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Sample records for reduced abuse potential

  1. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 ...TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food...that appears to have an abuse potential. [57 FR 17989,...

  2. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K R; Milner, J S

    1985-02-01

    A number of hypotheses were generated predicting the relationship between the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory and factors on the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire. As expected, positive relationships were found between abuse and apprehension, tension, and anxiety, while a negative relationship was observed between abuse and stability. The 16PF factors of apprehension, tension, anxiety and stability, which had the strongest relationship with abuse, are factors descriptive of neuroticism. A regression and discriminant analysis, however, indicated these factors alone were not sufficient to accurately describe and predict abuse. PMID:3989656

  3. Differentiation of Self and Child Abuse Potential in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Platt, Lisa F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the role of Bowen family systems theory in predicting physical child abuse potential. Relations between differentiation of self, perceptions of personal problem-solving skills, and child abuse potential were tested in a sample of 210 single young adults who were not yet parents. Greater differentiation of self that is, lower…

  4. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  5. Preclinical Evaluation of the Abuse Potential of the Analgesic Bicifadine

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Katherine L.; Balster, Robert L.; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P.; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, ...

  6. Pregabalin's abuse potential: a mini review focusing on the pharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazisis, Georgios; Tzachanis, Dimitrios

    2014-08-01

    Pregabalin, an analogue of the gamma-aminobutyric acid mammalian neurotransmitter and its structurally related compound gabapentin are known as ?2? ligands. They might act as inhibitory modulators of neuronal excitability that reduce ectopic neuronal activation of hyperexcited neurons while normal activation remains unchanged. However, the interaction with Ca²? channel ?2? subunit is not sufficient to account for the broad clinical spectrum of pregabalin effects including the abuse potential. Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of partial epilepsy; generalized anxiety disorder; peripheral and central neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Its prescribing is rapidly increasing and total sales of the drug worldwide reached 4.6 billion US$ in 2012. Since entering widespread clinical use, reports of pregabalin abuse appeared more often, usually involving individuals with a history of abuse of other medications. The purpose of this mini review is to present available published data signaling pregabalin's abuse liability reflecting on the pharmacological characteristics that might enable this agent to trigger addictive behaviors. PMID:24849194

  7. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section...in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). The following questions...in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1: What...

  8. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. PMID:24145397

  9. Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasal drug abuse (N?=?27). Active treatments contained oxycodone (30?mg). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., Overall Drug Liking [ODL], Take Drug Again [TDA], and High Visual Analog Scales [VAS]; Subjective Drug Value [SDV]; pupillometry; intranasal irritation), and safety (e.g., adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests) were assessed to 24?hours postdose. Crushed ORF administration yielded reduced oxycodone Cmax and increased Tmax versus crushed OC and Oxy API. Peak effects for pharmacodynamic measures were delayed with ORF (1-2?hours) versus OC and Oxy API (0.5-1?hour). ODL, TDA, High VAS, and SDV Emax values were significantly lower (P???.05) and some intranasal irritation ratings were greater for ORF versus OC and Oxy API. No significant or unexpected safety findings were observed. Compared with OC and Oxy API, intranasally administered ORF was associated with lower and delayed peak plasma concentrations, decreased drug-liking, and decreased intranasal tolerability. This suggests that ORF has a decreased potential for intranasal oxycodone abuse. There were no significant or unexpected safety findings. As is true for all abuse potential studies, epidemiological or other appropriate post-marketing studies are required to assess the impact of the reduction in intranasal oxycodone abuse potential observed in the present study on real-world patterns of ORF misuse, abuse, and diversion. PMID:24243216

  10. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sulie L.

    2013-01-01

    The “Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders” session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine...

  11. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directed at people just because of their race, religion, abilities, gender, or sexual orientation. Continue Recognizing Abuse ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ...

  12. A GENTLER GESTALT THERAPY: ON REDUCING STIMULATION IN ADULT SURVIVORS OF ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lapides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult survivors of abuse require a slower progression in treatment. Profoundly abused patients suffering from pre-oedipal conditions may become overstimulated using gestalt methods. This paper will focus on reducing stimulation in the patient using methods borrowed from modern psychoanalysis, which was developed by Hyman Spotnitz. The author argues for a combined approach that emphasizes support rather then frustration in the development of the treatment process.

  13. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  14. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  15. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  16. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Saini, Michael; Wu, Meng-Jia; MacFadden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Internet has created a new communication tool, particularly for young people whose use of electronic communication is exploding worldwide. While there are many benefits that result from electronic-based communication, the Internet is concurrently a potential site for abuse and victimization. Methods: This paper systematically…

  17. Fractured relationships and the potential for abuse of older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Dorothy C; Moore, Alinde J

    2007-01-01

    Elderly men are an understudied population in the area of abuse and neglect. The typical elder abuse or neglect victim is described as a frail woman. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study shows men to be victims as well and at higher risk than women for abandonment, the most extreme form of neglect. A qualitative study of older widowed men did not specifically explore issues of abuse and neglect, but found several of the men experiencing alienation from one or more of their adult children. This paper explores the dynamics of these "fractured relationships" and finds several patterns that may increase an older man's risk of being neglected when his needs for support increase. Many men are not functioning in a kinkeeper role and are not attempting to repair fractured relationships. Minimizing their own feelings may prevent men from understanding the extent of alienation felt by an adult child. PMID:18077271

  18. Rural Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been perceived to be a problem of the inner ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  19. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

  20. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  1. A potential role for creatine in drug abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anci, Kristen E; Allen, Patricia J; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Supplemental creatine has been promoted for its positive health effects and is best known for its use by athletes to increase muscle mass. In addition to its role in physical performance, creatine supplementation has protective effects on the brain in models of neuronal damage and also alters mood state and cognitive performance. Creatine is found in high protein foods, such as fish or meat, and is also produced endogenously from the biosynthesis of arginine, glycine, and methionine. Changes in brain creatine levels, as measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are seen in individuals exposed to drugs of abuse and depressed individuals. These changes in brain creatine indicate that energy metabolism differs in these populations relative to healthy individuals. Recent work shows that creatine supplementation has the ability to function in a manner similar to antidepressant drugs and can offset negative consequences of stress. These observations are important in relation to addictive behaviors as addiction is influenced by psychological factors such as psychosocial stress and depression. The significance of altered brain levels of creatine in drug-exposed individuals and the role of creatine supplementation in models of drug abuse have yet to be explored and represent gaps in the current understanding of brain energetics and addiction. PMID:21399936

  2. A novel mechanism of action and potential use for lobeline as a treatment for psychostimulant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2002-01-15

    Lobeline, an alkaloidal constituent of Lobelia inflata LINN., has a long history of therapeutic usage ranging from emetic and respiratory stimulant to tobacco smoking cessation agent. Although classified as both an agonist and an antagonist at nicotinic receptors, lobeline has no structural resemblance to nicotine, and structure--function relationships do not suggest a common pharmacophore. Lobeline inhibits nicotine-evoked dopamine release and [3H]nicotine binding, thus acting as a potent antagonist at both alpha3beta2(*) and alpha4beta2(*) neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes. However, lobeline does not release dopamine from its presynaptic terminal, but appears to induce the metabolism of dopamine intraneuronally. Reevaluation of the mechanism by which lobeline alters dopamine function reveals that its primary mechanism is inhibition of dopamine uptake and promotion of dopamine release from the storage vesicles within the presynaptic terminal, via an interaction with the tetrabenazine-binding site on the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). Thus, lobeline appears to perturb the fundamental mechanisms of dopamine storage and release. Based on its neurochemical mechanism, the ability of lobeline to functionally antagonize the neurochemical and behavioral effects of the psychostimulants amphetamine and methamphetamine was examined. Lobeline was found to inhibit the amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in vitro, and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, drug discrimination, and self-administration. However, lobeline does not support self-administration in rats, suggesting a lack of addiction liability. Thus, lobeline may reduce the abuse liability of these psychostimulants. The development of lobeline and lobeline analogs with targeted selectivity at VMAT2 represents a novel class of therapeutic agents having good potential as efficacious treatments for methamphetamine abuse. PMID:11841781

  3. Effects of the ? opioid agonist AZD2327 upon operant behaviors and assessment of its potential for abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, T J; Pietras, M R; Caccese, R; Bui, K H; Yocca, F; Paronis, C A; Swedberg, M D B

    2014-09-01

    AZD2327 is a brain-penetrant agonist at ? opioid receptors which has antidepressant and anxiolytic properties in a wide array of animal models. As part of the preclinical safety pharmacology assessment, a number of studies were conducted in order to characterize its behavioral effects and its potential for abuse, in order to enable testing in humans. AZD2327 produced only modest effects when tested in a multiple fixed-ratio differential reinforcement of low rate schedule in rats, and did not enhance the rate-suppressing effects of ethanol in the procedure. In a suppressed responding test, AZD2327 only reduced rates of unpunished responding. In drug discrimination studies, AZD2327 produced partial or no generalization from known drugs of abuse. In primates trained to self-administer cocaine, substitution with AZD2327 did not result in appreciable self-administration of AZD2327, indicating that it does not behave as a positive reinforcer under the present conditions. Following termination of repeated administration of AZD2327, no signs of physical dependence (withdrawal) were noted. Overall, the data suggest that AZD2327 does not possess a high potential for abuse, and appears to have only subtle behavioral effects as measured by operant behaviors. PMID:24857840

  4. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. PMID:24331549

  5. Co-occurrence between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential: the impact of cumulative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Gordis, Elana B

    2003-06-01

    Evidence suggests that marital aggression and parent-to-child aggression sometimes occur within the same family, but little is known about why certain families are vulnerable to multiple forms of family aggression. According to family systems theory, negative affect in one family relationship can spread to other family relationships. According to family stress theory, aversive circumstances increase families' vulnerability to disruption and conflict. Based on these theories, the present study tests the hypothesis that cumulative family stresses potentiate the association between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential. In a series of additive interactional models, husband-to-wife aggression was linked to husbands' and wives' child abuse potential in a context of both high financial stress and high parenting stress but was not linked in a context of low stress. Wife-to-husband aggression was linked to wives', but not husbands', child abuse potential in a context of high stress. These results highlight the potential role of contextual factors in the pervasiveness of aggressive exchanges across multiple family subsystems. PMID:12968657

  6. The potential for misuse and abuse of medications in ADHD: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemow, David B; Walker, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews the literature concerning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication misuse, abuse, dependence, diversion, and malingering. The review covers nonmedical use (NMU) of both stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamine) and nonstimulant (?-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine) prescription medications, and provides a discussion on the relevance for ADHD treatment today. The neural basis for ADHD medication mechanisms of action (increased norepinephrine and dopamine signaling) and their neurobiochemical relationship to the abuse potential is explored. Regionally-specific, stimulant-induced elevations in brain dopamine appear to be integral to both efficacy in ADHD and potential for abuse. In addition to the prevalence of misuse and diversion, additional topics discussed include the potential safety concerns associated with NMU of prescription ADHD medications and the cost to payers of prescription drug diversion (eg, increased emergency department visits associated with misuse). The evidence describing the difficulty in detecting malingering for the purpose of illicit access to ADHD medications for subsequent misuse or diversion is also summarized. Moreover, the effect of ADHD medications in patients with comorbid substance use disorder and the controversial potential linkage of stimulant prescription use with subsequent substance use disorder are explored. Overall, the data suggest that ADHD medication misuse and diversion are common health care problems for stimulant medications, with the prevalence believed to be approximately 5% to 10% of high school students and 5% to 35% of college students, depending on the study. Stimulant effectiveness and speed of action are deemed desirable to enhance attention and focus performance for activities like studying, but stimulants are also misused recreationally. Conversely, the data suggest a lack of abuse potential and lack of actual medication misuse for the nonstimulant medications. Although they can be efficacious for the treatment of ADHD, the nonstimulants lack a mechanism of action linked to the abuse potential and they lack the desirable effects (speed of action, stimulant feel) that make stimulants susceptible to NMU. In light of these findings, the data suggest a need for close screening and therapeutic monitoring of ADHD medication use. In addition, nonstimulants might be an appropriate alternative for patients with concern about abuse and physicians concerned with general misuse and diversion. PMID:25295651

  7. HTGR strategy for reduced proliferation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HTGR stratregy for reduced proliferation potential is one aspect of a potential broader nuclear strategy aimed primarily toward a transition nuclear period between today's uranium-consumption reactors and the long-range balanced system of breeder and advanced near-breeder reactors. In particular, the normal commerce of U-233 could be made acceptable by: (a) dependence on the gamma radiation from U-232 daughter products, (b) enhancement of that radioactivity by incomplete fission-product decontamination of the bred-fuel, or (c) denaturing of the U-233 with U-238. These approaches would, of course, supplement institutional initiatives to improve proliferation resistance such as the collocation of facilities and the establishment of secure energy centers. 6 refs

  8. The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-07-01

    Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse. PMID:24825823

  9. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  10. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2014-09-28

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. PMID:25262913

  11. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast, which would be performed at the same time as standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy, is a breast conserving estrogen-receptor-independent option that may have the potential to significantly decrease the disturbingly high second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast of long-term breast cancer survivors.

  12. Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Stone

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP. “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

  13. Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results ...

  14. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug administration. There were no cases in which a urine drug screen alone altered the outcome of a case. In summary, hair toxicology testing proved clinically useful in the evaluation of a child for suspected abuse; in contrast, urine drug testing showed low clinical yield. PMID:26048499

  15. Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Stephen C.; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J.; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasa...

  16. Child Discipline and Physical Abuse in Immigrant Latino Families: Reducing Violence and Misunderstandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2002-01-01

    This article examines common areas of misunderstanding between professionals and low-income Latino families concerning issues of physical abuse. It argues that low-income immigrant children deserve the same protection from harsh physical punishment as all other children. (Contains 57 references.) (GCP)

  17. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...entitled ``Assessment of Abuse...of Dockets Management (HFA-305...guidance for industry entitled ``Assessment of Abuse...public health risk, and a proposal...advertising, manufacturing, promotion...of Dockets Management (see...

  18. Differences in abuse potential of ADHD drugs measured by contrasting poison centre and therapeutic use data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Schow; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Atomoxetine (ATX) is the treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders with co-morbid risk of drug abuse, although its abuse potential needs to be qualified. The purpose of this study is to analyse ATX misuse in relation to therapeutic use and compare our results with that of methylphenidate (MPH). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on enquiries were extracted from the Danish Poison Information Centre database (January 2006 to June 2012), while data on therapeutic use were provided by the Danish State Serum Institute (2007-2011). RESULTS: The study included 28 ATX and 394 MPH enquiries. Frequency of ATX enquiries did not show a significant correlation to either sale or number of treated patients but for MPH, both correlations were significant (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0008, respectively). The enquiries/number of treated patients relationship differed significantly between ATX and MPH (p = 0.018), but not the enquiries/sale relationship. The proportion of exposures motivated by recreational drug use was significantly lower for ATX (19%) than that for MPH (40%) (p = 0.038). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ATX is used by adults for non-medical purposes including recreational use, but to a lesser extent than MPH.

  19. Filling the knowledge gap: a continuing medical education course on prescribing drugs with abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvatich, P K; Schnoll, S H

    1991-11-01

    Learning the components of the task of writing a prescription is not the same as learning when to prescribe what drug, in which quantity, dose, and frequency; how to counsel the patient about taking the drug; what to look for while monitoring the patient; and particularly, in the case of controlled drugs, what to do if a patient abuses a medication. Education about prescribing drugs with abuse potential is very limited in medical school, and little exists in the way of continuing medical education. We have designed a two-day continuing medical education course for primary care practitioners that blends a variety of learning experiences and incorporates innovative approaches. This program emphasizes active participation, even within a traditional large group format. Computerized clinical case simulation activities call on participants to draw on their own medical practice experience, and to apply newly acquired knowledge to solve clinical problems before they leave the classroom. The pilot test of the program reinforced how powerful teaching can be when it is led by credible, skillful experts interacting with individuals face-to-face and when it is complemented by small group discussion. Plans for dissemination of this program are under way. PMID:1771058

  20. Validation of a reduced Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Sierra; Monge, Fredy S.; Pablo Santos-Iglesias; Fadez, Mar U. Eda Paz Berm U.; Eda Salinas, Jos U. E. Mar U.

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de examinar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión en español del Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), se aplicó éste, junto a la Double Standard Scale, la Rape Supportive Attitude Scale y el Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R, a 813 mujeres peruanas distribuidas en tres muestras diferentes: población general (n = 300), mujeres que no habían denunciado abuso (n = 300) y mujeres que habían denunciado abuso (n = 213).Después de poner a prueba mediante análisis factorial confi...

  1. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  2. Inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Louw Johann; Myers Bronwyn J; Pasche Sonja C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite high levels of substance use disorders in Cape Town, substance abuse treatment utilization is low among people from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. To improve substance abuse treatment utilization, it is important to identify any potential barriers to treatment initiation so that interventions to reduce these barriers can be implemented. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with substance abuse treatment ut...

  3. Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequentwith craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster LR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.Methods: Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h, peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h. Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry.Results: There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons, suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically significant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.Keywords: drug abuse, opioid, oxycodone, niacin

  5. Validade de Criterio do Inventario de Potencial para Abuso Infantil (CAP) / Criterion Validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) / Validez de Criterio del Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina de Almeida, Patrian; Karyne de Souza Augusto, Rios; Lucia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Williams.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available É grande o interesse pelo tema da violência contra a criança, porém são escassas suas formas de avaliação, dificultando o desenvolvimento de intervenções. O Inventário de Potencial de Abuso Infantil (CAP) é considerado eficaz na identificação precoce de pais considerados em risco de agredirem fisica [...] mente seus filhos e uma boa ferramenta para avaliar intervenções na área dos maus-tratos contra crianças e adolescentes. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a validade de critério do Inventário CAP, por meio da comparação de seus resultados entre cuidadores considerados de alto risco para abuso infantil e cuidadores de baixo risco para o abuso infantil. Dois grupos de pais foram participantes, sendo um grupo composto por 20 pais denunciados por agressões físicas e o outro grupo de 20 pais não agressores de igual nível socioeconômico e educacional. Os resultados indicaram que o inventário é capaz de avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos propostos, demonstrando ser um bom instrumento para o trabalho de serviços de proteção à criança epara a avaliação de intervenções e políticas públicas ou pesquisas. Abstract in spanish Existe gran interés en el tema de la violencia contra los niños, pero son raras las formas de evaluación, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de intervenciones.El Inventario Child Abuse Potential (CAP) se considera eficaz en la identificación temprana de padres considerados en riesgo de agredir físicamen [...] te a sus hijos y buena herramienta para evaluar las intervenciones en el área de abuso contra niños. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la validez de criterio del Inventario CAP, por una comparación de sus resultados con padres de alto riesgo y padres sin riesgo para el abuso contra los niños. Participaron dos grupos: un de 20 padres que habían practicado el abuso físico y otro de 20 no agresores, del mismo nivel socioeconómico y educativo. Los resultados indicaron que el instrumento es capaz de evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos propuestos y ha demostrado ser una buena herramienta para el trabajo de los servicios de protección de la infancia, evaluación de las intervenciones y políticas públicas o de investigación. Abstract in english Even though there is great interest in the field of child abuse, there are few methods to assess it, which hinders the development of interventions. The Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory is considered effective in the early identification of parents at risk of physically abusing their children, [...] and a good tool to evaluate interventions in the field of child abuse. This study's objective was to perform the CAP Inventory's criterion validity by comparing the results obtained by caregivers at a high risk of abusing their children with those obtained by caregivers at a low risk for child abuse. Two groups of parents participated in the study: a group of 20 parents reported for physically abusing their children and a group of 20 non-offending parents with the same socio-economic and educational levels. The results indicated the instrument is able to discriminate between the two groups, showing it to be a good tool for use in child protection services, to assess interventions, public policies, and research.

  6. Contributions of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to understanding development: potential applications in the study of adolescent alcohol use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research has documented structural and functional brain development during adolescence, yet little is known about neurochemical changes that occur during this important developmental period. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a well-developed technology that permits the in vivo quantification of multiple brain neurochemicals relevant to neuronal health and functioning. However, MRS technology has been underused in exploring normative developmental changes during adolescence and the onset of alcohol and drug use and abuse during this developmental period. This review begins with a brief overview of normative cognitive and neurobiological development during adolescence, followed by an introduction to MRS principles. The subsequent sections provide a comprehensive review of the existing MRS studies of development and cognitive functioning in healthy children and adolescents. The final sections of this article address the potential application of MRS in identifying neurochemical predictors and consequences of alcohol use and abuse in adolescence. MRS studies of adolescent populations hold promise for advancing our understanding of neurobiological risk factors for psychopathology by identifying the biochemical signatures associated with healthy brain development, as well as neurobiological and cognitive correlates of alcohol and substance use and abuse. PMID:24621605

  7. WEC design experience to reduce IRI potential in susceptible cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete rod insertion (IRI) is an undesirable event for NPP operation. This event may directly affect available shutdown margins since one or more rod cluster control assemblies (RCCA) are not fully inserted. WEC (Westinghouse Electric Company) has developed an effective systematic approach to control fuel assembly distortion and reduce IRI potential in susceptible reactor cores. Typically, fuel assembly and RCCA handling during outage, RCCA performance during RCCA drag force and periodic SCRAM test together with post-irradiation inspection results are used to assess IRI potential and establish a basis to demonstrate efficiency of design and fuel management modifications. The effectiveness of the implemented modifications are presented in the paper.

  8. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  9. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based". There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) to M(5)). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knock-out mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M(1)-M(5) receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS.

  10. The Use of a Vibrator to Reduce Self-Abusive Behaviors in a Mentally and Sensorially Handicapped Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Margaret

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of an electric vibrator on the deceleration and/or extinction of 10 self abusive and aberrant behaviors in a profoundly retarded, nonambulatory 25 year old female who could not hear, see, or speak. At the end of 41 twenty minute sessions, seven of the target behaviors approached extinction and three were…

  11. Trimethylangelicin reduces IL-8 transcription and potentiates CFTR function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanini, Anna; Borgatti, Monica; Finotti, Alessia; Piccagli, Laura; Bezzerri, Valentino; Favia, Maria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Francesco; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Fabbri, Enrica; Mancini, Irene; Nicolis, Elena; Casavola, Valeria; Cabrini, Giulio; Gambari, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    Chronic inflammatory response in the airway tract of patients affected by cystic fibrosis is characterized by an excessive recruitment of neutrophils to the bronchial lumina, driven by the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. We previously found that 5-methoxypsoralen reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription in bronchial epithelial cell lines, with an IC(50) of 10 ?M (Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bezzerri V, Bianchi N, Mazzon M, Mancini I, Giri MG, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G. Int Immunopharmacol 9: 1411-1422, 2009). Here, we extended the investigation to analogs of 5-methoxypsoralen, and we found that the most potent effect is obtained with 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), which inhibits P. aeruginosa-dependent IL-8 transcription at nanomolar concentration in IB3-1, CuFi-1, CFBE41o-, and Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell lines. Analysis of phosphoproteins involved in proinflammatory transmembrane signaling evidenced that TMA reduces the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase-1 and AKT2/3, which we found indeed involved in P. aeruginosa-dependent activation of IL-8 gene transcription by testing the effect of pharmacological inhibitors. In addition, we found a docking site of TMA into NF-?B by in silico analysis, whereas inhibition of the NF-?B/DNA interactions in vitro by EMSA was observed at high concentrations (10 mM TMA). To further understand whether NF-?B pathway should be considered a target of TMA, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed, and we observed that TMA (100 nM) preincubated in whole living cells reduced the interaction of NF-?B with the promoter of IL-8 gene. These results suggest that TMA could inhibit IL-8 gene transcription mainly by intervening on driving the recruitment of activated transcription factors on IL-8 gene promoter, as demonstrated here for NF-?B. Although the complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TMA deserves further investigation, an activity of TMA on phosphorylating pathways was already demonstrated by our study. Finally, since psoralens have been shown to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated chloride transport, TMA was tested and found to potentiate CFTR-dependent chloride efflux. In conclusion, TMA is a dual-acting compound reducing excessive IL-8 expression and potentiating CFTR function. PMID:21148790

  12. Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyz Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

  13. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many ...

  14. Elder abuse in chinese populations: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers. PMID:25874889

  15. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  16. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  17. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TØnnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces their usefulness. A detailed alcohol history is therefore recommended. The pathophysiology may include alcohol-induced organ dysfunctions. We demonstrated that subclinical cardiac insufficiency, immune incompetence, and haemostatic imbalance were already present preoperatively. A relation between the various lesions remains to be investigated. The surgical stress response was greater in alcohol abusers, which may further compromise the already dysfunctioning organs, thus leading to the documented increase in postoperative morbidity. Withdrawal from alcohol reverses organic dysfunction in non-surgical patients. Haemostasis normalises after one to four weeks, cardiac function after one month, immune function after two months, and response to external stress after three months. Accordingly, our small randomised investigation has shown that one month of abstinence before surgery improves several organic dysfunctions and reduces postoperative morbidity. We have demonstrated that prevention before surgery is possible. The study has methodological flaws, so further studies are required before final recommendations can be given. However, in the meantime clinical guidelines for alcohol abusers undergoing surgery should include up-to-date patient information and four weeks of abstinence before surgery, in accordance with the evidence-based association, the potential prevention attained by preoperative abstinence, and the best clinical practice. Implementation should be monitored in the clinical databases. In future, all patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect attainable from thismulti-modal prevention and fast track surgery should be investigated among the alcohol abusers.

  18. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TØnnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces their usefulness. A detailed alcohol history is therefore recommended. The pathophysiology may include alcohol-induced organ dysfunctions. We demonstrated that subclinical cardiac insufficiency, immune incompetence, and haemostatic imbalance were already present preoperatively. A relation between the various lesions remains to be investigated. The surgical stress response was greater in alcohol abusers, which may further compromise the already dysfunctioning organs, thus leading to the documented increase in postoperative morbidity. Withdrawal from alcohol reverses organic dysfunction in non-surgical patients. Haemostasis normalises after one to four weeks, cardiac function after one month, immune function after two months, and response to external stress after three months. Accordingly, our small randomised investigation has shown that one month of abstinence before surgery improves several organic dysfunctions and reduces postoperative morbidity. We have demonstrated that prevention before surgery is possible. The study has methodological flaws, so further studies are required before final recommendations can be given. However, in the meantime clinical guidelines for alcohol abusers undergoing surgery should include up-to-date patient information and four weeks of abstinence before surgery, in accordance with the evidence-based association, the potential prevention attained by preoperative abstinence, and the best clinical practice. Implementation should be monitored in the clinical databases. In future, all patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect attainable from this multi-modal prevention and fast track surgery should be investigated among the alcohol abusers.

  19. Inhalant abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic bou...

  20. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users

    OpenAIRE

    Webster LR; Rolleri RL; Pixton GC; Sommerville KW

    2012-01-01

    Lynn R Webster,1 Robert L Rolleri,2,3 Glenn C Pixton,3 Kenneth W Sommerville31Lifetree Clinical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Cary, NC, USABackground: Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. T...

  1. Potential impact of drugs of abuse on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao S; Schnur, Paul; Shurtleff, David

    2011-05-23

    This report is a summary of a symposium entitled "Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV and Drugs of Abuse in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Era," organized by The National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 13, 2009. In the pre-HAART era, the prevalence of MTCT of HIV was about 25% and exposure of pregnant mothers to drugs of abuse (illicit drugs and tobacco smoking) was a significant factor in MTCT. However, with the introduction of HAART, the rate of MTCT of HIV has decreased to less that 2%. In the Unites States, it is estimated that currently about 5.1% of pregnant women use illicit drugs and 16.4% smoke tobacco. The residual prevalence of MTCT in the HAART era is still of concern and may be related to this continued prevalence of substance use among pregnant mothers. In this report, we review and present evidence that supports the hypothesis that drugs of abuse do have the potential to increase MTCT of HIV in the presence of HAART. Exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy may increase MTCT of HIV through a variety of mechanisms including possible damage to the placenta, induction of preterm birth, and increasing maternal plasma viral load through a variety of putative mechanisms such as: a) promoting HIV mutation and replication through non-adherence to HAART; b) impairing the efficacy of HAART through drug-drug interaction; and c) promoting HIV replication in monocyte/macrophages. Drugs of abuse may promote HIV replication by increasing the expression of CCR5 receptors, decreasing the expression of CCR5 receptor ligands, increasing the expression of CXCR4 receptors, increasing the expression of DC-SIGN, and possibly inducing epigenetic changes. PMID:21477599

  2. Uncovering sexual abuse: evaluation of the effectiveness of The Victims of Violence and Abuse Prevention Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, J

    2010-02-01

    Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302

  3. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered. PMID:16529882

  4. Financial Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Abuse Elder financial abuse spans a broad spectrum of conduct, including: Taking money or property Forging an older person's signature Getting an ... false pretence, or dishonest acts or statements for financial gain Telemarketing scams. Perpetrators call victims and use ...

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butaney of toluene, acetone and butane

  6. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  7. Intelligent use and potential abuse of hormone assays in animal production research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoassays provide sensitive and specific techniques to measure very low concentrations of hormones in biological fluids. Use of these procedures has provided comprehensive plasma profiles for most hormones and contributed to a better understanding or reproductive function. One future challenge for basic research is the development of new methods to monitor and quantitate target organ response rather than continuing to determine concentrations. In applied or production-oriented projects the difficulties and expenses associated with most hormone assays are usually not justified. One exception is sequential monitoring of plasma or milk progesterone concentrations in twice weekly or weekly samples which can be used to detect the occurrence of sexual maturity, the time of first postpartum ovulation, the true incidence of anoestrus, whether individual females have regular ovarian cycles, and as an early test for pregnancy. Past results indicate that most healthy, adequately fed dairy cows in temperate regions ovulate during the first three or four weeks postpartum. Under intensive management systems the major problem in reproductive management of dairy cattle is oestrus detection. In contrast, many beef cows have not ovulated by 60 days postpartum, so prolonged anoestrus is a serious problem in suckled cows. Very little is known about nutrition, disease or climatic stress effects or interactions on reproductive performance in tropical environments. Regular progesterone concentrations from individual cows, combined with condition scores, management evaluation and breeding plus health records should accurately define the current reproductive performance, potential and problems. Once the major factors limiting reproductive efficiency have been defined, research projects can concentrate on the development of practical solutions. Sequential progesterone assays can then be incorporated into experimental procedures to objectively determine ovarian response. (author)

  8. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)

    2010-09-03

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  9. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  10. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical...

  11. Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level

    OpenAIRE

    Czyz Anne; Westert Gert P; Lagoe Ronald J; Johnson Pamela E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable ...

  12. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  13. Red Flags of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the same services and protections. Physical abuse; neglect; emotional or psychological abuse; financial abuse and exploitation ; sexual abuse ; and abandonment are considered forms of elder abuse. In many ...

  14. Indan analogs of fenfluramine and norfenfluramine have reduced neurotoxic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, N V; Frescas, S; Marona-Lewicka, D; Huang, X; Nichols, D E

    1998-03-01

    N-Ethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2-aminoindan (ETAI) and 5-trifluoromethyl-2-aminoindan (TAI) were synthesized to examine the effects of side-chain cyclization on the pharmacology of the anorectic drugs fenfluramine (FEN) and norfenfluramine (norFEN), respectively. ETAI and TAI inhibited synaptosomal accumulation of 5-HT but were less effective at inhibiting catecholamine uptake than FEN or norFEN, respectively. In vivo, ETAI and TAI were less neurotoxic than FEN or norFEN; decreases in the number of [3H]paroxetine-labeled 5-HT uptake sites were 50% less than the decreases produced by FEN or norFEN. Rats treated with ETAI. TAI, FEN, and norFEN lost 10-15% of their pretreatment body weight over a 4-day period, while saline-treated control animals gained 8%. In two-lever drug discrimination (DD) assays in rats, TAI fully substituted for the 5-HT releaser/uptake inhibitor, (+)-MBDB [(+)-N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-aminobutane]. ETAI produced only partial substitution in this test. Neither TAI nor ETAI mimicked (+)-amphetamine in the DD assay. These studies demonstrate that incorporation of the side-chain of phenylisopropylamines into the five-membered ring of a 2-aminoindan changes both the molecular pharmacology and the neurotoxic profile of FEN and norFEN, but does not diminish the drugs' ability to reduce body weight. PMID:9512076

  15. Design, synthesis and interaction at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 of lobeline analogs: potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of psychostimulant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Peter A; Zheng, Guangrong; Vartak, Ashish P; Culver, John P; Zheng, Fang; Horton, David B; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2011-01-01

    The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is considered as a new target for the development of novel therapeutics to treat psychostimulant abuse. Current information on the structure, function and role of VMAT2 in psychostimulant abuse are presented. Lobeline, the major alkaloidal constituent of Lobelia inflata, interacts with nicotinic receptors and with VMAT2. Numerous studies have shown that lobeline inhibits both the neurochemical and behavioral effects of amphetamine in rodents, and behavioral studies demonstrate that lobeline has potential as a pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. Systematic structural modification of the lobeline molecule is described with the aim of improving selectivity and affinity for VMAT2 over neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and other neurotransmitter transporters. This has led to the discovery of more potent and selective ligands for VMAT2. In addition, a computational neural network analysis of the affinity of these lobeline analogs for VMAT2 has been carried out, which provides computational models that have predictive value in the rational design of VMAT2 ligands and is also useful in identifying drug candidates from virtual libraries for subsequent synthesis and evaluation. PMID:21050177

  16. Skeletal trauma in child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2013-11-01

    Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries. PMID:24168118

  17. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MSE, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF eir specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  18. REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBBING P. D.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  19. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging cansocietal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  20. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  1. Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

  2. Butch/Femme Differences in Substance Use and Abuse Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Examination and Potential Explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the role of gender atypical self-presentation on the alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as symptoms of substance abuse, of an ethnically diverse sample of 76 young (ages 14 – 21 years) lesbian and bisexual women who were interviewed between 1993-95 in New York City. Even after controlling for age, sexual identity, and social desirability, young butch women reported drinking alcohol more frequently and in greater quantity, smoking more cigarettes, and usi...

  3. The Many Victims of Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Tara

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding envi...

  4. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  5. Elder Abuse FAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members. 32 Back to Top What are the Consequences of Elder Abuse? The consequences of elder abuse can be devastating. ... kids aren’t all right: The failure of child abuse statutes as a model for elder abuse statutes. ...

  6. Twins abused by their father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  7. Principles of laboratory assessment of drug abuse liability and implications for clinical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Abuse liability testing plays an important role in informing drug development, regulatory processes, and clinical practice. This paper describes the current “gold standard” methodologies that are used for laboratory assessments of abuse liability in non-human and human subjects. Particular emphasis is given to procedures such as non-human drug discrimination, self-administration, and physical dependence testing, and human dose effect abuse liability studies that are commonly used in regulatory submissions to governmental agencies. The potential benefits and risks associated with the inclusion of measures of abuse liability in industry-sponsored clinical trials is discussed. Lastly, it is noted that many factors contribute to patterns of drug abuse and dependence outside of the laboratory setting and positive or negative signals in abuse liability studies do not always translate to high or low levels of actual abuse or dependence. Well-designed patient and physician education, pharmacovigilance, and postmarketing surveillance can reduce the diversion and misuse of drugs with abuse liability and can effectively foster the protection and promotion of public health. PMID:19443137

  8. The Relative Abuse Liability of Oral Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Hydromorphone Assessed in Prescription Opioid Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Sharon L.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Holtman, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioids has risen precipitously in the United States. Few controlled comparisons of the abuse liability of the most commonly abused opioids have been conducted. This outpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential and potency of oral oxycodone (10, 20 & 40 mg), hydrocodone (15, 30 & 45 mg), hydromorphone (10, 17.5 & 25 mg) and placebo. Healthy adult volunteers (n=9) with sporadic pres...

  9. Capacidade discriminante do inventário de potencial de abuso na infância: dados numa amostra de progenitores portugueses / Discriminant ability of the child abuse potential inventory: data from a sample of Portuguese parents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Manuela, Calheiros; Eunice, Magalhães; Patrício, Costa.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar a capacidade discriminante do Inventário de Potencial de Abuso na Infância (CAP), numa amostra de 641 progenitores portugueses. Trinta e sete por cento da amostra é constituída por progenitores maltratantes sinalizados às Comissões de Proteção de Crianças e Joven [...] s e avaliados através do Questionário de Avaliação do Mau Trato, Negligência e Abuso Sexual. Os resultados indicaram que os progenitores maltratantes reportam valores significativamente superiores na Escala de Abuso e em todas as suas dimensões. Do ponto de vista da capacidade discriminante, a função da Escala de Abuso Global classificou corretamente 79,9% e a função das subdimensões da Escala classificou corretamente 83,3% dos casos. Estes resultados revelam a potencialidade do instrumento na identificação de situações de potencial abuso na infância no contexto português. Abstract in english This study aims to test discriminant ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP) in a sample of 641 Portuguese parents. Thirty-seven percent of the sample is composed by abusive parents reported to the Comissions for the Protection of Children and Young People and evaluated by an assessment [...] questionnaire of maltreatment, neglect and sexual abuse. Abusive parents showed significantly higher scores on the Abuse Scale and in all of its dimensions. Considering the discriminant analysis, the Abuse Scale correctly classified 79.9% of the cases and the function of sub dimensions correctly classified 83.3% of the cases. These results reveal the capacity of CAP in identifying cases of potential child abuse in the Portuguese context.

  10. Substance abuse and movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Luciano, Marta; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    The complex relation between movement disorders and substance abuse is reviewed. First, we discuss the wide variety of movement disorders that occur as a direct consequence of acute use or withdrawal of drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. Second, we describe the recent advances in the comorbid relationship between alcoholism and two movement disorders: essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the abuse potential of the dopaminergic agents, apomorphine and levodopa, in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:20443774

  11. A Prospective Study of the Potential Moderating Role of Social Support in Preventing Marginalization Among Individuals Exposed to Bullying and Abuse in Junior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-01-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it...

  12. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  13. Reducing quasi-ergodicity in a double well potential by Tsallis Monte Carlo simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamatsu, Masao; Okabe, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo scheme based on the system of Tsallis's generalized statistical mechanics is applied to a simple double well potential to calculate the canonical thermal average of potential energy. Although we observed serious quasi-ergodicity when using the standard Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm, this problem is largely reduced by the use of the new Monte Carlo algorithm. Therefore the ergodicity is guaranteed even for short Monte Carlo steps if we use this new canoni...

  14. Barriers to Child Abuse Identification and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intima Alrimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasing phenomenon globally and is divided into four dimensions: physical, sexual, emotional and negligence. As in all countries in the world, child abuse is underreported in Arab countries, including Palestine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential barriers to child abuse identification and reporting by the Palestinian nurses. A total of 84 nurses from a major hospital in Ramallah city in Palestine constituted the sample of this study and returned the distributed questionnaire. The majority of the sample were young junior nurses holding BSc degrees. Interestingly, none of the nurses had received any training about child abuse. Almost 70% of nurses think that child abuse is a problem in the society, but that it is underreported due to different factors such as being concerned about child abuse identification, training about abuse identification, lack of time for identification of the abuse and child abuse not being considered a medical problem; these were the barriers most identified by the nurses. In conclusion, the presence of a well-organized system to deal with this phenomenon seems crucial. Protecting children from being abused is not the responsibility of a single agency or a governmental institution. Clear, concise and structured child protection policy is necessary to enable nurses to report and deal with abuse cases and to improve the effectiveness of reporting and caring for such cases.

  15. Peer abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors. The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan Olweus. According to Olweus, bullying is an aggressive behavior that: (a is intended to cause harm or distress, (b occurs repeatedly over time, and (c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power. Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of abuse, namely child maltreatment and domestic violence. Bullying behaviors may be physical, verbal, non-physical and non-verbal, and may be direct and indirect. Boys are more ikely than girls to report bullying behaviors. While boys are bullied by only boys, girls are bullied by both girls and boys. Although, being bullied decreases with age, bullying others does not show the same pattern. Researches identified many individual and environmental factors that place children and adolescents at risk for bullying others and being bullied. Bullying may effect the physical and psychological health and academic work of children who are targeted. Physicians have important roles in identifying at-risk children, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counseling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 31-4

  16. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A; WATKEYS, J.; Ridgway, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.?DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abu...

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing a prescription drug with friends — is actually breaking the law. Continue Which Drugs Are Abused? The ... most common result of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse medications can become addicted just ...

  18. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  19. A survey of teaching and implementation: the veterinarian's role in recognizing and reporting abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, R E

    1999-08-01

    Many families seeking assistance from domestic violence agencies are known to local humane societies or animal control officials because of previous incidents of animal abuse. This is because pets are often the first victims of family disputes that erupt into violence. Analysis of domestic violence statistics indicates that veterinarians potentially treat hundreds of thousands of abused pets each year. Because veterinarians may be the first or only individuals to have access to abusive family situations, it is it important for veterinarians to be aware of potential signs of abuse of pets and their owners and to be familiar with the mechanisms for reporting suspected incidents of abuse. Thirty-one North American veterinary schools and a sample of large and small animal practitioners in Indiana were surveyed to understand to what degree current veterinary curricula prepare students to recognize abuse of animal patients and human clients and to what extent practitioners recognize and report their suspicions of abuse to appropriate authorities. The data indicate a discrepancy between beliefs about prevalence of abuse and the amount of time spent educating veterinary students to recognize and report that abuse. I hypothesize that: 1) practicing veterinarians are reluctant to report suspicions of domestic family violence directed against animals, children, or spouses for various reasons (e.g., lack of adequate training, fear of litigation, time constraints, fear that violence will escalate, belief that it is not their place to intervene, lack of contact information, fear of losing a client's business); 2) practicing veterinarians (in large and small animal practices) may not be aware that animal patients and human clients may have been abused and being unfamiliar with this diagnosis, are unfamiliar with the mechanism for reporting the abuse, especially when it involves human victims; and 3) veterinary school curricula could be modified so that veterinary students are trained to recognize human and animal abuse, thereby reducing risks to animal patients, other animals in the household, and human clients. I believe that recognition of animal and human abuse is in line with veterinarians' responsibilities to protect animal health, relieve animal suffering, and promote public health. PMID:10434967

  20. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N?O], methane [CH?], and carbon dioxide [CO?]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N?O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N?O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. PMID:21869517

  1. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2014-10-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7 % of the sample, and 67 % was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8 % of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  2. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  3. An Empirical Evaluation Of The Potential Of Public E-Procurement To Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Neupane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant potential benefits of e-procurement technology is reducing opportunities for corruption in public procurement processes. The authors identified anti-corruption capabilities of e-procurement through an extensive literature review and a theoretical model representing the impact of three latent variables: monopoly of power, information asymmetry, and transparency and accountability upon the dependent variable, the intent-to-adopt e-procurement. This research was guided by the Principal-Agent theory and collected the perceptions of 46 government officers of the potential of public e-procurement to reduce corruption in public procurement processes. Results were analysed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM approach. The findings suggest that the intent-to-adopt e-procurement has a positive and significant relationship with the independent variables that might inform developing countries in strategies to combat corruption in public procurement.

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Homosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderking, William R; Wold, Cheryl; Mayer, Kenneth H; Goldstein, Robert; Losina, Elena; Seage, George R

    1997-01-01

    Of 327 homosexual and bisexual men participating in an ongoing cohort study pertaining to risk factors for HIV infection who completed a survey regarding history of sexual abuse, 116 (35.5%) reported being sexually abused as children. Those abused were more likely to have more lifetime male partners, to report more childhood stress, to have lied in the past in order to have sex, and to have had unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 6 months (odds ratio 2.13; 95% confidence interval 1.15–3.95). Sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of unprotected receptive anal intercourse in a logistic model adjusting for potential confounding variables. PMID:9127231

  5. Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. PMID:25439639

  6. Blind, deaf, and dumb: why elder abuse goes unidentified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sharon W

    2011-12-01

    Elder abuse is a growing public health concern that affects elders regardless of residence, socioeconomic status, or geographic locale. Elder abuse includes acts of physical, psychological, verbal, and financial abuses as well as abandonment and neglect. Elder abuse has the potential to occur in multiple settings, whether in the home, rehabilitation centers, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and/or senior day care centers. Children, family members, friends, and formal caregivers are prospective perpetrators of elder abuse. Public policy changes are necessary to standardize and delineate guidelines and procedures for the detection and prevention of elder abuse in the future. PMID:22055900

  7. Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Thorlakson Tannis; Neufeldt Henry

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Subsistence farmers are among the people most vulnerable to current climate variability. Climate models predict that climate change will lead to warmer temperatures, increasing rainfall variability, and increasing severity and frequency of extreme weather events. Agroforestry, or the intentional use of trees in the cropping system, has been proposed by many development practitioners as a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. This study explo...

  8. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evalu...

  9. Methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation. PMID:17990840

  10. Tobacco specific nitrosamines and potential reduced exposure products for smokers: a preliminary evaluation of AdvanceTM

    OpenAIRE

    Breland, A.; Acosta, M.; Eissenberg, T.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method for evaluating the carcinogen delivery of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) like AdvanceTM, a PREP marketed to reduce smokers' exposure to one tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSN), NNK, a potent lung carcinogen.

  11. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  12. Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

  13. Computation of 3-D magnetostatic fields using a reduced scalar potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some improvements to the finite element computation of static magnetic fields in three dimensions using a reduced magnetic scalar potential. New methods are described for obtaining an edge element representation of the rotational part of the magnetic field from a given source current distribution. In the case when the current distribution is not known in advance, a boundary value problem is set up in terms of a current vector potential. An edge element representation of the solution can be directly used in the subsequent magnetostatic calculation. The magnetic field in a D.C. arc furnace is calculated by first determining the current distribution in terms of a current vector potential. A three dimensional problem involving a permanent magnet as well as a coil is solved and the magnetic field in some points is compared with measurement results

  14. Green tea catechins reduced the glycaemic potential of bread: an in vitro digestibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Royston; Gao, Jing; Ananingsih, Victoria K; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-08-01

    Green tea catechins are potent inhibitors of enzymes for carbohydrate digestion. However, the potential of developing low glycaemic index bakery food using green tea extract has not been investigated. Results of this study showed that addition of green tea extract (GTE) at 0.45%, 1%, and 2% concentration levels significantly reduced the glycaemic potential of baked and steamed bread. The average retention levels of catechins in the baked and steamed bread were 75.3-89.5% and 81.4-99.3%, respectively. Bread fortified with 2% GTE showed a significantly lower level of glucose release during the first 90 min of pancreatic digestion as well as a lower content of rapidly digested starch (RDS) content. A significantly negative correlation was found between the catechin retention level and the RDS content of bread. The potential of transforming bread into a low GI food using GTE fortification was proven to be promising. PMID:25766819

  15. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

  16. Design, Synthesis and Interaction at the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 of Lobeline Analogs: Potential Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Psychostimulant Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Peter A.; Zheng, Guangrong; Vartak, Ashish P.; Culver, John P.; Zheng, Fang; Horton, David B.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is considered as a new target for the development of novel therapeutics to treat psychostimulant abuse. Current information on the structure, function and role of VMAT2 in psychostimulant abuse are presented. Lobeline, the major alkaloidal constituent of Lobelia inflata, interacts with nicotinic receptors and with VMAT2. Numerous studies have shown that lobeline inhibits both the neurochemical and behavioral effects of amphetamine in rodents, and ...

  17. Dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential is derived which sheds light on the determinant's dependence on these quantities. This is done via a partial zeta regularization, formally applying a general formula for the zeta determinant of a differential operator in one variable with operator-valued coefficients. The resulting expression generalizes the known one for the free fermion determinant, obtained via Matsubara frequency summation, to the case of a general background gauge field; moreover there is no undetermined overall factor. Rigorous versions of the result are obtained in a continuous time-lattice space setting. The determinant expression reduces to a remarkably simple form in the low temperature limit. A program for using this to obtain insight into the QCD phase transition at zero temperature and nonzero density is outlined

  18. A case of drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pacini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.

  19. Development of new versions of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies with potentially reduced immunogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the widespread clinical use of CD34 antibodies for the purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, all the current anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are murine, which have the potential to elicit human antimouse antibody (HAMA) immune response. In the present study, we developed three new mouse anti-human CD34 mAbs which, respectively, belonged to class I, class II and class III CD34 epitope antibodies. In an attempt to reduce the immunogenicity of these three murine mAbs, their chimeric antibodies, which consisted of mouse antibody variable regions fused genetically to human antibody constant regions, were constructed and characterized. The anti-CD34 chimeric antibodies were shown to possess affinity and specificity similar to that of their respective parental murine antibodies. Due to the potentially better safety profiles, these chimeric antibodies might become alternatives to mouse anti-CD34 antibodies routinely used for clinical application

  20. On the potential of flameless oxidation to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, D.; Schuster, A.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology

    2010-04-15

    In order to meet stringent emission requirements, many existing coal-fired power plants, even those equipped with low-nitrogen oxide (NOx) burners, will be required to use additional DeNOx facilities. The high cost of currently available DeNOx facilities is a key motivation for developing a new clean pulverised coal combustion technology. This paper examined the potential of flameless oxidation (FLOX{sup R}) to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal combustion. Flameless oxidation of pulverised coal can be achieved by a high mixing ratio of the unburned mixture and the recirculated hot flue gases. In the pulverised coal flameless oxidation mode, intensive hot flue gas recirculation is enhanced by a high injection velocity of the combustion air, thereby diluting the reaction zone and heating up the coal particles. An integrated design of a FLOX burner for pulverized coal combustion has been in development and testing at the University of Stuttgart since 2005 under the framework of a European research project. This paper reported on tests that were carried out in a 20 kWt, electrically heated, pulverized coal combustion reactor. The objective of the current work was to examine the potential to reduce NOx emissions using the flameless oxidation mode instead of conventional flame combustion. Systematic parameter studies of the air ratio at the burner, the coal type and the secondary air velocity were made for flameless oxidation and flame combustion. Test results showed that at the current level of technical development, it is not yet possible to quantify the technical potential of the technology. Although the experiments demonstrated a considerable NOx reduction capability with the current FLOX-coal burner design, the reductions depended mainly on the burner air ratio and the coal type. It was concluded that the technology must be successfully demonstrated under unstaged conditions to determine its potential. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery

    OpenAIRE

    VanDeMark Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies that promote such...

  2. Stability of the minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential with reducible Higgs fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work takes up the problem of finding the absolute minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential for the reducible representation of Higgs fields consisting of the antisymmetric (A) and symmetric (S) traceless second-rank tensors. The stability of the minimum under changes on the potential's parameters is also investigated. Potentials containing S alone, both A and S coupled by a positive semi-definite term are minimized. Eigenstates of the Higgs mass matrix are calculated and related to the behavior of the SO(N)-action. Previous results relying on the absence of pseudo-Goldstone models and a new application of the geometry of the action show that the minimum is stable under small changes of the parameters. It is thus stable in an open region of the full eleven-dimensional parameter space of the most general potential of its kind. The isotropy group of the minimum is found to be either SO(N-p) x SO(p-2) x SO(2) or U({N-p}/2) x U(p/2), and the relative magnitudes of the vacuum expectation values of A and S are not constrained. For SO(10), U(3) x U(2) contains the standard model. One-loop Renormalization Group ?-functions are calculated for all parameters of the model

  3. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results and it showed that the result varied substantially. The most important parameters were the inclusion or exclusion of ILUC and changes in the feed formulation.

  4. DRUG ABUSE BY THE TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.VENUMADHAVA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in thecrime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impairjudgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assaultand impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability,addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.With most drug users being in the productive age group of 18-35 years, the loss in terms ofhuman potential is incalculable.

  5. Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)rition in tropical areas. (author)

  6. Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlakson Tannis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subsistence farmers are among the people most vulnerable to current climate variability. Climate models predict that climate change will lead to warmer temperatures, increasing rainfall variability, and increasing severity and frequency of extreme weather events. Agroforestry, or the intentional use of trees in the cropping system, has been proposed by many development practitioners as a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. This study explores whether and, if so, how agroforestry techniques can help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. From field research conducted in western Kenya, we find that households are not currently coping with climate-related hazards in a sustainable way. Farmers are aware of this, and believe that the most effective way to adapt to climate-related shocks is through improving their general standard of living. We evaluated agroforestry as one possible means of improving farmers’ well-being. By comparing farmers engaged in an agroforestry project with a control group of neighboring farmers, we find that involvement in agroforestry improves household’s general standard of living via improvements in farm productivity, off-farm incomes, wealth and the environmental conditions of their farm. We conclude that agroforestry techniques can be used as an effective part of a broader development strategy to help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate-related hazards.

  7. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  8. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  10. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  11. Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-12-01

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm-2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 The Depressed Child #5 Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking to Your Kids about Sex #73 Self-Injury in Adolescents #00 Definition of a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist ...

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  14. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ...

  15. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2015-02-01

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m(3); 3h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks. PMID:25549921

  16. Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NOx, 0.07 million tonnes in SOx and 4.1 million tonnes in CO2. These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ? Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. ? We examine noon reports fromns. ? We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ? A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ? Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ? Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

  17. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J; Cable, J; Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L; Lello, J

    2013-10-22

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  18. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  19. Potential transportation measures to reduce South Africa's dependency on crude oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Vanderschuren; R, Jobanputra; T, Lane.

    Full Text Available Transportation, including the movement of people and freight, accounts for over 60% of all oil consumed globally, and the world's transportation systems are over 90%o dependent on oil and oil byproducts. Oil represents the single largest item on South Africa's import account. Gasoline and diesel fue [...] ls, which are almost exclusively used for transportation services, form a significant proportion of these imports. Globally, transport systems have been built on an over-reliance on cheap oil, allowing towns, cities and the movement of people and goods to be designed around the automobile. People in most South African cities require the use of motorised transport in order to travel efficiently, as public transport systems either do not exist, are too sparse or are difficult to use in many areas. The predicted depletion of oil and thus rising prices will significantly affect the choice of transportation systems and their use, as well as increase South Africa's vulnerability to 'oil shocks'. Transport planning policies must, therefore, prepare for the likelihood of such shocks and ameliorate them via policy options. A precautionary approach needs to be adopted to reduce our dependency on oil. This paper addresses the global shift towards the reduction of transport's dependency on, or reduction in, oil consumption and describes potential ways in which South Africa can reduce its oil dependency along with an indication of a timeframe for implementation.

  20. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bano Rubeena; Agarwal V.K; Kalakoti Piyush; Ahmed Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The proce...

  1. Potential of Reducing the Environmental Impact of Civil Subsonic Aviation by Using Liquid Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Systems Technology

    2005-06-01

    Mainly owing to the dwindling fossil oil resources and the environmental concerns of discharging greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, it is essential to find an alternative to kerosene for civil aviation. The overall objective of this thesis is to evaluate the potential of reducing the environmental impact of civil subsonic aviation by using hydrogen fuel. Mainly due to the complex interactions among a number of different fields affected by the introduction of hydrogen in aviation and due to the nature of the research question, the chosen scientific approach for this thesis is to carry out a broad study covering a number of selected fields. Engine and combustion chamber design are studied in detail, along with the cruise altitude for minimum environmental impact. Airport implications, and available and envisioned methods for hydrogen production are discussed. From a technical point of view, it seems to be feasible to use hydrogen for aero gas turbines. In terms of pollutant emissions, hydrogen use offers the possibility of a significantly reduced number of emission species, resulting in only H{sub 2}O and small quantities of NO{sub x} emissions. For minimum environmental impact, the results suggest that cryoplanes should cruise at an altitude of about 2-3 km below where conventional aircraft cruise today. If the priority is to lower the mission fuel consumption, the results indicate that an engine employing increased combustor outlet temperature, overall pressure ratio and by-pass ratio, seems to be the most attractive choice. The mission NO{sub x} emissions, on the other hand, seem to be reduced by using engines with a weak core and lowered by-pass ratio. Ignoring the cost implications, from an airport infrastructure point of view, it seems feasible to change to hydrogen use. With respect to the availability of energy, it would be reasonable to change from kerosene to liquid hydrogen as fuel for all civil aviation refuelling in Sweden.

  2. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

    2012-09-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

  3. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH, were detected in tap water from one sampling point at concentrations of 1.61 and 0.29ngL(-1), respectively. The preliminary human health risk characterization showed that no toxic effects could be expected at the detected concentration level in tap water. The screening level risk assessment showed that MOR, EDDP and the THC metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were present in at least one of the sampling sites in a concentration leading to a Hazard Quotient (HQ) value between 1.0 and 10.0, thus indicating some possible adverse effects. The cumulative HQ or Toxic units (TUs) calculated for each of the groups studied showed that opioids and cannabinoids were present at concentrations high enough to potentially generate some adverse effects on at least one sampling point. PMID:24908641

  4. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David

    2012-01-01

    Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA permit comparable measures among species. We conclude that estimates of AOO based on fine-resolution distribution models are more robust tools for risk assessment than traditional systems, allowing a better understanding of species ranges at habitat level.

  5. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals.

  6. Reducing the potential for conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of potential conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities are identified and analyzed. Programs and policies are suggested that could reduce conflict over the siting and operation of such facilities

  7. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  8. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  9. Evaluation of abuse and dependence in addiction monitoring systems: tramadol as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussin, Anne; Doazan-d'Ouince, Odile; Géniaux, Hélène; Halberer, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an evaluation of the potential for abuse of and dependence on a drug from the data obtained from the different pharmacoepidemiological tools used by the French network for evaluation and information on pharmacodependence and addiction monitoring taking the example of tramadol. Comparison of the data from spontaneous reports with surveys in specific populations and with evaluations of indicators of diverted uses does not highlight a major problem of tramadol abuse and dependence in terms of public health, but stresses the importance of paying attention to the signal. This example of addiction monitoring of tramadol illustrates the interest of comparing results obtained from different validated sources. The implementation of repeated observational programs of abuse of and dependence on psychoactive drugs is an important aid to health authorities to define the content of the information to be delivered or regulatory decisions to reduce these problematic uses. PMID:25858577

  10. Consumer awareness and attitudes related to new potential reduced-exposure tobacco product brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Erik; O’Connell, Mary E.; Marcus, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, there has been a proliferation of potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs) marketed that claim to be less harmful or less addictive, compared with conventional cigarettes. Tobacco control scientists have raised concerns about the potential adverse impact of marketing of these products for smoking prevention and cessation efforts. Although these products have not been widely used among smokers, there are few data available on consumers’ awareness and attitudes toward these products. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of adults 18 years and older regarding health communication and associated beliefs and behaviors. Our study population consisted of 6,369 respondents in 2003 and 5,586 respondents in 2005, of whom 19% were current smokers and 28% were former smokers. Results: In 2005, 45% of respondents had heard of at least one PREP product, while only 4.8% had actually tried one. Awareness and use were substantially higher among current smokers (55.6% and 12.7%). Awareness was highest for Marlboro Ultra Smooth (MUS) (30.2%), Eclipse (18.2%), Quest (7.8%), and Ariva (5.4%), while less than 2% for any other product. Of respondents who had tried a PREP, 50% cited harm reduction or assistance in quitting as a reason for trying the product and 30% believed that the product was less harmful than their usual brand. In the combined 2003 and 2005 dataset, 54.4% of current smokers stated that they would be “very” or “somewhat” interested in trying a cigarette advertised as less harmful, while only 3.2% of former smokers and 1.1% of never-smokers were interested. Among current smokers, interest was higher in females and non-Hispanic Whites, and among daily smokers, those who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day and those who were not considering quitting. Smokers interested in PREPs were substantially more likely to rate their perceived lung cancer risk as high (40.3% vs. 8.3%) and to worry frequently about developing lung cancer (19.7% vs. 4%). Discussion: These results suggest that there is a substantial level of interest among current smokers in cigarettes marketed with claims of reduced exposure or harm. Of particular concern is that “health conscious” smokers and heavy smokers not planning to quit may be especially vulnerable to PREP marketing messages and view such products as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:19541949

  11. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  12. What potential has tobacco control for reducing health inequalities? The New Zealand situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakely Tony

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this Commentary, we aim to synthesize recent epidemiological data on tobacco and health inequalities for New Zealand and present it in new ways. We also aim to describe both existing and potential tobacco control responses for addressing these inequalities. In New Zealand smoking prevalence is higher amongst M?ori and Pacific peoples (compared to those of "New Zealand European" ethnicity and amongst those with low socioeconomic position (SEP. Consequently the smoking-related mortality burden is higher among these populations. Regarding the gap in mortality between low and high socioeconomic groups, 21% and 11% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking in 1996–99. Regarding the gap in mortality between M?ori and non-M?ori/non-Pacific, 5% and 8% of this gap for men and women was estimated to be due to smoking. The estimates from both these studies are probably moderate underestimates due to misclassification bias of smoking status. Despite the modest relative contribution of smoking to these gaps, the absolute number of smoking-attributable deaths is sizable and amenable to policy and health sector responses. There is some evidence, from New Zealand and elsewhere, for interventions that reduce smoking by low-income populations and indigenous peoples. These include tobacco taxation, thematically appropriate mass media campaigns, and appropriate smoking cessation support services. But there are as yet untried interventions with major potential. A key one is for a tighter regulatory framework that could rapidly shift the nicotine market towards pharmaceutical-grade nicotine (or smokeless tobacco products and away from smoked tobacco.

  13. Childhood abuse : pregnancy and childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

  14. Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

  15. Reduced postactivation depression of soleus H reflex and root evoked potential after transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer C; Stein, Richard B; Roy, François D

    2015-07-01

    Postactivation depression of the Hoffmann (H) reflex is associated with a transient period of suppression following activation of the reflex pathway. In soleus, the depression lasts for 100-200 ms during voluntary contraction and up to 10 s at rest. A reflex root evoked potential (REP), elicited after a single pulse of transcutaneous stimulation to the thoracolumbar spine, has been shown to exhibit similar suppression. The present study systematically characterized the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on postactivation depression using double-pulse H reflexes and REPs. A TMS pulse reduced the period of depression to 10-15 ms for both reflexes. TMS could even produce postactivation facilitation of the H reflex, as the second reflex response was increased to 243 ± 51% of control values at the 75-ms interval. The time course was qualitatively similar for the REP, yet the overall increase was less. While recovery of the H reflex was slower in the relaxed muscle, the profile exhibited a distinct bimodal shape characterized by an early peak at the 25-ms interval, reaching 72 ± 23% of control values, followed by a trough at 50 ms, and then a gradual recovery at intervals > 50 ms. The rapid recovery of two successively depressed H reflexes, ?25 ms apart, was also possible with double-pulse TMS. The effect of the TMS-induced corticospinal excitation on postactivation depression may be explained by a combination of pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, although further investigation is required to distinguish between them. PMID:25995355

  16. Estimating Potential and Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions in Lithuanian Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egl? Jaraminien?

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU is considering increasing the GHG emissions reduction target by 2020 from 20% to 30% by committing each member state to tighten up its emission reduction goals. According to the recent study such decision could cost some 2 365 million LTL to Lithuanian economy. Evaluation and comparison of CO2 abatement costs incurred by the state implementing a variety of measures in different sectors allow choosing a most cost effective policy scenario. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions related to energy use in buildings. First, this paper reviews the role of the Lithuanian building stock in overall GHG emissions. Then the paper examines the existing studies on the CO2 mitigation potential and cost in buildings. Given the limitations of existing evaluation and lack of comprehensive modelling in the existing studies, this paper proposes a framework for examining the technology options aimed to inform policy making on the options to reduce CO2 emissions in Lithuanian housing and service sectors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.680

  17. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ? From 1990 to 2008, CO2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ? Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ? The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ? The key factor forICE-vehicles. ? The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ? Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  18. The Novel Gamma Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 Reduces the Tumor Initiating Potential of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Miguel F.; Medicherla, Ratna; Haimovic, Adele; Menendez, Silvia; Shang, Shulian; Pavlick, Anna; Shao, Yongzhao; Darvishian, Farbod; Boylan, John F.; Osman, Iman; Hernando, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Several reports have demonstrated a role for aberrant NOTCH signaling in melanoma genesis and progression, prompting us to explore if targeting this pathway is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma. We targeted NOTCH signaling using RO4929097, a novel inhibitor of gamma secretase, which is a key component of the enzymatic complex that cleaves and activates NOTCH. The effects of RO4929097 on the oncogenic and stem cell properties of a panel of melanoma cell lines were tested both in vitro and in vivo, using xenograft models. In human primary melanoma cell lines, RO4929097 decreased the levels of NOTCH transcriptional target HES1. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation and impaired ability to form colonies in soft agar and to organize in tridimensional spheres. Moreover, RO4929097 affected the growth of human primary melanoma xenograft in NOD/SCID/IL2gammaR-/- mice and inhibited subsequent tumor formation in a serial xenotransplantation model, suggesting that inhibition of NOTCH signaling suppresses the tumor initiating potential of melanoma cells. In addition, RO4929097 decreased tumor volume and blocked the invasive growth pattern of metastatic melanoma cell lines in vivo. Finally, increased gene expression of NOTCH signaling components correlated with shorter post recurrence survival in metastatic melanoma cases. Our data support NOTCH inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy against melanoma. PMID:21980408

  19. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: clinical evaluation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer N; Breland, Alison B; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

  20. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress : 5 year follow-up of a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points as repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress was found between groups at 1 and 5 year follow-up. Difference in trajectories was found for the two groups (time*treatment group interaction, CR-PTSD, P = 0.012 and GSI, P = 0.021). Level of PTSD symptoms on the CR-PTSD was validated at 5 year follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, ?2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch.

  1. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  2. Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

  3. Wolbachia Reduces the Transmission Potential of Dengue-Infected Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yixin H.; Carrasco, Alison M.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; Beebe, Nigel W.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Simmons, Cameron P.; O’Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue viruses (DENV) are the causative agents of dengue, the world’s most prevalent arthropod-borne disease with around 40% of the world’s population at risk of infection annually. Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is being developed as a biocontrol strategy against dengue because it limits replication of the virus in the mosquito. The Wolbachia strain wMel, which has been introduced into the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, has been shown to invade and spread to near fixation in field releases. Standard measures of Wolbachia’s efficacy for blocking virus replication focus on the detection and quantification of virus in mosquito tissues. Examining the saliva provides a more accurate measure of transmission potential and can reveal the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), that is, the time it takes virus to arrive in the saliva following the consumption of DENV viremic blood. EIP is a key determinant of a mosquito’s ability to transmit DENVs, as the earlier the virus appears in the saliva the more opportunities the mosquito will have to infect humans on subsequent bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a non-destructive assay to repeatedly quantify DENV in saliva from wMel-infected and Wolbachia-free wild-type control mosquitoes following the consumption of a DENV-infected blood meal. We show that wMel lengthens the EIP, reduces the frequency at which the virus is expectorated and decreases the dengue copy number in mosquito saliva as compared to wild-type mosquitoes. These observations can at least be partially explained by an overall reduction in saliva produced by wMel mosquitoes. More generally, we found that the concentration of DENV in a blood meal is a determinant of the length of EIP, saliva virus titer and mosquito survival. Conclusions/Significance The saliva-based traits reported here offer more disease-relevant measures of Wolbachia’s effects on the vector and the virus. The lengthening of EIP highlights another means, in addition to the reduction of infection frequencies and DENV titers in mosquitoes, by which Wolbachia should operate to reduce DENV transmission in the field. PMID:26115104

  4. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso / Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.J., Schneider; P., Ardenghi.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópic [...] o. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países. Abstract in english The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA), is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid recept [...] ors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

  5. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora" and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Schneider

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA, is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

  6. Sexual Abuse Of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

  7. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  8. Is Seroquel Developing an Illicit Reputation for Misuse/Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been the subject of a series of case reports that suggest a potential for misuse/abuse. The available cases indicate a male predominance; oral, intranasal, or intravenous routes of administration; misuse/abuse in jail or inpatient psychiatric settings; and subjects with extensive histories of polysubstance abuse. While possible pharmacological explanations have been proffered, compared to the other atypical antipsychotics, there is no clear explanati...

  9. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Salvia Steroids (Anabolic) Tobacco/Nicotine Emerging Trends Commonly Abused ... are some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Opioids CNS depressants Stimulants Trends in prescription drug abuse ...

  10. Intergroup Contact as a Tool for Reducing, Resolving, and Preventing Intergroup Conflict: Evidence, Limitations, and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting …

  11. Family abuse of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, J; Austin, E

    1980-08-01

    In 12 cases of family abuse of disabled elderly persons, the majority of the abused were women. Caretakers included spouses, children, siblings or other relatives. Abuse was both physical and verbal/psychologic. Neglect, the most common form of physical abuse, sometimes resulted in decubitus ulcers and vermin infestation. Misuse of medical therapy and nutrition were other areas of physical abuse. Psychologic abuse included derogation, infantilization, and threats of institutionalization, abandonment, and homicide. Possible causes of abuse included alcoholism in the caretaker, financial concerns, and long-term family conflicts. Various recommendations are made for the management of abusive families. PMID:7400506

  12. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  13. Intergroup contact as a tool for reducing, resolving, and preventing intergroup conflict: evidence, limitations, and potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ramiah, A.; Hewstone, M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting examples from conflict zones around the world. Rather than accepting, as some scholars do, that conflict is inevitable, we argue that intergroup contac...

  14. Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the year leading up to the survey. The consequences of methamphetamine abuse are terrible for the individual––psychologically, medically, and ... whole communities, causing new waves of crime, unemployment, child neglect or abuse, and other social ills. A 2009 report from ...

  15. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  16. Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Holly R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important arboviruses of humans and cause significant disease. Infection with DENV elicits antibody responses to the envelope glycoprotein, predominantly against immunodominant, cross-reactive, weakly-neutralizing epitopes. These weakly-neutralizing antibodies are implicated in enhancing infection via Fc? receptor bearing cells and can lead to increased viral loads that are associated with severe disease. Here we describe results from the development and testing of cross-reactivity reduced DENV-2 DNA vaccine candidates that contain substitutions in immunodominant B cell epitopes of the fusion peptide and domain III of the envelope protein. Results Cross-reactivity reduced and wild-type vaccine candidates were similarly immunogenic in outbred mice and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody, however mice immunized with cross-reactivity reduced vaccines produced significantly reduced levels of immunodominant cross-reactive antibodies. Sera from mice immunized with wild-type, fusion peptide-, or domain III- substitution containing vaccines enhanced heterologous DENV infection in vitro, unlike sera from mice immunized with a vaccine containing a combination of both fusion peptide and domain III substitutions. Passive transfer of immune sera from mice immunized with fusion peptide and domain III substitutions also reduced the development of severe DENV disease in AG129 mice when compared to mice receiving wild type immune sera. Conclusions Reducing cross-reactivity in the envelope glycoprotein of DENV may be an approach to improve the quality of the anti-DENV immune response.

  17. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  18. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karaku?

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

  19. Argon indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulation: reduced potential phototoxicity with a fixed safety filter.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitacre, M. M.; Manoukian, N.; Mainster, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    A new argon indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulator is presented which uses a red helium-neon laser aiming beam. An interference filter protects the operator from green or blue-green treatment beam reflections without impairing visualisation of the aiming beam or significant retinal anatomy. The protective filter is fixed in place, eliminating the weight, noise, and potential failure of mechanically switched filters. The red aiming beam has a negligible potential for producing photochemical ...

  20. A study of New York City obstetrics units demonstrates the potential for reducing hospital inpatient capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Linda V; Liu, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Hospitals are under significant pressure from payers to reduce costs. The single largest fixed cost for a hospital is inpatient beds, yet there is significant variation in hospital capacity utilization. We study bed capacity in New York City hospital obstetrics units and find that while many hospitals have an insufficient number of beds to provide timely access to care, overall there is significant excess capacity. Our findings, coupled with current demographic and clinical practice trends, indicate that a large fraction of obstetrics units nationwide could likely reduce their bed capacity while assuring timely access to care, resulting in large savings in capital and staffing costs. Given emerging health care delivery and payment models that will likely decrease demand for other types of hospital beds, our study suggests that data-based methodologies should be used by hospitals and policy makers to identify opportunities for reducing excess bed capacity in other inpatient units as well. PMID:25701578

  1. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  2. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  3. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  4. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  5. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  6. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Age-related retinal inflammation is reduced by 670 nm light via increased mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinopoulos, Ioannis; Colman, Alan; Hogg, Chris; Heckenlively, John; Jeffery, Glen

    2013-02-01

    The mitochondrial theory of aging argues that oxidative stress, caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, is associated with decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production leading to cellular degeneration. The rate of this degradation is linked to metabolic demand, with the outer retina having the greatest in the body, showing progressive inflammation, macrophage invasion, and cell loss, resulting in visual decline. Mitochondrial function shifts in vitro after 670-nm light exposure, reducing oxidative stress and increasing ATP production. In vivo, it ameliorates induced pathology. Here, we ask whether 670 nm light shifts mitochondrial function and reduces age-related retinal inflammation. Aged mice were exposed to only five 90-second exposures over 35 hours. This significantly increased mitochondrial membrane polarization and significantly reduced macrophage numbers and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels, a key proinflammatory cytokine. Three additional inflammatory markers were assessed; complement component 3d (C3d), a marker of chronic inflammation and calcitonin, and a systemic inflammatory biomarker were significantly reduced. Complement component 3b (C3b), a marker of acute inflammation, was not significantly altered. These results provide a simple route to combating inflammation in an aging population with declining visual function and may be applicable to clinical conditions where retinal inflammation is a key feature. PMID:22595370

  8. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  9. Children's Rights Regarding Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1992-01-01

    Sees children's rights as important arena in struggle for human dignity. Asserts that flagrant violation of rights of the child occurs when he or she is abused by a parent or caretaker. Explains children's rights with regard to physical abuse, outlines various definitions of abuse, and discusses the incidence and consequences of child abuse.…

  10. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  11. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  12. Use of different organic wastes in reducing the potential leaching of propanil, isoxaben, cadusafos and pencycuron through the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Vela, Nuria; Navarro, Simón

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of four different organic wastes (OW)-composted sheep manure (CSM), spent coffee grounds (SCG), composted pine bark (CPB) and coir (CR)-on the potential groundwater pollution of propanil and isoxaben (herbicides), cadusafos (insecticide) and pencycuron (fungicide) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, leaching studies were conducted using disturbed soil columns filled with a clay loam soil (Hipercalcic calcisol). The addition of organic matter (OM) drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of agro-industrial and composted OW in reducing the groundwater pollution by pesticide drainage. PMID:24901963

  13. Emerging infectious diseases and pandemic potential: status quo and reducing risk of global spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Dar, Osman; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heymann, David L

    2014-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an important public health threat and infections with pandemic potential are a major global risk. Although much has been learned from previous events the evidence for mitigating actions is not definitive and pandemic preparedness remains a political and scientific challenge. A need exists to develop trust and effective meaningful collaboration between countries to help with rapid detection of potential pandemic infections and initiate public health actions. This collaboration should be within the framework of the International Health Regulations. Collaboration between countries should be encouraged in a way that acknowledges the benefits that derive from sharing biological material and establishing equitable collaborative research partnerships. The focus of pandemic preparedness should include upstream prevention through better collaboration between human and animal health sciences to enhance capacity to identify potential pathogens before they become serious human threats, and to prevent their emergence where possible. The one-health approach provides a means to develop this and could potentially enhance alignment of global health and trade priorities. PMID:25189351

  14. Self-Potential Measurements of a Pore-Water Modification Technique to Reduce Earthquake-Induced Liquefaction Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D.; Wolf, L. W.; Elton, D.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the use of electrical self-potential as a methodology for detecting the presence of hydrogel, a substance used in pore-water modification for reducing earthquake-induced soil liquefaction susceptibility in loose, saturated sands. Conventional soil modification alters the bulk physical properties of soil at a site, reducing or eliminating the risk of liquefaction during an earthquake. As an alternative, polyacrylamide hydrogel injected into the soil modifies the pore fluid in a soil mass to achieving this goal. Of primary concern in this method is verifying the subsurface hydrogel location after injection. Three laboratory experiments using were conducted to determine if injected hydrogel in a soil could be detected using the self-potential method. The experiments used a PVC container of saturated Ottawa sand with a saturated Ottawa sand and hydrogel inclusion. A 0.40% concentration by weight of hydrogel was used for two experiments. The third experiment used a reduced hydrogel concentration of 0.25%. Experimental results indicated a significant potential difference, approximately 40-60 mV, between 0.40% hydrogel treated Ottawa sand and plain saturated Ottawa sand. For the hydrogel concentration at 0.25%, an approximately 40 mV potential difference was observed. The size of the anomaly associated with the hydrogel-sand mixture in the laboratory experiment suggests that the electrical self-potential method should be investigated further for its use in detecting hydrogel under field conditions. Self-potential Experiment 1 graphic presentation of results. The blue data are measurements taken across the boundary between the hydrogel inclusion and the surrounding sand. The green data are measurements taken between electrodes all located in the surrounding sand, and the orange data are measurements taken between electrodes all located within the hydrogel inclusion.

  15. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  16. Substance abuse, adherence with antiretroviral therapy, and clinical outcomes among HIV-infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Gregory M

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. Substance abuse is an important comorbidity that affects the delivery and outcomes of HIV medical management. In this paper I will review data examining the associations between substance abuse and HIV treatment and potential strategies to improve outcomes in this population that warrant further investigation. Current - but not past - substance abuse adversely affects engagement in care, acceptance of antiretrovir...

  17. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  18. Microbial pretreatment of biomass: potential for reducing severity of thermochemical biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Fred A; Hamilton, Jenny E; Nguyen, Quang A

    2003-01-01

    Typical pretreatment requires high-energy (steam and electricity) and corrosion-resistant, high-pressure reactors. A review of the literature suggests that fungal pretreatment could potentially lower the severity requirements of acid, temperature and time. These reductions in severity are also expected to result in less biomass degradation and consequently lower inhibitor concentrations compared to conventional thermochemical pretreatment. Furthermore, potential advantages of fungal pretreatment of agricultural residues, such as corn stover, are suggested by its effectiveness in improving the cellulose digestibility of many types of forage fiber and agricultural wastes. Our preliminary tests show a three- to five-fold improvement in enzymatic cellulose digestibility of corn stover after pretreatment with Cyathus stercoreus; and a ten- to 100-fold reduction in shear force needed to obtain the same shear rate of 3.2 to 7 rev/s, respectively, after pretreatment with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. PMID:12721473

  19. Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

  20. Estimating a mosquito repellent’s potential to reduce malaria in communities

    OpenAIRE

    A E Kiszewski, S. T. Darling

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Probability models for assessing a mosquito repellent’s potential toreduce malaria transmission are not readily available to public health researchers. To provide ameans for estimating the epidemiological efficacy of mosquito repellents in communities, wedeveloped a simple mathematical model.Study design: A static probability model is presented to simulate malaria infection in a communityduring a single transmission season. The model includes five parameters—sporo...

  1. The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anukam, Kingsley C

    2007-01-01

    Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last d...

  2. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; J. L. Harwood; Lello, J

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed a...

  3. Oxytocin Reduces Background Anxiety in a Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Missig, Galen; Ayers, Luke W; SCHULKIN, JAY; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin reportedly decreases anxious feelings in humans and may therefore have therapeutic value for anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD patients have exaggerated startle responses, a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats may have face validity as an animal model to examine the efficacy of oxytocin in treating these symptoms. Oxytocin (0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0??g, subcutaneously) was given either 30?min before fear conditioning, immediately after fe...

  4. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, A.; Read, S.; Mcgale, P.; Darby, S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: United Kingdom. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention and remediatio...

  5. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kate?ina Randová

    2010-01-01

    Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates”) without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liabili...

  6. Potentiation of left ventricular function at a reduced exercise level: Assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients can't maintain peak workload (P) for prolonged imaging. The authors evaluated the effect of a reduced workload following maximal supine bicycle exercise on left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion in 16 pts. with CAD (?50% stenosis in ?1 major coronary artery) and 9 normals who underwent symptom-limited RVG. After acquisition of resting and maximal exercise LAO views, the pts. exercise level was decreased to 60% of the peak workload achieved. A repeat LAO view was then obtained at the reduced workload (post peak) (PP) 4-8 min. after the P. A significant increase in ejection fraction from Peak to PP was seen in the entire patient group, from 62-66% (p<.005). Pts. with CAD increased from 58% to 62% (p<.01), while normals tended to increase from 69% to 73% (p=.16). PP wall motion also tended to improve compared with Peak wall motion in 12 cases studied. PPEF-PEF was not significantly different between patients with CAD and normals. The PPEF-rest EF difference (PPEF-REF) was significantly different at 13.8 in normals and 7 in pts. with CAD (p<.015). The Peak EF-rest EF difference (PEF-REF) was 9.8 in normals and 2.3 in pts. with CAD (p<.02). PPEF-REF, PEF-REF, and the presence of CAD wre correlated with Peak exercise level in watts (r=.56-.68; p=<.03). Thus, the PPEF-REF and PEF-REF were related to both exercise level and presence of CAD in this series. Improved EF occurs with PP workloads in pts. with CAD and tends to occur in normals. Wall motion also tends to improve in both groups. These occurrences must be considered in interpreting RVGs obtained at reduced workloads after Peak exercise has been achieved

  7. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

  8. Safety and abuse testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, G.

    1978-01-01

    A series of abuse tests on large lithium thionyl chloride cells was initiated. Performance data obtained in testing rectangular 2,000 and 10,000 ampere-hour cells are discussed and graphically presented.

  9. What is Elder Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion Services (Title IIID) Falls Prevention HIV/AIDS Medicare Outreach Nutrition Services Oral Health Elder Rights Protection Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention of Elder Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation National Center ...

  10. Substance Abuse/Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therefore should seek HIV testing. Use the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Services Locator to find a HIV testing ... treatment or rehab? You can use the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Services Locator to find a substance abuse ...

  11. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital ...

  12. Child abuse - sexual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minor children to sexual activity. This means a child is forced or talked into sex or sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling)

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Print Home » Cocaine » Letter from the Director Cocaine Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine abuse and addiction continue ...

  15. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient ...

  16. Substance Abuse and SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

  17. Reduced chromosomal puffing in Chironomus tentans as a biomarker for potentially genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentivegna, C.S. (Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Cooper, K.R. (Rutgers, The State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology)

    1993-06-01

    Chromosomal puffing in the salivary glands of larval Chironomus tentans was developed as a biomarker for genotoxic substances. Reduced chromosomal puffing was considered an indication of decreased RNA synthesis. Third- or fourth-instar larvae were exposed to test chemicals in an artificial substrate under static conditions. Chromosomes from glands of individual larvae were stained with methyl green and pyronin Y. The widths of Balbiani rings 1 and 2 were measured. Three carcinogens with different mechanisms of action were tested, benzo[a] pyrene(BaP), actinomycin D(Act D), and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Puff size was statistically reduced by all three chemicals with varying potency. Lowest-observable-effect levels were 0.5 nmol BaP, 6.0 nmol Act D, and 24443,000 nmol DMN. The degree of response was influenced by exposure time, applied dose, individual sensitivity, and possibly chemical hydrophobicity. Biomarker specificity was determined by testing a weak carcinogen, benzo[e]pyrene(BeP), and an acutely toxic noncarcinogen, naphthalene(NP). The effective dose of BaP was four orders of magnitude higher than that of BaP. Only lethal doses of NP had statistically significant effects on puff size, LD50 = 25,000 nmol. Approximately 40% of the larvae in the laboratory population appeared tolerant to the effects of BaP. Advantages of this biomarker were its association with a known mechanism of action and measurement of the whole-organism integrated response.

  18. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  19. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  20. Vaccines for Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by ...

  1. Synthesis and estimation of calorific value of a structured lipid-potential reduced calorie fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, S; Prasad, R B; Kaimal, T N; Ghafoorunissa; Rao, S H

    1999-10-01

    The majority of reduced calorie fats and fat substitutes available today, though similar in texture and flavor to natural fats, contain fatty acids that are not usually present in edible oils and fats and thus do not fully match the chemistry and functions of natural fats. For example, such products do not provide nutritionally important essential fatty acids (EFA). In this investigation, we prepared and evaluated a reduced calorie fat, prepared entirely from natural fats, taking advantage of the fact that long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA), such as behenic acid (22:0), are poorly absorbed. Mustard oil (MO) and sunflower oil (SO) were used as substrates to yield a structured lipid (SL). The product, being derived from a natural vegetable oil, would thus provide EFA, as would a native fat, a feature not provided by the low-calorie fats available in the market. Erucic acid (22:1) was isolated from MO by a lipase (EC 3.1.1.3)-catalyzed reaction. It was then hydrogenated to behenic acid, the ethyl ester of which was subsequently enzymatically transesterified with SO to yield a plastic fat containing about 30-35% behenic acid. Absorption of this fat was studied in Wistar rats. In a preliminary single oral dose experiment, rats were fed equal amounts (2 mL) of SO and the SL. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels were estimated after 1, 2, and 3 h of feeding. The significantly lower concentration of plasma TAG in the 2-h sample, observed in the SL-fed group compared to the SO-fed group (Poil. SO (10%) was added to the diet of the control group, and SL (10%) was added to the diet of the experimental group. Feed consumption, as well as body weights, was recorded during the experiment. The growth pattern of the experimental group was identical to that of the control group during the period of study. The mean feed intake (9.8 g/d/rat for the control group vs. 9.9 g/d/rat for the experimental group) indicated good palatability of the product. In conclusion, the enzymatically synthesized SL containing EFA and natural antioxidants has nutritional properties almost identical to those of natural fats, and can be used as a reduced calorie fat. PMID:10580332

  2. Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Hannah V; Molyneaux, Philip L; Maher, Toby M

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120) is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited. PMID:23818761

  3. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  4. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  5. Reduced neophobia: a potential mechanism explaining the emergence of self-medicative behavior in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, A Vanina; Hall, Jeffery O; Miller, James; Spackman, Casey; Villalba, Juan J

    2014-08-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. For instance, emerging behavioral evidence suggests that ruminants self-select medicinal compounds and foods that reduce parasitic burdens. However, the mechanism/s leading to self-medicative behaviors in sick animals is still unknown. We hypothesized that when homeostasis is disturbed by a parasitic infection, consumers should respond by increasing the acceptability of novel foods relative to healthy individuals. Three groups of lambs (N=10) were dosed with 0 (Control-C), 5000 (Medium-M) and 15000 (High-H) L3 stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus. When parasites had reached the adult stage, all animals were offered novel foods and flavors in pens and then novel forages at pasture. Ingestive responses by parasitized lambs were different from non-parasitized Control animals and they varied with the type of food and flavor on offer. Parasitized lambs consumed initially more novel beet pulp and less novel beet pulp mixed with tannins than Control lambs, but the pattern reversed after 9d of exposure to these foods. Parasitized lambs ingested more novel umami-flavored food and less novel bitter-flavored food than Control lambs. When offered choices of novel unflavored and bitter-flavored foods or different forage species to graze, parasitized lambs selected a more diverse array of foods than Control lambs. Reductions in food neophobia or selection of a more diverse diet may enhance the likelihood of sick herbivores encountering novel medicinal plants and nutritious forages that contribute to restore health. PMID:24955494

  6. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  7. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

  8. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  9. The potential role of probiotics in reducing poverty-associated infections in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Anukam

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” [1]. The potential benefits of their use have not been adequately investigated, especially in the developing world. Japan introduced Yakult, a probiotic fermented food drink in 1935, and in the Northern hemisphere, research and use of probiotics has gained an unprecedented momentum in the last decade [2]. Use of probiotics is not uncommon in Europe [3], but in many developing countries use of probiotics in its present definition is a foreign concept. Some African traditional foods are fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and some may have probiotic properties, but clinical evidence is yet to be deciphered. Nonetheless, many communities rushing to “westernize” are losing their fermented food traditions.

  10. Reducing lung function decline in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: potential of nintedanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock HV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hannah V Woodcock,1,2 Philip L Molyneaux,1,3 Toby M Maher1–31Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, 2Centre for Respiratory Research, University College London, 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic lung disease with no clear etiology and a paucity of therapeutic options. Nintedanib (previously known as BIBF 1120 is a tyrosine kinase receptor antagonist which inhibits a number of key receptors, including those for platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF. These growth factors are profibrotic and each has been investigated as a potential standalone therapeutic target in IPF. Simultaneous inhibition of these receptors, with an analog of nintedanib, has proved to be effective in experimental animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This observation, together with extensive safety and pharmacokinetic data from studies of nintedanib in malignancy, paved the way for the clinical development of this drug in IPF. The Phase IIb TOMORROW trial demonstrated that treatment with nintedanib may potentially slow decline in lung function, decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations, and improve quality of life in patients with IPF. While these observations are drawn from a single clinical trial, taken together with the preclinical data they suggest that nintedanib may yet become an important therapeutic option for individuals with IPF. The results of ongoing parallel, international, multicenter Phase III clinical trials are therefore eagerly awaited.Keywords: interstitial lung disease, BIBF 1120, clinical trials, usual interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbation

  11. The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  12. UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

  13. Polyphenolic extract from maple syrup potentiates antibiotic susceptibility and reduces biofilm formation of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisuria, Vimal B; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  14. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25931268

  15. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  16. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake and qualitatively by light microscopy of histological sections. One-way analyses of variance at the 0.05 level revealed no significant difference in strontium 85 uptake of the different groups, and no qualitative differences in osteoinduction could be detected by light microscopy. Ossicles consisting of bone and bone marrow were seen in the recovered implants of all groups.

  17. Honeybees and nectar nicotine: deterrence and reduced survival versus potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2012-02-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by plants for herbivore defence are often found in floral nectar, but their effect on the foraging behaviour and physiological performance of pollinators is largely unknown. Nicotine is highly toxic to most herbivores, and nicotine-based insecticides may contribute to current pollinator declines. We examined the effects of nectar nicotine on honeybee foraging choices and worker longevity. Free-flying honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) workers from six colonies were given a choice between multiple nicotine concentrations (0-1000 ?M) in artificial nectar (0.15-0.63 M sucrose). The dose-dependent deterrent effect of nicotine was stronger in lower sugar concentrations, but even the highest nicotine concentrations did not completely repel honeybees, i.e., bees did not stop feeding on these diets. Nicotine in nectar acts as a partial repellent, which may keep pollinators moving between plants and enhance cross-pollination. In the second part of the study, newly emerged workers from 12 colonies were caged and fed one of four nicotine concentrations (0-300 ?M) in 0.63 M sucrose for 21 days. Moderate (?30 ?M) nicotine concentrations had no significant detrimental effect, but high nicotine concentrations reduced the survival of caged workers and their nectar storage in the honey comb. In contrast, worker groups that survived poorly on sugar-only diets demonstrated increased survival on all nicotine diets. In the absence of alternative nectar sources, honeybees tolerate naturally occurring nectar nicotine concentrations; and low concentrations can even be beneficial to honeybees. However, high nicotine concentrations may have a detrimental effect on colony fitness. PMID:22185936

  18. Preventing Elder Abuse by Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abusive caregivers: An unconventional approach to an intervention dilemma. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 1 (4), 73– ... Co-authored by Candace Heisler, JD. ? Communities Uniting: Volunteers in Elder Abuse (1997) ? Financial Abuse of the ...

  19. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino acid classes are sufficient to encode specificity in protein–protein interactions, and provide a starting point to develop more complicated energy functions.

  20. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the disulfide-bond reducing potential of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Anita; Dóka, Éva; Fábián, István; Nagy, Péter

    2015-04-30

    The significance of persulfide species in hydrogen sulfide biology is increasingly recognized. However, the molecular mechanisms of their formation remain largely elusive. The obvious pathway of the reduction of biologically abundant disulfide moieties by sulfide was challenged on both thermodynamic and kinetic grounds. Using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), also known as Ellman's reagent) as a model disulfide we conducted a comprehensive kinetic study for its reaction with sulfide. The bimolecular reaction is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant of 889 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1) at pH = 7.4. pH dependence of the rate law revealed that the reaction proceeds via the bisulfide anion species with an initial nucleophilic thiol-disulfide exchange reaction to give 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) and TNB-persulfide with a pH independent second-order rate constant of 1090 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1). However, kinetic studies and stoichiometric analyses in a wide range of reactant ratios together with kinetic simulations revealed that it is a multistep process that proceeds via kinetically driven, practically irreversible reactions along the disulfide ? persulfide ? inorganic polysulfides axis. The kinetic model postulated here, which is fully consistent with the experimental data, suggests that the TNB-persulfide is further reduced by sulfide with a second-order rate constant in the range of 5 × 10(3)?- 5 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.4 and eventually yields inorganic polysulfides and TNB. The reactions of cystine and GSSG with sulfide were found to be significantly slower and to occur via more complicated reaction schemes. (1)H NMR studies suggest that these reactions also generate Cys-persulfide and inorganic polysulfide species, but in contrast with DTNB, in consecutive equilibrium processes that are sensitive to changes in the reactant and product ratios. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reaction of disulfides with sulfide is a highly system specific process from both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, which together with the considerable steady-state concentrations of the reactants in biological systems signifies physiological relevance. PMID:25512332

  1. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  2. Substance abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse, which we previously reviewed, is updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse that are known to cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:23030352

  3. The potential long-term effect of previous schistosome infection reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome among Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S-W; Lu, Y; Li, F; Shen, Z-H; Xu, M; Yao, W-F; Feng, Y-B; Yun, J-T; Wang, Y-P; Ling, W; Qi, H-J; Tong, D-X

    2015-07-01

    The association between potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection (PSI) and the development of metabolic syndrome remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between them. Participants were from regions which were all reportedly heavily endemic for S. japonicum in China 40 years ago. One thousand five hundred and ninety-seven men were enrolled. Among these, 465 patients with PSI were selected as study subjects and 1132 subjects served as controls. We found PSI significantly correlated with lower prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components, including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which indicates that the potential long-term effects of PSI may reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are needed to investigate the protective immune effects of PSI. PMID:25809087

  4. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID:23820327

  5. Inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Johann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of substance use disorders in Cape Town, substance abuse treatment utilization is low among people from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. To improve substance abuse treatment utilization, it is important to identify any potential barriers to treatment initiation so that interventions to reduce these barriers can be implemented. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization within developing countries. Using the Behavioural Model of Health Services Utilization as an analytic framework, this study aimed to redress this gap by examining whether access to substance abuse treatment is equitable and the profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for people from poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods This study used a case-control design to compare 434 individuals with substance use disorders from disadvantaged communities who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of predisposing, treatment need and enabling/restricting variables thought to be associated with treatment utilization. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the unique contribution that the need for treatment, predisposing and enabling/restricting variable blocks made on substance abuse treatment utilization. Results Findings revealed that non-need enabling/restricting variables accounted for almost equal proportions of the variance in service utilization as the need for treatment variables. These enabling/restricting variables also attenuated the influence of the treatment need and predisposing variables domains on chances of treatment utilization. Several enabling/restricting variables emerged as powerful partial predictors of utilization including competing financial priorities, geographic access barriers and awareness of treatment services. Perceived severity of drug use, a need for treatment variable was also a partial predictor of utilization. Conclusions Findings point to inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services among people from poor South African communities, with non-need factors being significant determinants of treatment utilization. In these communities, treatment utilization can be enhanced by (i expanding the existing repertoire of services to include low threshold services that target individuals with less severe problems; (ii providing food and transport vouchers as part of contingency management efforts, thereby reducing some of the financial and geographic access barriers; (iii introducing community-based mobile outpatient treatment services that are geographically accessible; and (iv employing community-based outreach workers that focus on improving awareness of where, when and how to access existing treatment services.

  6. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Substance Abuse Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... State or Zip | Find Facilities by Name | State Substance Abuse Agencies | Frequently Asked Questions | Links | Comments or Questions | ...

  7. Substance abuse in later life.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  8. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  9. [Child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, Jörg M

    2007-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview on the development of professional discourse on sexual abuse over the last 20 years in the field of child protection. After the introduction, definitions from different professional perspectives (civil law, criminal law, psychotherapy, counseling, etc.) are given. Based on these definitions an epidemiological range of prevalence figures is described. In the literature, rates ranging from 6 to 25 % in girls and 2 to 8 % in boy as victims of sexual abuse can be observed. Psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse are described based on an overview of the literature. Diagnostic approaches to posttraumatic problems are discussed and distinguished from obsolete measures. Some neurobiological findings are presented. Finally the foundations of counseling, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of behavioral of symptoms and PTSD are discussed on the bases of a literature review of controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, further developments in psychotherapy and research are discussed for the German practical child protection field. PMID:17177097

  10. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  11. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  12. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is important to minimize the long-term consequences of abuse. Qualified mental health professionals should conduct a comprehensive evaluation and provide treatment for children who have been abused. Through treatment, the abused child begins to regain a sense of self-confidence ...

  13. Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Loved One’s Substance Abuse Problem Too Hot to Handle? A Loved One’s Substance Abuse Problem What You Can Do Your brother has been ... of Addiction The Perils of Peers Prevention Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

  14. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  15. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24793872

  16. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the CA1 region of hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, Maurizio; Brancucci, Alfredo; Berton, Fulvia; Loche, Antonella; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Francesconi, Walter

    2002-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a psychoactive drug and a putative neurotransmitter, derived from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). At micromolar concentrations GHB binds to specific high and low affinity binding sites present in discrete areas of the brain, while at millimolar concentrations GHB also binds to GABA(B) receptors. Previous studies indicated that GHB inhibits both NMDA and AMPA receptor mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This action of GHB occurs in the presence of GABA(B) blockade and is antagonized by NCS-382, a specific GHB receptor antagonist, suggesting that it is mediated by GHB receptors. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of GHB on GABA(A) mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (GABA(A)-IPSP) elicited in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons by stimulation of Schaffer collateral-commissural fibers. We observed that GHB inhibited GABA(A)-IPSPs by about 40% at concentrations of 300-600 microM. GHB inhibition was blocked by NCS-382 (500 microM), which per se failed to modify GABA(A)-IPSPs. Moreover, GHB failed to modify cell membrane depolarization induced by the brief pressure application of GABA in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that GHB does not inhibit postsynaptic GABA responses. However, GHB reduced the amplitude of GABA(A)-IPSPs elicited in pyramidal neurons by paired pulse stimulation and enhanced paired pulse facilitation with respect to control condition, suggesting that GHB reduces GABA release from nerve terminals. Finally, GHB failed to reduce the amplitude of GABA(A)-IPSPs in the presence of BaCl(2), suggesting that the effect of GHB is due to GHB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of Ca(2)+ influx. PMID:12464453

  17. Two New Case Reports of Propofol Abuse and a Pattern Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Welliver

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Propofol has become the most widely used sedation and anesthetic drug worldwide. Previously it was thought to lack abuse and dependence potential.  Increased awareness of actual propofol abuse cases, however, is providing greater understanding of the associated (or perceived motivations and rewards of propofol abuse.  We report the details of two new propofol abuse cases including the motivations for choosing this drug, abuse practices, subjective experiences, and outcomes.  An exploration of reported objective and subjective patterns in propofol abuse case reports was conducted using a modified  process of thematic (pattern analysis. These patterns include: healthcare providers are the most frequent propofol abusers, hospital drug diversion is a primary access, abuse regimens consist of frequent injections, there often exists underlying psychological unrest, typically there is a history of prior drug and alcohol abuse, abusers are seeking relief from anxiety and stress along with restful sleep, abusers report a craving desire, death is frequently an outcome, and rehabilitation programs can be effective treatments. We conclude restrictive control of propofol is necessary to better monitor and control its abuse.

  18. Prescription opioid abuse in chronic pain: a review of opioid abuse predictors and strategies to curb opioid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Nalini; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Smith, Howard S

    2012-07-01

    Both chronic pain and prescription opioid abuse are prevalent and continue to exact a heavy toll on patients, physicians, and society. Individuals with chronic pain and co-occurring substance use disorders and/or mental health disorders, are at a higher risk for misuse of prescribed opioids. Opioid abuse and misuse occurs for a variety of reasons, including self medication, use for reward, compulsive use because of addiction, and diversion for profit. Treatment approaches that balance treating chronic pain while minimizing risks for opioid abuse, misuse, and diversion are much needed. The use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past 2 decades in conjunction with a marked increase in the abuse of prescribed opioids and accidental opioid overdoses. Consequently, a validated screening instrument that provides an effective and rational method of selecting patients for opioid therapy, predicting risk, and identifying problems once they arise could be of enormous benefit. Such an instrument could potentially curb the risk of iatrogenic addiction. Although several screening instruments and strategies have been introduced in the past decade, there is no single test or instrument that can reliably and accurately predict patients who are not suitable for opioid therapy or identify those who need increased vigilance or monitoring during therapy. At present screening for opioid abuse includes assessment of premorbid and comorbid substance abuse; assessment of aberrant drug-related behaviors; risk factor stratification; and utilization of opioid screening tools. Multiple opioid assessment screening tools and instruments have been developed by various authors. In addition, urine drug testing, monitoring of prescribing practices, prescription monitoring programs, opioid treatment agreements, and utilization of universal precautions are essential. Presently, a combination of strategies is recommended to stratify risk, identify and understand aberrant drug related behaviors, and tailor treatments accordingly. This manuscript will review the current state of knowledge regarding the growing problem of opioid abuse and misuse; known risk factors; and methods of predicting, assessing, monitoring, and addressing opioid abuse and misuse in patients with chronic noncancer pain. PMID:22786463

  19. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP) as a target for drug abuse medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2011-01-01

    Several studies show that the nociceptin receptor NOP plays a role in the regulation of reward and motivation pathways related to substance abuse. Administration of the NOP's natural peptide ligand, Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) or synthetic agonist Ro 64-6198 has been shown to block rewarding effects of cocaine, morphine, amphetamines and alcohol, in various behavioral models of drug reward and reinforcement, such as conditioned place preference and drug self-administration. Administration of N/OFQ has been shown to reduce drug-stimulated levels of dopamine in mesolimbic pathways. The NOP-N/OFQ system has been particularly well examined in the development of alcohol abuse in animal models. Furthermore, the efficacy of the mixed-action opioid buprenorphine, in attenuating alcohol consumption in human addicts and in alcohol-preferring animal models, at higher doses, has been attributed to its partial agonist activity at the NOP receptor. These studies suggest that NOP receptor agonists may have potential as drug abuse medications. However, the pathophysiology of addiction is complex and drug addiction pharmacotherapy needs to address the various phases of substance addiction (craving, withdrawal, relapse). Further studies are needed to clearly establish how NOP agonists may attenuate the drug addiction process and provide therapeutic benefit. Addiction to multiple abused drugs (polydrug addiction) is now commonplace and presents a treatment challenge, given the limited pharmacotherapies currently approved. Polydrug addiction may not be adequately treated by a single agent with a single mechanism of action. As with the case of buprenorphine, a mixed-action profile of NOP/opioid activity may provide a more effective drug to treat addiction to various abused substances and/or polydrug addiction. PMID:21050175

  20. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse: Rationale, Methods, and Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fals-Stewart, William; Timothy J. O’Farrell; Birchler, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...

  1. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  2. Sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse and results in severe and long term consequences in victims. Physical, emotional and social consequences of incest are very severe and last for a lifetime. Prevention of incest is closely linked to prevention of child sexual abuse. Collaboration of different parts of child protection system, namely, healthcare system, social services, law enforcement and legal systems; and a well structured education of the professionels working in the field as well as sensitive media which helps awareness raising about child sexual abuse may be effective means of prevention. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 159-64

  3. Child abuse in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeahialam, T C

    1984-01-01

    Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976

  4. Preventing Child Abuse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Children's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  5. Child sexual abuse: a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, M

    2015-03-01

    Research of child sexual abuse has considerably evolved and continues to evolve exponentially. Professionals in various fields are required to be updated in the latest guidelines in practice, as well as in research. The present paper summarizes the most recent scientific literature on child sexual abuse, mainly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, focusing on central issues, namely, the international prevalence of the phenomenon, its negative consequences, and the offender's characteristics; referring to the potential victim's profile. Finally, the paper summarizes the recent recommendations and implications for practice and research in child sexual abuse. PMID:25243505

  6. Maltrato psicológico / Psychological abuse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Gómez de Terreros Guardiola.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco for [...] mas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato. Abstract in english In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to te [...] rrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  7. Maltrato psicológico Psychological abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez de Terreros Guardiola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de 1989 de Garbarino, Guttman y Seeley, el maltrato psicológico es definido como "un ataque realizado por un adulto sobre el desarrollo de la personalidad y de la competencia social del niño mediante un patrón de conducta psicológicamente destructivo y que se manifiesta mediante cinco formas: rechazar, aislar, aterrorizar, ignorar y corromper", pero es difícil encontrar un trabajo sobre la temática de los malos tratos en general, y sobre el maltrato psicológico en particular, que no haga referencia a los problemas de definición y categorización. A pesar de que ya van 30 años de investigación que ponen de manifiesto las consecuencias adversas del maltrato o abuso emocional en la infancia, las instituciones, en escasas ocasiones, atienden estos casos si no van acompañados de otras formas de maltrato como el abuso sexual o el maltrato físico. Existen una serie de medidas que pueden poner remedio a la situación, pero cuando se observa que no existe una definición consistente y comprensible del maltrato emocional o psicológico, que comprenda tanto al abuso como al abandono o negligencia, cualquier decisión que intente remediar la situación es difícil de asumir. Una detección y denuncia rápidas de la sospecha de maltrato psicológico a las autoridades pertinentes, así como una intervención precoz, puede prevenir y minimizar las consecuencias de dicho maltrato.In 1989, Garbarino, Guttman and Seeley defined psychological abuse as "an attack made by an adult on the development of the personality and the social competence of the child through a repeated pattern of destructive conduct and that is pronounced by means of five forms: to reject, to isolate, to terrify, to ignore and to corrupt, but beside this it is difficult to find a publication on this subject in general, or in psychological abuse in particular, that does not make reference to the problems of definition and categorization. Despite that already there has been 30 years of investigation that shows the adverse consequences of the emotional abuse or neglect in the infancy, the institutions, in scarce occasions, attend these cases if they do not go accompanied by other forms of sexual or physical abuse. There exists a series of measures that can put remedy to the situation, but when it is observed that there isn't a consistent and understandable definition of the emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment that considers both abuse and neglect, any decision that tries to remedy the situation is difficult to assume. An early detection and accusation of the suspicion of psychological maltreatment to the pertinent institution, as an early intervention, can prevent and minimize the consequences of the abuse.

  8. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  9. Protracted withdrawal from alcohol and drugs of abuse impairs long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Walter; Berton, Fulvia; Repunte-canonigo, Vez; Hagihara, Kazuki; Thurbon, David; Lekic, Dusan; Specio, Sheila E.; Greenwell, Thomas N.; Chen, Scott A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Richardson, Heather N.; O’dell, Laura E.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Morales, Marisela; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    The juxtacapsular BNST (jcBNST) is activated in response to basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs through the stria terminalis and projects back to the anterior BLA and to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Here we show a form of long-term potentiation of the intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) of jcBNST neurons in response to high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the stria terminalis. This LTP-IE, which was characterized by a decrease in the firing threshold and increased temporal fidelity of ...

  10. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive resand Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  11. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate?ina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  12. Long-term potentiation is reduced in mice that are doubly mutant in endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, H; Hawkins, R D; Martin, K; Kiebler, M; Huang, P L; Fishman, M C; Kandel, E R

    1996-12-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but LTP is normal in mice with a targeted mutation in the neuronal form of NO synthase (nNOS-). LTP was also normal in mice with a targeted mutation in endothelial NOS (eNOS-), but LTP in stratum radiatum of CA1 was significantly reduced in doubly mutant mice (nNOS-/eNOS-). By contrast, LTP in stratum oriens was normal in the doubly mutant mice. These results provide the first genetic evidence that NOS is involved in LTP in stratum radiatum and suggest that the neuronal and endothelial forms can compensate for each other in mice with a single mutation. They further suggest that there is also a NOS-independent component of LTP in stratum radiatum and that LTP in stratum oriens is largely NOS independent. PMID:8978606

  13. Reduced transport potential of a palladium-doped zero valent iron nanoparticle in a water saturated loamy sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Mohan; Di Tommaso, Caroline; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Direct in situ injection of palladium-doped nanosized zero valent iron (Pd-NZVI) particles can contribute to remediation of various environmental contaminants. A major challenge encountered is rapid aggregation of Pd-NZVI and hence very limited mobility. To reduce aggregation and concurrently improve particle mobility, the surface of bare Pd-NZVI can be modified with stabilizing surface modifiers. Selected surface-modified Pd-NZVI has shown dramatically improved stability and transport. However, little is known regarding the effects of aquifer grain geochemical heterogeneity on the transport and deposition behavior of surface-modified Pd-NZVI. Herein, the mobility of surface stabilized Pd-NZVI in two granular matrices representative of model ground water environments (quartz sand and loamy sand) was assessed over a wide range of environmentally relevant ionic strengths (IS). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), soybean flour and rhamnolipid biosurfactant were used as Pd-NZVI surface modifiers. Our results show that, both in quartz sand and loamy sand, an increase in solution IS results in reduced Pd-NZVI transport. Moreover, at a given water chemistry, Pd-NZVI transport is notably attenuated in loamy sand implying that geochemical heterogeneity associated with loamy sand is a key factor influencing Pd-NZVI transport potential. Experiments conducted at a higher Pd-NZVI particle concentration, to be more representative of field conditions, show that rhamnolipid and CMC are effective stabilizing agents even when 1 g/L Pd-NZVI is injected into quartz sand. Overall, this study emphasizes the extent to which variation in groundwater chemistry, coupled with changes in aquifer geochemistry, could dramatically alter the transport potential of Pd-NZVI in the subsurface environment. PMID:25462742

  14. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  15. Multivariate Comparison of Male and Female Adolescent Substance Abusers with Accompanying Legal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Mezzich, Ada; Patton, David

    2011-05-01

    PURPOSE: The factors that distinguish adolescent male and female substance abusers with and without legal problems were investigated. METHOD: Youths (N = 4,071) admitted for substance abuse treatment were administered the revised Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) to measure severity of health, behavior, and social adjustment problems. RESULTS: Legal problems were more frequent among boys; however, severity of disturbance was greater in girls on 9 of 10 scales. Substance abusing girls and boys with legal problems reported more severe behavior, substance abuse, family adjustment, and peer relationship problems than substance abusing peers without legal problems. Quality of peer relationship mediated the association of family dysfunction, substance abuse and behavior problems with legal problems in boys only. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and legal status both need to be taken into account to potentiate treatment prognosis of substance abusing youths. PMID:21686313

  16. BENEFITS AND COSTS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMS FOR STATE PRISON INMATES: RESULTS FROM A LIFETIME SIMULATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkin, Gary A.; Cowell, Alexander J.; Hicks, Katherine A.; Mills, Michael J.; Belenko, Steven; Dunlap, Laura J.; Houser, Kimberly A.; Keyes, Vince

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting drug use patterns and criminal justice policies throughout the 1990s and 2000s, prisons hold a disproportionate number of society’s drug abusers. Approximately 50% of state prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of drug abuse or dependence, but only 10% receive medically based drug treatment. Because of the link between substance abuse and crime, treating substance abusing and dependent state prisoners while incarcerated has the potential to yield substantial economic benefi...

  17. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment st...

  18. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

  19. Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug...

  20. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Gelbier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (P<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%??CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%??CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  1. Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakli, Pál; Németh, Kornél; Zimmer, Márta; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 s) adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features. PMID:24971058

  2. Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary cat saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on microbial populations in the rumen indicated that 15% of Leucaena and Fliricidia; 20% of Sapindus and A. pintoi as well as 40% of S. aterrimum, affect negatively the protozoa population in the rumen. Gliricidia reduced this population from 45.71 to 2.57 x 105 cel/mL. Enterolobium, however, increased the number and activity of the cellulolytic fungus and total viable bacteria, although it did not exert defaunating effect, at least, under the experimental conditions in which the studies were conducted. The inclusion of 10 % of Tithonia decreased the methanogenic bacteria and increased the cellulolytic bacteria, but to reduce the protozoa population level of 20 % level was necessary. The defaunating effect observed with some plants could be due to that it was found a quadratic relationship between the content of condensed tannins and the population of ruminal protozoa. The results of methane production in relation to inclusion of 25% of foliages of S. saponaria, M. alba and Trichantera using P. purpureum as a pasture base, indicated that this foliages reduced methane production, significantly, in similar proportions to respect to pasture. Trichantera inhibit methane emissions in 41 % respect to Pennisetum (7,01 vs. 16.96 g/kg DM, respectively). The results suggest that the secondary compounds found in plants can to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and also reduce the methanogenic bacteria when the adequate levels in the diet are utilized. The use of tree and shrubs, as strategies of supplementation is an adequate option to reduce methane production and improve the animal nutrition of ruminants. (author)

  3. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batri?evi? Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse: Epidemiology, Regulatory Issues, Chronic Pain Management with Narcotic Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    Manubay, Jeanne M.; Muchow, Carrie; Sullivan, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of prescription drug abuse has reached a critical level, which has received national attention. Physicians must learn strategies to effectively treat chronic pain, and help reduce the rates of prescription drug abuse. This chapter will provide insight into the epidemiology of prescription drug abuse, explain regulatory issues, and provide guidelines for the assessment and management of pain, particularly with chronic opioid therapy. The use of informed consent forms, treatment ag...

  5. An Evaluation of the Evidence that Methamphetamine Abuse Causes Cognitive Decline in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy C.; Groman, Stephanie M.; Morales, Angelica M.; London, Edythe D.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly abused illicit substances worldwide. Among other problems, abuse of the drug has been associated with reduced cognitive function across several domains. However, much of the literature has not attempted to differentiate cognitive difficulties caused by MA abuse from preexisting cognitive difficulties that are likely caused by other factors. Here, we address this question, evaluating evidence for a priori hypotheses pertaining to six lines of re...

  6. African-American crack abusers and drug treatment initiation: barriers and effects of a pretreatment intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Wendy KK; Luseno Winnie K; Riehman Kara S; Zule William A; Wechsberg Wendee M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Individual and sociocultural factors may pose significant barriers for drug abusers seeking treatment, particularly for African-American crack cocaine abusers. However, there is evidence that pretreatment interventions may reduce treatment initiation barriers. This study examined the effects of a pretreatment intervention designed to enhance treatment motivation, decrease crack use, and prepare crack abusers for treatment entry. Methods Using street outreach, 443 African-A...

  7. Crime and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This activity, developed by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, asks students to use geographical information systems (GIS) to examine the correlations between crime and substance abuse. On this site, visitors will find links to the web-based GIS viewer needed to see and manipulate the data (there are links to the viewer on many servers) and to a student version of the activity which has complete instructions and questions for students to answer.

  8. Antitussives and substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Burns JM; Boyer EW

    2013-01-01

    Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly a...

  9. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Capriola M

    2013-01-01

    Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone a...

  10. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  11. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information. PMID:16225068

  12. Elder abuse in residential long-term care: an update to the 2003 national research council report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas; Ferguson-Rome, Jamie C; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2015-06-01

    A synthesis of the last decade of literature on elder abuse in residential long-term care (i.e., Nursing Homes and Assisted Living) is discussed. Presented are definitions of abuse, theoretical and conceptual models, prevalence rates of abuse, outcomes and costs, and sources of abuse. The synthesis represents an update to the literature in the influential 2003 National Research Council report. We identify many of the same issues and concerns exist that were surfaced in this prior report. Many theoretical and conceptual models need further elaboration. Conflicting definitions of abuse are pervasive. Rates of abuse are generally inaccurate, and probably under-reported. However, we also identify progress in many areas. An increase in empirical studies that exist in this area (although very few in Assisted Living). Other forms and types of abuse have also been identified as important, such as resident-to-resident abuse. These areas are discussed, along with potential suggestions for additional research. PMID:24652890

  13. Evaluation of Potential Wetlands to Reduce Peak Flows in Future Climate Scenarios in the Eagle Creek Watershed, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, K. M.; Babbar-Sebens, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the severity of floods and droughts and the frequency of extreme streamflow events in the Midwestern United States. Managing these projected impacts poses a major challenge for water resources, conservation, and land use management. Wetlands have been considered as a conservation strategy and work to increase the capacity of watersheds by storing runoff upstream. The implementation of wetlands, especially in tile-drained agricultural watersheds, can reduce peak flows and help mitigate the anticipated impacts of climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of wetlands to reduce peak flows in future climate scenarios in the Eagle Creek Watershed in Indiana. A secondary goal of this research was to establish a methodology for incorporating climate change into hydrological models to conduct long-term land management studies and decisions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was forced with an ensemble of bias corrected climate projections from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology and the ability of wetlands to reduce peak flows. Long-term monthly streamflow results predicted a slight increase in streamflow in the winter and a slight decrease in the summer from the past (1971-2000) to future (2041-2070) time periods. About half of the climate realizations produced an increase in the 5% exceedance flow and half a decrease, but all predictions agreed that high flow events will increase in frequency in the winter and decrease in the spring and summer. Results from the wetland analysis showed that if all potential wetlands identified in a previous study are installed in the watershed, maximum peak flow reductions of around 20-50 cubic meters per second for the past and future, as well as decreased frequency of extreme events, can be seen. Wetlands proved to be a robust solution for peak flow reduction, producing consistent reductions across all climate projections for both the past and future time periods.

  14. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Furniss, T. (Tilmann); Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

  15. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  16. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  17. Substance Abuse Treatment Staff Perceptions of Intimate Partner Victimization Among Female Clients†

    OpenAIRE

    Kunins, Hillary; Gilbert, Louisa; Whyte-Etere, Antonette; Meissner, Paul; Zachary, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Providing intimate partner violence (IPV)-related services to women enrolled in substance abuse treatment programs has the potential to reach a population disproportionately affected by IPV. Integrating basic IPV services into substance abuse treatment, however, poses challenges to organizations and staff. Using focus groups, the authors examined the experiences and attitudes of substance abuse treatment staff towards clients with IPV victimization experiences in order to elucidate factors th...

  18. “How Did You Feel?”: Increasing Child Sexual Abuse Witnesses’ Production of Evaluative Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Scurich, Nicholas; Choi, Karen; Handmaker, Sally; Blank, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    In child sexual abuse cases, the victim’s testimony is essential, because the victim and the perpetrator tend to be the only eyewitnesses to the crime. A potentially important component of an abuse report is the child’s subjective reactions to the abuse. Attorneys may ask suggestive questions or avoid questioning children about their reactions, assuming that children, given their immaturity and reluctance, are incapable of articulation. We hypothesized that How questions referencing react...

  19. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-zhe

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV ...

  20. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant’s caregive...

  1. Post-bottleneck inbreeding accumulation reduces fitness and adaptive potential in populations of Tribolium castaneum under environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Franklin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a model organism, Tribolium castaneum, to evaluate the effect of inbreeding accumulation on additive genetic variance and fitness related traits, owing to population bottleneck events, under laboratory conditions and environmental stressors. Demographic bottlenecks were imposed on 21 populations of T. castaneum, varying in intensity and duration, for up to five generations. After recovering to original census numbers, later generations of the populations were subjected to stressful environmental conditions. A significant decrease in additive genetic variance and heritability of pupa weight was observed in all populations as a result of the bottleneck. Fitness was quantified using adult weight, total progeny, fecundity and survivorship. When the estimated inbreeding accumulation in the populations approached 40%, there was evidence for a decrease in the mean of fitness-related traits. This relationship became statistically significant when the populations were under environmental stress. Populations with increased inbreeding accumulation demonstrated decreased survival of progeny under stress. The observed decrease in heritable variation could result in reduced potential for adaptation.

  2. The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

  3. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)

  4. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  5. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; BIRMAHER, BORIS; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  6. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

  7. Analysis of the Sequence and Phenotype of Drosophila Sex combs reduced Alleles Reveals Potential Functions of Conserved Protein Motifs of the Sex combs reduced Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Percival-smith, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila Hox gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is required for patterning the larval and adult, labial and prothoracic segments. Fifteen Scr alleles were sequenced and the phenotypes analyzed in detail. Six null alleles were nonsense mutations (Scr2, Scr4, Scr11, Scr13, Scr13A, and Scr16) and one was an intragenic deletion (Scr17). Five hypomorphic alleles were missense mutations (Scr1, Scr3, Scr5, Scr6, and Scr8) and one was a small protein deletion (Scr15). Protein sequence changes were ...

  8. Effect of interventions to reduce potentially inappropriate use of drugs in nursing homes: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjerberg Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that residents in nursing homes often are exposed to inappropriate medication. Particular concern has been raised about the consumption of psychoactive drugs, which are commonly prescribed for nursing home residents suffering from dementia. This review is an update of a Norwegian systematic review commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate of Health. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarise the effect of interventions aimed at reducing potentially inappropriate use or prescribing of drugs in nursing homes. Methods We searched for systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, DARE and HTA, with the last update in April 2010. Two of the authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion or exclusion. Data on interventions, participants, comparison intervention, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table and GRADE, respectively. Outcomes assessed were use of or prescribing of drugs (primary and the health-related outcomes falls, physical limitation, hospitalisation and mortality (secondary. Results Due to heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes, we employed a narrative approach. Twenty randomised controlled trials were included from 1631 evaluated references. Ten studies tested different kinds of educational interventions while seven studies tested medication reviews by pharmacists. Only one study was found for each of the interventions geriatric care teams, early psychiatric intervening or activities for the residents combined with education of health care personnel. Several reviews were identified, but these either concerned elderly in general or did not satisfy all the requirements for systematic reviews. Conclusions Interventions using educational outreach, on-site education given alone or as part of an intervention package and pharmacist medication review may under certain circumstances reduce inappropriate drug use, but the evidence is of low quality. Due to poor quality of the evidence, no conclusions may be drawn about the effect of the other three interventions on drug use, or of either intervention on health-related outcomes.

  9. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners: Breaking the Drug-Crime Cycle among Parole Violators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohr, Mary K.; Hemmens, Craig; Baune, Diane; Dayley, Jed; Gornik, Mark; Kjaer, Kirstin; Noon, Cindy

    This Research for Practice examines the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) program at the South Idaho Correctional Institution. The program targets parole-violating inmates with substance abuse problems in an effort to reduce recidivism. Researchers conducted a 15-month evaluation of the program's process to identify strengths and…

  10. The potential benefit of swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce swallowing dysfunction: An in silico planning comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To apply recently developed predictive models for swallowing dysfunction to compare the predicted probabilities of swallowing dysfunction for standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (ST-IMRT) and swallowing sparing IMRT (SW-IMRT). Materials and methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients who previously underwent radiotherapy for the bilateral neck were selected for this study. For each patient, ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were created. ST-IMRT treatment plan optimisation aimed at obtaining adequate target volume coverage and sparing of the parotid and submandibular glands as much as possible. Objectives for SW-IMRT were similar, with additional objectives to spare the organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SWOARs). Dose-volume data with ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT and normal tissue complication probabilities for physician-rated and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated with recently developed predictive models. Results: All plans had adequate target volume coverage and dose to critical organs was within accepted limits. Sparing of parotid glands was similar for ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT. With SW-IMRT, the mean dose to the various SWOARs was reduced. Absolute dose values and dose reductions with SW-IMRT differed per patient and per SWOAR and depended on N stage and tumour location. The mean reduction in predicted physician-rated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was G) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was 9% (range, 3–20%). Mean reductions of the probability of patient-rated moderate to severe complaints with regard to the swallowing of solid food, soft food, liquid food and choking when swallowing were 8%, 2%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Conclusions: New predictive models for swallowing dysfunction were applied to show potential reductions in physician and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction with IMRT that was specifically optimised to spare SWOARs.

  11. Reduced ictogenic potential of 4-aminopyridine in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortex of kainate-treated chronic epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Robert K; Tolner, Else A; Derst, Christian; Gruber, Clemens; Veh, Rüdiger W; Heinemann, Uwe

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the potential of 4-AP (50-100 microM) to induce seizure-like events (SLEs) in combined entorhinal cortex-hippocampal slices from Sprague Dawley rats which developed spontaneous limbic seizures following kainic acid induced status epilepticus. Slices from control rats (n=8) displayed SLEs in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortex upon application of 50 or 100 microM 4-AP. By contrast, 4-AP failed to induce SLEs in slices from chronic epileptic rats (n=13) except for one slice from one rat. This animal displayed only minor cell loss in layer III of the entorhinal cortex, in contrast to the other epileptic rats for which layer III neuronal loss was extensive. In all slices from epileptic rats, 4-AP induced recurrent epileptiform discharges similar to the interictal activity observed in control rats. Combined application of 4-AP (100 microM) and bicuculline methiodide (30 microM) induced frequent and prolonged recurrent epileptiform discharges in both control and chronic epileptic rats. 4-AP at 50-100 microM likely affects potassium channels containing Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv3.1 or Kv3.2 subunits. Real-time PCR revealed no significant downregulation of Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv3.1 or Kv3.2 in the subiculum, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex from chronic epileptic rats compared to controls. However, the expression of Kv3.4, responding to 4-AP in mM range, was significantly reduced. Using sub-unit-specific antibodies, the real-time PCR findings were confirmed by immunocytochemistry. We suggest that after chronic epilepsy, reorganization in the entorhinal cortex is accompanied by adaptations in homeostatic plasticity with anticonvulsant consequences. PMID:17942314

  12. Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  14. A World of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This third chapter in "Elementary School Counseling in a Changing World" contains five journal articles which focus on substance abuse prevention. "Perspectives on Substance Abuse Prevention" by John Horan, Andres Kerns, and Christine Olson emphasizes how important it is for children to be able to say "no" to drugs and provides a review of…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8255). 67 Kaplan, S. L. (1996). Physical abuse of children and adolescents. In S. J. Kaplan (Ed.). Family violence: A clinical and legal guide (pp. 1-35), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press, Inc 78 ... DiClemente, R. (1993). The effects of child abuse and race on risk-taking in male ...

  16. Breaking the Cycle of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrated that abused mothers who broke the abusive cycle were significantly more likely than mothers who did not to have: received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood; participated in therapy at some time; or experienced a nonabusive, stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. (RJC)

  17. Abuse, trauma, and GI illness: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossman, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationship of abuse and trauma history with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders has evolved over the last three decades. Although previously seen within a psychiatric context, ongoing studies continue to show that abuse can have multiple effects on GI symptoms, patient illness behaviors, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of abuse history is greater among those who have more severe symptoms and who are seen in referral settings. Although abuse history may be present across all diagnostic categories, more severe abuse seems to occur in patients with functional GI disorders. The pathophysiological features that explain this association relate to stress-mediated brain-gut dysfunction and can range from altered stress-induced mucosal immune function to impaired ability of the central nervous system to downregulate incoming visceral or somatic afferent signals. For gastroenterologists and other health-care providers, it is important to understand when to inquire about an abuse history and what to do with that information. This is particularly relevant, as the data indicate that having a co-morbid abuse history leads to adverse health outcomes. Finally, there is growing evidence that centrally targeted interventions may have palliative effects on reducing symptoms, altering brain-gut dysregulation and structure, and improving the clinical outcome. This presentation tracks the history of our understanding of the effect of abuse and trauma on GI illness, provides the scientific rationale for this association, and offers guidelines as to when and how to inquire about this information and implement proper care for the patient. PMID:21139573

  18. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  19. Changes in histamine and microbiological analyses in fresh and frozen tuna muscle during temperature abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Vangelis; Brett, Moira; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy Vassilios; Frillingos, Stathis; Nichols, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Temperature abuse of tuna (Thunnus alalunga) was carried out in order to assess the histamine build up in fish processing facilities where fish can be exposed to high temperatures for short periods of time. Histamine production was studied in tuna loins under different storage and abuse conditions. Tuna was stored at 0-2oC, 3-4oC and 6-7oC and abused for 2 h daily at 20oC and 30oC for seven to twelve days. Loins abused at 30oC for 2 h daily contained potentially toxic ...

  20. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  1. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor abuse: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Gregory; Costabile, Raymond

    2011-06-01

    Abuse of sildenafil has been reported since its introduction in 1999 and commonly documented in combination with illicit drugs among men and women of all ages. Increased risks of sexually transmissible diseases including HIV have been associated with sildenafil use in men who have sex with men. Recognizing the abuse potential of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5), we aim to summarize the current knowledge of this abuse. An investigation of EMBASE, PubMed, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, MedWatch, and search engines was performed to evaluate information regarding sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil abuse. The EMBASE search provided 46 articles fitting the search criteria and evaluation led to 21 separate publications with specific information regarding PDE5 abuse. A PubMed search found 10 additional publications. MedWatch reported 44 separate warnings since 2000, most of which reported contamination of herbal products with active drug components. Few reports of abuse were among the 14,818 reports in the FDA AERS for sildenafil. A search for "internet drug store" revealed 6.4 million hits and of 7000 internet pharmacies identified by the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites Program (VIPPS) only 4% were in proper compliance. The role internet pharmacies play in counterfeit PDE5 or abuse is not well documented; however based on easy access, direct patient marketing, and low advertised cost it is likely this role is underreported. Currently the best recommendation for providers is to recognize the possibility of abuse and to educate patients on risks of this behavior. PMID:21696344

  2. Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might be susceptible to biases that reflect the larger sociocultural context. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that…

  4. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  5. Abuse-deterrent formulations: transitioning the pharmaceutical market to improve public health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Stacey L.; Barnes, Michael C.; Tarbell, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) as a method to reduce prescription drug abuse while ensuring access to vital medications for individuals with legitimate need; assesses the pros and cons of ADFs and the current state of ADF adoption in the market; and develops policy recommendations to transition the market to ADFs. Although abuse-deterrent technology is still in its nascent stages, ADFs have been proven to reduce prescription drug abuse and its consequences, and even an incremental reduction in abuse can have a significant impact on the nation by reducing the costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems resulting from abuse. Federal ADF policy does not reflect the urgency of the prescription drug abuse epidemic and does not go far enough toward changing the status quo. Policies must be implemented to encourage innovation and a market shift toward ADFs by ensuring any generic medication that references a branded ADF demonstrates that it does not have abuse-deterrent properties inferior to the branded ADF product. Policies must also require federal prescription drug benefit plans to cover ADFs to ensure consumers have access to such medications. PMID:25922655

  6. Abuse-deterrent formulations: transitioning the pharmaceutical market to improve public health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kyle; Worthy, Stacey L; Barnes, Michael C; Tarbell, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    This article evaluates abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) as a method to reduce prescription drug abuse while ensuring access to vital medications for individuals with legitimate need; assesses the pros and cons of ADFs and the current state of ADF adoption in the market; and develops policy recommendations to transition the market to ADFs. Although abuse-deterrent technology is still in its nascent stages, ADFs have been proven to reduce prescription drug abuse and its consequences, and even an incremental reduction in abuse can have a significant impact on the nation by reducing the costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems resulting from abuse. Federal ADF policy does not reflect the urgency of the prescription drug abuse epidemic and does not go far enough toward changing the status quo. Policies must be implemented to encourage innovation and a market shift toward ADFs by ensuring any generic medication that references a branded ADF demonstrates that it does not have abuse-deterrent properties inferior to the branded ADF product. Policies must also require federal prescription drug benefit plans to cover ADFs to ensure consumers have access to such medications. PMID:25922655

  7. Limited Agulhas Leakage as a potential trigger for reduced AMOC intensity before the onset of Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Knorr, G.; Zahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Interocean exchange of heat and salt around South Africa - the so called 'Agulhas Leakage' - is thought to be a key link in the maintenance of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). It takes place at the Agulhas Retroflection, largely by the intermittent shedding of enormous rings that penetrate into the South Atlantic Ocean. Recent palaeoceanographic studies suggest that variability in the latitudinal position of the subtropical front (STF) in the Southern Ocean, acts as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas retroflection and moreover, that a variable northward migration of the STF potentially modulated the severity of glacial periods by altering the amount of Agulhas leakage with consequences for the AMOC. Here we present a high-resolution record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from the southern Agulhas Plateau (sediment core MD02-2588, 41'19,90 S and 25'49,70 E, 2907 m water depth) covering the last 350,000 years. We find distinct millennial-scale events with high abundances of IRD. These IRD events are indicators for a northward shift of the Southern Ocean frontal system, thereby allowing sufficient cooling and iceberg survivability as far north as the Agulhas Plateau. Our proxy record suggests significant millennial scale variability of the frontal movements throughout the last three glacial cycles. Largest IRD peaks occur during marine isotope stage 8 (~300,000 years BP) and hence during a period for which an extreme northward shift in the STF has been identified previously. We compare our IRD record with records of millennial scale climate variability in the North Atlantic after careful synchronization of individual age models using benthic oxygen isotopes. In general, IRD peaks recorded on the Agulhas Plateau occur during globally cold conditions but in anti-phase with coldest events (Heinrich events) in the North Atlantic, which systematically occur at the culmination of large reductions in AMOC. This observation is in line with the concept of a bipolar seesaw behaviour of the glacial Atlantic. As IRD peaks recorded in MD02-2588 tend to precede IRD peaks in the North Atlantic they lend credence to the emerging viewwe speculate that the events in the South may have been active in triggering a reduced AMOC intensity that has been observed to occur before the onset of ice rafting events in the North. A reduced salt export into the Atlantic ocean associated with the southern IRD events may have augmented the destabilization of AMOC activity in the North Atlantic triggering feedbacks in that region, such as basin-wide subsurface warming, increased basal melt rates under an ice shelves fronting the Laurentide Ice Sheet, subsequent collapse allowing ice flow surges and eventually iceberg and freshwater discharge into the Labrador Sea that further amplified weakening of the AMOC.

  8. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance. PMID:19809096

  9. Potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying / Potencial de adjuvantes para redução da deriva em pulverizações agrícolas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rone B. de, Oliveira; Ulisses R., Antuniassi; Alisson A. B., Mota; Rodolfo G., Chechetto.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A redução da deriva das pulverizações agrícolas continua sendo um dos maiores desafios da agricultura brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de adjuvantes dos grupos surfatantes, redutores de deriva, óleos minerais e óleos vegetais para a redução da deriva em pulverizações agr [...] ícolas. O experimento quantificou a deriva de pulverizações realizadas com 18 adjuvantes em diferentes concentrações, em solução aquosa, sob condições controladas em túnel de vento. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicatas, com pontas de pulverização Teejet XR8003 VK, pressão de 200 kPa e gotas médias. As soluções pulverizadas foram marcadas com corante Azul Brilhante a 0,6% (m v-1). A deriva foi coletada por meio de fios de polietileno posicionados transversalmente ao fluxo de ar, a diferentes distâncias da ponta e alturas do piso do túnel. A solução de lavagem de cada fio foi processada por meio de espectrofotometria para a quantificação dos depósitos. Os adjuvantes dos grupos funcionais óleos minerais e redutores de deriva proporcionaram valores menores de deriva em comparação com os surfatantes e a água. Os resultados de laboratório indicam que a seleção de produtos e de concentrações adequadas pode reduzir significativamente o risco de deriva nas pulverizações agrícolas. Entretanto, os melhores resultados obtidos em laboratório deverão ser validados com os produtos que irão constituir as caldas de pulverização em condições de campo no futuro. Abstract in english The reduction of pesticide spraying drift is still one of the major challenges in Brazilian agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of different adjuvant products, such as surfactants, drift retardants, mineral oil and vegetable oil for reducing drift in agricultural sprayin [...] g. The experiment consisted of quantifying drift of sprayings of 18 adjuvants dissolved in water under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Tests were performed in triplicates with spraying nozzles type Teejet XR8003 VK, pressure of 200kPa and medium drops. Solutions sprayed were marked with Brilliant Blue dye at 0.6% (m v-1). The drift was collected using polyethylene strips transversally fixed along the tunnel at different distances from the nozzle and different heights from the bottom part of the tunnel. Drift deposits were evaluated by spectrophotometry in order to quantify deposits. The adjuvants from chemical groups of mineral oil and drift retardant resulted in lower values of drift in comparison with surfactants and water. The results obtained in laboratory show that the selection of appropriate class and concentration of adjuvants can significantly decrease the risk of drift in agricultural spraying. However, the best results obtained in laboratory should be validated with pesticide under field conditions in the future.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of dual substance abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Nielsen, Darci M; Mello, Patricia; Schiesl, Alison; Swift, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The US FDA has approved a limited number of treatments for alcohol, nicotine and opioid dependence; however, no treatments for other abused drugs such as marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamine are approved. This review focuses on research into drug pharmacotherapies, particularly single-drug therapies, for substance abuse and dependence contributing to the most important dual substance use disorders (SUDs). Given the implications of poly-substance abuse, it is essential that clinicians and researchers be aware of potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of dual SUDs.A substantial number of patients abuse more than one drug concurrently, complicating the treatment of SUD and leaving clinicians with few FDA-approved drug options for their patients. In this era of evidence-based medicine, such patients are typically treated with therapeutically proven medications, but in ways that are outside the scope of a drug's original indication by the FDA. Such 'off-label' prescribing has become an important therapeutic strategy for practitioners seeking treatments for other diseases in subpopulations such as paediatrics and gerontology or for medical conditions such as oncology or mental illness. Similarly, the information that most clinicians use to make their decisions for treating patients abusing multiple drugs stems from trials treating a single SUD, anecdotal experiences from their own practice or that of their colleagues, or single-case studies reported in the literature. The existing evidence suggests there are few treatments for SUDs that confer significant reductions in substance use across a broad patient population. Moreover, even fewer clinical efficacy trials have been conducted that provide evidence of therapeutic benefit for these drugs. Recognising the difficulty in making the proper drug choice for facilitating maximum treatment success, this review highlights the single drugs or drug combinations that show some potential for treating dual SUDs. This review finds strongest support for the use of disulfiram for treatment of alcohol and cocaine dependence (with or without concomitant methadone maintenance), baclofen for alcohol and cocaine dependence (but not opioid-dependent cocaine users), tiagabine for cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained patients, and topiramate for alcohol, nicotine and cocaine dependence. While ondansetron and olanzapine show some efficacy in treating alcohol and cocaine dependence, more research is needed to better delineate the subpopulation in which these drugs may provide their maximum effect. PMID:17338593

  11. Abused Kids Not Destined to Be Abusive Parents, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead researcher Cathy Spatz Widom, a professor of psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, in ... child abuse may use more social services in general. "Each time you're in contact with social ...

  12. Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Yuen, K H; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested. PMID:23400883

  13. Child maltreatment, abuse and neglect in a Nigerian adolescent boy, the common but unheard menace: A case report form Southwest, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzodimma, Chinyere C.; Ogundeyi, Morufat M.; Dedeke, Florence I.; Olasunkanmi Owolabi

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is a global problem. It includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that result in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity. Child abuse and neglect are common in Nigeria, yet poorly reported. We herein report a case of child abuse and neglect in a 14-year-old boy, complicated by severe malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus infection and gross under achievement of ed...

  14. Waste Management Options and Their Potential to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Lithuania and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Didjurgyte, Rasa

    2013-01-01

    This Master thesis connects two interrelated environmental issues – climate change and waste management. Both have been under discussion for few decades and are currently two of the top priorities on EU’s environmental agenda. The goal of this thesis is to find out in what ways waste management in Lithuania and Sweden can contribute towards reducing global warming and how the release of greenhouse gases could be reduced. Four different material flows – food, metal, plastic, and paper an...

  15. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...National Institute On Drug Abuse, National Institutes...national-advisory-council-drug-abuse-nacda/council-roster...Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention...

  16. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my ... anxiety if I am recovering from alcohol or drug abuse? In general, taking medicines for anxiety or pain ...

  17. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ... several hundred fractures in a lifetime. What Is Osteogenesis Imperfecta? Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder. Most cases ...

  18. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Print Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain disease. Although initial drug use might be voluntary, drugs of ...

  19. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around ...

  20. National Institute on Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Salvia Steroids (Anabolic) Tobacco/Nicotine Emerging Trends Commonly Abused ... provided in emergency departments is promising approach for opioid dependence See More News Meetings and Events See ...

  1. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  2. The sexually abused battered child.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, C J; Wynne, J M

    1990-01-01

    A total of 130 children were identified in whom both evidence of sexual abuse and non-accidental, non-genital physical injuries (bruises, fractures, scratches, burns and scalds, including failure to thrive) were found. There were 77 girls and 53 boys with mean ages 5.7 and 6.8 years respectively and the peak age between the second and seventh birthdays; this reflects previous reports indicating that physical and sexual abuse predominantly involves young children. Patterns of injury that sugge...

  3. DRUG ABUSE BY THE TEENAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Venumadhava, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in thecrime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impairjudgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assaultand impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability,addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.With most drug users being in the pr...

  4. [Fatigue in substance abuse disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichmüller, Claus; Soyka, Michael

    2015-04-22

    Fatigue is a common symptom in substance abuse disorders. The most frequent and relevant addiction disorders like alcoholism and dependence of illegal drugs like THC, opioids, cocaine, ecstasy, psycho-stimulants, and GHB/GBL (gamma hydroxybutyrate/gamma butyrolactone; "Liquid Ecstasy") are described, especially the associated symptomatology and specific psychosocial features. The dependence on drugs like benzodiazepines, analgesics, amphetamines and others is also outlined. The distinction between justified and abusive consumption can often be difficult. PMID:26072600

  5. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence fo...

  6. Attitudes towards child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand. Three studies are presented based on the same dat...

  7. ABUSE OF MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ananth, Jambur; Swartz, J. Randolph; Gadasally, Rangaswamy; Burgoyne, Karl

    1995-01-01

    Abuse of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is not common but there are a few cases of addiction in the literature. Most of these patients had an additional diagnosis, either history of past drug abuse or personality disorder and MAOI withdrawal symptoms have been reported. We encountered three patients who received MAOI under psychiatric care. They were all self medicated by increasing the doses on their own, experienced euphoria and visited various physicians to obtain MAOI prescriptions and mani...

  8. Religiosity and Substance Abuse: Need for Systematic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj

    2006-01-01

    Religion plays a significant role in human life, yet its potential to influence health and health-related conditions is not well studied. This article cites several studies that examine the correlation between religiosity and substance abuse. This article also suggests that more systematic researches are needed to validate the correlation of…

  9. [Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Child abuse by falsification of symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, B; Croner, S

    2001-05-01

    Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP) is a potentially lethal form of child abuse. Mortality rates around 10 percent have been reported. A knowledge of the characteristics of MSbP is needed in order to reveal the diagnosis and to handle the management correctly. Swedish experience is in accordance with international reports. PMID:11402984

  10. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Karaku?

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abu...

  11. Basic pharmacology relevant to drug abuse assessment: tramadol as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, R B

    2008-04-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic in widespread use throughout the world. Although there is extensive preclinical, clinical, post-marketing and epidemiological data indicating relatively low--but not zero--abuse/dependence, questions continue to arise about its abuse potential and appropriate regulatory classification. This article considers these questions from the point of view of the basic pharmacology of tramadol. There is nothing unique about tramadol in this regard, but its multimodal mechanism of action, pharmacologically active enantiomers, and active metabolite make it a particularly instructive and relevant example. PMID:18315774

  12. Fluorine-18 NaF PET imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body imaging for the evaluation of skeletal trauma in a case of suspected child abuse. To our knowledge, 18F NaF PET has not been used in the past for the evaluation of child abuse. In our patient, this technique detected all sites of trauma shown by initial and follow-up skeletal surveys, including bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the proximal humeri. Fluorine-18 NaF PET has potential advantage over Tc-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) based upon superior image contrast and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  13. Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses. PMID:22694135

  14. Reducing turnover and improving health care in nursing homes: the potential effects of self-managed work teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, D E; Seward, R R

    2000-06-01

    This article describes the use of self-managed work teams (SMWTs) in a nursing home, their potential impacts on the provision of health care and employee satisfaction and turnover, and the factors reported to be important to SMWT effectiveness. Three SMWTs in a midsized nursing home in Wisconsin provide examples. Steps for implementing SMWTs are described. PMID:10853530

  15. GIRL CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. VENUMADHAVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The child shall be registered immediately after birth shall have to right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationally and as for as possible, the right to know and be cared by for her parents (Article 7 of the convention of Rights of children But the reality of India is that as much as 40 percent of birth go unregistered as per government figures. This factor assumes greater significance where large numbers of female children are not even allowed to be born. They are killed either in the women itself or after birth. Census reports 2001. Clearly shown that where is a significant decline in sex-ratio in 0-6 years age group which is an indicator of accelerated disequilibrium. There are many socio-cultural and economic reasons for this disturbing trend. There issues pertain to inbuilt social bias against the girl child. These issues, either social economic or political need as exploration. Despite hectic planning, welfare programmes, legislations and administrative action in the past decades, a majority of Indian children continue to remain in distress and turmoil. In most families, the parents neglect them, caretakers batter them and employers sexually abuse them.

  16. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be determined.

  17. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Violently reactive women and their relationship with an abusive mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2015-07-01

    This article sheds light on the abuse of mothers toward their daughters and its potential influence on the violent behavior of the latter as adults. It contributes to the scarce knowledge on the effects of abuse of each parent on their children by gender. The article is part of a larger study describing the experience of 30 women in Israel who were abusive or violent toward their male partners. It presents the stories of 14 women from the sample who, when sharing their memories of childhood and family-of-origin, spoke of an abusive relationship with their mothers. The various types of these relationships are presented along a continuum based on the severity of violence and emotional detachment of the mothers toward the interviewees, ranging from physical and emotional distancing, through chronic expressions of bitterness and criticism, and ending with severe physical violence. The findings are analyzed through the prism of social construction, relating to the interviewees' use of the psychodynamic discourse when accounting for their past and present abusive relationships. Some limitations and clinical implementations of the study, and needs for further research, are addressed. PMID:25270906

  19. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

  20. Sexual abuse of children in Leeds

    OpenAIRE

    Turvill, P

    1986-01-01

    Temporal trends in physical and sexual abuse of children within a geographically defined area were examined, and cases of suspected sexual abuse referred to paediatricians during 1984 were studied in detail. After remaining static for four years referrals due to all types of abuse trebled between 1979 and 1984, and referrals due to sexual abuse increased from none to 50 a year. In 1984, 50 children (39 girls) aged 1-16 were referred because of possible sexual abuse. Abuse was confirmed or con...

  1. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J Collings

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value...

  2. A longitudinal twin study of effects of adolescent alcohol abuse on the neurophysiology of attention and orienting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Sini M; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    Long-term functional brain effects of adolescent alcohol abuse remain uncertain, partially because of difficulties in distinguishing inherited deficits from neuronal effects of ethanol and by confounds associated with alcohol abuse, especially nicotine exposure. We conducted a longitudinal twin study to determine neurocognitive effects of adolescent alcohol abuse, as measured with the auditory event-related potential (ERP) component P3, a putative marker of genetic vulnerability to alcoholism.

  3. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney

    2012-01-01

    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures a...

  4. Biotin Deficiency Reduces Expression of SLC19A3, a Potential Biotin Transporter, in Leukocytes from Human Blood12

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasova, Tatyana I; Stratton, Shawna L; Wells, Amanda M.; Mock, Nell I.; Mock, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate c...

  5. Critical Evaluation of the Prediction of the Dissociation Energy and the Energy Spectrum of the Ground State of KRb by the Reduced Potential Curve Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludský, O.; Jen&cbreve;, F.

    2001-05-01

    The estimates of the value of the dissociation energy and the energy spectrum of the KRb molecule made previously (O. Bludský, M. Ju&rbreve;ek, V. Spirko, B. A. Brandt, and F. Jen&cbreve;, 1995, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 169, 555-582) are compared with the new experimental data (C. Amiot and J. Vergès, 2000, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7068-7074) and the efficacy of the reduced potential curve (RPC) method is demonstrated. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11336513

  6. The second-generation active A? immunotherapy CAD106 reduces amyloid accumulation in APP transgenic mice while minimizing potential side effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiessner, C.; Wiederhold, Kh; Tissot, Ac; Frey, P.; Danner, S.; Jacobson, Lh; Jennings, Gt; Lu?o?nd, R.; Ortmann, R.; Reichwald, J.; Zurini, M.; Mir, A.; Bachmann, Mf; Staufenbiel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Immunization against amyloid-? (A?) can reduce amyloid accumulation in vivo and is considered a potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease. However, it has been associated with meningoencephalitis thought to be mediated by inflammatory T-cells. With the aim of producing an immunogenic vaccine without this side effect, we designed CAD106 comprising A?1-6 coupled to the virus-like particle Q?. Immunization with this vaccine did not activate A?-specific T-cells. In APP transgeni...

  7. Sustained Release d-Amphetamine Reduces Cocaine but not ‘Speedball'-Seeking in Buprenorphine-Maintained Volunteers: A Test of Dual-Agonist Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine/Heroin Polydrug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwald, Mark K.; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Steinmiller, Caren L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether oral sustained release d-amphetamine (SR-AMP) reduces cocaine and opioid/cocaine combination (‘speedball'-like) seeking in volunteers with current opioid dependence and cocaine dependence. Following outpatient buprenorphine (BUP) 8?mg/day stabilization without SR-AMP, eight participants completed a 3-week in-patient study with continued BUP 8?mg/day maintenance and double-blind ascending SR-AMP weekly doses of 0, 30, and 60?mg/day, respectively. ...

  8. A theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asha Saidi, Kalula; Farai, Nyabadza.

    Full Text Available The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tool [...] s. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.

  9. A theoretical model for substance abuse in the presence of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tools. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.

  10. The use of filters to reduce the potential ?-energy due to radon daughters in the cabs of mining vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the performance of filters for use in ventilation systems and describes an experiment performed in an inactive stope in an operating uranium mine in France. A series of truck engine air filters were used, designed to remove dust in the tens of microns range with an efficiency of about 5-20. They were chosen because they were designed from the outset to operate under the conditions of shock and vibration likely to be encountered in a mine. It was concluded that the use of the Liebherr filter will reduce the working level in the machine cab by a factor of two. (U.K.)

  11. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Bryce, L.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S

    2000-12-01

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO{sub 3}. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of {sup 85}Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%.

  12. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO3. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  13. The potential of five winter-grown crops to reduce root-knot nematode damage and increase yield of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel; Ploeg, Antoon

    2010-06-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

  14. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, R. H.; Olson, E. A. J.; Vanhowe, K. R.

    1980-09-01

    The prospect for performance improvement in the 62 operating light water reactors was examined. It is found that in the short term, capacity factor improvement of about 16 percent can be achieved, in response to a short term energy crisis. In the long term a gain of 18 percent can be achieved. Such gains represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. Potential increases in the operating power level of these units, are evaluated. This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day.

  15. Responses of corn root protoplasts to exogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: Oxygen consumption, ion uptake, and membrane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Willy

    1982-01-01

    Addition of 1.5 mM NADH tripled the O2 consumption in corn root protoplasts. The stimulation was temperature and pH dependent, specific to NADH, and accompanied by a 2- to 3-fold increase in K+ and Pi uptake into protoplasts. The increase in ion uptake was not due to the accumulation of NADH into protoplasts. The effect of exogenous NADH on O2 consumption and ion uptake was also evident in corn root segments but to a lesser extent. A 20-mV hyperpolarization of protoplast membrane potential oc...

  16. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  17. Blockage of LMP1-modulated store-operated Ca(2+) entry reduces metastatic potential in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiazhang; Zhang, Jinyan; Si, Yongfeng; Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Zhe; Terakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane proteins (LMPs) expedite progression of EBV-relevant cancers. Of the full set of LMPs, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was identified to uniquely augment store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Previously, we reported that the suppression of SOCE exhibited inhibitory effects on cell migration and the extravasation from vasculature in EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. In this follow-up study, we aimed to expand our understanding of the modulation of SOCE by LMP1 and test the possibility that blockage of LMP1-modulated SOCE affects the LMP1-promoted metastatic potential. Here we showed that suppressions of the LMP1-boosted SOCE blunted the LMP1-promoted cell migration, VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and permeabilization in vitro. Blockage of SOCE inhibited vasculature-invasion of circulating cells and distant metastatic colonization in vivo. Notably, utilizing VEGFR2-EGFP-tag zebrafish we revealed that the LMP1-expressing cells arrested in a small-caliber vessel mobilized surrounding endothelial cells to facilitate vasculature-invasion. Thus, the LMP1-boosted SOCE promotes metastatic potential of NPC cells by solidifying their collaborations with the nearby non-cancer cells through the manipulation of oncogenic Ca(2+) signaling. Our study highlights the advantage of using both conventional mammal and transgenic zebrafish for developing a novel therapeutic strategy targeting the multiple steps of invasion-metastasis cascade. PMID:25697483

  18. Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatyana I; Stratton, Shawna L; Wells, Amanda M; Mock, Nell I; Mock, Donald M

    2005-01-01

    In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate carboxylase (PC); acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoforms A (ACCA) and B (ACCB); holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS); biotinidase; and 2 potential biotin transporters: sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) and solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3). For 7 subjects who successfully completed the study, the abundance of the specific mRNAs was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR at d 0 and 28. At d 28, SLC19A3 expression had decreased to 33% of d 0 (P dependent carboxylases is more responsive to biotin status changes. These data provide evidence that expression of SLC19A3 is a relatively sensitive indicator of marginal biotin deficiency. PMID:15623830

  19. Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging cerebral GABAA receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

  20. InP/ZnS-graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites as fascinating materials for potential optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Monica; Mohapatra, Priyaranjan; Subbiah, Ramesh; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Anass, Benayad; Kim, Jang Ah; Kim, Taesung; Yi, Dong Kee

    2013-09-01

    Our recent studies on metal-organic nanohybrids based on alkylated graphene oxide (GO), reduced alkylated graphene oxide (RGO) and InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are presented. The GO alkylated by octadecylamine (ODA) and the QD bearing a dodecane thiol (DDT) ligand are soluble in toluene. The nanocomposite alkylated-GO-QD (GOQD) is readily formed from the solution mixture. Treatment of the GOQD composite with hydrazine affords a reduced-alkylated-GO-QD (RGOQD) composite. The structure, morphology, photophysical and electrical properties of GOQDs and RGOQDs are studied. The micro-FTIR and Raman studies demonstrate evidence of the QD interaction with GO and RGO through facile intercalation of the alkyl chains. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of the GOQD composite show heaps of large QD aggregates piled underneath the GO sheet. Upon reduction to RGOQDs, the QDs become evenly distributed on the graphene bed and the size of the clusters significantly decreases. This also facilitates closer proximity of the QDs to the graphene domains by altering the optoelectronic properties of the RGOQDs. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm QDs being retained in the composites, though a small elemental composition change takes place. The XPS and the fluorescence spectra show the presence of an In(Zn)P alloy while the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show characteristics of the tetragonal indium. The photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs in GOQD and RGOQD films determined by the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) experiment demonstrates almost complete fluorescence quenching in RGOQDs. The conductance studies demonstrate the differences between GOQDs and RGOQDs. Investigation on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFET) characteristics shows the composite to exhibit p-type channel material properties. The RGOQD exhibits much superior electrical conductance as a channel material compared to the GOQD due to the close proximity of the QDs in the RGOQD to the graphene surface. The transfer characteristics, memory properties, and on/off ratios of the devices are determined. A mechanism has been proposed with reference to the Fermi energies of the composites estimated from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies.Our recent studies on metal-organic nanohybrids based on alkylated graphene oxide (GO), reduced alkylated graphene oxide (RGO) and InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are presented. The GO alkylated by octadecylamine (ODA) and the QD bearing a dodecane thiol (DDT) ligand are soluble in toluene. The nanocomposite alkylated-GO-QD (GOQD) is readily formed from the solution mixture. Treatment of the GOQD composite with hydrazine affords a reduced-alkylated-GO-QD (RGOQD) composite. The structure, morphology, photophysical and electrical properties of GOQDs and RGOQDs are studied. The micro-FTIR and Raman studies demonstrate evidence of the QD interaction with GO and RGO through facile intercalation of the alkyl chains. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of the GOQD composite show heaps of large QD aggregates piled underneath the GO sheet. Upon reduction to RGOQDs, the QDs become evenly distributed on the graphene bed and the size of the clusters significantly decreases. This also facilitates closer proximity of the QDs to the graphene domains by altering the optoelectronic properties of the RGOQDs. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm QDs being retained in the composites, though a small elemental composition change takes place. The XPS and the fluorescence spectra show the presence of an In(Zn)P alloy while the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show characteristics of the tetragonal indium. The photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs in GOQD and RGOQD films determined by the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) experiment demonstrates almost complete fluo

  1. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child ... 37. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Identification of Sexual Abuse. https://www.childwelfare.gov/can/identifying/sex_abuse. ...

  2. Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... g) (LexisNexis through 2011 Supp.) ‘Child abuse’ or ‘abuse’ occurs when: • An illegal drug is present in a child’s body as a direct and foreseeable consequence of the acts or omissions of the person ...

  3. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discussing this problem openly and stressing the devastating consequences of inhalant abuse, you can help prevent a tragedy. If you suspect your child or someone you know is an inhalant abuser, ...

  4. Preventing Drug Abuse Through Behavior Change Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses several principles derived from learning theory which aid in understanding the use and abuse of drugs and illustrates their role in behavioral group counseling, a promising new strategy for drug abuse prevention. (JC)

  5. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Specific Phobias Depression Stress Suicide Related Illnesses DSM-5 Changes Myth-Conceptions Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Abuse At around the age ...

  6. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  7. Assessment of self-help methods to reduce potential exposure to radiological contamination after a large-scale radiological release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Emily; Drake, John; Cardarelli, John; Hall, Kathy; Szabo, Jeff; Demmer, Rick; Lindberg, Michael; Riggs, Karen; James, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    After the release of radioactive materials from a large radiological dispersal device (e.g., dirty bomb), improvised nuclear detonation, or nuclear power plant accident, up to hundreds of square miles may be contaminated. A portion of this area will be evacuated; however, people living in the portion that is not evacuated yet is still contaminated with low-levels of radioactive contamination will be asking for ways they can reduce their exposure. Whether cleaning activities can significantly reduce exposure is not fully understood. In this effort, the ability of cleaning activities to remove cesium (137Cs) was studied. The removal efficacy of cleaning with a commercial product, Simple Green®, was compared to cleaning with water for hard surfaces typically seen in residences. The removal efficacy of laundering fabric material surfaces was also determined for a range of conditions (e.g., fabric material type, wash temperature). During these studies, assessments of the implications of these activities (e.g., cross-contamination, resulting waste streams) were also completed. Simple Green and water were effective for removing 137Cs from plastic laminate and vinyl flooring (93.4-96.8%) but were not effective for removing 137Cs from painted wallboard and wood (7.3-68.1%). It was also determined that there was no significant difference between the two cleaners on all of the surfaces, except plastic laminate, for which Simple Green was slightly more effective. Laundering was effective for removing 137Cs contamination from polyester and cotton swatches and cotton comforters (up to 96.8% in the single swatch testing). PMID:25068960

  8. Integration of teen pregnancy and child abuse research: identifying mediator variables for pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-lausen, E; Rickel, A U

    1995-01-01

    A review of the literature on adolescent pregnancy and child abuse, both of which are showing alarming increases in the US, suggests a strong link between these two fields as well as potential for integrated research. Numerous studies have identified a significant incidence of childhood sexual abuse in teenage mothers who neglect or abuse their own children. The experience of child abuse has been associated with psychiatric sequelae such as somatization, anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive behavior, dissociation, and suicidality. Another study found that dissociation and depression were significant mediators between a child abuse history and negative life outcomes such as victimization and interpersonal difficulties. Also recorded has been a tendency for abuse survivors to use rapidly initiated sexual activity with multiple partners as a means of coping with feelings of depression, abandonment, and emptiness. A positive correlation has been noted between the severity of childhood abuse and the intensity of subsequent psychopathology. Also found has been considerable overlap between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores of pregnant/parenting teens and abuse victims. If further research continues to substantiate the association between these two social problems, treatment of childhood trauma in high-risk teens may emerge as an important pregnancy prevention strategy. PMID:12290975

  9. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognmo Kamilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well.

  10. BUPRENORPHINE ABUSE IN INDIA : AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Yogesh; Mattoo, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    This study reviews the available Indian literature on buprenorphine abuse. Buprenorphine was introduced in 1986; the abuse, first noticed in 1987, increased rapidly till 1994, and then decreased gradually. Initiated through other addicts and medical practitioners, the abuse was mostly as a cheap, easily and legally available substitute for opioids. The typical young adult male abuser used an intravenous cocktail with diazepam, pheneramine or promethazine for a better kick. The withdrawal synd...

  11. Potential for Woody Bioenergy Crops Grown on Marginal Lands in the US Midwest to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-12-01

    While cellulosic biofuels are widely considered to be a low carbon energy source for the future, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and future biofuel systems is needed to assess their utility in meeting US energy and food needs without exacerbating environmental harm. To assess the carbon emission reduction potential of cellulosic biofuels, we need to identify lands that are initially not storing large quantities of carbon in soil and vegetation but are capable of producing abundant biomass with limited management inputs, and accurately model forest production rates and associated input requirements. Here we present modeled results for carbon emission reduction potential and cellulosic ethanol production of woody bioenergy crops replacing existing native prairie vegetation grown on marginal lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands are selected based on soil properties describing use limitation, and are extracted from the SSURGO (Soil Survey Geographic) database. Yield estimates for existing native prairie vegetation on marginal lands modeled using the process-based field-scale model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) amount to ~ 6.7±2.0 Mg ha-1. To model woody bioenergy crops, the individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model ED (Ecosystem Demography) is initialized with the soil organic carbon stocks estimated at the end of the EPIC simulation. Four woody bioenergy crops: willow, southern pine, eucalyptus and poplar are parameterized in ED. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters and drivers is conducted to explore the range of carbon emission reduction possible with variation in woody bioenergy crop types, spatial and temporal resolution. We hypothesize that growing cellulosic crops on these marginal lands can provide significant water quality, biodiversity and GHG emissions mitigation benefits, without accruing additional carbon costs from the displacement of food and feed production.

  12. Emotional and Psychological Abuse: Problems of Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Kieran P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the tendency to regard the terms "emotional abuse" and "psychological abuse" as interchangeable. Existing commonly used definitions are reviewed, and new definitions are provided. Differences between mental and emotional consequences of child abuse are delineated and the implications of these differences for terminology usage…

  13. Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R. William

    This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family Interventions,"…

  14. Attachment Theory and Child Abuse: Some Cautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Erna

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to Bolen's article, "Child Sexual Abuse and Attachment Theory: Are We Rushing Headlong into Another Controversy?" (this issue). Heralds the article as a welcome addition to the child abuse field and further explores the issues pertaining to attachment theory and child abuse. (GCP)

  15. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  16. Adderall abuse in Texas, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2007-04-01

    Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of Adderall abuse calls received by several poison control centers in Texas during 1998-2004. Drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of all Adderall exposure calls, 12% involved abuse. The number of drug abuse calls received per year increased during the first part of 7-yr period but then declined. Male patients accounted for almost 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 69% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 66% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than nonabuse calls to involve exposures at another residence (6% vs. 3%), school (22% vs. 5%) and public areas (2% vs. 0.4%). Drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to be managed outside of a health care facility (18% vs. 51%) and to be classified as no adverse effect (23% vs. 48%). Adderall abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Adderall abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and involve more serious medical outcomes. PMID:17365619

  17. Abuse of dominance in the airport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Paula e Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of the Competition Law in dealing the abuse of dominance in the European airport sector. Starting with discussion of whether airports are natural monopolies or may face real competition, it is followed by an analysis of special features about the sector and a comparison between the policies of the European Union Member States. It is found that above the variety of regulatory frameworks, scarce capacity issues and public subsidies, the EU Competition Law stands as a universal mechanism to protect customers from the abuse of the airports´ dominant position. However, in reviewing the case law it concludes that EU Competition Law has been rarely enforced in the sector, which seems to be the result not only of the lack of incentives for airports to explore their dominant position but also of the risk of reducing the revenues generated from their commercial activities. Another possible reason is related to the fact that some airlines have shown that airport switching can be a credible threat. Finally, it follows the agreement that competition is a “first best” policy which provides the firms with the strongest incentives to give consumers what they need in terms of price and quality. In the airport sector, it can be a good instrument against a regulator that has been acting in the interests of the national airline or even be part of a liberalization process.

  18. Reducing the influence of spatial resolution to improve quantitative accuracy in emission tomography: A comparison of potential strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to compare strategies for reducing partial volume effects by either minimizing the cause (i.e. improving resolution) or correcting the effect. Correction for resolution loss can be achieved either by modelling the resolution for use in iterative reconstruction or by imposing constraints based on knowledge of the underlying anatomy. Approaches to partial volume correction largely rely on knowledge of the underlying anatomy, based on well-registered high-resolution anatomical imaging modalities (CT or MRI). Corrections can be applied by considering the signal loss that results by smoothing the high-resolution modality to the same resolution as obtained in emission tomography. A physical phantom representing the central brain structures was used to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the various strategies for either improving resolution or correcting for partial volume effects. Inclusion of resolution in the reconstruction model improved the measured contrast for the central brain structures but still underestimated the true object contrast (?0.70). Use of information on the boundaries of the structures in conjunction with a smoothing prior using maximum entropy reconstruction achieved some degree of contrast enhancement and improved the noise properties of the resulting images. Partial volume correction based on segmentation of registered anatomical images and knowledge of the reconstructed resolution permitted more accurate quantificationn permitted more accurate quantification of the target to background ratio for individual brain structures

  19. The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Mike [The UK' s National Nuclear Laboratory, Preston Laboratory, Preston, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

  20. Reducing the risk of injury from table saw use: the potential benefits and costs of automatic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Chang, Joice

    2015-02-01

    The use of table saws in the United States is associated with approximately 28,000 emergency department (ED) visits and 2,000 cases of finger amputation per year. This article provides a quantitative estimate of the economic benefits of automatic protection systems that could be designed into new table saw products. Benefits are defined as reduced health-care costs, enhanced production at work, and diminished pain and suffering. The present value of the benefits of automatic protection over the life of the table saw are interpreted as the switch-point cost value, the maximum investment in automatic protection that can be justified by benefit-cost comparison. Using two alternative methods for monetizing pain and suffering, the study finds switch-point cost values of $753 and $561 per saw. These point estimates are sensitive to the values of inputs, especially the average cost of injury. The various switch-point cost values are substantially higher than rough estimates of the incremental cost of automatic protection systems. Uncertainties and future research needs are discussed. PMID:25082447

  1. The effectiveness of electronic approaches to substance abuse prevention for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Laura; Wodarski, John; Tang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews of computer- and Web-based treatment approaches indicate that these interventions are effective in addressing abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances. However, there are few studies evaluating the effectiveness of electronic approaches to substance abuse prevention. This review of the literature synthesizes the current research on interventions that use electronic media, including CD-ROM, video, and Internet modalities, for substance abuse prevention. Overall, the studies indicate that electronic-based and enhanced interventions are effective in preventing or reducing risk for substance use. We discuss trends in the current literature, research limitations, and implications for practice. PMID:25661894

  2. The vesicular monoamine transporter-2: an important pharmacological target for the discovery of novel therapeutics to treat methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Vartak, Ashish; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse escalates, but no approved therapeutics are available to treat addicted individuals. Methamphetamine increases extracellular dopamine in reward-relevant pathways by interacting at vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) to inhibit dopamine uptake and promote dopamine release from synaptic vesicles, increasing cytosolic dopamine available for reverse transport by the dopamine transporter (DAT). VMAT2 is the target of our iterative drug discovery efforts to identify pharmacotherapeutics for methamphetamine addiction. Lobeline, the major alkaloid in Lobelia inflata, potently inhibited VMAT2, methamphetamine-evoked striatal dopamine release, and methamphetamine self-administration in rats but exhibited high affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Defunctionalized, unsaturated lobeline analog, meso-transdiene (MTD), exhibited lobeline-like in vitro pharmacology, lacked nAChR affinity, but exhibited high affinity for DAT, suggesting potential abuse liability. The 2,4-dicholorophenyl MTD analog, UKMH-106, exhibited selectivity for VMAT2 over DAT, inhibited methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, but required a difficult synthetic approach. Lobelane, a saturated, defunctionalized lobeline analog, inhibited the neurochemical and behavioral effects of methamphetamine; tolerance developed to the lobelane-induced decrease in methamphetamine self-administration. Improved drug-likeness was afforded by the incorporation of a chiral N-1,2-dihydroxypropyl moiety into lobelane to afford GZ-793A, which inhibited the neurochemical and behavioral effects of methamphetamine, without tolerance. From a series of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine analogs, AV-2-192 emerged as a lead, exhibiting high affinity for VMAT2 and inhibiting methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. Current results support the hypothesis that potent, selective VMAT2 inhibitors provide the requisite preclinical behavioral profile for evaluation as pharmacotherapeutics for methamphetamine abuse and emphasize selectivity for VMAT2 relative to DAT as a criterion for reducing abuse liability of the therapeutic. PMID:24484975

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, SØren; Madsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct problems are strong predictors of SUD, but not responsible for the entire associated risk between ADHD and SUD. Dopamine is thought to be one of the key neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of both ADHD and SUD. Methylphenidate has the dopamine transporter as its main target and brain circuits modulated by dopamine are involved in the development of addiction. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used pharmacological treatment for ADHD and, although this prescribed drug potentially can be abused, it actually seems to reduce the risk of SUD in patients with ADHD, rather than to increase the risk. Few studies have examined the risk of SUD in females with ADHD and some of them suggest a higher risk of SUD than in males with ADHD. However, more research is needed on these gender differences before any clear conclusions can be drawn.

  4. Reduced repair of potentially lethal radiation damage in glutathione synthetase-deficient human fibroblasts after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a human fibroblast strain deficient in glutathione synthetase and a related proficient control strain, the role of glutathione (GSH) in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) has been investigated in determining survival by plating cells immediately or 24 h after irradiation. After oxic or hypoxic irradiation, both cell strains repair radiation-induced damage. However, under hypoxic conditions, the proficient cells repair PLD as well as under oxic conditions while the deficient cells repair less PLD after irradiation under hypoxic than under oxic conditions. Therefore, the oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) for proficient cells is similar whether the cells are plated immediately or 24 h later (2.0 and 2.13, respectively). In contrast, the o.e.r. for deficient cells is lower when the cells are plated 24 h after irradiation than when they are plated immediately thereafter (1.16 as compared to 1.55). The results indicate that GSH is involved in PLD repair and, in particular, in the repair of damage induced by radiation delivered under hypoxic conditions. (author)

  5. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

  6. Neuroprotective effect of steroidal alkaloids on glutamate-induced toxicity by preserving mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Marcos; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Teixeira, João P; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-03-01

    Several evidences suggest that enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether both extracts from tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves and their isolated steroidal alkaloids (tomatine and tomatidine) afford neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Steroidal alkaloids from tomato are well known for their cholinesterases' inhibitory capacity and the results showed that both purified extracts and isolated compounds, at non-toxic concentrations for gastric (AGS), intestinal (Caco-2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells, have the capacity to preserve mitochondria membrane potential and to decrease reactive oxygen species levels of SH-SY5Y glutamate-insulted cells. Moreover, the use of specific antagonists of cholinergic receptors allowed observing that tomatine and tomatidine can interact with nicotinic receptors, specifically with the ?7 type. No effect on muscarinic receptors was noticed. In addition to the selective cholinesterases' inhibition revealed by the compounds/extracts, these results provide novel and important insights into their neuroprotective mechanism. This work also demystifies the applicability of these compounds in therapeutics, by demonstrating that their toxicity was overestimated for long time. PMID:24373792

  7. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    OHANNESSIAN, CHRISTINE McCAULEY; HESSELBROCK, VICTOR M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  9. Substance Abuse and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social workers, psychologists and psychopharmacologists have devoted little attention to study the direct relationship between drugs and adolescents’ aggression. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the extent of the level of aggressive behavior among adolescents who underwent rehabilitation of drug abuse. This study also sought to find out the relationship between type of drugs used with aggressive behavior among adolescents. Respondents were 200 adolescents from three juvenile Henry Gurney schools in Malaysia who took part in this exploratory cross-sectional survey research design. A set of questionnaire was constructed by the researcher based on the Aggression Questionnaires (AQ scale. Results showed that the majority of adolescents (95 percent indicated an aggressive behavior of moderate to high level. The result of the study also found that adolescents who have been using heroin (r = 0.016, p <0.05 and morphine drugs (r = 0.181, p <0.05 showed significant correlation with aggressive behavior. The findings provided evidence for the significant role of the goverment to enhance rehabilitation modules for adolescents involved in drug abuse. Education on how to effectively deal with aggressive behavior among adolescents at risk should be emphasized for building positive behavior among adolescents in order to produce potential young generation in the future.

  10. Aripiprazole, alcohol and substance abuse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, M; Di Tizio, L; Dezi, S; Pozzi, G; Grandinetti, P; Martinotti, G

    2012-10-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic used for schizophrenia, manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder and as adjunctive therapy for major depressive disorder. It functions as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at the 5-HT2A receptor. The most recent results obtained from scientific research showed that dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in motivation, reward, and reinforcement of substance abuse. The use of aripiprazole and partial dopamine agonists could represent a novel strategy for normalizing dopamine neurotransmission. Many studies in the last few years have highlighted aripiprazole as a potential candidate for the treatment of different types of substance dependence. This review aims to describe recent scientific research using aripiprazole in different substance abuse disorders (i.e., alcoholism, cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine use). Furthermore, the efficacy of aripiprazole compared to other pharmacological therapies will be described. Given the low number of studies, the frequent absence of placebo or active comparators, and the low statistical power of the studies, a clear conclusion about the use of aripiprazole in alcohol/substance dependence cannot be drawn. Therefore, we suggest the need for further studies, preferably randomized and placebo-controlled. PMID:23104650

  11. Using in vitro models for expression profiling studies on ethanol and drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Christelle; Hassan, Sajida; Miles, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The use of expression profiling with microarrays offers great potential for studying the mechanisms of action of drugs of abuse. Studies with the intact nervous system seem likely to be most relevant to understanding the mechanisms of drug abuse-related behaviours. However, the use of expression profiling with in vitro culture models offers significant advantages for identifying details of cellular signalling actions and toxicity for drugs of abuse. This study discusses general issues of the use of microarrays and cell culture models for studies on drugs of abuse. Specific results from existing studies are also discussed, providing clear examples of relevance for in vitro studies on ethanol, nicotine, opiates, cannabinoids and hallucinogens such as LSD. In addition to providing details on signalling mechanisms relevant to the neurobiology of drugs of abuse, microarray studies on a variety of cell culture systems have also provided important information on mechanisms of cellular/organ toxicity with drugs of abuse. Efforts to integrate genomic studies on drugs of abuse with both in vivo and in vitro models offer the potential for novel mechanistic rigor and physiological relevance. PMID:15849019

  12. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of these 2 nations with respect to the seriousness of particular types of crimes. The characteristics of the MMT program may also influence patterns of drug abuse in these 2 nations and China should improve the MMT program based on the successful model in Europe, the USA, and Australia. We recommend more dialogue and collaboration between Germany and China. PMID:17883935

  13. Treatment Effects for Common Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Current Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Emily V.; Walsh, Kate; Dilillo, David

    2011-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the effects of psychosocial treatments at reducing deleterious outcomes of sexual abuse. The meta-analysis included a total of 35 published and unpublished studies written in English, focusing on youth under the age of 18, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for the most common negative outcomes of sexual abuse: PTSD symptoms, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Results revealed medium effect sizes for PTSD symptoms, externalizing ...

  14. Alcohol and other drug abuse in elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, M T

    1993-01-01

    With the growing population of older persons, ET nurses can expect an increasing number of elderly clients in their practice settings. Elderly persons are not immune to alcohol and other drug abuse. Detection of substance abuse in this population is complex and often missed. The purposes of this article are as follows: (1) examine barriers that may prevent nurses from addressing substance abuse among the elderly population; (2) suggest risks for psychoactive substance abuse in this population; (3) identify warning signs that should alert nurses to the problem; and (4) outline treatment options for substance-abusing clients. PMID:8347756

  15. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  16. Perspectives on Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides review of substance abuse prevention programing over the past 20 years. Describes an empirically promising approach based on teaching assertiveness and decision-making skills and cites the results of a longitudinal evaluation of the assertiveness training component. Concludes with a description of the authors' current program in the…

  17. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  19. Sharpened legislation on market abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

  20. Drugs of Abuse and Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Eve

    2008-03-12

    Learn about how neurons communicate with each other through neurotransmission. Learn how drugs of abuse affect this process. Below each question are links to other web resources. You will need to read several of them to get all the ideas. Write your answers in a separate WORD document and print it. 1) Using these references, make a list of 10 parts of a ...

  1. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  2. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Ç?rak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobal?, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

  3. Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We audited a paper mill in China to reduce its energy use and CO2 emissions. ? The energy use and CO2 emissions of the mill and each paper machine are presented. ? The energy saving potential for the paper machine is estimated at 8–37%. ? The energy saving potential is 967.8 TJ, equal to 14.4% of the mill’s energy use. ? The CO2 reduction potential is 93,453 tonnes CO2 for the studied paper mill. -- Abstract: The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the audit period.

  4. False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegat...

  5. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-04-11

    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

  6. Benefits of Concurrent Syringe Exchange and Substance Abuse Treatment Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Kidorf, Michael; King, L.; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits, but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. The present study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (n = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substance abuse treatment over a 4-month observation window, and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes....

  7. Inquiries into Fatal Child Abuse in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijvenhoven, T. D.; Kortleven, W-j

    2010-01-01

    In some Western societies, inquiries into fatal abuse of children known to agencies are nowadays a common phenomenon. They have been carried out in the UK for many years, but have recently also emerged in the Netherlands. The main aim of these inquiries is to improve child welfare and protection practice in order to reduce the chance of further child deaths. However, there is reason to critically consider the feasibility of this aim, as British research into child death investigations suggest...

  8. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury; Kindesmisshandlung. Nicht akzidentelle Kopfverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-12-15

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  9. Intimate partner violence/abuse and depressive symptoms among female healthcare workers: Longitudinal findings

    OpenAIRE

    Flair, Lareina N. La; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence and abuse (IPV/A) have been shown to have a major impact on mental health functioning. This study assessed the longitudinal association between recent IPV/A and depressive symptoms in order to identify potential targets for preventive interventions for women. Random effects models were used to examine four waves of data collected at 6-month intervals from a cohort of 1438 female healthcare workers. Recent IPV/A (e.g., sexual and physical violence, psychological abuse...

  10. Modest abuse-related subjective effects of zolpidem in drug-naïve volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Maclean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent case reports suggest that the short-acting benzodiazepine-like hypnotic zolpidem may have abuse potential among individuals who have no personal history of abusing drugs or alcohol, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for treating insomnia. The present study recruited drug-naïve volunteers to assess the subjective effects of multiple doses of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg) administered in a within-subject double-blind design. Participants (n=11) answered computerized qu...

  11. The Long-term Health Outcomes of Childhood Abuse: An Overview and a Call to Action

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2003-01-01

    While the association between abuse in childhood and adverse adult health outcomes is well established, this link is infrequently acknowledged in the general medical literature. This paper has 2 purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of child abuse on mental and physical health including some of the potential pathways, and (2) to call for collaborative action among clinicians, psychosocial and biomedical researchers, social service agencies, crimina...

  12. Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

    2010-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596

  13. Evidence that carboxyl-reduced heparin fails to potentiate acidic fibroblast growth factor activity due to an inability to interact with cell surface heparin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K J; Hendry, I A; Parish, C R

    1995-03-01

    Recently we reported that carboxyl-reduced heparin (CR-heparin), despite binding acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) as effectively as native heparin, was much less potent at augmenting aFGF-induced mitogenesis. This paper describes experiments which examined this phenomenon in more detail in the hope that it would shed light on the mechanism by which heparin potentiates aFGF activity. Initial studies confirmed that heparin, with 60% of its carboxyl groups reduced, although binding aFGF with the same affinity as native heparin (Kd 35 +/- 5 nM), was a poor potentiator of aFGF-induced mitogenic activity. Proteolysis protection experiments also revealed that CR-heparin was as effective as native heparin at protecting aFGF from proteolytic degradation. In contrast, CR-heparin was considerably less effective than native heparin at enhancing the binding of aFGF to the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) on 3T3 cells. Furthermore, CR-heparin only bound to a subset (approximately 1/3) of heparin receptors on 3T3 cells. Based on these data, it is proposed that CR-heparin is less efficient than heparin at facilitating the formation of a quaternary complex among aFGF, the FGFR, and cell surface heparin receptors. PMID:7532589

  14. Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence. PMID:18509037

  15. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  16. Manipulation and abuse on social media

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The computer science research community has became increasingly interested in the study of social media due to their pervasiveness in the everyday life of millions of individuals. Methodological questions and technical challenges abound as more and more data from social platforms become available for analysis. This data deluge not only yields the unprecedented opportunity to unravel questions about online individuals' behavior at scale, but also allows to explore the potential perils that the massive adoption of social media brings to our society. These communication channels provide plenty of incentives (both economical and social) and opportunities for abuse. As social media activity became increasingly intertwined with the events in the offline world, individuals and organizations have found ways to exploit these platforms to spread misinformation, to attack and smear others, or to deceive and manipulate. During crises, social media have been effectively used for emergency response, but fear-mongering acti...

  17. Preventing substance abuse: the state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    Durell, J.; Bukoski, W.

    1984-01-01

    While drug abuse among adolescents and young adults has begun to decline from the epidemic levels of the late 1970s, it remains a serious national health problem. Much information from research suggests that young people at the junior and senior high school levels are the most vulnerable to the social pressures that lead to experimental and then regular use of psychoactive substances. Well-designed prevention programs for youngsters in these age groups have the potential to prevent the onset ...

  18. Screening of Substance Abuse Among Women in Perinatal Care

    OpenAIRE

    Tazanu Fossung, Joakem; Cudjoe, Kwame

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe contemporary screening methodologies and processes for determining the substance abuse status of perinatal women using recent literary works. It also outlines potential innovations to improve the screening process and subsequent treatment of the aforementioned. The study was undertaken as part of the Kuitinmäki project in Laurea University of Applied Sciences. This study sought to answer the research question; What is entailed in the screening of su...

  19. Potential of nitrate addition to control the activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in high-temperature oil production systems - a comparative study on a nitrate-treated and an untreated system

    OpenAIRE

    Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil; Skovhus, Torben L.; Schramm, Andreas; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. Adding nitrate to the injection water is applied to control SRP activity by favoring the growth of heterotrophic, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Microbial diversity, abundance of Bacteria, Archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) and the potential activity of SRP were studied in p...

  20. Developmental Consequences of Child Abuse. Selected Papers Number 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, John

    This exploration of the dynamics and developmental consequences of child abuse begins with a definition of child abuse and a discussion of child sexual abuse. After a description of the incidence of child abuse, the consequences of abuse--including health and emotional problems, and neuro-developmental disabilities--are discussed. Further…

  1. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients.

  2. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  3. Familial Correlates of Selected Types of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Walters, James

    1982-01-01

    Studied 489 cases of child abuse and neglect to determine specific patterns of family circumstance which tended to be present in families in which abandonment, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse had been substantiated. Findings indicated that different kinds of abuse are related to different antecedent variables. (Author)

  4. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...abuse education course to: (1) Inform inmates of the consequences of drug/alcohol abuse and addiction; and (2) Motivate inmates needing drug abuse treatment to apply for further drug abuse treatment, both while incarcerated and after release...they were sentenced or returned to custody as a violator after September 30, 1991, when unit and/or drug abuse treatment staff determine,......

  5. The Reduction of Drug Abuse in Taiwan and Its Information System Application—An IT Enabled Service Innovation in E-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Larry F. K. Chang

    2013-01-01

    The drug abuse problem is one of the toughest issues currently facing governments around the world. Typically, drug offenders are arrested, jailed for a time and then released, but there is high probability that they will become repeat offenders after leaving prison. This typical solution is a significant waste of administrative resources and fails to reduce the rate of recidivism among drug abusers. Recently, more countries are treating drug abuse offenders as patients, offering them dr...

  6. Adverse effects of cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washton, A M; Tatarsky, A

    1984-03-01

    Specific consequences of cocaine abuse on health and psycho-social functioning were assessed in 55 cocaine-abusing subjects who called a telephone "helpline." REsults showed a high incidence and wide range of adverse consequences including: impairment of job functioning, interpersonal relationships, and financial status; disturbances of mood and cognitive functioning; psychiatric symptoms of depression, paranoia, and increased suicidal/violent tendencies; and physical symptoms of exhaustion, weight loss, sleep problems, and seizures. Cocaine-related automobile accidents, suicide attempts, and violent acts, including a cocaine-related homicide, were also reported. Intranasal users reported no fewer and no less severe adverse consequences than free-base smokers or intravenous users. Our findings challenge popular notions that cocaine is a benign "recreational" drug and that the intranasal route of administration guarantees protection against addictive patterns of use and adverse effects. PMID:6434968

  7. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  8. Behavioral Therapies for Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Onken, Lisa S.

    2005-01-01

    The past three decades have been marked by tremendous progress in behavioral therapies for drug abuse and dependence, as well as advances in the conceptualization of approaches to development of behavioral therapies. Cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, couples and family therapy, and a variety of other types of behavioral treatment have been shown to be potent interventions for several forms of drug addiction, and scientific progress has also been greatly facilitated by the ar...

  9. Abuse of the elderly-the hidden agenda. II. Future research and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, D F; Kimsey, L R; Tarbox, A R

    1981-11-01

    A schema for future research and efforts to remediate abuse of the elderly is presented. In the community at large, increased exposure of and education pertaining to the elderly are needed in order to intensify the public/community presence and reduce prejudices. In the medical community, improvements are needed in the extent of geriatric training, the ethics of pronouncement of death, the reliability of clinical documents, and the reporting of suspected cases of abuse. In the legal community, there is need for laws prohibiting abuse and neglect, and providing opportunity for recovery of minimum damages, with covering of attorney's fees and court costs. It is proposed that the administrative process be altered so as to provide either a financial penalty for abuse and neglect, or a reward for providing superior care. PMID:7299008

  10. The efficiency of noble metals in reducing the corrosion potential in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors operating under hydrogen water chemistry operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote the effectiveness of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and to achieve a more effective reduction in electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in the primary coolant circuits of boiling water reactors (BWRs), the technology of noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) was brought into practice about 10 years ago. NMCA aims at enhancing the oxidation of hydrogen on metal surfaces and lowering the concentrations of the oxidants (oxygen and hydrogen peroxide) via recombination with hydrogen on the catalyzed surfaces, and therefore reducing the corrosion potentials of the structural alloys in a BWR primary heat transport circuit. Previous research indicates that the effectiveness of NMCA in combination with a low HWC might be evaluated via model predictions of the hydrogen-to-oxidant molar ratio (MH/O) in the primary coolant circuit. If the MH/O at a certain location is calculated to be greater than 2, it is justified that the NMCA would be effective in reducing the ECP to much below the critical potential for Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC), EIGSCC, of -0.23 VSHE. However, this statement is true only when the recombination efficiency of hydrogen with oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide at the location of interest is 100%. Otherwise, significant amounts of oxidants may still be present, even with a stoichiometric MH/O of greater than 2. With the aid of a computer model DEMACE, we explored the im computer model DEMACE, we explored the impact of incomplete recombination and found that the ECP might be reduced under given circumstances, but not to a great extent, and might remain well above EIGSCC. Accordingly, considerable caution should be exercised upon using the MH/O as a sole indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of NMCA with low HWC as a means of mitigating IGSCC in a BWR. An important finding of this study is that it is necessary to quantify the recombination efficiencies of hydrogen with oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide on the noble metal treated stainless steel surfaces in order to qualify the use of MH/O as an indicator for NMCA effectiveness in the primary coolant circuit of a BWR. (author)

  11. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective. PMID:25183616

  12. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  13. Investigating the potential to reduce flood risk through catchment-based land management techniques and interventions in the River Roe catchment, Cumbria,UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Callum; Reaney, Sim; Bracken, Louise; Butler, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the United Kingdom flood risk is a growing problem and a significant proportion of the population are at risk from flooding throughout the country. Across England and Wales over 5 million people are believed to be at risk from fluvial, pluvial or coastal flooding (DEFRA, 2013). Increasingly communities that have not dealt with flooding before have recently experienced significant flood events. The communities of Stockdalewath and Highbridge in the Roe catchment, a tributary of the River Eden in Cumbria, UK, are an excellent example. The River Roe has a normal flow of less than 5m3 sec-1 occurring 97 percent of the time however there have been two flash floods of 98.8m3 sec-1 in January 2005 and 86.9m3 sec-1 in May 2013. These two flash flood events resulted in the inundation of numerous properties within the catchment with the 2013 event prompting the creation of the Roe Catchment Community Water Management Group which aims are to deliver a sustainable approach to managing the flood risk. Due to the distributed rural population the community fails the cost-benefit analysis for a centrally funded flood risk mitigation scheme. Therefore the at-risk community within the Roe catchment have to look for cost-effective, sustainable techniques and interventions to reduce the potential negative impacts of future events; this has resulted in a focus on natural flood risk management. This research investigates the potential to reduce flood risk through natural catchment-based land management techniques and interventions within the Roe catchment; providing a scientific base from with further action can be enacted. These interventions include changes to land management and land use, such as soil aeration and targeted afforestation, the creation of runoff attenuation features and the construction of in channel features, such as debris dams. Natural flood management (NFM) application has been proven to be effective when reducing flood risk in smaller catchments and the potential to transfer these benefits to the Roe catchment (~69km2) have been assessed. Furthermore these flood mitigation features have the potential to deliver wider environmental improvements throughout the catchment and hence the potential for multiple benefits such as diffuse pollution reduction and habitat creation are considered. The research explores the impact of NFM techniques, flood storage areas or afforestation for example, with a view to enhancing local scale habitats. The research combines innovative catchment modelling techniques, both risk-based approaches (SCIMAP Flood) and spatially distributed hydrological simulation modelling (CRUM3), with in-field monitoring and observation of flow pathways and tributary response to rainfall using time-lapse cameras. Additional work with the local community and stakeholders will identify the range and location of potential catchment-based land management techniques and interventions being assessed; natural flood management implementation requires the participation and cooperation of landowners and local community to be successful (Howgate and Kenyon, 2009).

  14. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This study evaluates the dosimetric benefits and feasibility of a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique in the treatment of lung tumors. The technique has two distinct features--deep inspiration, which reduces lung density, and breath-hold, which immobilizes lung tumors, thereby allowing for reduced margins. Both of these properties can potentially reduce the amount of normal lung tissue in the high-dose region, thus reducing morbidity and improving the possibility of dose escalation. Methods and Materials: Five patients treated for non-small cell lung carcinoma (Stage IIA-IIIB) received computed tomography (CT) scans under 4 respiration conditions: free-breathing, DIBH, shallow inspiration breath-hold, and shallow expiration breath-hold. The free-breathing and DIBH scans were used to generate 3-dimensional conformal treatment plans for comparison, while the shallow inspiration and expiration scans determined the extent of tumor motion under free-breathing conditions. To acquire the breath-hold scans, the patients are brought to reproducible respiration levels using spirometry, and for DIBH, modified slow vital capacity maneuvers. Planning target volumes (PTVs) for free-breathing plans included a margin for setup error (0.75 cm) plus a margin equal to the extent of tumor motion due to respiration (1-2 cm). Planning target volumes for DIBH plans included the same margin for setup error, with a reduced margin for residual uncertainty in tumor margin for residual uncertainty in tumor position (0.2-0.5 cm) as determined from repeat fluoroscopic movies. To simulate the effects of respiration-gated treatments and estimate the role of target immobilization alone (i.e., without the benefit of reduced lung density), a third plan is generated from the free-breathing scan using a PTV with the same margins as for DIBH plans. Results: The treatment plan comparison suggests that, on average, the DIBH technique can reduce the volume of lung receiving more than 25 Gy by 30% compared to free-breathing plans, while respiration gating can reduce the volume by 18%. The DIBH maneuver was found to be highly reproducible, with intra breath-hold reproducibility of 1.0 (± 0.9) mm and inter breath-hold reproducibility of 2.5 (± 1.6) mm, as determined from diaphragm position. Patients were able to perform 10-13 breath-holds in one session, with a comfortable breath-hold duration of 12-16 s. Conclusion: Patients tolerate DIBH maneuvers well and can perform them in a highly reproducible fashion. Compared to conventional free-breathing treatment, the DIBH technique benefits from reduced margins, as a result of the suppressed target motion, as well as a decreased lung density; both contribute to moving normal lung tissue out of the high-dose region. Because less normal lung tissue is irradiated to high dose, the possibility for dose escalation is significantly improved

  15. Substance abuse and oral health: an overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AW, van Zyl.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon. It is on the increase in most countries and claims the lives of millions every year. Substance abuse may involve licit and illicit drugs, with licit substances claiming more lives than illicit drugs. Illicit substance abuse is on the increase, especially wi [...] th new drugs emerging on the world market every year. These new drugs appear faster than scientific studies can keep pace in determining their possible detrimental influences on health. Many abused drugs do have oral health complications. For this reason, it is important for dentists to have a thorough knowledge of the oral environment to be able to detect any abnormalities, regardless of what the underlying cause may be. Due to the nature of illicit substance abuse, reliable information and science is hard to come by. This overview will focus on the direct consequences for oral health, whilst acknowledging that substance abuse may also have direct and indirect influences on general health.

  16. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations. Discussion To address the lack of evidence to support the recommendations extracted in this review, in a future study, a group of experts will formally evaluate each recommendation for its inclusion in a comprehensive hospital-based response. PMID:25938414

  17. Prediction and Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse: Role of Preclinical Assessment of Substance Abuse Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Marusich, Julie A.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Novak, Scott P.; Blough, Bruce E.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical ...

  18. The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Leão Ciuffo; Janice Machado da Cunha; Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects,...

  19. The effects of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; CARR, ALAN

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of empirical evidence now shows that child sexual abuse has profound effects on the psychological adjustment of children (Kendall-Tackett, Williams & Finkelhor, 1993) and these effects in some instances continue on into adulthood (Beitchman, Zucker, Hood, Da Costa & Akman, 1991). A wide range of factors mediate the impact of abuse on adjustment (Spacarelli, 1994). In this chapter the impact of sexual abuse on children and adults will be addressed with refe...

  20. Increasing medical burden of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A.; Sunderland, R.

    1988-01-01

    During the decade January 1976 to December 1985, as a result of increased public awareness, the numbers of reported (but not proved) cases of abuse to children living in South Birmingham increased thirty-fold; the incidence of detected and proved cases of abuse increased fourfold. The increase was principally due to bruises, scalds, and neglect. The numbers of serious fractures and brain injuries did not increase. The first case of sexual abuse was reported in 1981 and this was followed by a ...

  1. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite

    2011-05-01

    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  2. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  3. Elder Abuse and Neglect Versus Parricide

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2013-01-01

    Violence in families and elder abuse can take many forms, which his sometimes difficult to recognize. In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in professional literature and mass media. A border between elder abuse and parricide can be indistinct. Borderline cases can include involvement of older people in binge drinking, denial of help, and manipulation towards suicide. Three example cases are discussed in this report. A concluding point is that for prevention of parricide, it should be ke...

  4. Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

  5. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  6. Current legal responses to elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Paul; Sookhoo, Dave

    2006-12-01

    Abstract.? In this paper, legal provisions for dealing with elder abuse in social or healthcare settings will be considered. The need for such measures for detection and management of elder abuse will be highlighted. Interventions should take into account elderly victims' vulnerability, which may be due to physical and/or psychological dependence. The effectiveness of current interventions is limited due to a lack of cohesion and the absence of a specific legal framework. The term 'vulnerable adults' is broader than 'elder abuse'. It is difficult to estimate the extent of the problem of elder abuse because of the usually intimate settings within which it takes place - this may affect the strength of the evidence. The purpose of this paper is to encourage a debate on the effectiveness of current legal responses to elder abuse. The true figures of the incidence of abuse may never be known. Consequently, in criminal law trials, providing evidence on abuse can be very traumatic and intimidating for a victim because of the circumstances in which it generally takes place. The irony is that the likelihood of a criminal prosecution may be higher in more serious types of abuse where the evidence is overwhelming, on the basis of the res ipsa loquitor (facts speak for themselves) principle. The abuse in question may be domestic or institutional; the effects nevertheless are the same. PMID:20925763

  7. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Colom Joan; Groene Oliver; Hilarion Pilar; Lopez Rosa M; Suñol Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. Methods The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issu...

  8. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald G

    2012-10-16

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant's caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant-caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  9. miR-24-2 regulates genes in survival pathway and demonstrates potential in reducing cellular viability in combination with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvati, Siddharth; Mangalhara, Kailash Chandra; Kalaiarasan, P; Srivastava, Niloo; Bamezai, R N K

    2015-08-10

    MicroRNAs the small (18-22 in length) noncoding RNA molecules are negative regulators of gene expression, modulating biological processes of cell differentiation, survival and death. The latter two phenomena are critical in tumour biology. We provide here the results of human genome wide target prediction of one such microRNA, hsa-miR-24-2, shown to target genes essential for initiating cellular stability and cell survival. The protein-protein interaction study showed important nodes which could affect cell cycle progression and differential oncogenesis. An analysis of hsa-miR-24-2 in sporadic breast tumours showed a negative correlation with metastasis and increasing nodes. The conclusion drawn of hsa-miR-24-2 targeting the genes of cell survival correlated with the methylation profile and resultant transcription factor binding site gain or loss in support of absence of cell survival. In order to accentuate the potential of hsa-miR-24-2 to reduce cellular viability under experimental conditions, in vitro studies in the presence and absence of anti-cancer drugs, such as docetaxel resulted in a significant decrease in cellular viability even at a 200-fold reduced dose of the drug in combination with hsa-miR-24-2. PMID:25943634

  10. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY...Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations...follows: PART 562--IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the...productive lives. During National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, we celebrate...of Americans with diagnosable substance abuse or dependence...

  12. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ...of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the...tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are profound. Yet, we also...all those working to prevent substance abuse in our communities, and we...

  13. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ...NRC-2011-0220] Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC received...

  14. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section...Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation...treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  15. 76 FR 61625 - Cheri Swensson; Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...Cheri Swensson; Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. DATES: Submit comments...CFR), Section 26.187, ``Substance abuse expert,'' by including...

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Support Families Creating a Family-Centered Agency Culture Child Abuse & Neglect Overview Definitions of Child Abuse & Neglect ... Permanency Adoption Management & Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives ... Child Abuse Prevention Month National Foster Care Month Publications ...

  17. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  18. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545...Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually...Commission recognizes alcoholism and drug abuse as serious and treatable...

  19. Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R D; Everitt, B J; Baldacchino, A; Blackshaw, A J; Swainson, R; Wynne, K; Baker, N B; Hunter, J; Carthy, T; Booker, E; London, M; Deakin, J F; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W

    1999-04-01

    We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections. PMID:10088133

  20. Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, David [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Grupp, Ulrich; Kahn, Johannes; Wiener, Edzard; Hamm, Bernd; Streitparth, Florian [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ghadjar, Pirus [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  1. Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual or physical abuse: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulis, Simone; Resick, Patricia A; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2014-06-01

    Although childhood sexual abuse and childhood physical abuse (CSA and CPA) have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence supporting psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents who have experienced CSA or CPA. To provide a treatment tailored to the specific needs of adolescents suffering from abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) by adding new treatment modules and changing the therapy setting. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of Developmentally Adapted CPT (D-CPT), we treated 12 adolescents suffering from PTSD secondary to CSA or CPA. Patients were assessed prior to treatment (t0), post-treatment (t1), and 6 weeks after treatment (t2). Assessments included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the UCLA PTSD Index (UCLA), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES), and the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23). MANOVAs revealed that posttraumatic stress measurements and associated symptom measurements significantly differed across time points. When comparing t0 with t2, Cohen's d was large with respect to the CAPS scores (d = 1.45, p < .001) and the UCLA scores (d = 1.91, p < .001). Cohen's d had a medium magnitude with respect to the CDI scores (d = .78, p < .001), the A-DES scores (d = 0.64, p < .05), and the BSL-23 scores (d = 0.74, p < .01). D-CPT has the potential to reduce PTSD symptoms and comorbid psychopathology in adolescents with histories of CSA or CPA. PMID:24101403

  2. Suicidal ideations and attempts among adolescents subjected to childhood sexual abuse and family conflict/violence: the mediating role of anger and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2013-12-01

    Based on a sample of 9085 16- to 19-year-old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004, the current study examines depressed mood and anger as potential mediators between family conflict/violence and sexual abuse, on the one hand, and suicidal ideations and suicide attempts on the other. Agnew's general strain theory provides the theoretical framework for the study. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted allowing explicit modelling of both direct and mediating effects using observed and latent variables. The findings showed that both depressed mood and anger mediated the relationship between family conflict/violence and sexual abuse and suicidal attempts. However, when testing the mediating pathways between sexual abuse and family conflict/violence and suicidal ideations, only depressed mood but not anger turned out to be a significant mediator. The authors discuss how these finding may inform and facilitate the design and development of interventions to reduce the likelihood of suicide attempts among young people. PMID:24215969

  3. Gender Differences in Social Reactions to Abuse Disclosures, Post-Abuse Coping, and PTSD of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, S.E.; Filipas, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the understudied issue of gender differences in disclosure, social reactions, post-abuse coping, and PTSD of adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). Method: Data were collected on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 733 college students completing a confidential survey about their demographic…

  4. A Developmental Model of Victims' Internal Attributions of Responsibility for Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marianne P.

    1992-01-01

    Integrates developmental theory with relevant literature on child sexual abuse to differentiate the concept of internal attribution of responsibility. Presents a typology of eight internal attributions of responsibility; potentially adaptive attributions are distinguished from potentially nonadaptive attributions. Implications for mental health…

  5. Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one

  6. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TØnnesen, H; MØller, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.

  7. Radiation abuse and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays. (author)

  8. [Psychological sequelae of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinius, J

    1986-06-01

    During the past decade personality development of abused children has been studied by several investigators. A comparative overview of the results allows to name a number of symptoms which appear to be characteristic. The symptomatology expresses an ongoing conflict between resistance and resignation by restlessness, aggressivity and withdrawal on the one hand, and by low self esteem, pseudo-adult behavior and perfectionism on the other. The psychological consequences are the result not only of parental personality and aggression but also of social conditions and of factors which are inherent to the child. Treatment needs to include all three pathogenetic areas. PMID:3748023

  9. L'abus de substances volatiles Volatile substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goullé Jean-Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Si l'exposition chronique ou accidentelle à des substances volatiles est le plus souvent d'origine professionnelle, elle est plus rarement de nature domestique. Elle est susceptible d'engendrer, en fonction de la nature du produit et de l'intensité de l'exposition, des troubles cliniques variés, voire le décès du sujet. L'inhalation de dérivés volatils, à des fins soit récréatives, soit d'améliorer ses performances sexuelles, ou par détournement d'usage chez un professionnel, peut être à l'origine de conduites toxicophiles. Les utilisateurs sont à la recherche de sensations d'euphorie et d'ébriété, et/ou d'altération des perceptions. Ce type d'abus concerne des molécules volatiles très diverses : hydrocarbures, solvants, dérivés nitrés, gaz anesthésiants, gaz de briquet. La toxicomanie aux solvants (toluène, éther, chloroforme, trichloroéthylène, essence, kérosène, dissolvants, détachants, colles..., est un phénomène en progression chez les adolescents qui constitue un réel problème de santé publique. Il est plus fréquemment rencontré dans les milieux défavorisés. Quant à l'inhalation de dérivés nitrés autorisés ou non (nitrites d'amyle ou pentyle, d'isopropyle, de butyle disponibles en sex-shop ou sur le net, celle-ci connaît un certain succès notamment dans le milieu homosexuel en raison des propriétés myorelaxantes de ces dérivés, considérés aussi comme aphrodisiaques. Leur inhalation peut être responsable de méthémoglobinémie grave. Dans son dernier rapport, l'observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies révèle que la consommation récente de drogues illicites, en dehors du cannabis concerne 7,3 % des jeunes âgés de 17 à 18 ans. Parmi les produits les plus consommés les poppers et les produits à inhaler se classent en cinquième position après l'alcool, le tabac, le cannabis et les médicaments psychotropes. En n'on rencontre des conduites toxicophiles par inhalation de gaz : gaz de briquet chez des adolescents, utilisation de divers aérosols plus consommés pour le gaz propulseur ou le solvant que pour leur contenu. Le détournement d'usage de gaz anesthésiants (protoxyde d'azote, dérivés halogénés pratiqué soit en milieu festif, soit en milieu professionnel doit également être signalé. Après une revue des produits, leur pharmacologie, leur toxicologie clinique et analytique sont successivement envisagés. Des cas réels sont présentés. Chronic or accidental organic volatile substance use occurs mainly during workplace activities and occasionally at home. In cases of symptomatic exposure, clinical features more or less affect different systems, and may be responsible for death. Inhalant misuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile compounds in order to obtain euphoric, disinhibiting, and exciting or sexual results. Workplace volatile substance abuse is also a real medical problem. Fuels, solvents, volatile alkyl nitrites, inhalated anaesthetics, gas lighter uid are common sources of volatile substance abuse. Volatile substance addiction in children has become a social health problem that has been increasing in recent years with toluene, ether, chloroform, trichloroethylene, gasoline, petroleum products, dissolvent, dry cleaning agents, and glues. This addiction is more frequent with the disadvantaged sections of the population. Volatile alkyl nitrites like, isopropyl, and butyl or pentyl nitrite available in the sex-shops or on the Internet, are used for intensifying sexual experience and for their myorelaxant properties, especially by homosexuals. Their use has been associated with methemoglobinemia. In a publication dated March 2005 the Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies (French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Abuse reported that 7.3% of the 17 to 18 year old population , apart from cannabis, have recently used a drug of abuse. After alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and psychotropic drugs, poppers and volatile compounds are the most often used. Gas lighter uid and aerosol propellant

  10. Correlates of cyber dating abuse among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancements in technology (e.g., social networking, texting) have created new ways for dating youth to relate to one another, including in abusive ways via "cyber dating abuse." Cyber dating abuse is a form of teen dating violence that overlaps with other types of abuse (e.g., psychological) but also has several unique characteristics. Given the phenomenon's limited presence in dating violence literature, we focus on identifying how experiencing cyber dating abuse relates to youths' individual behaviors and experiences (e.g., substance use, sexual activity), psychosocial adjustment, school connection, family relationships, and partner relationships. A total of 3,745 youth (52% female, 74% White) in three northeastern states participated in the survey and reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. We found that experiences of cyber dating abuse were most significantly correlated with being female, committing a greater variety of delinquent behaviors, having had sexual activity in one's lifetime, having higher levels of depressive symptoms, and having higher levels of anger/hostility. Further, cyber dating abuse appeared somewhat more strongly related to depressive symptoms and delinquency than did other forms of teen dating violence and abuse. PMID:24198083

  11. Overturning the diagnosis of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Three cases, one of bullous impetigo, one of a Mongolian spot, and one of constriction of the toe by a hair, were mistakenly diagnosed as cases of child abuse. The diagnosis of child abuse is not usually simple and requires a careful evaluation of the injuries and the family if cases are not to be either overlooked or overdiagnosed.

  12. Legal Responsibility of Educators in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondschein, Eric S.

    This chapter explores the legal responsibilities of educators concerning the problem of child abuse. The first section provides a legal definition of child abuse as behavior of a parent or guardian that (1) inflicts serious physical injury on a child by nonaccidental means; (2) creates a substantial risk of such injury; or (3) commits or allows a…

  13. Cutaneous complications of parenteral pentazocine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarraf Sudha

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old man, a parenteral pentazocine abuser for past 10 years, presented with woody induration on the areas of injections and multiple, punched-out, deep, painless ulcers surrounded by hyperpigmented halo. This appears to be the first report from India on skin manifestations of pentazocine abuse.

  14. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  15. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... read Child Welfare Information Gateway’s factsheet Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect : https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/ ... and Neglect explains the immediate and long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect to child, family, school, and community ...

  16. Medical Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…

  17. Women and Substance Abuse. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    There are many issues concerning women of all ages and substance abuse. Women who abuse alcohol or other drugs are particularly at risk for sexual assault; unprotected sex; unwanted pregnancies; and sexually transmitted diseases. Females between the ages of 12 and 17 surpass males in their use of cigarettes; cocaine; crack; inhalants; and…

  18. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JC, Marnewick; AW, van Zyl.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying a [...] nd dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  19. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  20. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…