reducing power shows dose depended increase in concentration maximum absorption of 0.677 ± 0.017 at 1000 ?g/ml compared with standard Quercetin 0.856±0.020. ABTS+ assay shows maximum inhibition of 64.2 ± 0.86 with EC50 675.31 ± 4.24. Superoxide free radical shows maximum scavenging activity of 62.45 ± 1.86 with EC50 774.70 ± 5.45. Anti-lipidperoxidation free radicals scavenge maximum absorption of 67.25± 1.89 with EC50 is 700.08 ± 6.81. Ascorbic acid was used as standard with IC50 value is 4.6 ?g/ml. The result suggests polyherbal formulation to be a good potential for antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress results from imbalance between free radical-generation and radical scavenging systems. This will lead to tissue damage and oxidative stress. Conclusion: In conclusion, we strongly suggest that Polyherbal compounds are source of potential antioxidant for radical scavenging. The highly positive correlation of antiradical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic content in Polyherbal compounds indicates that polyphenols are important components which could be used for the free radical scavenging activity. Further study is needed for isolation and characterization of the active moiety responsible for biological activity and to treat in various stress condition. PMID:23929990

Kajaria, Divya Kumari; Gangwar, Mayank; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan; Tripathi, Jyoti Shankar; Tiwari, Shrikant

2012-01-01

280

Synthetic cathinone abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone a...

Capriola M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Child sexual abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma thesis deals with sexual exploitation of children. The topic itself causes great discomfort, a kind of insight that our knowledge as well as various strategies of prevention child sexual abuse are still extremely weak and insufficient. The introductory part of the thesis discusses the historical review of sexual exploitation of children, sundry definitions of exploitation are described along with exploitation of children for the purposes of pornography and prosti...

Miklavz?ina, Andreja

2010-01-01

282

Substance abuse: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance abuse continues to be a major adolescent health risk. Despite encouraging trends toward decreased drug use in the late 1980s, an increase in use occurred in the early 1990s and only now is beginning to level off. A brief update on the status of the most commonly abused substances is provided. A discussion of current research is given in support of viewing drug addiction as a medical condition, i.e., a "brain disease." Reasons are suggested to explain why adolescents use and abuse drugs and why trends occur in their use. Two aspects of diagnosis are reviewed: psychiatric and medical comorbidity and drug screening and laboratory assessment of the adolescent. Prevention and early intervention are presented with an emphasis on drug education, behavioral wellness, family communication, doctor-patient discussion and assessment, and referral. Commentary is made on the ethics of care; issues of confidentiality and the right to privacy with regard to drug testing and sharing of information are explored. A review of various policy statements of the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical organizations is presented. PMID:10640340

Comerci, G D; Schwebel, R

2000-02-01

283

Determination of ethyl glucuronide in nails by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as a potential new biomarker for chronic alcohol abuse and binge drinking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection and quantification in nails was developed and fully validated. Nails were extracted in 700 ?L double-distilled water. EtG-d(5) was used as an internal standard. Reversed-phase separation was obtained with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (99:1) for 10 min. Quantification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring of two transitions per compound (EtG and internal standard). The assay was linear from 10 to 500 pg/mg. Validation parameters were studied at three different quality control levels (10, 50, and 300 pg/mg). Intraday, interday, and total imprecision had a coefficient of variation of less than 9.5%. Ion suppression and ion enhancement were negligible (less than 20%). No carryover was detected. The method was applied to several real cases, among teetotalers, social drinkers, and heavy drinkers. A questionnaire, together with the informed consent form, was given to all the participants in order to evaluate alcohol intake in the one month before sample collection. Nail EtG levels in a social drinker were much higher than the concentrations of EtG in hair provided by the same subject, thus suggesting potential high sensitivity in evaluating both chronic excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking habits. PMID:22193819

Morini, Luca; Colucci, Mario; Ruberto, Maria Giovanna; Groppi, Angelo

2012-02-01

284

Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

Batri?evi? Ana

2011-01-01

285

Substance abuse and oral health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is on the increase in most countries and claims the lives of millions every year. Substance abuse may involve licit and illicit drugs, with licit substances claiming more lives than illicit drugs. Illicit substance abuse is on the increase, especially with new drugs emerging on the world market every year. These new drugs appear faster than scientific studies can keep pace in determining their possible detrimental influences on health. Many abu...

Zyl, Andre W.

2014-01-01

286

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, be...

Abbas Yavari

2009-01-01

287

Forensic aspects of animal abusing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

Aleksi? Jelena; Jovi? Slavoljub

2008-01-01

288

An Evaluation of the Evidence that Methamphetamine Abuse Causes Cognitive Decline in Humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly abused illicit substances worldwide. Among other problems, abuse of the drug has been associated with reduced cognitive function across several domains. However, much of the literature has not attempted to differentiate cognitive difficulties caused by MA abuse from preexisting cognitive difficulties that are likely caused by other factors. Here, we address this question, evaluating evidence for a priori hypotheses pertaining to six lines of re...

Dean, Andy C.; Groman, Stephanie M.; Morales, Angelica M.; London, Edythe D.

2012-01-01

289

Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

Kate?ina Randová

2010-09-01

290

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

291

Diagnostic imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

292

Reduced transport potential of a palladium-doped zero valent iron nanoparticle in a water saturated loamy sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct in situ injection of palladium-doped nanosized zero valent iron (Pd-NZVI) particles can contribute to remediation of various environmental contaminants. A major challenge encountered is rapid aggregation of Pd-NZVI and hence very limited mobility. To reduce aggregation and concurrently improve particle mobility, the surface of bare Pd-NZVI can be modified with stabilizing surface modifiers. Selected surface-modified Pd-NZVI has shown dramatically improved stability and transport. However, little is known regarding the effects of aquifer grain geochemical heterogeneity on the transport and deposition behavior of surface-modified Pd-NZVI. Herein, the mobility of surface stabilized Pd-NZVI in two granular matrices representative of model ground water environments (quartz sand and loamy sand) was assessed over a wide range of environmentally relevant ionic strengths (IS). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), soybean flour and rhamnolipid biosurfactant were used as Pd-NZVI surface modifiers. Our results show that, both in quartz sand and loamy sand, an increase in solution IS results in reduced Pd-NZVI transport. Moreover, at a given water chemistry, Pd-NZVI transport is notably attenuated in loamy sand implying that geochemical heterogeneity associated with loamy sand is a key factor influencing Pd-NZVI transport potential. Experiments conducted at a higher Pd-NZVI particle concentration, to be more representative of field conditions, show that rhamnolipid and CMC are effective stabilizing agents even when 1 g/L Pd-NZVI is injected into quartz sand. Overall, this study emphasizes the extent to which variation in groundwater chemistry, coupled with changes in aquifer geochemistry, could dramatically alter the transport potential of Pd-NZVI in the subsurface environment. PMID:25462742

Basnet, Mohan; Tommaso, Caroline Di; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

2014-10-01

293

Reducing the potential for migration of radioactive waste: Aqueous thermal degradation of the chelating agent disodium EDTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common component of cleaning solutions used for decontamination of radioactive equipment, has been associated with increased migration of radionuclides into local groundwaters at some radwaste disposal sites. It has been proposed that predisposal thermal degradation of EDTA-containing aqueous solutions may reduce the potential for chelate-enhanced mobilization of radionuclides at these sites. Aqueous thermal degradation experiments with disodium EDTA have shown that the compound degrades rapidly at 2000C with an activation energy of 114.3 +- 7.87 kJ/mol, and forms the decomposition product methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA). A comparison of the values for stability constants of transition metal and actinide complexes with EDTA, MIDA, and two other reported degradation products, indicates that the chelating efficiency of the degradation products is 6 to 22 orders of magnitude lower than that of EDTA at 250C. It is concluded that aqueous thermal degradation should significantly reduce the overall chelating efficiency of EDTA-containing solutions

294

Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

2007-01-01

295

Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components.  

Science.gov (United States)

The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids, participate in the regulation of intestinal gene expression. However, nutrients may also escape digestion by mammalian enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These nutrients can be used by the microflora, resulting in the production of bacterial metabolites, for example, SCFA, which may affect intestinal gene expression indirectly. The present review provides an insight on possible effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression, as it may occur post-weaning. Detailed knowledge on effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression may help to understand weaning-associated intestinal dysfunctions and diseases. Examples are given of intestinal genes which may be altered in their expression due to supply with specific nutrients. In that way, gene expression could be modulated by dietary means, thereby acting as a potential therapeutic tool. This could be achieved, for example, by influencing genes coding for digestive or absorptive proteins, thus optimising digestive function and metabolism, but also with regard to immune response, or by influencing proliferative processes, thereby enhancing mucosal repair. This would be of special interest when designing a diet to overcome weaning-associated problems. PMID:21914250

Bauer, Eva; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Verstegen, Martin W A; Mosenthin, Rainer

2011-12-01

296

Sexual abuse in children - what to know  

Science.gov (United States)

... that can help include: Childhelp: www.childhelp.org Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network: www.rainn.org Know that health care providers, teachers, and child care workers are required by law to report sexual abuse. If abuse is suspected, ...

297

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs ... two previous factsheets from Child Welfare Information Gateway: What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? and Recognizing Child ...

298

Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

2013-04-01

299

Reduced pH increases recovery from radiation damage potentially leading to cell death and to in vitro transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C3H-10T1/2 cells were grown to plateau phase and assessed for recovery from radiation damage under acidic and normal pH conditions. Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was observed after X-ray doses of 5.0, 6.0 and 12.0 Gy and repair increased with dose. The repair at an acidic pH of 6.8 was greater than at the normal pH of 7.4. Repair of potentially transforming damage (PTD) was also observed when cells were held in plateau phase after irradiation. Repair of PTD was greater at the acidic pH than at the normal pH. When PTD recovery was plotted vs PLD recovery the results showed a good linear correlation with approximately twice as much PTDR. The experimental conditions allowing PLDR and PTDR indicate that the repair process may be error-free, since transformation was reduced in all experiments which showed recovery from PLD. (Author)

300

Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 seconds adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features.

Kornél Németh

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.

Lisa R. Norman

2006-01-01

302

Potential for biological nitrification inhibition to reduce nitrification and N2O emissions in pasture crop-livestock systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture and livestock production systems are two major emitters of greenhouse gases. Methane with a GWP (global warming potential) of 21, and nitrous oxide (N2O) with a GWP of 300, are largely emitted from animal production agriculture, where livestock production is based on pasture and feed grains. The principal biological processes involved in N2O emissions are nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the natural ability of certain plant species to release nitrification inhibitors from their roots that suppress nitrifier activity, thus reducing soil nitrification and N2O emission. Recent methodological developments (e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect BNIs in plant root systems) have led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize the BNI function. Synthesis and release of BNIs from plants is a highly regulated process triggered by the presence of NH4 + in the rhizosphere, which results in the inhibitor being released precisely where the majority of the soil-nitrifier population resides. Among the tropical pasture grasses, the BNI function is strongest (i.e. BNI capacity) in Brachiaria sp. Some feed-grain crops such as sorghum also have significant BNI capacity present in their root systems. The chemical identity of some of these BNIs has now been established, and their mode of inhibitory action on Nitrosomonas has been characterized. The ability of the BNI function in Brachiaria pastures to suppress N2O emissions and soil nitrification potential has been demonstrated; however, its potential role in controlling N2O emissions in agro-pastoral systems is under investigation. Here we present the current status of our understanding on how the BNI functions in Brachiaria pastures and feed-grain crops such as sorghum can be exploited both genetically and, from a production system's perspective, to develop low-nitrifying and low N2O-emitting production systems that would be economically profitable and ecologically sustainable. PMID:23739474

Subbarao, G V; Rao, I M; Nakahara, K; Sahrawat, K L; Ando, Y; Kawashima, T

2013-06-01

303

Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary cat saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on microbial populations in the rumen indicated that 15% of Leucaena and Fliricidia; 20% of Sapindus and A. pintoi as well as 40% of S. aterrimum, affect negatively the protozoa population in the rumen. Gliricidia reduced this population from 45.71 to 2.57 x 105 cel/mL. Enterolobium, however, increased the number and activity of the cellulolytic fungus and total viable bacteria, although it did not exert defaunating effect, at least, under the experimental conditions in which the studies were conducted. The inclusion of 10 % of Tithonia decreased the methanogenic bacteria and increased the cellulolytic bacteria, but to reduce the protozoa population level of 20 % level was necessary. The defaunating effect observed with some plants could be due to that it was found a quadratic relationship between the content of condensed tannins and the population of ruminal protozoa. The results of methane production in relation to inclusion of 25% of foliages of S. saponaria, M. alba and Trichantera using P. purpureum as a pasture base, indicated that this foliages reduced methane production, significantly, in similar proportions to respect to pasture. Trichantera inhibit methane emissions in 41 % respect to Pennisetum (7,01 vs. 16.96 g/kg DM, respectively). The results suggest that the secondary compounds found in plants can to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and also reduce the methanogenic bacteria when the adequate levels in the diet are utilized. The use of tree and shrubs, as strategies of supplementation is an adequate option to reduce methane production and improve the animal nutrition of ruminants. (author)

304

Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV ...

Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-zhe

2010-01-01

305

Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

Middleton, Warwick

2013-01-01

306

Working on Memories of Abuse....  

Science.gov (United States)

Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

Horsman, Jenny

1994-01-01

307

JAMA Patient Page: Elder Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... physical disabilities • Has depression, loneliness, or lack of social support • Abuses alcohol or other substances • Is verbally or ... from family and friends. • Seek counseling or other support if you are feeling stressed or depressed. Sources: National Center on Elder Abuse, Centers for Disease ...

308

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... is suicidal and/or a victim of childhood sexual abuse, please contact a mental health professional, or call 1-800- ... attempts. 11 3 Resources Rape, Abuse, & Incest National Network (RAINN): www.rainn.org Sexual Assault Resource Agency: http://www.sexualassaultresources.org/ Suicide. ...

309

Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema  

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Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

Golwala, Harsh

2012-01-01

310

Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

311

ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

Abbas Yavari

2009-09-01

312

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O{sub 2} and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O{sub 2} -O{sub 2} potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included.

Abbaspour, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mabbaspoor@wali.um.ac.ir; Goharshadi, Elaheh K. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emampour, Jalal S. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi 91779 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-08-01

313

Determination of potential energy functions and calculation transport properties of oxygen and nitric oxide via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential energy functions of oxygen and nitric oxide have been determined via the inversion of reduced viscosity collision integrals at zero pressure and fitted to obtain the analytical potential forms. The potentials reproduce viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of oxygen and nitric oxide in excellent accordance with the experimental data over a wide range of temperature. We have also derived very accurate equations for viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and second virial coefficient of O2 and NO at different temperatures. Comparisons of O2 -O2 potential with experimental potentials of Perugia group and ESMSV-type potential and ab initio potentials (MCRI-1/B3 and CCSD (T)/MCRI mixed model) and NO-NO potential with the recently determined potential by means of ab initio electronic structure calculations, CASSCF/CASPT2 (18/14)/6-311G(2d) have been also included

314

A comparison between the effects of three potential scar-reducing agents applied at a site of sciatic nerve repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the effect of three potential scar-reducing agents applied at a sciatic nerve repair site in C57-black-6 mice. Under anaesthesia the nerve was transected, repaired using four epineurial sutures, and 100 ?l of either triamcinolone acetonide (1 mg/100 ?l), an interleukin-10 peptide fragment (125 ng/100 ?l or 500 ng/100 ?l) or mannose-6-phosphate (M6P, 200 mM or 600 mM) was injected into and around the nerve. After 6 weeks the extent of regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically by determining the ratio of the compound action potential (CAP) modulus evoked by electrical stimulation of the nerve 2 mm distal or proximal to the repair site. The conduction velocity of the fastest components in the CAP was also calculated. The percentage area of collagen staining (PAS) at the repair site was analysed using Picrosirius Red and image analysis. Comparisons were made with a placebo group (100 ?l of phosphate buffered saline) and sham-operated controls. The median CAP modulus ratio in the 600 mM M6P group was 0.44, which was significantly higher than in the placebo group (0.24, P=0.012: Kruskal-Wallis test). Conduction velocities were also faster in the 600 mM M6P group (median 30 m s(-1)) than in the placebo group (median 27.8 m s(-1); P=0.0197: Kruskal-Wallis test). None of the other treated groups were significantly different from the placebo, and all had significantly lower CAP ratios than the sham controls (P<0.05). All repair groups had a significantly higher PAS for collagen than sham controls. We conclude that the administration of 600 mM mannose-6-phosphate to a nerve repair site enhances axonal regeneration. PMID:21377512

Ngeow, W C; Atkins, S; Morgan, C R; Metcalfe, A D; Boissonade, F M; Loescher, A R; Robinson, P P

2011-05-01

315

Bio-methanol potential in Indonesia: Forest biomass as a source of bio-energy that reduces carbon emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce biofuels, the potential to sustainably collect and convert forest materials to methanol for use in energy production was examined. Using the annually available aboveground forest biomass, from 40 to 168 billion l of bio-methanol could be produced for use as a transportation fuel and/or to supply fuel cells to produce electricity. When a lower forest biomass availability estimate was used to determine how much electricity (methanol fed into fuel cells) could be produced in Indonesia, more than 10 million households or about 12,000 villages (20% of the total rural villages in Indonesia) would be supplied annually with electricity. Collecting forest biomass at the higher end of the estimated available biomass and converting it to methanol to supply fuel cells could provide electricity to more than 42 million households annually. This would be approximately 52,000 villages, or 86% of the total rural villages in Indonesian. When electricity is produced with bio-methanol/fuel cells, it could potentially supply from half to all of the current electricity consumed in Indonesia. By generating electricity using bio-methanol/fuel cells instead of from fossil fuels, from 9 to 38% of the total carbon currently emitted each year in Indonesia could be avoided. In contrast, substituting this same amount of bio-methanol for gasoline could provide all of the annual gasoline needs of Indonesia and contribute towards reducing their carbon emissions by about 8-35%. (author)

Suntana, Asep S. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute/Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (LEI), Taman Bogor Baru Blok BIV No. 12, Bogor 16152 (Indonesia); Vogt, Kristiina A. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Interforest LLC, Holderness, NH 03245 (United States); Renewol LLC, 63260 Overtree Road, Bend, OR 97701 (United States); Turnblom, Eric C. [Forest Biometrics Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Upadhye, Ravi [ARU Associates, Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States)

2009-11-15

316

Child abuse in panic disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

Bonevski Dimitar

2008-01-01

317

Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?  

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Abstract Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters ...

Hunter Charlotte; Strike Carol; Barnaby Lorraine; Busch Adam; Marshall Chantel; Shepherd Susan; Hopkins Shaun

2012-01-01

318

Activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 reduces ultraviolet B-induced prostaglandin E2 production in keratinocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a member of the TRP family, and is activated at temperatures below 22degC, or by cooling compounds such as menthol. In this study, it was found that a new role of TRPM8 activation on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an inflammatory cytokine and dendritogenesis stimulator of normal human melanocytes. Normal human keratinocytes were pretreated with menthol or incubated at 22degC for TRPM8 activation before ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. To examine the specificity between TRPM8 activation and PGE2 release, we inhibited TRPM8 with the antagonist (capsazepine), or introduced TRPM8 siRNA for a gene silencing experiment. UV-B irradiation significantly induced PGE2 release in normal human keratinocytes. Interestingly, activation of TRPM8 at 22degC or with menthol inhibited UV-B-induced PGE2 release. The effect of the TRPM8 agonist was completely blocked by pretreatment with the TRPM8 antagonist, capsazepine. When TRPM8 expression was suppressed by siRNA, UV-B irradiation still upregulated PGE2 in keratinocytes, but pretreatment of menthol or low temperature did not inhibit UV-B-induced PGE2. In conclusion, the activation of TRPM8 inhibits UV-B-induced PGE2 production in keratinocytes, and the activation of TRPM8 may reduce inflammatory responses in skin. (author)

319

Investigating the possibility and probability of perinatal subdural hematoma progressing to chronic subdural hematoma, with and without complications, in neonates, and its potential relationship to the misdiagnosis of abusive head trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high incidence of subdural hematoma (SDH) from birthing was first identified with MRI by Looney in 2007 and was then more accurately determined by Rooks in 2008. Rooks screened 101 "normal" deliveries and demonstrated that 46% of the babies in her series and by inference, approximately 46% of the 4 million born normally in the US have SDH that formed in the perinatal (birthing) period during labor. Both metabolic strain and physical forces exerted on the head damage the capillaries within the dura (the intradural capillary bed), which is the source of the blood in the SDH that results from labor and delivery or at times from labor alone. While child abuse pediatricians relying on Rooks, maintain that no permanent complications result, her study was limited to 101 subjects and the sole criteria for resolution was the resolution of the SDH as seen on follow-up MRI. In fact, Rooks did have one patient (1%) who had complications that lead to symptoms and findings often associated with abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore if there is a complication rate for perinatal (PSDH) that supports that 1% of complications that are definable by different criteria. Next, if there are complications, how many of the roughly 2,000,000 cases of perinatal acute subdural hematoma every year in the United States will suffer them? Then, what are the clinical manifestations of the complications if they occur? Lastly, do the complications cause or mimic some or all of the findings that are offered by board certified child abuse pediatricians as evidence of child abuse? The article argues that a small percentage, but significant number of neonates, suffer birth related complications and findings secondary to the development of chronic subdural hematoma CSDH) that are often misdiagnosed as abusive head trauma. PMID:23434514

Gabaeff, Steven C

2013-07-01

320

Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance. PMID:19809096

Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Child abuse, a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

Andri M.T. Lubis

2004-02-01

322

Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

Shepard, Melanie

1992-01-01

323

Child physical abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

2014-04-01

324

Heat shock proteins induction reduces stress kinases activation, potentially improving insulin signalling in monocytes from obese subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 and 27 can improve insulin signalling in obesity and type 2 diabetes via inhibition of key stress kinases. In metabolic disease, altered insulin signalling, as illustrated by increased serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser312), is not confined to muscle or liver and can also affect other tissues and cell types, potentially impairing their primary biological function. This study specifically investigated insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in monocytes and examined the impact of HSP induction on insulin signalling. Control (CG, BMI 30 kg/m(2)) participants were included in the study. Glucose transporter (GLUT)4 expression on monocytes, phosphorylated JNK, IKK-? and IRS-1, as well as Hsp27 and Hsp72, were measured in monocytes under fasting conditions. GLUT4 expression was also measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). HSP induction as well as JNK, IKK-? activation and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation was investigated following heat stress. Obese patients showed lower GLUT4 levels on monocytes during the OGTT. pJNK, pIKK-? and pIRS-1 levels were increased in OG with pJNK and pIKK-? levels positively correlated with serine pIRS-1 and negatively with GLUT4 supporting their role in insulin resistance. Heat exposure induced Hsp72 and Hps27, but only in CG for the latter, and decreased pJNK, pIKK-? and pIRS-1. Our results show that induction of Hsp72 and 27 via heat stress is associated with inactivation of stress kinases and reduced serine pIRS-1 in monocytes from obese participants. This indicates that metabolic diseases can also affect monocyte metabolism via cellular stress that can be modulated via HSP induction. PMID:22457223

Simar, David; Jacques, Andrew; Caillaud, Corinne

2012-09-01

325

Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-01-01

326

Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

Samuel J. G. Cooper

2013-06-01

327

The potential benefit of swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce swallowing dysfunction: An in silico planning comparative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To apply recently developed predictive models for swallowing dysfunction to compare the predicted probabilities of swallowing dysfunction for standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (ST-IMRT) and swallowing sparing IMRT (SW-IMRT). Materials and methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients who previously underwent radiotherapy for the bilateral neck were selected for this study. For each patient, ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were created. ST-IMRT treatment plan optimisation aimed at obtaining adequate target volume coverage and sparing of the parotid and submandibular glands as much as possible. Objectives for SW-IMRT were similar, with additional objectives to spare the organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SWOARs). Dose-volume data with ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT and normal tissue complication probabilities for physician-rated and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated with recently developed predictive models. Results: All plans had adequate target volume coverage and dose to critical organs was within accepted limits. Sparing of parotid glands was similar for ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT. With SW-IMRT, the mean dose to the various SWOARs was reduced. Absolute dose values and dose reductions with SW-IMRT differed per patient and per SWOAR and depended on N stage and tumour location. The mean reduction in predicted physician-rated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was G) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was 9% (range, 3–20%). Mean reductions of the probability of patient-rated moderate to severe complaints with regard to the swallowing of solid food, soft food, liquid food and choking when swallowing were 8%, 2%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Conclusions: New predictive models for swallowing dysfunction were applied to show potential reductions in physician and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction with IMRT that was specifically optimised to spare SWOARs.

328

Science and policy in substance abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

Stephan Arndt

2006-01-01

329

Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Print Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain disease. Although initial drug use might be voluntary, drugs of ...

330

National Institute on Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Home Drugs of Abuse Alcohol Bath Salts (Synthetic Cathinones) Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens ...

331

Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

... school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease ... diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed successfully. And as with other ...

332

Affective illness in substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation and treatment of substance abusers are complicated tasks, requiring a multifaceted approach. In addition to the patient's substance abuse problems, a substantial minority appear to be suffering from concurrent, nondrug-related psychiatric disorders. The early identification of such individuals allows for the development of specific treatment strategies that address both the substance abuse and the associated nondrug psychopathology. On the other hand, attention to nondrug psychopathology should not preclude our simultaneously addressing the patient's substance abuse problem. Thus, manic depressive patients who are also alcoholic may need a treatment program that includes alcoholism counseling. Alcoholics Anonymous, and chronic administration of disulfiram in addition to lithium carbonate and a supportive psychotherapeutic relationship. As in other areas of medicine, attention to the "whole patient" is the sine qua non of good treatment. PMID:2877447

Mirin, S M; Weiss, R D

1986-09-01

333

nfluence of reducing and oxidizing compounds and of the redox potential of the medium on the biomass of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence was investigated of several concentrations of the reducing agents: cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, pyracatechol and of the oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K4Cr2O7 and H2O2 on the total dry weight increment and that of protein with reference to redox potential changes of the medium in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures. The culture was run in a photothermostat. It was found that the reducing compounds had as ...

Stefan Gumi?ski; Krystyna Jurajda; Ewa Tatkowska

1984-01-01

334

GIRL CHILD ABUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

G.S. VENUMADHAVA

2013-03-01

335

Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a "solvent dominant type" of use to a "cannabis dominant type," that is, from a "Japanese type" to a "Western type," (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

2013-12-01

336

[Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Child abuse by falsification of symptoms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP) is a potentially lethal form of child abuse. Mortality rates around 10 percent have been reported. A knowledge of the characteristics of MSbP is needed in order to reveal the diagnosis and to handle the management correctly. Swedish experience is in accordance with international reports. PMID:11402984

Lundin, B; Croner, S

2001-05-01

337

Waste Management Options and Their Potential to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Lithuania and Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Master thesis connects two interrelated environmental issues – climate change and waste management. Both have been under discussion for few decades and are currently two of the top priorities on EU’s environmental agenda. The goal of this thesis is to find out in what ways waste management in Lithuania and Sweden can contribute towards reducing global warming and how the release of greenhouse gases could be reduced. Four different material flows – food, metal, plastic, and paper an...

Didjurgyte, Rasa

2013-01-01

338

Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses. PMID:22694135

Varga, Matthew D

2012-01-01

339

Is Dental Neglect a Child Abuse? A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect (maltreatment is a widespread problem that permeates all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic segments of our society. All health professionals are legally mandated to report suspected cases of child maltreatment to the proper authorities, consistent with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they practice. But dentists, as a group, have been fairly inactive participants in recognizing and reporting child maltreatment when compared to other health professionals. Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of dental neglect that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients.

Pushpalatha C.

2013-07-01

340

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the use of {sup 18}F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

Drubach, Laura A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Sapp, Mark.V. [School of Osteopathic Medicine, Child Abuse Research Education and Services (CARES) Institute University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey (United States); Laffin, Stephen [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine/PET, Boston, MA (United States); Kleinman, Paul K. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-07-15

 
 
 
 
341

Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

342

Elder abuse detection in nursing facilities: using paid clinical competence to address the nation's shame.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year, five million senior citizens are the victims of abuse in our country-and that figure is a likely underestimate. In California alone, it is estimated that over 225,000 seniors are abused annually. Nursing home residents are particularly vulnerable to abuse, with one-fifth to one-third of these institutions cited for abusive activities that result in actual harm. Regular violations of minimum care regulations by nursing homes have been documented in every state. Despite legal protections, as a practical matter, the review, assessment, and investigation of nursing home care and potential senior abuse is the primary responsibility of voluntary ombudsmen. These volunteers are responsible for regular visits and determination of nursing home quality and resident treatment. This Article contends that, despite their commitment to the cause, voluntary ombudsmen are not a sufficient cure for the scourge of elder abuse. Rather, clinically-trained personnel with legal knowledge must assume the role that lay volunteer ombudsmen are inappropriately expected to play. Use of clinical case managers, who have expertise in assessing clinical factors and can be trained in legal matters, offers significant potential to assist in the detection, and, further, reporting and prosecution of elder abuse. The author concludes that only through use of those with appropriate training and knowledge can the epidemic of elder abuse be effectively addressed. PMID:17402659

Liang, Bryan A

2006-01-01

343

Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse. PMID:22981176

Senati, Massimo; Polacco, Matteo; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Carbone, Arnaldo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

2013-01-01

344

Resource use by abused women following an intervention program: associated severity of abuse and reports of abuse ending.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although violence against women is recognized as major public health problem, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions. To evaluate severity of abuse and use of community resources following an intervention program, 132 pregnant abused women received three counseling sessions in a prenatal setting. A comparison group of 67 abused women were offered a wallet-sized card listing community resources for violence. Resource use, severity of abuse, and reports of the abuse ending were measured for both groups at 6 and 12 months after delivery. Resource use was significantly (p Women using resources at 6 months were also users at 12 months. These findings indicate a "survivorship model" whereby abused women assertively and persistently seek a variety of community resources to end the abuse. The recommendation that primary care providers go beyond traditional identification and referral for abuse to coordination and evaluation of service delivery is discussed. PMID:9270289

McFarlane, J; Soeken, K; Reel, S; Parker, B; Silva, C

1997-08-01

345

32 CFR 199.9 - Administrative remedies for fraud, abuse, and conflict of interest.  

Science.gov (United States)

...review organizations, or other professional associations. (B) In any...potential for fraud, abuse, or professional misconduct. Any documented...reflecting on the business or professional competence or integrity of the...

2010-07-01

346

A longitudinal twin study of effects of adolescent alcohol abuse on the neurophysiology of attention and orienting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long-term functional brain effects of adolescent alcohol abuse remain uncertain, partially because of difficulties in distinguishing inherited deficits from neuronal effects of ethanol and by confounds associated with alcohol abuse, especially nicotine exposure. We conducted a longitudinal twin study to determine neurocognitive effects of adolescent alcohol abuse, as measured with the auditory event-related potential (ERP) component P3, a putative marker of genetic vulnerability to alcoholism.

Koskinen, Sini M; Ahveninen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

347

Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse participated in a pilot study comprising an 8-week mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction (MBSR) program and daily home practice of mindfulness skills. Three refresher classes were provided through final follow-up at 24 weeks. Assessments of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and mindfulness, were conducted at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks. At 8 weeks, depressive symptoms were reduced by 65%. Statistically significant improvements were observed in all outcomes post-MBSR, with effect sizes above 1.0. Improvements were largely sustained until 24 weeks. Of three PTSD symptom criteria, symptoms of avoidance/numbing were most greatly reduced. Compliance to class attendance and home practice was high, with the intervention proving safe and acceptable to participants. These results warrant further investigation of the MBSR approach in a randomized, controlled trial in this patient population. PMID:19998425

Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Magyari, Trish; Langenberg, Patricia; Chesney, Margaret; Berman, Brian

2010-01-01

348

Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

2004-01-01

349

A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

350

A theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tool [...] s. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.

Asha Saidi, Kalula; Farai, Nyabadza.

351

A theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tools. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.

Farai Nyabadza

2012-03-01

352

Association between Elder Abuse and Metabolic Syndromes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Elder abuse and metabolic syndromes are both important public health issues and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the associations between elder abuse and risk for metabolic syndromes. Methods: The Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) cohort is a population-based study (n = 4,586). We identified 676 participants with some form of elder abuse reported to a social services agency. The primary independent variable was elder abuse reported to a social services agency. Outcomes were metabolic syndrome as categorized by World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between elder abuse and different definitions of metabolic syndromes. Results: In the bivariate analyses, elder abuse victims were more likely than those without elder abuse to have metabolic syndromes [22.4 vs. 10.7% (WHO), 50.7 vs. 40.0% (AHA) and 47.7 vs. 33.5% (IDF)]. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, elder abuse was associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndromes according to WHO [OR, 3.95 (2.86-5.47)], AHA [OR, 2.03 (1.56-2.64)] and IDF [OR, 2.55 (1.97-3.29)] criteria. Interaction term analyses indicate that the association between elder abuse and metabolic syndromes may be moderated by sociodemographic characteristics but not by health-related or psychosocial factors. Conclusion: Elder abuse is associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndromes. Research is needed to examine the association between elder abuse and cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25471532

Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa

2014-11-29

353

The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse. PMID:23388449

Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

2013-08-01

354

What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse? A variety of health and social services are available to address the ... Prosecution of offenders Assistance with obtaining restitution Support Services When abuse or neglect is related to the ...

355

Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... methods that exist. NIDA InfoFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction - This fact sheet provides information on research findings and effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction. NIDA InfoFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction - This ...

356

Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Current Through July 2012 Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse To find statute information for a particular State, ... to illegal drug activity. Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse http://www.childwelfare.gov 2 This material may ...

357

Commonly Abused Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... mental alertness; tremors; reduced appetite; irritability; anxiety; panic; paranoia; violent behavior; psychosis Health Risks - Weight loss, insomnia; ... rapid shifts in emotion Also, for Psilocybin - Nervousness; paranoia; panic Health Risks, for LSD - Flashbacks, Hallucinogen Persisting ...

358

BUPRENORPHINE ABUSE IN INDIA : AN UPDATE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reviews the available Indian literature on buprenorphine abuse. Buprenorphine was introduced in 1986; the abuse, first noticed in 1987, increased rapidly till 1994, and then decreased gradually. Initiated through other addicts and medical practitioners, the abuse was mostly as a cheap, easily and legally available substitute for opioids. The typical young adult male abuser used an intravenous cocktail with diazepam, pheneramine or promethazine for a better kick. The withdrawal synd...

Sharma, Yogesh; Mattoo, S. K.

1999-01-01

359

Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

Lindell, Charlotta

2005-01-01

360

The Men’s Domestic Abuse Check-Up: A Protocol for Reaching the Nonadjudicated and Untreated Man Who Batters and Who Abuses Substances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Batterer intervention programs primarily work with individuals mandated to participate. Commonly, attrition is high and outcomes are modest. Motivational enhancement therapy (MET), most widely studied in the substance abuse field, offers a potentially effective approach to improving self-referral to treatment, program retention, treatment compliance, and posttreatment outcomes among men who batter and who abuse substances. A strategy for using a catalyst variant of MET (a “check-up”) to r...

Roffman, Roger A.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Walker, Denise

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

362

Potential of elemental sulfur fertigation to reduce high soil pH for production of highbush blueberry  

Science.gov (United States)

Blueberry is adapted to acidic soil conditions but is often planted in high pH soils by adding elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. Two pot experiments were carried out in a glasshouse to determine the potential of applying elemental S by fertigation through a drip irrigation system. In the first...

363

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-02-01

364

Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas

2014-01-01

365

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose–volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

366

Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty...

Bauer, E.; Metzler-zebeli, B. U.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Mosenthin, R.

2011-01-01

367

Reduced anxiety, conditioned fear, and hippocampal long-term potentiation in transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-deficient mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) (formerly called vanilloid receptor VR1) is known for its key role of functions in sensory nerves such as perception of inflammatory and thermal pain. Much less is known about the physiological significance of the TRPV1 expression in the brain. Here we demonstrate that TRPV1 knock-out mice (TRPV1-KO) show less anxiety-related behavior in the light-dark test and in the elevated plus maze than their wild-type littermates with no differences in locomotion. Furthermore, TRPV1-KO mice showed less freezing to a tone after auditory fear conditioning and stress sensitization. This reduction of conditioned and sensitized fear could not be explained by alterations in nociception. Also, tone perception per se was unaffected, as revealed by determination of auditory thresholds through auditory brainstem responses and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. TRPV1-KO showed also less contextual fear if assessed 1 d or 1 month after strong conditioning protocols. These impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning were mirrored by a decrease in long-term potentiation in the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to CA1 hippocampal neurons. Our data provide first evidence for fear-promoting effects of TRPV1 with respect to both innate and conditioned fear and for a decisive role of this receptor in synaptic plasticity. PMID:17251423

Marsch, Rudolph; Foeller, Elisabeth; Rammes, Gerhard; Bunck, Mirjam; Kössl, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Landgraf, Rainer; Lutz, Beat; Wotjak, Carsten T

2007-01-24

368

Substance Abuse, School Policy and Special Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the literature which examines school policies currently guiding educational practice in the area of student substance abuse and discusses the relationship between special education and substance-using and substance-abusing students. Reviewed are: (1) definitions of substance abuse, which vary with the conceptualization of the…

Spero, Ellen; And Others

369

Instruments for Assessing Substance Abuse: A Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the assessment literature on substance abuse has revealed 27 separate instruments for assessing substance abuse. These include 22 alcohol instruments and five instruments for assessing other drug abuse. The instruments are listed in a table that provides the title, source, description, population, and psychometric properties of each…

Lambert, Matthew E.; Plescia, Joanne

370

Adderall abuse in Texas, 1998-2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of Adderall abuse calls received by several poison control centers in Texas during 1998-2004. Drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of all Adderall exposure calls, 12% involved abuse. The number of drug abuse calls received per year increased during the first part of 7-yr period but then declined. Male patients accounted for almost 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 69% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 66% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than nonabuse calls to involve exposures at another residence (6% vs. 3%), school (22% vs. 5%) and public areas (2% vs. 0.4%). Drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to be managed outside of a health care facility (18% vs. 51%) and to be classified as no adverse effect (23% vs. 48%). Adderall abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Adderall abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and involve more serious medical outcomes. PMID:17365619

Forrester, Mathias B

2007-04-01

371

Child Abuse Law and School Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the following aspects of child abuse laws and the policies derived from them: (1) vagueness of the laws; (2) implications for school policy and liability; (3) staff training requirements; (4) confidentiality; (5) protection teams; (6) abuse by school staff; (7) corporal punishment as abuse; and (8) prevention programing. (JS)

McEvoy, Alan W.

1990-01-01

372

Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

Hartill, Mike

2013-01-01

373

What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

2006-01-01

374

Substance Abuse Policies in Ohio Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ohio substance abuse policies, discipline codes, and educational drug abuse prevention programs are reviewed. An effective substance abuse policy is an essential element in the school's efforts to deal with drug and alcohol use. In many U.S. schools, the use of alcohol and drugs interferes with the education process, and it appears that substance…

Hughes, William

375

Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused

Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

376

Eating disorders in hospitalized substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 386 consecutive patients hospitalized for substance abuse, 15% of 143 women had a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa, compared to only 1% of 243 men. Women with eating disorders had significantly higher rates of stimulant abuse and lower rates of opioid abuse than women without eating disorders. PMID:1562008

Hudson, J I; Weiss, R D; Pope, H G; McElroy, S K; Mirin, S M

1992-01-01

377

Animal and human abuse: an uncomfortable link.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vets in practice may come across victims of abuse, whether of the animal presented or of the owner, but what should they do if they suspect abuse? A debate at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show last month discussed this and explored the link between human and animal abuse. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:25501519

2014-12-13

378

[Current situation of and the political measures for drug abuse/dependence].  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 10 years has passed since 1995 when the third epidemic of methamphetamine abuse started in Japan. We are now still in the third epidemic of methamphetamine abuse, thought the current situation of drug abuse/dependence has obviously changed from previously. Considering several kinds of nationwide surveys and censuses, the authors summarized the change as follows: a) obvious decrease in solvent abuse/dependence, b) stabilization of methamphetamine abuse/dependence, c) increase in abuse of such drugs as cannabis or MDMA which don't have high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and d) emergence of non-regulatory drugs represented by designer drugs. These imply the change a) from "hard drugs" to "soft drugs", b) from Japanese unique situation which is symbolized by solvent abuse to Western situation which is symbolized by cannabis abuse, and c) from "illicit drugs" to "non-regulatory drugs". These characteristics reveal that there is the limitation to the Japanese Government policy which has tried to control the drug issue mainly as criminal cases for many years and that it is time now to change its policy. The authors stress the necessities of development of medical treatment targeting drug dependence and of its social support system. PMID:18516951

Wada, Kiyoshi; Ozaki, Shigeru; Kondo, Ayumi

2008-04-01

379

Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

2005-01-01

380

nfluence of reducing and oxidizing compounds and of the redox potential of the medium on the biomass of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Breb.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence was investigated of several concentrations of the reducing agents: cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, pyracatechol and of the oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K4Cr2O7 and H2O2 on the total dry weight increment and that of protein with reference to redox potential changes of the medium in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures. The culture was run in a photothermostat. It was found that the reducing compounds had as a rule a stimulating influence under 24-h illumdnation, whereas the oxidilzing agents gave the same effect when a period of 7-h darkness was applied within 24 h.

Stefan Gumi?ski

1984-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well.

Rognmo Kamilla

2012-06-01

382

Abuse of dominance in the airport sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of the Competition Law in dealing the abuse of dominance in the European airport sector. Starting with discussion of whether airports are natural monopolies or may face real competition, it is followed by an analysis of special features about the sector and a comparison between the policies of the European Union Member States. It is found that above the variety of regulatory frameworks, scarce capacity issues and public subsidies, the EU Competition Law stands as a universal mechanism to protect customers from the abuse of the airports´ dominant position. However, in reviewing the case law it concludes that EU Competition Law has been rarely enforced in the sector, which seems to be the result not only of the lack of incentives for airports to explore their dominant position but also of the risk of reducing the revenues generated from their commercial activities. Another possible reason is related to the fact that some airlines have shown that airport switching can be a credible threat. Finally, it follows the agreement that competition is a “first best” policy which provides the firms with the strongest incentives to give consumers what they need in terms of price and quality. In the airport sector, it can be a good instrument against a regulator that has been acting in the interests of the national airline or even be part of a liberalization process.

Gustavo de Paula e Oliveira

2013-01-01

383

Does physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood increase the likelihood of same-sex sexual relationships and cohabitation? A prospective 30-year follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and/or neglect in childhood were associated with increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 85), sexually abused (N = 72), and neglected (N = 429) children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 who were matched with non-maltreated children (N = 415) and followed into adulthood. At approximately age 40, participants (483 women and 461 men) were asked about romantic cohabitation and sexual partners, in the context of in-person interviews covering a range of topics. Group (abuse/neglect versus control) differences were assessed with cross-tabulations and logistic regression. A total of 8% of the overall sample reported any same-sex relationship (cohabitation or sexual partners). Childhood physical abuse and neglect were not significantly associated with same-sex cohabitation or sexual partners. Individuals with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report ever having had same-sex sexual partners (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.16-6.80, p relationship and to examine potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:19130206

Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2010-02-01

384

Therapeutic potential for phenytoin: targeting Nav1.5 sodium channels to reduce migration and invasion in metastatic breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are heteromeric membrane protein complexes containing pore-forming ? subunits and smaller, non-pore-forming ? subunits. VGSCs are classically expressed in excitable cells, including neurons and muscle cells, where they mediate action potential firing, neurite outgrowth, pathfinding, and migration. VGSCs are also expressed in metastatic cells from a number of cancers. The Nav1.5 ? subunit (encoded by SCN5A) is expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell lines, w...

Yang, Ming; Kozminski, David J.; Wold, Lindsey A.; Modak, Rohan; Calhoun, Jeffrey D.; Isom, Lori L.; Brackenbury, William J.

2012-01-01

385

Therapeutic potential for phenytoin : targeting Nav1.5 sodium channels to reduce migration and invasion in metastatic breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are heteromeric membrane protein complexes containing pore-forming ? subunits and smaller, non-pore-forming ? subunits. VGSCs are classically expressed in excitable cells, including neurons and muscle cells, where they mediate action potential firing, neurite outgrowth, pathfinding, and migration. VGSCs are also expressed in metastatic cells from a number of cancers. The Na(v)1.5 ? subunit (encoded by SCN5A) is expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell line...

Yang, Ming; Kozminski, David J.; Wold, Lindsey A.; Modak, Rohan; Calhoun, Jeffrey D.; Isom, Lori L.; Brackenbury, William J.

2012-01-01

386

Heat shock proteins induction reduces stress kinases activation, potentially improving insulin signalling in monocytes from obese subjects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 and 27 can improve insulin signalling in obesity and type 2 diabetes via inhibition of key stress kinases. In metabolic disease, altered insulin signalling, as illustrated by increased serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser312), is not confined to muscle or liver and can also affect other tissues and cell types, potentially impairing their primary biological function. This study specifically investigated insulin-stimulated g...

Simar, David; Jacques, Andrew; Caillaud, Corinne

2012-01-01

387

Inflammation reduces mechanical thresholds in a population of transient receptor potential channel A1-expressing nociceptors in the rat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inflammatory hypersensitivity is characterized by behavioural reductions in withdrawal thresholds to noxious stimuli. Although cutaneous primary afferent neurones are known to have lowered thermal thresholds in inflammation, whether their mechanical thresholds are altered remains controversial. The transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) is a receptor localized to putative nociceptive neurones and is implicated in mechanical and thermal nociception. Herein, we examined changes in the ...

Dunham, James P.; Kelly, Sara; Donaldson, Lucy F.

2008-01-01

388

Germination response of Hylocereus setaceus (Salm-Dyck ex DC: ) Ralf Bauer (Cactaceae) seeds to temperature and reduced water potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The germination response of Hylocereus setaceus seeds to isothermic incubation at different water potentials was analysed by using the thermal time and hydrotime models, aiming to describe some germination parameters of the population and to test the validity of the models to describe the response of the seeds to temperature and water potential. Hylocereus setaceus seeds germinated relatively well in a wide range of temperatures and the germination was rate limited from 11 to 20 degrees C interval and beyond 30 degrees C until 40 degrees C, in which the germination rate respectively shifts positively and negatively with temperature. The minimum or base temperature (T(b)) for the germination of H. setaceus was 7 degrees C, and the ceiling temperature varied nearly from 43.5 to 59 degrees C depending on the percent fraction, with median set on 49.8 degrees C. The number of degrees day necessary for 50% of the seeds to germinate in the infra-optimum temperature range was 39.3 degrees C day, whereas at the supra-optimum interval the value of theta = 77 was assumed to be constant throughout. Germination was sensitive to decreasing values of psi in the medium, and both the germinability and the germination rate shift negatively with the reduction of psi, but the rate of reduction changed with temperature. The values of base water potential (psi(b)) shift to zero with increasing temperatures and such variation reflects in the relatively greater effect of low psi on germination in supra optimum range of T. In general, the model described better the germination time courses at lower than at higher water potentials. The analysis also suggest that Tb may not be independent of psi and that psi(b(g)) may change as a function of temperature at the infra-otimum temperature range. PMID:20231970

Simão, E; Takaki, M; Cardoso, V J M

2010-02-01

389

Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with elec...

Cooper, Samuel J. G.; Joe Dowsett; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Mcmanus, Marcelle C.; Rogers, John G.

2013-01-01

390

Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension, or the chronic elevation in resting arterial blood pressure (BP), is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and estimated to affect ~1 billion adults worldwide. The goals of treatment are to lower BP through lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise training, healthy eating and reduced sodium intake), and if not solely effective, the addition of antihypertensive medications. In particular, increased physical exercise and decreased sedentarism are important strategies in the prevention and management of hypertension. Current guidelines recommend both aerobic and dynamic resistance exercise training modalities to reduce BP. Mounting prospective evidence suggests that isometric exercise training in normotensive and hypertensive (medicated and non-medicated) cohorts of young and old participants may produce similar, if not greater, reductions in BP, with meta-analyses reporting mean reductions of between 10 and 13 mmHg systolic, and 6 and 8 mmHg diastolic. Isometric exercise training protocols typically consist of four sets of 2-min handgrip or leg contractions sustained at 20-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction, with each set separated by a rest period of 1-4 min. Training is usually completed three to five times per week for 4-10 weeks. Although the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations remain to be fully clarified, improvements in conduit and resistance vessel endothelium-dependent dilation, oxidative stress, and autonomic regulation of heart rate and BP have been reported. The clinical significance of isometric exercise training, as a time-efficient and effective training modality to reduce BP, warrants further study. This evidence-based review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of isometric exercise training on resting BP. PMID:24174307

Millar, Philip J; McGowan, Cheri L; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Araujo, Claudio G; Swaine, Ian L

2014-03-01

391

Substance Abuse and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three juvenile Henry Gurney schools in Malaysia who took part in this exploratory cross-sectional survey research design. A set of questionnaire was constructed by the researcher based on the Aggression Questionnaires (AQ scale. Results showed that the majority of adolescents (95 percent indicated an aggressive behavior of moderate to high level. The result of the study also found that adolescents who have been using heroin (r = 0.016, p <0.05 and morphine drugs (r = 0.181, p <0.05 showed significant correlation with aggressive behavior. The findings provided evidence for the significant role of the goverment to enhance rehabilitation modules for adolescents involved in drug abuse. Education on how to effectively deal with aggressive behavior among adolescents at risk should be emphasized for building positive behavior among adolescents in order to produce potential young generation in the future.

Fauziah I.

2012-06-01

392

Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

Johnson, Deborah G.

1994-01-01

393

Q & A on Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

As an advocate for all students, educators have a legal, moral, and ethical responsibility for identifying and reporting child abuse. One of the most difficult tasks a teacher may face is also one of the most important a teacher can do. If a teacher knows what to look for and what to do, he or she can help a child heal physically and emotionally.…

Kirk, Rea

2007-01-01

394

Drugs of Abuse and Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

Learn about how neurons communicate with each other through neurotransmission. Learn how drugs of abuse affect this process. Below each question are links to other web resources. You will need to read several of them to get all the ideas. Write your answers in a separate WORD document and print it. 1) Using these references, make a list of 10 parts of a ...

Eve

2008-03-12

395

Wilderness Therapy for Abused Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a wilderness weekend retreat for abused women facilitated by the authors. An overview of wilderness therapy, addressing its historical roots, key theoretical perspectives, as well as issues of emotional and physical safety, is presented. Special emphasis is placed on how to create a wilderness experience that is empowering to…

McBride, Dawn Lorraine; Korell, Gabrielle

2005-01-01

396

The Aging and Alcohol Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic data suggest that alcohol abuse among the elderly will increase in proportion to the population growth of that group. Four factors which may cause the elderly to be a highly susceptible group for alcohol problems are: (1) retirement and its boredom, role changes, and financial problems; (2) increased concern with death and losses of…

Brody, Jacob A.

397

The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself. PMID:24151325

Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

2014-02-01

398

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels. Ansatzpunkte und Potentiale zur Minderung des Treibhauseffektes aus Sicht der fossilen Energietraeger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs.

Ziegler, A.; Schlemm, F.; Cremer, G.; Fabri, J.; Grosser, A.; Wiegand, D.; Engelhard, J.; Altmann, B.R.

1992-02-01

399

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. A review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct problems are strong predictors of SUD, but not responsible for the entire associated risk between ADHD and SUD. Dopamine is thought to be one of the key neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of both ADHD and SUD. Methylphenidate has the dopamine transporter as its main target and brain circuits modulated by dopamine are involved in the development of addiction. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used pharmacological treatment for ADHD and, although this prescribed drug potentially can be abused, it actually seems to reduce the risk of SUD in patients with ADHD, rather than to increase the risk. Few studies have examined the risk of SUD in females with ADHD and some of them suggest a higher risk of SUD than in males with ADHD. However, more research is needed on these gender differences before any clear conclusions can be drawn.

Dalsgaard, SØren; Madsen, Anders

2013-01-01

400

Potential of Elemental Sulfur Fertigation to Reduce High Soil pH for Production of Highbush Blueberry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Blueberry is adapted to acidic soil conditions but is often planted in high pH soils by adding elemental sulfur (So) prior to planting. Two pot experiments were carried out in a glasshouse to determine the potential of applying Sº by fertigation through a drip irrigation system. In the first experiment, So was applied at four rates of 0, 0.36, 0.72, and 1.44 g per application to 4-L pots filled with one of three different soil textures [1:0, 1:1, and 1:2 sandy loam soil:sand (v/...

Machado, Rma; Bryla, Dr

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Feasibility of CT scan studies with triple split bolus intravenous contrast medium technique and reduced radiation dose for potential kidney donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To show that it is possible to reduce the radiation dose in the examination of potential kidney donors by splitting the contrast injection followed by a single scanning, enabling evaluation of vascular structures, renal parenchyma and collecting system/ureters, using computed tomography protocols with reduced mAs. Methods: Twenty-six potential donors were evaluated based on the following criteria: image quality, radiation dose reduction, and complications associated with the exam. The criteria were scored by two examiners, and the differences were resolved by consensus. Rresults: For each item assessed, 85 to 90% of studies were scored as very good or excellent with regards to image quality. There was excellent interobserver agreement, and there were no significant differences between the exams with low radiation dose compared to those with the conventional dose. No exam-related complications were observed. Cconclusions: The CT scan study with triple-split bolus technique and low dose is effective for reducing the dose of radiation to potential kidney donors.

Bruna Schmitz Serpa

2009-12-01

402

Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

G Dastjerdi

2010-09-01

403

Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging cerebral GABAA receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

404

Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2012-01-01

405

High-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis reduces glucagon receptor content in rat hepatocytes: potential interaction with acute exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have revealed that high-fat (HF) diets promote hyperglycaemia, whole-body insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, hepatic glucagon resistance has been shown to occur in rats fed a HF diet. More precisely, diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the number of hepatic plasma membrane glucagon receptors (GR), which results in a diminished response to glucagon during a hyperglucagonaemic clamp. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a HF-DIO is associated with a desensitization and destruction of the hepatic GR. We also hypothesized that a single bout of endurance exercise would modify the GR cellular distribution under our DIO model. Male rats were either fed a standard (sd) or a HF diet for two weeks. Each group was subdivided into a non-exercised (Rest) and an acute exercised (EX) group. The HF diet resulted in a reduction of total hepatic GR (55%) and hepatic plasma membrane GR protein content (20%). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in endosomal and lysosomal GR content with the feeding of a HF diet. The reduction of GR plasma membrane as well as the increase in endosomal GR was strongly correlated with an increase of PKC-?, suggesting a role of PKC-? in GR desensitization. EX increased significantly PKC-? protein content in both diets, suggesting a role of PKC-? in EX-induced GR desensitization. The present results suggest that liver lipid infiltration plays a role in reducing glucagon action in the liver through a reduction in total cellular and plasma membrane GR content. Furthermore, the GR desensitization observed in our in vivo model of HF diet-induced hepatic steatosis and in EX individuals may be regulated by PKC-?. PMID:17053032

Charbonneau, Alexandre; Unson, Cecilia G; Lavoie, Jean-Marc

2007-01-01

406

Abuse in hospital-based birth settings?  

Science.gov (United States)

Are laboring and birthing women treated abusively in the hospital? Although seldom recognized as abuse or violence against women, bullying and medical treatments under false pretenses, even in a hospital, constitute abuse and a basic human rights issue that needs attention. Naming the problem is a first step. The power of medical authority, the lack of accountability in the hospital hierarchical system, policies and protocols, and expectations of compliancy all make an environment ripe for abuse and present obstacles for both women and staff to recognize or stop abuse. Learning to recognize abuse and take effective action, and understanding the legal requirements for "informed consent" can help, but ending abuse will require systemic change. PMID:20808425

Hodges, Susan

2009-01-01

407

Accurate description of torsion potentials in conjugated polymers using density functionals with reduced self-interaction error  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the torsion potentials in two prototypical ?-conjugated polymers, polyacetylene and polydiacetylene, as a function of chain length using different flavors of density functional theory. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the delocalization error in standard semilocal and hybrid density functionals and demonstrates how it can influence structural and thermodynamic properties. The delocalization error is quantified by evaluating the many-electron self-interaction error (MESIE) for fractional electron numbers, which allows us to establish a direct connection between the MESIE and the error in the torsion barriers. The use of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals results in a very significant reduction of the MESIE and leads to an improved description of torsion barrier heights. In addition, we demonstrate how our analysis allows the determination of the effective conjugation length in polyacetylene and polydiacetylene chains

408

Accurate description of torsion potentials in conjugated polymers using density functionals with reduced self-interaction error  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the torsion potentials in two prototypical ?-conjugated polymers, polyacetylene and polydiacetylene, as a function of chain length using different flavors of density functional theory. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the delocalization error in standard semilocal and hybrid density functionals and demonstrates how it can influence structural and thermodynamic properties. The delocalization error is quantified by evaluating the many-electron self-interaction error (MESIE) for fractional electron numbers, which allows us to establish a direct connection between the MESIE and the error in the torsion barriers. The use of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals results in a very significant reduction of the MESIE and leads to an improved description of torsion barrier heights. In addition, we demonstrate how our analysis allows the determination of the effective conjugation length in polyacetylene and polydiacetylene chains.

Sutton, Christopher; Gray, Matthew T.; Brunsfeld, Max; Parrish, Robert M.; Sherrill, C. David; Sears, John S.; Brédas, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.bredas@chemistry.gatech.edu, E-mail: thomas.koerzdoerfer@uni-potsdam.de [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Computational Molecular Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Körzdörfer, Thomas, E-mail: jean-luc.bredas@chemistry.gatech.edu, E-mail: thomas.koerzdoerfer@uni-potsdam.de [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Computational Molecular Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Computational Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2014-02-07

409

Potential for Woody Bioenergy Crops Grown on Marginal Lands in the US Midwest to Reduce Carbon Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

While cellulosic biofuels are widely considered to be a low carbon energy source for the future, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and future biofuel systems is needed to assess their utility in meeting US energy and food needs without exacerbating environmental harm. To assess the carbon emission reduction potential of cellulosic biofuels, we need to identify lands that are initially not storing large quantities of carbon in soil and vegetation but are capable of producing abundant biomass with limited management inputs, and accurately model forest production rates and associated input requirements. Here we present modeled results for carbon emission reduction potential and cellulosic ethanol production of woody bioenergy crops replacing existing native prairie vegetation grown on marginal lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands are selected based on soil properties describing use limitation, and are extracted from the SSURGO (Soil Survey Geographic) database. Yield estimates for existing native prairie vegetation on marginal lands modeled using the process-based field-scale model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) amount to ~ 6.7±2.0 Mg ha-1. To model woody bioenergy crops, the individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model ED (Ecosystem Demography) is initialized with the soil organic carbon stocks estimated at the end of the EPIC simulation. Four woody bioenergy crops: willow, southern pine, eucalyptus and poplar are parameterized in ED. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters and drivers is conducted to explore the range of carbon emission reduction possible with variation in woody bioenergy crop types, spatial and temporal resolution. We hypothesize that growing cellulosic crops on these marginal lands can provide significant water quality, biodiversity and GHG emissions mitigation benefits, without accruing additional carbon costs from the displacement of food and feed production.

Sahajpal, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Zhang, X.

2012-12-01

410

Erythropoietin use and abuse  

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Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its p...

John, M. Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J.

2012-01-01

411

Treatment Effects for Common Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Current Meta-Analysis  

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The present meta-analysis examined the effects of psychosocial treatments at reducing deleterious outcomes of sexual abuse. The meta-analysis included a total of 35 published and unpublished studies written in English, focusing on youth under the age of 18, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for the most common negative outcomes of sexual abuse: PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Results revealed medium effect sizes for PTSD symptoms, externalizing ...

Trask, Emily V.; Walsh, Kate; Dilillo, David

2011-01-01

412

An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in izmir, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

Karadag, Sevinç Ç?rak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobal?, Nilay

2015-03-01

413

Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 ?g/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated throughout the jatropha waste-handling process. However additional tests such as digestibility as well as acceptability of the treated jatropha seed cake should be conducted using both in vivo and in vitro studies before recommending the jatropha seed cake as a source of renewable animal feed and other value-added products. PMID:23998310

Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

2013-01-01

414

Educating Medical Students About Anorexia Nervosa: A Potential Method for Reducing the Volitional Stigma Associated With the Disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is frequently reported that clinicians across a range of professional disciplines experience strong negative reactions toward patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The present study aimed to develop, evaluate, and compare the effectiveness of two different educational programs, based on an etiological framing model. Participants were medical students (N = 41) from an Australian University, who were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (biogenetic intervention vs. multifactorial intervention vs. control). Outcome attitudinal/stigma data were collected pre- and post-intervention, and at 8 weeks follow-up. Results indicated intervention participations exhibited significantly lower volitional stigma scores compared to the control group, who exhibited no change in attitudes or stigma. Specifically, intervention participants had significantly lower total ED stigma scores, levels of blame, perceptions of AN as a selfish/vain illness, and viewed sufferers as less responsible for their illness at post-intervention. These reductions were maintained at follow-up. Overall, the study provides preliminary evidence that brief targeted interventions can assist in reducing levels of volitional stigma toward AN. PMID:25401522

Bannatyne, Amy; Stapleton, Peta

2014-11-17

415

Reducing the influence of spatial resolution to improve quantitative accuracy in emission tomography: A comparison of potential strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this paper is to compare strategies for reducing partial volume effects by either minimizing the cause (i.e. improving resolution) or correcting the effect. Correction for resolution loss can be achieved either by modelling the resolution for use in iterative reconstruction or by imposing constraints based on knowledge of the underlying anatomy. Approaches to partial volume correction largely rely on knowledge of the underlying anatomy, based on well-registered high-resolution anatomical imaging modalities (CT or MRI). Corrections can be applied by considering the signal loss that results by smoothing the high-resolution modality to the same resolution as obtained in emission tomography. A physical phantom representing the central brain structures was used to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the various strategies for either improving resolution or correcting for partial volume effects. Inclusion of resolution in the reconstruction model improved the measured contrast for the central brain structures but still underestimated the true object contrast (?0.70). Use of information on the boundaries of the structures in conjunction with a smoothing prior using maximum entropy reconstruction achieved some degree of contrast enhancement and improved the noise properties of the resulting images. Partial volume correction based on segmentation of registered anatomical images and knowledge of the reconstructed resolution permitted more accurate quantificationn permitted more accurate quantification of the target to background ratio for individual brain structures

416

Potential new sources of wheat curl mite resistance in wheat to prevent the spread of yield-reducing pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae), is a major pest in cropping regions of the world and is recognised as the primary vector of several yield-reducing pathogens, primarily affecting wheat. Management of WCM is complicated due to several aspects of the mite's biology and ecology; however, commercially viable mite resistant wheat varieties may offer practical long-term management options. Unfortunately, mite populations have adapted to previously identified sources of resistance, highlighting the need for further sources of resistance and the value of stacking different resistances to give greater degrees and longevity of control. In this study we assessed the susceptibility of 42 wheat-derived genotypes to mite population growth using a new experimental method that overcomes methodological limitations of previous studies. Experimental wheat lines included a variety of wheat genotypes, related Triticeae species, wheat-alien chromosome amphiploids, and chromosome addition or substitution lines. From these we identify new promising sources of WCM resistance associated with Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. ponticum and Hordeum marinum chromosomes. More specifically we identify group 1J and 5J chromosomes of the L3 and L5 wheat-Th. intermedium addition lines as new sources of resistance that could be exploited to transfer resistance onto homoeologous wheat chromosomes. This study offers new methods for reliable in situ estimations of mite abundance on cereal plants, and new sources of WCM resistance that may assist management of WCM and associated viruses in wheat. PMID:24705793

Richardson, Kelly; Miller, Adam D; Hoffmann, Ary A; Larkin, Philip

2014-09-01

417

The Use of Dried Blood Spot Samples in Screening Drugs of Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article will provide an overview of use of dried blood sampling method for analysis of drug of abuse. Relatively short half life and instability in blood, calls for alternative sampling method for determination of drugs of abuse. Dried blood spot (DBS method has many advantages over the conventional sampling methods. The available method for DBS sample collection, storage and transport are described here. The techniques involved in and the factors that may influence the accuracy and reproducibility of the DBS methods for determination of drugs of abuse are presented. The DBS sampling has the potential to be a useful technique to detect drugs of abuse. The use of DBS for any drug should be judged against the potential error involved with the method.

Rizwana Quraishi

2013-04-01

418

Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

419

Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

Sotiriou, Georgios A; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Darrah, Thomas H; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D; Demokritou, Philip

2014-04-01

420

Reduced repair of potentially lethal radiation damage in glutathione synthetase-deficient human fibroblasts after X-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a human fibroblast strain deficient in glutathione synthetase and a related proficient control strain, the role of glutathione (GSH) in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) has been investigated in determining survival by plating cells immediately or 24 h after irradiation. After oxic or hypoxic irradiation, both cell strains repair radiation-induced damage. However, under hypoxic conditions, the proficient cells repair PLD as well as under oxic conditions while the deficient cells repair less PLD after irradiation under hypoxic than under oxic conditions. Therefore, the oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) for proficient cells is similar whether the cells are plated immediately or 24 h later (2.0 and 2.13, respectively). In contrast, the o.e.r. for deficient cells is lower when the cells are plated 24 h after irradiation than when they are plated immediately thereafter (1.16 as compared to 1.55). The results indicate that GSH is involved in PLD repair and, in particular, in the repair of damage induced by radiation delivered under hypoxic conditions. (author)

 
 
 
 
421

Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR. PMID:22205544

Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Tenno, Toomas

2012-07-01

422

Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) emerged in the early 1980s with EMRSA-15 and -16 being the most prevalent strains within the UK. MRSA transmission between patients is largely via the hands of healthcare workers, and contamination of the hospital environment may occur. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of copper and brass to reduce the viability of air-dried deposits of three MRSA strains [MRSA (NCTC 10442), EMRSA-1 (NCTC 11939) and EMRSA-16 (NCTC 13143)] compared with stainless steel. MRSA and EMRSA [10(7)colony-forming units (CFU)] were inoculated on to coupons (1 cm x 1 cm) of copper, brass or stainless steel and incubated at either 22 degrees C or 4 degrees C for various time periods. Viability was determined by resuspending removed CFUs and plating out on tryptone soy agar plates in addition to staining with the respiratory indicator fluorochrome 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium. On pure copper surfaces, 10(7) MRSA, EMRSA-1 and EMRSA-16 were completely killed after 45, 60 and 90 min, respectively, at 22 degrees C. In contrast, viable organisms for all three strains were detected on stainless steel (grade 304) after 72 h at 22 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, complete kill was achieved on copper for all three strains within 6 h. The results demonstrate an antimicrobial effect of copper on MRSA, EMRSA-1 and -16 in contrast to stainless steel. Consequently, the contemporary application of stainless steel in hospital environments for work surfaces and door furniture is not recommended. PMID:16650507

Noyce, J O; Michels, H; Keevil, C W

2006-07-01

423

Interpretation of Oral Fluid Tests for Drugs of Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse offers significant advantages over urine as a test matrix. Collection can be performed under direct observation with reduced risk of adulteration and substitution. Drugs generally appear in oral fluid by passive diffusion from blood, but also may be deposited in the oral cavity during oral, smoked, and intranasal administration. Drug metabolites also can be detected in oral fluid. Unlike urine testing, there may be a close correspondence between drug and ...

Cone, Edward J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2007-01-01

424

Benefits of Concurrent Syringe Exchange and Substance Abuse Treatment Participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits, but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. The present study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (n = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substance abuse treatment over a 4-month observation window, and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes....

Kidorf, Michael; King, L.; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2011-01-01

425

Preliminary study of potential energy savings within business and industry by reducing over-harmonies; Forundersoegelse af muligheder for energibesparelser i erhvervslivet ved reduktion af overharmoniske stroemme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Overharmonic currents cause additional losses in the power supply network (lines, transformers) and in motors, which are supplied directly from the network (not motors, which are supplied from frequency converters or rectifiers). The overharmonic currents can be reduced or removed by capacitor banks and active filters. Active filters adjust themselves to the loading conditions and are also reacting on too slow transients and voltage disturbances in the network. Till now there is only little experience with active filters in commercial life. However, there are indications of potential electricity savings up to 10 % in installations with many overharmonic voltages (THDU > 5 %). The extent of harmonic distortions has been measured in 10 firms and has been compared to previous measurements. It is estimated that the voltage distortion, measured in THDU, at least must be 5 or 6 % in order to establish a profitable solution by reducing the harmonics by means of an active filter. In approx 40 % of the cases where the THDU has been measured, it has been estimated on the basis of THDU, current and utilization time that there is a potential of electricity savings by reducing the THDU. The overharmonic currents cause additional current heating losses in directly supplied motors as well as in lines and transformers. In induction motors they also cause current heating losses in the rotor and the 5th, 11th, 17th etc harmonics make a pulsating or reduced torque, which implies further losses. ABB and Comsys, both of which deliver active filters, have calculated electricity savings in some installations equipped with active filters. The direct electricity savings have been estimated at a low per cent in production equipment generally and up to 16 % in some directly supplied induction motors. In addition to the direct electricity savings the filters may also result in increased production capacity as a consequence of fewer breakdowns (the filters improve the voltage quality and provide reduced pulsating motor torques), reduced costs for reactive power and a longer lifetime for production equipment. On the basis of the extent of harmonic distortions in Danish business and industry, our experience with electricity savings with active filters and the electricity consumption in directly supplied motors of approx 7,000 GWh/year, the potential electricity savings by installing active filters are estimated at 30 to 60 GWh/year.

Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Kehr, J.M. (ABB A/S, Skovlunde (Denmark)); Hoejte Hansen, H. (Balslev A/S (Denmark))

2009-08-15

426

Damage of zona pellucida reduces the developmental potential and quality of porcine circovirus type 2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aimed to study if porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which adhered to zona pellucida (ZP), was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with intact and damaged ZP. Four groups, including uninfected ZP-intact oocytes (UOZI), uninfected ZP-damaged oocytes (UOZD), PCV2-infected ZP-intact oocytes (POZI), and PCV2-infected ZP-damaged oocytes (POZD) were studied. The oocytes were incubated with 1 mL minimum essential medium, containing 3.1 × 10(8) copies of PCV2 DNA for 1 hour. Mechanical procedure of the insertion by microneedle induced injuries to the ZP of porcine oocytes. At the blastocyst stage, the percentage of PCV2-infected embryos and the ratio of viral antigen-positive cells per embryo were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To assess the effect of ZP injury on the developmental competence and quality of porcine PCV2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation, blastocyst formation rates and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were analyzed. Moreover, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency at different developmental stages. The results of indirect immunofluorescence showed that only POZD group presented PCV2-infected embryos and viral-positive cells. The blastocyst rate of POZD group dropped down to approximately half of POZI group's (7.1 ± 1.5 vs. 14.5 ± 3.3). At the blastocyst stage, ZP injury increased apoptotic index of PCV2-infected embryos. The relative expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the two- and four-cell stages (not statistically significant). Compared with the one in POZI group, the ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of the ability to resist apoptosis, was lower in POZD group at the one-cell stage, but higher at the two- and four-cell stages. Expression levels of Oct4 and Nanog associated with pluripotency were lower in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the morula stage (not statistically significant). Noteworthily, the expression of Nanog was significantly lower in POZD group versus POZI group (P PCV2, which attached to ZP, was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with damaged ZP and subsequently reduced the developmental competence and quality of the oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. PMID:25062959

Zhao, Haijing; Ji, Qianqian; Zhao, Guangyin; Song, Zhenwei; Du, Baozhu; Nie, Yu; Chen, Yaosheng; Cong, Peiqing

2014-10-01

427

Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

2011-12-15

428

Effectiveness of Different Models of Case Management for Substance-Abusing Populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Case management has been implemented in substance abuse treatment to improve (cost-) effectiveness, but controversy exists about its potential to realize this objective. A systematic and comprehensive review of peer-reviewed articles (n = 48) published between 1993 and 2003 is presented, focusing on the effects of different models of case management among various substance-abusing populations. Results show that several studies have reported positive effects, but only some randomized and contr...

Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Wolf, Judith; Rapp, Richard C.; Broekaert, Eric

2007-01-01