WorldWideScience

Sample records for reduced abuse potential

  1. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The...... aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n...

  2. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  3. Applying Behavioral Economics to the Challenge of Reducing Cocaine Abuse

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential contributions of behavioral economics to reducing cocaine abuse. More specifically, this paper underscores the fundamental role of reinforcement in the genesis and maintenance of cocaine use and explores how reinforcement and consumer-demand theory might be translated into effective strategies for reducing cocaine use. A broad range of relevant research findings are discussed, including preclinical studies conducted with laboratory animals, laboratory and treat...

  4. Carisoprodol: abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome.

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S

    2010-03-01

    Carisoprodol (N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; N-isopropylmeprobamate) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose primary active metabolite is meprobamate, a substance with well established abuse potential similar to that of benzodiazepines. A number of reports show that carisoprodol has been abused for its sedative and relaxant effects, to augment or alter the effects of other drugs, and by the intentional combination of carisoprodol and other noncontrolled medications because of the relative ease (as compared to controlled substances) of obtaining prescriptions. The diversion and abuse of carisoprodol and its adverse health effects appear to have dramatically increased over the last several years. Clinicians have begun to see a withdrawal syndrome consisting of insomnia, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, anxiety, and ataxia in patients who abruptly cease intake of large doses of carisoprodol. Hallucinations and delusions may also occur. The withdrawal symptoms are very similar to those previously described for meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that what may actually be occurring is withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated as a result of intake of excessive amounts of carisoprodol. However carisoprodol itself is capable of modulating GABA(A) function, and this may contribute both to the drugs abuse potential and to the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation of intake. Carisoprodol has been classified as a controlled substance in several states in the US and restrictions on the use of the drug have been imposed in some European countries. Carisoprodol is metabolized to a controlled substance, has clear evidence of abuse potential and increasing incidence of abuse, and has shown evidence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation from intake. This article will discuss the abuse potential of carisoprodol and the associated withdrawal syndrome, and consider implications for future use of the drug. PMID

  5. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug... appears to have an abuse potential....

  6. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.

    Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330

  7. Educational Attainment and Child Abuse Potential: Implications for Adult Educators.

    Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…

  8. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  10. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach). PMID:25267886

  11. Formulation considerations for the development of medications with abuse potential.

    Mansbach, Robert S; Moore, Richard A

    2006-06-01

    The availability of increasingly sophisticated drug formulations and delivery devices has created new opportunities in drug development. These newer approaches can result in improved drug bioavailability, or they can alter key pharmacokinetic parameters in such a way as to decrease dosing interval, decrease variability, or blunt maximal concentrations that are associated with adverse events of particular concern. Special formulations or devices can also provide for easier or more convenient dosing in subpopulations of interest, such as children or the elderly. Although the key principles of abuse potential assessment and the underlying neurochemistry and pharmacology are relatively well understood, evaluation of the influences of drug formulation have received much less study. Because dose and formulation - and even the therapeutic indication - are refined over the course of development, it is usually difficult to conduct more than a cursory evaluation of the influence of formulation on the underlying abuse potential of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Industrial sponsors would benefit from further research in areas of formulation science and pharmacokinetics that would improve the predictability of prescription drug abuse. In particular, validation of new pharmacokinetic parameters and standardization of methods to understand the consequences of product tampering could assist in gaining a better assessment of risk for controlled release formulations. Such methods could apply not only to innovator products, but also to those wishing to develop generic versions with similar pharmaceutical performance. This article proposes several factors that may be of use to industrial sponsors in making formulation choices for drugs with the potential for abuse. PMID:16472940

  12. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  13. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent’s gender and timing of childhood abuse

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mot...

  14. Carisoprodol: update on abuse potential and legal status.

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S; Kose, Samet

    2012-11-01

    Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant of which meprobamate, a controlled substance, is the primary active metabolite. The abuse of carisoprodol has increased dramatically in the last several years. A withdrawal syndrome occurs in some patients who abruptly cease carisoprodol intake. The symptoms of this syndrome are similar to those seen with meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that they may result from withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated with intake of excessive carisoprodol; however, carisoprodol is capable of modulating GABAA function, which may contribute to its abuse potential.There has been considerable debate about whether carisoprodol should be considered a controlled substance. Carisoprodol was removed from the market in Norway on May 1, 2008, but may still be used by specially approved patients. Carisoprodol was classified as a controlled substance in several US states, and effective January 11, 2012, became a schedule IV controlled substance at the US federal level. This article updates the literature on abuse potential and examines recent developments regarding the legal status of carisoprodol. PMID:23128807

  15. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija; Lecic-Tosevski Dusica; Pejovic-Milovancevic Milica; Popovic-Deusic Smiljka

    2014-01-01

    The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale ...

  16. Chronic bullous disease of childhood--another cause for potential misdiagnosis of sexual abuse?

    Coleman, H; Shrubb, V A

    1997-01-01

    There have been several reports of unusual skin conditions producing genital lesions that can be mistaken for sexual abuse. We report on another unusual skin condition, well known to dermatologists, that can again lead to potential misdiagnosis of sexual abuse.

  17. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders

    Chang, Sulie L.

    2013-01-01

    The “Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders” session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abu...

  18. Abuse

    ... Paying for Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Safety » Abuse Text size: A A A Special Situations First Responders Traveling In a Disaster Abuse Find your local Chapter ...

  19. Assessment of the Abuse Potential of the Orexin Receptor Antagonist, Suvorexant, Compared With Zolpidem in a Randomized Crossover Study.

    Schoedel, Kerri A; Sun, Hong; Sellers, Edward M; Faulknor, Janice; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Li, Xiaodong; Kennedy, William P; Cha, Jang-Ho; Lewis, Nicole M; Liu, Wen; Bondiskey, Phung; McCrea, Jacqueline B; Panebianco, Deborah L; Troyer, Matthew D; Wagner, John A

    2016-08-01

    Suvorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved in the United States and Japan for the treatment of insomnia at a maximum dose of 20 mg. This randomized double-blind crossover study evaluated the abuse potential of suvorexant in 36 healthy recreational polydrug users with a history of sedative and psychedelic drug use. Single doses of suvorexant (40, 80, and 150 mg: 2-7.5 × maximum dose), zolpidem (15 and 30 mg: 1.5-3 × maximum dose), and placebo were administered, with a 10-day washout between treatments. Subjective and objective measures, including visual analog scales (VASs), Addiction Research Center Inventory, and cognitive/psychomotor tests, were evaluated for 24-hour postdose. Suvorexant had significantly greater peak effects on "drug liking" VAS (primary endpoint) than placebo. Although effects of suvorexant on abuse potential measures were generally similar to zolpidem, they remained constant across doses, whereas zolpidem often had greater effects at higher doses. Suvorexant (all doses) had significantly fewer effects than zolpidem 30 mg on secondary measures, such as "high" VAS, Bowdle VAS, and Addiction Research Center Inventory morphine-benzedrine group. The overall incidence of abuse-related adverse events, such as euphoric mood and hallucination, was numerically lower with suvorexant than zolpidem. In agreement with its classification as a schedule IV drug, suvorexant demonstrated abuse potential, compared with placebo. The abuse potential was similar to zolpidem using certain measures, but with a reduced incidence of abuse-related adverse events. Although this suggests that the overall abuse liability of suvorexant may be lower than zolpidem, the actual abuse rates will be assessed with the postmarketing experience. PMID:27253658

  20. A GENTLER GESTALT THERAPY: ON REDUCING STIMULATION IN ADULT SURVIVORS OF ABUSE

    Andrew Lapides

    2012-01-01

    Adult survivors of abuse require a slower progression in treatment. Profoundly abused patients suffering from pre-oedipal conditions may become overstimulated using gestalt methods. This paper will focus on reducing stimulation in the patient using methods borrowed from modern psychoanalysis, which was developed by Hyman Spotnitz. The author argues for a combined approach that emphasizes support rather then frustration in the development of the treatment process.

  1. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse.

    Sanna, P P; Kawamura, T; Chen, J; Koob, G F; Roberts, A J; Vendruscolo, L F; Repunte-Canonigo, V

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new and more effective treatments for alcohol abuse remains a priority. Alcohol intake activates glucocorticoids, which have a key role in alcohol's reinforcing properties. Glucocorticoid effects are modulated in part by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) acting as pre-receptors. Here, we tested the effects on alcohol intake of the 11β-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate), which has been extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer and is active on both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoforms. We observed that CBX reduces both baseline and excessive drinking in rats and mice. The CBX diastereomer 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate (αCBX), which we found to be selective for 11β-HSD2, was also effective in reducing alcohol drinking in mice. Thus, 11β-HSD inhibitors may be a promising new class of candidate alcohol abuse medications, and existing 11β-HSD inhibitor drugs may be potentially re-purposed for alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:26978742

  2. The Knowledge of Teachers about Rights of Children to Reducing Child Abuse in Homeless Students

    Masoumeh Pourrajab, Bahare Fallahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper is to identify the important role of teachers about reporting child abuse in their classroom to reduce and prevention of child abuse with considers the homeless students. The findings of this study show that teachers have an important role to intervene and prevent of child abuse, because they spend a lot of time with students and contact with them in classroom. This study also finds that, teachers believed that the appropriate training has not been taught them in colleges, universities or teachers training centers. Furthermore, this paper pursues the professional abilities of teachers in order to find the child abuse signs of their students as well as the homeless ones and the skills of reporting them.

  3. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  4. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  5. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  6. Opportunities for Exploring and Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse Through Social Media.

    Scott, Kevin R; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse. PMID:26075802

  7. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695

  8. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  9. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  10. Is Web-Based Education Effective in Reducing Belief Toward Drug Abuse Among College Students?

    Jalilian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Addiction is considered a basic structural problem in modern society, and seems to reach an epidemic scale in the last decades. Choosing a method to fulfill the intervention is an important issue to conduct educational interventions to prevent addictive behaviors. In this regard, web-based education has been widely used to introduce preventive programs to risky behaviors during recent years. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of web-based education intervention to decrease positive beliefs encouraging drug abuse among male medical college students. Patients and Methods This was a prospective-retrospective intervention study that was conducted among 75 male students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2014. t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Results Our findings indicated that the belief toward drug abuse was significantly reduced after education (P = 0.003. In addition, compared pre and post-intervention scores on survey items showed a significant reduction in enjoyment, improve energy, attraction, higher strength, and higher self-esteem items after education (P 0.05. Conclusions Our findings showed that designing and implementing web-based educational intervention could be effective to reduce the positive beliefs toward drug abuse among college students.

  11. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  12. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

  13. Reducing the Genotoxic Potential of Retroviral Vectors

    Ramezani, Ali; Hawley, Teresa S.; Hawley, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of leukemia in gene therapy patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease due to retroviral vector insertional mutagenesis has prompted reassessment of the genotoxic potential of integrating vector systems. In this chapter, various strategies are described to reduce the associated risks of retroviral genomic integration. These include deletion of strong transcriptional enhancer-promoter elements in the retroviral long terminal repeats, flanking the ret...

  14. Self-control and child abuse potential in mothers with an abuse history and their preschool children

    S. Henschel; M. de Bruin; E. Möhler

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether physically and sexually abused mothers display lower levels of self-control, whether this explains their higher tendency to abuse their own children, and if this results in lower levels of self-control among their children. In a cross-sectional study, 40 abused and 47 matched, no

  15. Endomorphin analog analgesics with reduced abuse liability, respiratory depression, motor impairment, tolerance, and glial activation relative to morphine.

    Zadina, James E; Nilges, Mark R; Morgenweck, Jenny; Zhang, Xing; Hackler, Laszlo; Fasold, Melita B

    2016-06-01

    Opioids acting at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are the most effective analgesics, however adverse side effects severely limit their use. Of particular importance, abuse liability results in major medical, societal, and economic problems, respiratory depression is the cause of fatal overdoses, and tolerance complicates treatment and increases the risk of side effects. Motor and cognitive impairment are especially problematic for older adults. Despite the host of negative side effects, opioids such as morphine are commonly used for acute and chronic pain conditions. Separation of analgesia from unwanted effects has long been an unmet goal of opioid research. Novel MOR agonist structures may prove critical for greater success. Here we tested metabolically stable analogs of the endomorphins, endogenous opioids highly selective for the MOR. Compared to morphine, the analogs showed dramatically improved analgesia-to-side-effect ratios. At doses providing equal or greater antinociception than morphine in the rat, the analogs showed reduced a) respiratory depression, b) impairment of motor coordination, c) tolerance and hyperalgesia, d) glial p38/CGRP/P2X7 receptor signaling, and e) reward/abuse potential in both conditioned place preference and self-administration tests. Differential effects on glial activation indicate a mechanism for the relative lack of side effects by the analogs compared to morphine. The results suggest that endomorphin analogs described here could provide gold standard pain relief mediated by selective MOR activation, but with remarkably safer side effect profiles compared to opioids like morphine. PMID:26748051

  16. Cross-cultural validation of the child abuse potential inventory in Belgium (Flanders) : Relations with demographic characteristics and parenting problems

    Grietens, Hans; De Haene, Lucia; Uyttebroek, Karolien

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and the validity of the Dutch CAP Inventory, a screening instrument that measures parents' potential for child physical abuse (Milner, The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Manual (2nd ed.), Psytec, Webster, NC, 1986). The CAP Inventory and measures on parenting st

  17. Use of Pregabalin - A Nationwide Pharmacoepidemiological Drug Utilization Study with Focus on Abuse Potential

    Schjerning, O; Pottegård, A; Damkier, P;

    2016-01-01

    dosages that exceed the approved therapeutic range. METHODS: To identify predictors of pregabalin use above recommended dosage, we conducted a pharmacoepidemological drug utilization study using the Danish nationwide registers. We deployed 4 measures of abuse: high use (≥600 mg/day) or very high use (≥1......INTRODUCTION: Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder and neuropathic pain with a licensed dosage range of 150 mg to 600 mg/day. Growing concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin is partly based on reports of pregabalin being used in...... 200 mg/day) over a 6- or 12-month period, respectively. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify patient and treatment characteristics that were associated with either abuse marker. RESULTS: Out of 42 520 pregabalin users 4 090 (9.6%) were treated with more than 600 mg/day for 6 months and 2...

  18. Mental Health Services and Public Safety: Substance Abuse Outpatient Visits Were Associated with Reduced Crime Rates in a Swedish Cohort.

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is related to offending and substance abuse treatment has been associated with reductions in criminal behavior. This cohort study aimed to explore the relationship between participation in substance abuse interventions and general criminal recidivism among offenders with a combination of mental health problems and substance use problems. In total, 150 Swedish offenders with self-reported mental health and substance use problems were followed for approximately three years with regard to participation in substance abuse interventions and criminal recidivism. Participants with at least three planned visits to specialized outpatient substance abuse clinics had a substantially reduced risk of reoffending as compared to those with fewer than three such visits (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. For those with at least three planned visits, general criminal recidivism was reduced by 75% during periods of participation in outpatient visits, as compared to periods of non-participation (HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.60. For offenders with mental health problems and substance use problems, outpatient substance abuse interventions could be regarded as important from a clinical risk management perspective, and be encouraged.

  19. Abuse and Intellectual Disability: A Potential Link or an Inescapable Reality.

    Conway, Robert N. F.

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of abuse of people with intellectual disabilities notes the varieties of abusive actions found, including sexual abuse; the possible incidence of such abuse; and reasons why this population is especially vulnerable to abuse. A current study to examine the incidence of abuse and reporting mechanisms is briefly described. (Author/DB)

  20. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients”

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  1. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 "Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients"

    Khurshid A Mattoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs. To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%, signs of improper feeding (83%, changes in personal hygiene (69%, need for medical/dental treatment (78%, medication misuse (67%, changes in wills/deeds (26%, decubiti (10%, bruises (17%, skin tears (27%, and confusion (23%. Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups.

  2. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  3. The potential for misuse and abuse of medications in ADHD: a review.

    Clemow, David B; Walker, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews the literature concerning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication misuse, abuse, dependence, diversion, and malingering. The review covers nonmedical use (NMU) of both stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamine) and nonstimulant (α-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine) prescription medications, and provides a discussion on the relevance for ADHD treatment today. The neural basis for ADHD medication mechanisms of action (increased norepinephrine and dopamine signaling) and their neurobiochemical relationship to the abuse potential is explored. Regionally-specific, stimulant-induced elevations in brain dopamine appear to be integral to both efficacy in ADHD and potential for abuse. In addition to the prevalence of misuse and diversion, additional topics discussed include the potential safety concerns associated with NMU of prescription ADHD medications and the cost to payers of prescription drug diversion (eg, increased emergency department visits associated with misuse). The evidence describing the difficulty in detecting malingering for the purpose of illicit access to ADHD medications for subsequent misuse or diversion is also summarized. Moreover, the effect of ADHD medications in patients with comorbid substance use disorder and the controversial potential linkage of stimulant prescription use with subsequent substance use disorder are explored. Overall, the data suggest that ADHD medication misuse and diversion are common health care problems for stimulant medications, with the prevalence believed to be approximately 5% to 10% of high school students and 5% to 35% of college students, depending on the study. Stimulant effectiveness and speed of action are deemed desirable to enhance attention and focus performance for activities like studying, but stimulants are also misused recreationally. Conversely, the data suggest a lack of abuse potential and lack of actual medication misuse for the nonstimulant medications

  4. Evaluation of a Training to Reduce Provider Bias Toward Pregnant Patients With Substance Abuse

    SEYBOLD, DARA; Calhoun,Byron; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administra...

  5. Cyclohexane, a potential drug of abuse with pernicious effects for the brain

    Oscar eGonzalez-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse.

  6. Detection of conscious deception using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale.

    Robertson, W K; Milner, J S

    1985-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to provide data on the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale. In Study One, 187 male and female undergraduate students were administered either the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, or the Unlikely Virtues Scale. Three instructional sets were provided: respond honestly, distort responses in a positive manner, and distort responses in a negative manner. Each scale successfully discriminated between subjects in the honest and faking good conditions. Only the Marlowe-Crowne scale discriminated subjects in the faking bad condition through their low scores. No gender differences were observed as a function of instructional set or test employed. In Study Two, 31 male and female parents were given the CAP-Inventory under the same instructional sets provided in Study One. The findings for the parent group, the population the CAP-Inventory was designed to be employed with, replicated the results found in Study One. PMID:4067804

  7. Cyclohexane, a Potential Drug of Abuse with Pernicious Effects on the Brain.

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:26779017

  8. Preclinical platform for the translational research of the abuse potential of novel drug candidates

    Teuns, Greet

    2014-01-01

    To determine the abuse potential of new CNS-active molecular entities with a novel mechanism of action, considerable knowledge of the pharmacology, toxicity and kinetics is needed to enable the choice of the correct tests, the selection of an appropriate dose range of the test compound and the proper choice of the psycho-active reference compound(s) or a scheduled comparator. In addition, one must have a thorough expertise of the current overall Drug Development process and subsequent require...

  9. Harm to Others from Substance Use and Abuse: The Underused Potential in Nationwide Registers

    Ingunn Olea Lund; Anne Bukten

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the potential in using nationwide registers to study harm to others from substance use and abuse. The advantages of using registry data include the opportunity to include the data on the entire population nationwide and continuously updated longitudinal datasets; they allow for studying small subpopulations and have little missing data. Personal identification numbers and family numbers enable linkage of data from different registers. Such datasets can include extensive...

  10. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress.

    Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia

    2016-01-01

    Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults. PMID:26703653

  11. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress

    Tiffany Zellner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  12. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  13. Abuse Potential of Soma: the GABA(A) Receptor as a Target.

    Gonzalez, Lorie A; Gatch, Michael B; Forster, Michael J; Dillon, Glenn H

    2009-01-01

    Soma(®) (carisoprodol) is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R). Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABA(A)R function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated. PMID:20419052

  14. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter vol...

  15. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  17. Effectiveness of home visiting in reducing partner violence for families experiencing abuse: A systematic review

    Prosman, G.J.; Wong, S.H.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major, global societal problem with enormous health consequences both for mother and child. Home visiting interventions in families at risk of abuse seem promising in decreasing IPV. In this systematic review, we aim to assess the effect

  18. Childhood Maltreatment, Childhood Social Support, and Child Abuse Potential in a Basque Sample.

    De Paul, Joaquin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of a Basque (Spain) sample with a similar U.S. sample found similar overall rates of physical child abuse, though rates of physical abuse sequelae were lower in the Basque sample and sexual abuse of Basque males was twice that reported for U.S. males. Level of father support was important in both groups. (Author/DB)

  19. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and...... general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... repeated measures. Results: PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were significantly reduced during therapy for both treatment modalities (P < 0.000), but the systemic group exhibited significantly more reduction of PTSD symptoms than the analytic group (P < 0.002) at discharge. No difference in...

  20. Incorporating Motives into the Theory of Planned Behavior: Implications for Reducing Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    Smith, Ryan Christopher

    2011-01-01

    College alcohol abuse continues as a major public-health concern. Theory-driven research is necessary to address the severe negative consequences of this college drinking. One theory that offers particular promise is the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This theory posits that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and intentions are the causal underpinnings of behavior. The current research investigates the utility of this theory in predicting college-student drinkin...

  1. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  2. Evaluation of the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of a C8-C9 isoparaffin solvent.

    Balster, R L; Bowen, S E; Evans, E B; Tokarz, M E

    1997-07-01

    We hypothesized that the abuse potential of certain types of inhalants could be evaluated in animals by determining the overlap in their profile of behavioral effects with that of CNS depressant drugs and other depressant-like abused inhalants. For our first attempt in evaluating a solvent with an unknown abuse potential we tested ISOPAR-E. ISOPAR-E is a mixture of predominantly C8-C9 isoparaffinic hydrocarbons that is being used more and more frequently as a solvent in industrial and consumer products, including, but not limited to, typewriter correction fluids. Presently, nothing is known about the potential for abuse of products containing this solvent. In the present studies, we compared the volatility of ISOPAR-E and the abused solvent 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) in our exposure systems. Additionally, five behavioral procedures were conducted in mice to compare the effects of the two compounds. The results demonstrate that: (1) ISOPAR-E was less volatile than TCE; (2) ISOPAR-E produced a somewhat different profile of effects than did TCE as assessed with a functional observational battery; (3) unlike TCE, ISOPAR-E did not affect performance on tests of motor coordination; (4) TCE and ISOPAR-E produced concentration-related decreases in schedule-controlled operant performance with recovery from TCE being somewhat more rapid; (5) ISOPAR-E produced cross dependence in TCE-dependent mice; and (6) both TCE and ISOPAR-E produced substantial levels of ethanol-lever responding in a drug discrimination procedure, although the ethanol-like effects of ISOPAR-E only occurred at response rate decreasing concentrations. Overall, there was a poorer separation of behavioral and lethal concentrations for ISOPAR-E than for TCE. Although a somewhat different profile of behavioral effects was obtained with ISOPAR-E and TCE, we cannot say with certainty if enough similarities exist with abused inhalants to predict that ISOPAR-E would be subject to depressant-like abuse

  3. Advocacy Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Violence and Promote the Physical and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Abuse: A Systematic Review

    Rivas, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency...

  4. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  5. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  6. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues The Role of Culture in Elder ... factor in all types of elder abuse, including physical mistreatment, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. It is also a ...

  7. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  8. Reduced metabolism in brain "control networks" following cocaine-cues exposure in female cocaine abusers.

    Nora D Volkow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. METHOD: To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and ¹⁸FDG between female (n = 10 and male (n = 16 active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes versus a cocaine-cues video. RESULTS: Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05; females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6%±10 whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5%±18. SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001 whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45 (only at p<0.005. The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001 in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10, anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32, posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31, inferior parietal (BA 40 and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from "control networks" (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition. This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  9. Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  10. Normalization of Addiction Potential Scale for Spotting Individuals Exposed to Drug Abuse Among Students of Tehran Universities

    Ezzatollah Kordmirza

    2003-05-01

    3-\tIs there a relationship between the results of educational groups as far as the addiction potential scale is concerned? Based on the results of the research, the measured scale has the capability to separate addicts from other people in the society and determine the drug abuse cases as well as separating high-risk groups. The calculation of Cronbach coefficient alfa indicates that AAS, MAC.R and APS scales are the most powerful respectively.

  11. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture is...... able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol in...... real acupuncture, although the difference was marginally significant (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Our results show that abdominal acupuncture reduces LEP amplitude in healthy subjects. Significance: Our results provide a theoretical background for the use of abdominal acupuncture as a therapeutic approach...

  12. Elder Abuse

    ... nursing home . Types of Abuse There are many types of abuse: Physical abuse happens when someone causes bodily harm by hitting, pushing, or slapping. Emotional abuse , sometimes called psychological abuse, can include a caregiver saying hurtful words, ...

  13. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2011-01-01

    's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based......) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands...... to assess the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS....

  14. A feasibility test of a brief motivational interview intervention to reduce dating abuse perpetration in a hospital setting

    Rothman, Emily F.; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the intervention development process and feasibility testing of a hospital-based brief intervention to reduce the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). To our knowledge, this intervention is the first to focus exclusively on ADA perpetration reduction via a motivational interview-type intervention in this setting. Method The rationale for and the six Intervention Mapping steps used to generate the intervention are described. Feasibility is conceptualized as intervention acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited-efficacy. Results The Real Talk intervention was integrated smoothly into the emergency department setting. Participants did not experience any negative impact, and the vast majority (86%) reported that they felt helped. Quantitative assessments suggest that the intervention reduced the number of participants in the pre-contemplation stage of change regarding their use of relationship violence, and may have moved them forward into the action stage. Real Talk participants were more likely than those in the control group to tell friends to help them stay calm around their partner after drinking alcohol, and to talk with their doctor to get help for their problems. Conclusions Real Talk was developed to meet an unmet need for tertiary ADA interventions in non-school settings. It was developed in accordance with a recommended framework, informed by theory, and subsequently tested for feasibility. Feasibility assessment results suggest that Real Talk can be implemented in health care settings and may influence attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in the desired directions.

  15. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... electronic comments to http://www.regulations.gov . See the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section for electronic... Abuse (NIDA), as described in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of March 8, 1985 (50 FR 9518). When...

  16. Potential Drug Combinations to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Burden in Diabetes.

    Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2016-03-01

    The major cause of death and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 60% of all patients with T2DM die of CVD, and an even greater percentage have serious complications. The impact of glucose lowering on cardiovascular complications is a hotly debated issue and recent large clinical trials reported no significant decrease in cardiovascular events with intensive glucose control. Risk remains high even after correcting diabetes-associated dyslipidemia with drugs such as fibrates and niacin. Data from several clinical studies show that postprandial glucose and lipids have a strong predictive value on myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality. However, strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia and/or lipemia through increased utilization of glucose and/or triglycerides (TG) have been shown to not be effective in reducing the CVD burden. In this review, I discus the preferred ways to reduce postprandial glucose and TG with combinations of currently marketed drugs with potential benefit in CVD. PMID:26719218

  17. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the ext...

  18. Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level

    Czyz Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

  19. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  20. Physical Abuse

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Physical Abuse Physical abuse is physical force or violence that results in ... may be acquaintances, sons, daughters, grandchildren, or others. Physical abuse that is perpetrated by spouses or intimate partners ...

  1. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection have additive effects on frontal cortex function as measured by auditory evoked potential P3A latency.

    Fein, G; Biggins, C A; MacKay, S

    1995-02-01

    Both alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to produce central nervous system (CNS) morbidity in frontal brain regions. The degree to which the CNS morbidity in HIV infection, as it affects frontal cortex function, may be preferentially increased by alcohol abuse was examined using the auditory P3A evoked potential. The P3A indexes an orienting response, maximal over frontal cortex that occurs when novel nontarget stimuli are presented in the midst of a target detection paradigm. Four groups of subjects were compared: HIV+ alcohol abusers, HIV+ light/nondrinkers, HIV- alcohol abusers, and HIV- light/nondrinkers. The alcohol abuser and light/nondrinker HIV+ groups were matched on percent CD4 lymphocytes, insuring that the results reflected specific CNS effects and were not a result of differences between the groups in the degree of systemic immune suppression. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection had at least additive effects on P3A latency, consistent with alcohol abuse worsening the effect of HIV disease on frontal cortex function. Post-hoc analyses suggested that concomitant alcohol abuse results in the effects of HIV infection on P3A latency becoming manifest earlier in the HIV disease process. PMID:7727627

  2. Sexual Abuse

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role ... Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical and sexual abuse in health care settings. In L.A. Baumhover & S. ...

  3. Advocacy Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Violence and Promote the Physical and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Abuse: A Systematic Review

    Rivas, C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also

  4. Potentiated clinoptilolite reduces signs and symptoms associated with veisalgia

    Gandy JJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Justin John Gandy, Ilze Laurens, Jacques Rene Snyman Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa Introduction: Abundant anecdotal evidence for products claiming to reduce veisalgia after alcohol overindulgence are available on the Internet and as many advertisements in journals. None of these claims are, however, substantiated by research. The aim of this research was to ascertain the validity of such claims for the substance Absorbatox™, a potentiated aluminosilicate (cation exchanger able to bind NH4+, histamine, and other positively charged ions by investigating the signs and symptoms, as well as blood or breath alcohol levels, in healthy volunteers. Methods: Blood or breath alcohol levels were measured in all volunteers in initial controlled experiments, and symptoms were scored on a diary card for gastrointestinal tract symptoms, as well as other symptoms such as headache and light sensitivity. Eighteen volunteers completed the initial blood alcohol study, which investigated the effect of Absorbatox™ on blood alcohol levels after fasting. The follow-up studies researched the effects of the symptoms and signs of alcohol overindulgence. The “night out” study was completed by ten volunteers in a typical controlled environment, which was followed by the real-life four-leg crossover study. In the crossover study, volunteers (number =25 completers had to fill matching diary cards to containers of two placebo and two active drugs after a night out where they themselves decided on the container (color coded to be used and the amount of alcohol to be consumed. Results: Absorbatox™ had no effect on blood alcohol levels, but it significantly reduced the symptoms and signs of veisalgia by approximately 40%–50%. Conclusion: This research indicates that Absorbatox™ does not have an effect on blood- or breath-alcohol levels. Furthermore, treatment with

  5. Potential for reducing air pollution from oil refineries.

    Karbassi, A R; Abbasspour, M; Sekhavatjou, M S; Ziviyar, F; Saeedi, M

    2008-10-01

    Islamic Republic of Iran has to invest 95 billion US$ for her new oil refineries to the year 2045. At present, the emission factors for CO(2), NO( x ) and SO(2) are 3.5, 4.2 and 119 times higher than British refineries, respectively. In order to have a sustainable development in Iranian oil refineries, the government has to set emission factors of European Community as her goal. At present CO(2) per Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in the country is about 2.7 kg CO(2) as 1995's USD value that should be reduced to 1.25 kg CO(2)/GDP in the year 2015. Total capital investment for such reduction is estimated at 346 million USD which is equal to 23 USD/ton of CO(2). It is evident that mitigation of funds set by Clean Development Mechanism (3 to 7 USD/tons of CO(2)) is well below the actual capital investment needs. Present survey shows that energy efficiency promotion potential in all nine Iranian oil refineries is about 165,677 MWh/year through utilization of more efficient pumps and compressors. Better management of boilers in all nine refineries will lead to a saving of 273 million m(3) of natural gas per year. PMID:18066676

  6. New Analytical Tool for the Detection of Ractopamine Abuse in Goat Skeletal Muscle by Potential Gene Expression Biomarkers.

    Zhao, Luyao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Can; Cheng, Yongyou; You, Xinyong; Gu, Xu; Zhao, Zhen; Muhammad Tarique, Tunio

    2016-03-01

    In this study, quantification of mRNA gene expression was examined as biomarkers to detect ractopamaine abuse and ractopamaine residues in cashmere goats. It was focused on the identification of potential gene expression biomarkers and describing the coreletionship between gene expression and residue level by 58 animals for 49 days. The results showed that administration periods and residue levels significantly influenced mRNA expressions of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the enzymes PRKACB, ADCY3, ATP1A3, ATP2A3, PTH, and MYLK, and the immune factors IL-1β and TNF-α. Statistical analysis like principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) showed that these genes can serve as potential biomarkers for ractopamine in skeletal muscle and that they are also suitable for describing different residue levels separately. PMID:26886866

  7. Sustained relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain by a CRMP2 peptide aptamer with low abuse potential.

    Xie, Jennifer Y; Chew, Lindsey A; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuying; Qu, Chaoling; Wang, Yue; Federici, Lauren M; Fitz, Stephanie D; Ripsch, Matthew S; Due, Michael R; Moutal, Aubin; Khanna, May; White, Fletcher A; Vanderah, Todd W; Johnson, Philip L; Porreca, Frank; Khanna, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling the protein-protein interaction between collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2) with an allosteric CRMP2-derived peptide (CBD3) is antinociceptive in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We investigated the efficacy, duration of action, abuse potential, and neurobehavioral toxicity of an improved mutant CRMP2 peptide. A homopolyarginine (R9)-conjugated CBD3-A6K (R9-CBD3-A6K) peptide inhibited the CaV2.2-CRMP2 interaction in a concentration-dependent fashion and diminished surface expression of CaV2.2 and depolarization-evoked Ca influx in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. In vitro studies demonstrated suppression of excitability of small-to-medium diameter dorsal root ganglion and inhibition of subtypes of voltage-gated Ca channels. Sprague-Dawley rats with tibial nerve injury had profound and long-lasting tactile allodynia and ongoing pain. Immediate administration of R9-CBD3-A6K produced enhanced dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens shell selectively in injured animals, consistent with relief of ongoing pain. R9-CBD3-A6K, when administered repeatedly into the central nervous system ventricles of naive rats, did not result in a positive conditioned place preference demonstrating a lack of abusive liability. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of R9-CBD3-A6K over a 24- to 72-hour period reversed tactile allodynia and ongoing pain, demonstrating a lack of tolerance over this time course. Importantly, continuous infusion of R9-CBD3-A6K did not affect motor activity, anxiety, depression, or memory and learning. Collectively, these results validate the potential therapeutic significance of targeting the CaV-CRMP2 axis for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:27537210

  8. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    Mary W. Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol.

  9. Elder Abuse

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  10. Child Abuse

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  11. Reducing Global Warming: The Potential of Organic Agriculture

    Müller, Adrian; Olesen, Joergen; Smith, Laurence; Davis, Joan; Dytrtová, Karolína; Gattinger, Andreas; Lampkin, Nic; Niggli, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation is urgent, and adaptation to climate change is crucial, particularly in agriculture, where food security is at stake. Agriculture, currently responsible for 20-30% of global greenhouse gas emissions (counting direct and indirect agricultural emissions), can however contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation. The main mitigation potential lies in the capacity of agricultural soils to sequester CO2 through building organic matter. This potential can be...

  12. Potentiated clinoptilolite reduces signs and symptoms associated with veisalgia

    Gandy JJ; Laurens I; Snyman JR

    2015-01-01

    Justin John Gandy, Ilze Laurens, Jacques Rene Snyman Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa Introduction: Abundant anecdotal evidence for products claiming to reduce veisalgia after alcohol overindulgence are available on the Internet and as many advertisements in journals. None of these claims are, however, substantiated by research. The aim of this research was to ascertain the validity of such cla...

  13. Reduced Metabolism in Brain “Control Networks” following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Volkow, Nora D.; Dardo Tomasi; Gene-Jack Wang; Fowler, Joanna S.; Frank Telang; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Nelly Alia-Klein; Christopher Wong

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. METHOD: To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and ¹⁸FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. RESULTS: Self-reports of cr...

  14. Battling Sexual Abuse

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  15. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  16. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Dennis C. Turk; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; John S Brownstein; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many ...

  17. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness...

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

  19. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  20. Intelligent use and potential abuse of hormone assays in animal production research

    Immunoassays provide sensitive and specific techniques to measure very low concentrations of hormones in biological fluids. Use of these procedures has provided comprehensive plasma profiles for most hormones and contributed to a better understanding or reproductive function. One future challenge for basic research is the development of new methods to monitor and quantitate target organ response rather than continuing to determine concentrations. In applied or production-oriented projects the difficulties and expenses associated with most hormone assays are usually not justified. One exception is sequential monitoring of plasma or milk progesterone concentrations in twice weekly or weekly samples which can be used to detect the occurrence of sexual maturity, the time of first postpartum ovulation, the true incidence of anoestrus, whether individual females have regular ovarian cycles, and as an early test for pregnancy. Past results indicate that most healthy, adequately fed dairy cows in temperate regions ovulate during the first three or four weeks postpartum. Under intensive management systems the major problem in reproductive management of dairy cattle is oestrus detection. In contrast, many beef cows have not ovulated by 60 days postpartum, so prolonged anoestrus is a serious problem in suckled cows. Very little is known about nutrition, disease or climatic stress effects or interactions on reproductive performance in tropical environments. Regular progesterone concentrations from individual cows, combined with condition scores, management evaluation and breeding plus health records should accurately define the current reproductive performance, potential and problems. Once the major factors limiting reproductive efficiency have been defined, research projects can concentrate on the development of practical solutions. Sequential progesterone assays can then be incorporated into experimental procedures to objectively determine ovarian response. (author)

  1. The total sale of prescription drugs with an abuse potential predicts the number of excessive users: a national prescription database study

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Jørgen G. Bramness

    2015-01-01

    Background Prescription drug sales may vary considerably across regions and over time. This study aimed to assess whether there is an association between mean drug sales and prevalence of excessive use in a range of psychotropic prescription drugs with an abuse potential, and if so, whether the variation in mean drug sales mostly reflects variation in the prevalence of excessive use or mostly reflects variation in non-excessive use. ...

  2. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial: an integrated set of interventions to promote competence and reduce risk for conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure.

    Dumas, J E; Prinz, R J; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J

    1999-03-01

    Describes the EARLY ALLIANCE interventions, an integrated set of four programs designed to promote competence and reduce risk for early-onset conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure. These interventions are evaluated as part of a prevention trial that begins at school entry and targets child functioning and socializing practices across multiple contexts (school, peer group, family) and multiple domains (affective, social, and achievement coping-competence). The paper presents the conceptual foundation of the four interventions, including a synopsis of the risk and protective factors associated with conduct disorder and related outcomes, and of the coping-competence model driving EARLY ALLIANCE. The developmental rationale, intended impact, and procedures are described for each intervention: a universally administered classroom program and indicated, peer, reading-mentoring, and family programs. Interventions are currently being tested in a prevention trial, which is briefly summarized. PMID:11324096

  3. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H. (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (Kentucky)

    2010-09-03

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  4. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  5. Drug Abuse

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  6. Elder abuse

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  7. Uncovering sexual abuse: evaluation of the effectiveness of The Victims of Violence and Abuse Prevention Programme.

    Donohoe, J

    2010-02-01

    Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302

  8. Child abuse

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  9. Intranasal administration of crushed ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone): A randomized, controlled abuse-potential study in nondependent recreational opioid users.

    Setnik, Beatrice; Bramson, Candace; Bass, Almasa; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Malhotra, Bimal; Matschke, Kyle; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Wolfram, Gernot; Geoffroy, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    ALO-02 is an abuse-deterrent formulation consisting of capsules filled with pellets of extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-/active-controlled, 4-way crossover study examined the abuse potential of crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to healthy, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Following drug discrimination and naloxone challenge, eligible participants (n = 32) entered a 4-way crossover treatment phase: crushed single dose of 1 of 2 placebos, ALO-02 30 mg/3.6 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) or oxycodone immediate-release (IR) 30 mg. Primary end points were Drug Liking and High, measured on visual analog scales (VAS) summarized as maximum effect (Emax ) and effect occurring over 2 hours postdose (AUE0-2  h ). Crushed ALO-02 resulted in significantly lower scores versus oxycodone IR on Drug Liking (Emax , 60.5 vs 92.8; AUE0-2  h , 105.4 vs 160.0, respectively) and High (Emax , 25.2 vs 86.9; AUE0-2  h , 27.1 vs 136.4, respectively; n = 28; P < .0001). Adverse events occurred most frequently with oxycodone IR, followed by ALO-02, then placebo, and were considered mild and consistent with opioid therapy. Crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to nondependent recreational opioid users resulted in significantly lower scores on Drug Liking/High VAS and other positive subjective measures versus crushed oxycodone IR, suggesting less abuse potential. Demonstration of actual abuse deterrence in the real world requires further research. PMID:26011742

  10. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low-and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa

    Cluver, L; Meinck, F.; Yakubovich, A; Doubt, J; Redfern, A; Ward, C.; Salah, N; DeStone, S; Petersen, T.; Mpimpilashe, P; Herrero Romero, R; Ncobo, L; Lachman, J.; Tsoanyane, S; Shenderovich, Y

    2016-01-01

    Background: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. ‘Parenting for Lifelong Health’ (http://tiny.cc/whoPLH) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and rel...

  11. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  12. The Potential Use and Benefits of Reduced till in Organic Agriculture Systems

    Mäder, Paul; Fliessbach, Andreas; David, Christophe; Cooper, Julia

    2014-01-01

    No Till and Reduced Till are conservation tillage practices with a high potential to restore or improve essential soil functions and mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration and reduced fuel use. While No Till systems are widely used in conventional farming, these techniques are challenging to adapt to organic farming due to weed pressure and frequent nitrogen deficiency in early spring. A potential answer may be Reduced Till, such as shallow inversion ploughing, or non-inversion ...

  13. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  14. Reducing capacities and redox potentials of humic substances extracted from sewage sludge.

    Yang, Zhen; Du, Mengchan; Jiang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox active organic materials that can be extracted from sewage sludge generated in wastewater treatment processes. Due to the poor understanding of reducing capacity, redox potentials and redox active functional groups of HS in sewage sludge, the potential contribution of sludge HS in transformation of wastewater contaminants is unclear. In the present study, the number of electrons donated or accepted by sewage sludge HS were quantified before and after reduction by iron compounds that possess different redox potentials and defined as the reducing capacity of the sewage sludge. In contrast to previous studies of soil and commercial humic acids (HA), reduced sludge HA showed a lower reducing capacity than that of native HA, which implies formation of semiquinone radicals since the semiquinone radical/hydroquinone pair has a much higher redox potential than the quinone/hydroquinone pair. It is novel that reducing capacities of sludge HA were determined in the redox potential range from -314 to 430 mV. The formation of semiquinone radicals formed during the reduction of quinone moieties in sludge HA is shown by three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopies information, increasing fluorescence intensities and blue-shifting of the excitation/emission peak of reduced sludge HA. Knowledge of sludge HS redox potentials and corresponding reducing capacities makes it possible to predict the transformation of redox active pollutants and facilitate manipulation and optimization of sludge loading wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26432531

  15. Redundant states, reduced potentials, and extra nodes in the radial wave function

    First-principle scattering calculations which include antisymmetrization of a projectile with respect to identical particles in the target result in a nonsymmetric nonlocal effective potential. Such a potential can lead to redundant states in the scattering wave function. In this case the potential is required to satisfy a consistency condition. We discuss this condition and the manner in which it can be imposed. We also discuss the replacement of this potential by a reduced symmetric nonlocal effective potential which does not produce redundant states. This reduced potential generates a scattering wave function orthogonal to the redundant states. If the original equation has one redundant state, the phase shift at zero energy is π, resulting in an extra node in the zero-energy wave function. The reduced effective potential must retain this extra node. This characteristic of the reduced effective potential is illustrated with an example. We show that the extra node produced by the potential in the example comes either from a spurious state or a bound state of that potential

  16. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  17. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MSE, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  18. Potential Biodiversity Benefits from International Programs to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Deforestation

    Siikamäki, Juha; Stephen C. Newbold

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiv...

  19. Combining a reactive potential with a harmonic approximation for molecular dynamics simulation of failure: construction of a reduced potential

    Molecular dynamics is a simulation technique that can be used to study failure in solids, provided the inter-atomic potential energy is able to account for the complex mechanisms at failure. Reactive potentials fitted on ab initio results or on experimental values have the ability to adapt to any complex atomic arrangement and, therefore, are suited to simulate failure. But the complexity of these potentials, together with the size of the systems considered, make simulations computationally expensive. In order to improve the efficiency of numerical simulations, simpler harmonic potentials can be used instead of complex reactive potentials in the regions where the system is close to its ground state and a harmonic approximation reasonably fits the actual reactive potential. However the validity and precision of such an approach has not been investigated in detail yet. We present here a methodology for constructing a reduced potential and combining it with the reactive one. We also report some important features of crack propagation that may be affected by the coupling of reactive and reduced potentials. As an illustrative case, we model a crystalline two-dimensional material (graphene) with a reactive empirical bond-order potential (REBO) or with harmonic potentials made of bond and angle springs that are designed to reproduce the second order approximation of REBO in the ground state. We analyze the consistency of this approximation by comparing the mechanical behavior and the phonon spectra of systems modeled with these potentials. These tests reveal when the anharmonicity effects appear. As anharmonic effects originate from strain, stress or temperature, the latter quantities are the basis for establishing coupling criteria for on the fly substitution in large simulations

  20. How to Handle Abuse

    ... abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical abuse is hitting hard with a hand or an ... choking, painful grabbing, and kicking also can be physical abuse. Sexual abuse: Your body has private parts. These ...

  1. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:24175492

  2. Inhalant Abuse

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  3. Abusive Relationships

    ... leaving. Where to Get Help Ending abuse and violence in teen relationships is a community effort with plenty of ... other ways to get involved in making sure dating abuse doesn’t happen to people in your school. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD Date reviewed: May ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  4. Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potentials from second-order reduced density matrices

    We describe a practical algorithm for constructing the Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potential corresponding to a given second-order reduced density matrix. Unlike conventional Kohn–Sham inversion methods in which such potentials are extracted from ground-state electron densities, the proposed technique delivers unambiguous results in finite basis sets. The approach can also be used to separate approximately the exchange and correlation potentials for a many-electron system for which the reduced density matrix is known. The algorithm is implemented for configuration-interaction wave functions and its performance is illustrated with numerical examples

  5. Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potentials from second-order reduced density matrices

    Cuevas-Saavedra, Rogelio; Staroverov, Viktor N., E-mail: vstarove@uwo.ca [Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ayers, Paul W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-12-28

    We describe a practical algorithm for constructing the Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potential corresponding to a given second-order reduced density matrix. Unlike conventional Kohn–Sham inversion methods in which such potentials are extracted from ground-state electron densities, the proposed technique delivers unambiguous results in finite basis sets. The approach can also be used to separate approximately the exchange and correlation potentials for a many-electron system for which the reduced density matrix is known. The algorithm is implemented for configuration-interaction wave functions and its performance is illustrated with numerical examples.

  6. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  7. Peer abuse

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan

    2011-01-01

    Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan nbsp;Olweus According to Olweus bullying is an aggressive behavior that: a is intended to cause harm or distress b occurs repeatedly over nbsp;time and c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of nbsp;abuse namely child maltreatment and domestic violence Bullying behaviors may be ...

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. A review

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    modulated by dopamine are involved in the development of addiction. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used pharmacological treatment for ADHD and, although this prescribed drug potentially can be abused, it actually seems to reduce the risk of SUD in patients with ADHD, rather than to increase the risk...

  9. Conceptualising the potential of informal land markets to reduce urban poverty

    Marx, Colin

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong argument that the formalisation of informal land markets can reduce urban poverty. In this view, the potential to reduce poverty lies in the ability of the state to introduce appropriate forms of formality and the intrinsic abilities of markets to generate wealth. Pointing to evidence that the results of formalisation initiatives have been less impressive in practice, I argue that one of the reasons is a failure to analyse informal land markets in their own terms. Drawing on...

  10. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  11. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  12. Drug abuse

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  13. The Many Victims of Substance Abuse

    Mauro, Tara

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding envi...

  14. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    Robinson, A.; WATKEYS, J.; Ridgway, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.
DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.
RESULTS—Sw...

  15. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromatereducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the...

  16. Potential Mediating Pathways through Which Sports Participation Relates to Reduced Risk of Suicidal Ideation

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2010-01-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The…

  17. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Makoto Yokohari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  18. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity.

    Brian Elbel

    Full Text Available A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income. Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest.

  19. Infant crying and abuse

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  20. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment.

    Davidson, Andrew N; Chee-Sanford, Joanne; Lai, Hoi Yi Mandy; Ho, Chi-hua; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity of bromate-reducing bacteria suggests the widespread capability for microbial bromate reduction. While the cometabolism of bromate via nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase has been postulated, five of our bromate-reducing isolates were unable to reduce nitrate or perchlorate. This suggests that a bromate-specific reduction pathway might exist in some microorganisms. Bioaugmentation of activated carbon filters with eight of the bromate-reducing isolates did not significantly decrease start-up time or increase bromate removal as compared to control filters. To optimize bromate reduction in a biological drinking water treatment process, the predominant mechanism of bromate reduction (i.e., cometabolic or respiratory) needs to be assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken to improve bromate removal. PMID:21943884

  1. Malaria transmission potential could be reduced with current and future climate change.

    Murdock, C C; Sternberg, E D; Thomas, M B

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest the potential for climate change to increase malaria incidence in cooler, marginal transmission environments. However, the effect of increasing temperature in warmer regions where conditions currently support endemic transmission has received less attention. We investigate how increases in temperature from optimal conditions (27 °C to 30 °C and 33 °C) interact with realistic diurnal temperature ranges (DTR: ± 0 °C, 3 °C, and 4.5 °C) to affect the ability of key vector species from Africa and Asia (Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi) to transmit the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The effects of increasing temperature and DTR on parasite prevalence, parasite intensity, and mosquito mortality decreased overall vectorial capacity for both mosquito species. Increases of 3 °C from 27 °C reduced vectorial capacity by 51-89% depending on species and DTR, with increases in DTR alone potentially halving transmission. At 33 °C, transmission potential was further reduced for An. stephensi and blocked completely in An. gambiae. These results suggest that small shifts in temperature could play a substantial role in malaria transmission dynamics, yet few empirical or modeling studies consider such effects. They further suggest that rather than increase risk, current and future warming could reduce transmission potential in existing high transmission settings. PMID:27324146

  2. Malaria transmission potential could be reduced with current and future climate change

    Murdock, C. C.; Sternberg, E. D.; Thomas, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest the potential for climate change to increase malaria incidence in cooler, marginal transmission environments. However, the effect of increasing temperature in warmer regions where conditions currently support endemic transmission has received less attention. We investigate how increases in temperature from optimal conditions (27 °C to 30 °C and 33 °C) interact with realistic diurnal temperature ranges (DTR: ± 0 °C, 3 °C, and 4.5 °C) to affect the ability of key vector species from Africa and Asia (Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi) to transmit the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The effects of increasing temperature and DTR on parasite prevalence, parasite intensity, and mosquito mortality decreased overall vectorial capacity for both mosquito species. Increases of 3 °C from 27 °C reduced vectorial capacity by 51–89% depending on species and DTR, with increases in DTR alone potentially halving transmission. At 33 °C, transmission potential was further reduced for An. stephensi and blocked completely in An. gambiae. These results suggest that small shifts in temperature could play a substantial role in malaria transmission dynamics, yet few empirical or modeling studies consider such effects. They further suggest that rather than increase risk, current and future warming could reduce transmission potential in existing high transmission settings. PMID:27324146

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program.

    Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…

  4. Charge density distributions derived from smoothed electrostatic potential functions: design of protein reduced point charge models.

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2011-10-01

    To generate reduced point charge models of proteins, we developed an original approach to hierarchically locate extrema in charge density distribution functions built from the Poisson equation applied to smoothed molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) functions. A charge fitting program was used to assign charge values to the so-obtained reduced representations. In continuation to a previous work, the Amber99 force field was selected. To easily generate reduced point charge models for protein structures, a library of amino acid templates was designed. Applications to four small peptides, a set of 53 protein structures, and four KcsA ion channel models, are presented. Electrostatic potential and solvation free energy values generated by the reduced models are compared with the corresponding values obtained using the original set of atomic charges. Results are in closer agreement with the original all-atom electrostatic properties than those obtained with a previous reduced model that was directly built from the smoothed MEP functions [Leherte and Vercauteren in J Chem Theory Comput 5:3279-3298, 2009]. PMID:21915750

  5. A Dipole Polarizable Potential for Reduced and Doped CeO$_2$ from First-Principles

    Burbano, Mario; Yildiz, Bilge; Tuller, Harry L; Norberg, Stefan T; Hull, Stephen; Madden, Paul A; Watson, Graeme W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the parameterization of a new interionic potential for stoichiometric, reduced and doped CeO$_2$. We use a dipole-polarizable potential (DIPPIM) and optimize its parameters by fitting them to a series of DFT calculations. The resulting potential was tested by calculating a series of fundamental properties for CeO$_2$ and by comparing them to experimental values. The agreement for all the calculated properties (thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, lattice parameters, oxygen migration energies, local crystalline structure and elastic constants) is within 10-15% of the experimental one, an accuracy comparable to that of ab initio calculations. This result suggests the use of this new potential for reliably predicting atomic-scale properties of CeO$_2$ in problems where ab initio calculations are not feasible due to their size-limitations.

  6. Understanding abuse of women with physical disabilities: an overview of the abuse pathways model.

    Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of an empirically based theoretical model of abuse of women with physical disabilities. The Abuse Pathways model was developed from a critical disability life history research study conducted with 37 women who had simultaneously experienced abuse and physical disability. The model begins to address the complexity of abuse of women with physical disabilities by identifying the interactive components of the phenomenon. These components include (1) the social context of disability; (2) women's abuse trajectories; and (3) vulnerability factors for abuse. The article concludes by discussing potential applications and limitations of the model. PMID:15718940

  7. What is the potential for reducing national greenhouse gas emissions from crop and livestock production systems?

    Audsley, Eric; Wilkinson, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture has a devolved commitment to reduce national emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Using a systems model-based life-cycle analysis we explored the potential for reducing GHG in systems used to produce twelve crop and seven livestock commodities. With a functional unit of kg of product, differences in GHG between crops reflect differences in yield. Metabolisable energy (ME) or crude protein (CP) could be used, but deriving an economic value of GB£8.6/GJ ME and GB£0.62/kg CP, leads t...

  8. Hypnotics and mortality-partial confounding by disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic factors?

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Hendriksen, C.; Vass, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    ) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: When covariates were entered one at a time, the changes in HR estimates showed that psychiatric disease, socioeconomic position and substance abuse reduced the excess risk by 17-36% in the low user group and by 45-52% in the high user group. Somatic disease...... this study point at psychiatric disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic position as potential confounding factors partly explaining the association between use of hypnotics and all-cause mortality....

  9. A Prospective Study of the Potential Moderating Role of Social Support in Preventing Marginalization Among Individuals Exposed to Bullying and Abuse in Junior High School

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-01-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it...

  10. The relationship between child abuse and handicapping conditions.

    Mullins, J B

    1986-04-01

    This article discusses the relationship of child abuse, including neglect and sexual abuse, to the presence of handicapping conditions, both physical and psychological. Child abuse can cause physical and psychological disabilities in children who otherwise would have been normal. Studies show that children who are handicapped, or otherwise perceived as different by potentially abusive parents, are at high risk for abuse. Evidence also indicates that the handicaps of some children who were diagnosed originally as disabled are exacerbated by abuse. While cause and effect are not easily determined in specific cases, researchers agree that a pervasive relationship exists between handicapping conditions and abuse. Abused children are overrepresented in special education classes and handicapped children are overrepresented in the abused population. Many abused children become abusers as adults. Several suggestions concerning the problem are offered for school personnel. PMID:2937963

  11. A method for computing the inter-residue interaction potentials for reduced amino acid alphabet

    Abhinav Luthra; Anupam Nath Jha; G K Ananthasuresh; Saraswathi Vishveswara

    2007-08-01

    Inter-residue potentials are extensively used in the design and evaluation of protein structures. However, dealing with all (20×20) interactions becomes computationally difficult in extensive investigations. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the alphabet of 20 amino acids to a smaller number. Currently, several methods of reducing the residue types exist; however a critical assessment of these methods is not available. Towards this goal, here we review and evaluate different methods by comparing with the complete (20×20) matrix of Miyazawa-Jernigan potential, including a method of grouping adopted by us, based on multi dimensional scaling (MDS). The second goal of this paper is the computation of inter-residue interaction energies for the reduced amino acid alphabet, which has not been explicitly addressed in the literature until now. By using a least squares technique, we present a systematic method of obtaining the interaction energy values for any type of grouping scheme that reduces the amino acid alphabet. This can be valuable in designing the protein structures.

  12. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  13. Open Circuit Potential Study of Stainless Steel in Environment Containing Marine Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 and SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs. (author)

  14. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  15. SUBSTANCE-ABUSING PREGNANT WOMEN: PRENATAL INTERVENTION USING ULTRASOUND CONSULTATION AND MENTALIZATION TO ENHANCE THE MOTHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP AND REDUCE SUBSTANCE USE.

    Pajulo, Helena; Pajulo, Marjukka; Jussila, Heidi; Ekholm, Eeva

    2016-07-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and parenting women are considered one of the most challenging, but important, target groups for developing early parenting interventions. Some valuable efforts to develop such interventions have been made in the organizational sector in Finland. However, there is a great need for new ways of work that would simultaneously concentrate in substance-abuse treatment and enhance parenting in public healthcare settings. The present article describes the background, content, and protocol of a new prenatal intervention developed for substance-abusing pregnant women in a hospital setting in public healthcare. The intervention includes two new elements and pathways aimed to enhance the mothers' curiosity toward her developing child and provide motivation to stay abstinent from substance use. The pathways are interactive ultrasound consultation and a new pregnancy diary, both using a parental mentalization focus. The intervention elements, experiences from running the intervention, evaluation protocol, and general characteristics of the study sample gained (n = 90) are described and discussed. Two case vignettes from the study sample are presented, and the applicability of this prenatal work with other groups and settings is considered. PMID:27341555

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse Among University Students in Tanzania

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter K.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N= 487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering information about age of victim, duration of abuse, perpetrators, amount of force or persuasion involved, and potential causes of child sexual abuse. ...

  17. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy. PMID:22307280

  18. Diversity and Characterization of Potential H2-Dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-Reducing Bacteria in Paddy Soils

    LI Hui-Juan; PENG Jing-Jing; LI Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ferric iron reduction,with organic carbon or hydrogen as the electron donor,is one of the most important biogeochemical processes in anoxic paddy soils; however,the diversity and community structure of hydrogen-dependent dissimilatory iron-reducers remain unknown.Potential H2-dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-reducing bacteria in paddy soils were explored using enrichment cultures with ferrihydrite or goethite as the electron acceptor and hydrogen as the electron donor.Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and cloning/sequencing were conducted to reveal bacterial comnunity structure.Results showed that Geobacter and Clostridium were the dominant bacteria in the enrichment cultures.Fe(Ⅲ) oxide mineral phases showed a strong effect on the community structure; Geobacter and Clostridium were dominant in the ferrihydrite treatment,while Clostridium spp were dominant in the goethite treatment.These suggested that H2-dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-reducing bacteria might be widely distributed in paddy soils and that besides Geobacter,Clostridium spp.might also be an important group of H2-dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-reducing microorganisms.

  19. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    Bjarnadottir, Gudrun D.; Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse hist...

  20. Dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential

    A dimensionally reduced expression for the QCD fermion determinant at finite temperature and chemical potential is derived which sheds light on the determinant's dependence on these quantities. This is done via a partial zeta regularization, formally applying a general formula for the zeta determinant of a differential operator in one variable with operator-valued coefficients. The resulting expression generalizes the known one for the free fermion determinant, obtained via Matsubara frequency summation, to the case of a general background gauge field; moreover there is no undetermined overall factor. Rigorous versions of the result are obtained in a continuous time-lattice space setting. The determinant expression reduces to a remarkably simple form in the low temperature limit. A program for using this to obtain insight into the QCD phase transition at zero temperature and nonzero density is outlined

  1. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    Axtra XAP was not included in the diet and one where Axtra XAP was included in the diet. Axtra XAP facilitated higher inclusion rates of cheaper (and possibly more environmentally friendly) feed ingredients that have a lower nutritional value in the diet. Axtra XAP’s environmental improvement potential...... was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results...

  2. New drugs of abuse.

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  3. Reduced habituation of auditory evoked potentials indicate cortical hyper-excitability in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Ethridge, L E; White, S P; Mosconi, M W; Wang, J; Byerly, M J; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hypersensitivities are common, clinically distressing features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). Preclinical evidence suggests this abnormality may result from synaptic hyper-excitability in sensory systems. This model predicts reduced sensory habituation to repeated stimulus presentation. Fourteen adolescents and adults with FXS and 15 age-matched controls participated in a modified auditory gating task using trains of 4 identical tones during dense array electroencephalography (EEG). Event-related potential and single trial time-frequency analyses revealed decreased habituation of the N1 event-related potential response in FXS, and increased gamma power coupled with decreases in gamma phase-locking during the early-stimulus registration period. EEG abnormalities in FXS were associated with parent reports of heightened sensory sensitivities and social communication deficits. Reduced habituation and altered gamma power and phase-locking to auditory cues demonstrated here in FXS patients parallels preclinical findings with Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, the EEG abnormalities seen in FXS patients support the model of neocortical hyper-excitability in FXS, and may provide useful translational biomarkers for evaluating novel treatment strategies targeting its neural substrate. PMID:27093069

  4. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157492.html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California ... 2016 FRIDAY, Feb. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Paid family leave might lead to reduced risk of abuse- ...

  5. Normalization of Addiction Potential Scale for Spotting Individuals Exposed to Drug Abuse Among Students of Tehran Universities

    Ezzatollah Kordmirza; Hossein Azad; Hossein Eskandari

    2003-01-01

    Recent research on the basis of documented and comprehensive studies have indicated that besides individuals who are dependent on a certain type of drug, one can find considerable number of other individuals who are exposed to drug addiction from the viewpoint of their personality. The article with regard to these researches and in order to look into the diagnostic value of three sub-scales of addiction acknowledgement (AAS), Addiction Potential (APS) and Mac Andrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (...

  6. Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production

    This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)

  7. Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: evaluating the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya

    Thorlakson Tannis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subsistence farmers are among the people most vulnerable to current climate variability. Climate models predict that climate change will lead to warmer temperatures, increasing rainfall variability, and increasing severity and frequency of extreme weather events. Agroforestry, or the intentional use of trees in the cropping system, has been proposed by many development practitioners as a potential strategy to help farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. This study explores whether and, if so, how agroforestry techniques can help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate change. From field research conducted in western Kenya, we find that households are not currently coping with climate-related hazards in a sustainable way. Farmers are aware of this, and believe that the most effective way to adapt to climate-related shocks is through improving their general standard of living. We evaluated agroforestry as one possible means of improving farmers’ well-being. By comparing farmers engaged in an agroforestry project with a control group of neighboring farmers, we find that involvement in agroforestry improves household’s general standard of living via improvements in farm productivity, off-farm incomes, wealth and the environmental conditions of their farm. We conclude that agroforestry techniques can be used as an effective part of a broader development strategy to help subsistence farmers reduce their vulnerability to climate-related hazards.

  8. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  9. Investigating the potential influence of cause of death and cocaine levels on the differential expression of genes associated with cocaine abuse.

    Bannon, Michael J; Savonen, Candace L; Hartley, Zachary J; Johnson, Magen M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  11. Child Sexual Abuse

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  12. What is Elder Abuse?

    ... to another, but broadly defined, abuse may be: Physical Abuse —inflicting physical pain or injury on a senior, ... abrasions, and burns may be an indication of physical abuse, neglect, or mistreatment. Unexplained withdrawal from normal activities, ...

  13. Climate change reduces warming potential of nitrous oxide by an enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian H.; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin G.; Stein, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), which is an important driver of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, is expected to accelerate with climate change. One particular consequence of this acceleration is the enhanced transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from its sources at the Earth's surface toward its main sink region in the stratosphere, thus inducing a reduction in its lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the most relevant currently emitted ozone-depleting substance. Here we examine the implications of a reduced N2O lifetime in the context of climate change. We find a decrease in its global warming potential (GWP) and, due to a decline in the atmospheric N2O burden, also a reduction in its total radiative forcing. From the idealized transient global warming simulation we can identify linear regressions for N2O sink, lifetime, and GWP with temperature rise. Our findings are thus not restricted to a particular scenario.

  14. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity.

    Lubbers, Ingrid M; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have spurred the promotion of no-tillage practices as a means to stimulate carbon storage and reduce CO2 emissions in agro-ecosystems. Recent research has ignited debate about the effect of earthworms on the GHG balance of soil. It is unclear how earthworms interact with soil management practices, making long-term predictions on their effect in agro-ecosystems problematic. Here we show, in a unique two-year experiment, that earthworm presence increases the combined cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O from a simulated no-tillage (NT) system to the same level as a simulated conventional tillage (CT) system. We found no evidence for increased soil C storage in the presence of earthworms. Because NT agriculture stimulates earthworm presence, our results identify a possible biological pathway for the limited potential of no-tillage soils with respect to GHG mitigation. PMID:26337488

  15. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ

    Melissa Thiemi Kato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6, containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L or not (control, 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear. Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean wear (±se was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm. CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions.

  16. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m3; 3 h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas–metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks

  17. Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping

    The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NOx, 0.07 million tonnes in SOx and 4.1 million tonnes in CO2. These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ► Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. ► We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ► A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ► Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ► Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

  18. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  19. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. PMID:20096321

  20. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  1. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Exploiting the Reducing Potential of Trapa bispinosa Peel Extract

    Present work reports exceptionally high reducing capacity of Trapa bispinosa to synthesize monodispersed silver nanoparticles (SNPs) within 120 seconds at 30 degree C which is the shortest tenure reported for SNP synthesis using plants. Moreover, we also instigated impact of different ph values on fabrication of SNPs using visible spectroscopy with respect to time. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag was calculated using ICP-AES analysis and was found to be 97% at pH = 7. To investigate the reduction of Ag+ ions to SNPs, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and open circuit potential (OCP) using 0.1M KNO3 were performed. There was prompt reduction in cathodic and anodic currents after addition of the peel extract which indicates the reducing power of T. bispinosa peel. Stability of the SNPs was studied using flocculation parameter (FP) which was found to be least at all the pH values. FP was found to be indirectly proportional to stability of the nanoparticles

  2. Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 (TRPC1) Reduces Calcium Permeability in Heteromeric Channel Complexes

    Storch, Ursula; Forst, Anna-Lena; Philipp, Maximilian; Gudermann, Thomas; Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Specific biological roles of the classical transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) are still largely elusive. To investigate the function of TRPC1 proteins in cell physiology, we studied heterologously expressed TRPC1 channels and found that recombinant TRPC1 subunits do not form functional homomeric channels. Instead, by electrophysiological analysis TRPC1 was shown to form functional heteromeric, receptor-operated channel complexes with TRPC3, -4, -5, -6, and -7 indicating that TRPC1 proteins can co-assemble with all members of the TRPC subfamily. In all TRPC1-containing heteromers, TRPC1 subunits significantly decreased calcium permeation. The exchange of select amino acids in the putative pore-forming region of TRPC1 further reduced calcium permeability, suggesting that TRPC1 subunits contribute to the channel pore. In immortalized immature gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons endogenously expressing TRPC1, -2, -5, and -6, down-regulation of TRPC1 resulted in increased calcium permeability and elevated basal cytosolic calcium concentrations. We did not observe any involvement of TRPC1 in store-operated cation influx. Notably, TRPC1 suppressed the migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons without affecting cell proliferation. Conversely, in TRPC1 knockdown neurons, specific migratory properties like distance covered, locomotion speed, and directionality were increased. These findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism relying on the expression of TRPC1 and the subsequent formation of heteromeric TRPC channel complexes with reduced calcium permeability, thereby fine-tuning neuronal migration. PMID:22157757

  3. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  4. Checklist Usage as a Guidance on Read-Back Reducing the Potential Risk of Medication Error

    Ida Bagus N. Maharjana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital as a last line of health services shall provide quality service and oriented on patient safety, one responsibility in preventing medication errors. Effective collaboration and communication between the profession needed to achieve patient safety. Read-back is one way of doing effective communication. Before-after study with PDCA TQM approach. The samples were on the medication chart patient medical rd rd records in the 3 week of May (before and the 3 week in July (after 2013. Treatment using the check list, asked for time 2 minutes to read-back by the doctors and nurses after the visit together. Obtained 57 samples (before and 64 samples (after. Before charging 45.54% incomplete medication chart on patient medical records that have the potential risk of medication error to 10.17% after treatment with a read back check list for 10 weeks, with 77.78% based on the achievement of the PDCA TQM approach. Checklist usage as a guidance on Read-back as an effective communication can reduce charging incompleteness drug records on medical records that have the potential risk of medication errors, 45.54% to 10.17%.

  5. Substance Abuse and Violence: Cause and Consequence.

    Johnson, Elaine M.; Belfer, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes two ways in which substance abuse is related to violence: trade in drugs and being under the influence of drugs. The paper argues that reducing the demand for drugs by eliminating the market for them will bring about a reciprocal reduction in substance abuse-related violence. (GR)

  6. Prospective use of bacteriocinogenic Pediococcus pentosaceus as direct-fed microbial having methane reducing potential

    Sanjay Kumar; Sumit S Dagar; Seyed H Ebrahimi; Ravinder K Malik; Ramesh C Upadhyay; Anil K Puniya

    2015-01-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM), general y regarded as safe status, are successful y used in improving rumen ecology, gastro-in-testinal health, feed efifciency, milk production and growth rate in ruminants. On the other hand, methanogenesis in rumen, which accounts for a signiifcant loss of ruminant energy and increased greenhouse gas in environment, is of great concern, therefore, use of DFM for improving productivity without compromising the animal health and ecological sustainability is encouraged. The present study was conducted to investigate the methane reducing potential of bacteriocinogenic strain Pediococcus pentosaceus-34. Since, the culture showed no hemolysis on blood agar and DNase activity, hence, it was considered to be avirulent in nature, a prerequisite for any DFM. The culture also showed tolerance to pH 5.0 for 24 h with 0.5%organic acid mixture, whereas when given a shock for 2 h at different pH and organic acids concentrations, it showed growth at pH 3.0 and 4.0 with 0.1 and 1.0%organic acids, respectively, as having good animal probiotics attributes. The total gas production was signiifcantly (P<0.05) higher in live pedicoccal culture (LPC) and dead pedicoccal culture (DPC) both with wheat straw, when compared to the control. In sugarcane bagasse, gas production was signiifcantly lower (P<0.05) with LPC compared to the control and DPC both. Methane was reduced by the inclusion of LPC in sugarcane bagasse (0.07 mL CH4 mg–1 dry matter digestibility) with no effect on other rumen fermentation parameters. However, with wheat straw and LPC total gas, in vitro dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acids increased signiifcantly but no reduction in methane production was observed in comparison to the control. Therefore, further research is warranted in this direction, if the bacteriocinogenic strains can be used as DFM for ruminants to improve the ruminant productivity.

  7. Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle

    The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors)

  8. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  9. Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.

    Haas, Y de; Windig, J J; Calus, M P L; Dijkstra, J; Haan, M de; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F

    2011-12-01

    Mitigation of enteric methane (CH₄) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH₄ is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH₄ emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH₄ yield. Measuring CH₄ emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH₄ emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH₄ predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH₄ output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane

  10. Telemedicine and its potential impacts on reducing inequalities in access to health manpower.

    Nouhi, Mojtaba; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mohamadi, Efat; Shafii, Milad

    2012-10-01

    Human resources for health have many diverse aspects that sometimes bring about conflicts in the healthcare market. In recent decades issues such as attrition, migration, and different types of imbalances in health workers were not only considered as international problems, but also took on new particular dimensions and complications. Rapid growth in establishing infrastructure of communications and many diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS and malaria, as well as shortages in skilled healthcare providers in developing countries, interested many health economists and health professionals to consider telemedicine as an approach to deliver some healthcare and to pursue its effects on human resources management in healthcare. The objective of this communication is to offer a better understanding of the value of telemedicine in human resources management in healthcare. This article briefly reviews related literature on potential contributions of telemedicine in mitigating four different types of imbalances in health workers and points out some of its capabilities. Although there is a great need for systematic, scientific, and analytical studies in effects of telemedicine on health workers, expansion of communication infrastructure throughout and especially in remote areas, political commitment, and provision of useful information and education to reduce problems of human resources for health are beneficial. PMID:23061645

  11. Estimating Potential and Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions in Lithuanian Buildings

    Eglė Jaraminienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU is considering increasing the GHG emissions reduction target by 2020 from 20% to 30% by committing each member state to tighten up its emission reduction goals. According to the recent study such decision could cost some 2 365 million LTL to Lithuanian economy. Evaluation and comparison of CO2 abatement costs incurred by the state implementing a variety of measures in different sectors allow choosing a most cost effective policy scenario. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions related to energy use in buildings. First, this paper reviews the role of the Lithuanian building stock in overall GHG emissions. Then the paper examines the existing studies on the CO2 mitigation potential and cost in buildings. Given the limitations of existing evaluation and lack of comprehensive modelling in the existing studies, this paper proposes a framework for examining the technology options aimed to inform policy making on the options to reduce CO2 emissions in Lithuanian housing and service sectors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.680

  12. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  13. Reducing symbolic-violence in the research encounter: collaborating with a survivor of domestic abuse in a qualitative study in UK primary care.

    Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. PMID:26403218

  14. Reducing the potential for conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities

    Sources of potential conflict between proponents and the public regarding the risks entailed by radioactive waste management facilities are identified and analyzed. Programs and policies are suggested that could reduce conflict over the siting and operation of such facilities

  15. Early Maladaptive Schemas of Substance Abusers and their Intimate Partners

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact cou...

  16. Systematic screening for child abuse at emergency departments

    Louwers, Eveline (Eefje)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractChild abuse is a serious problem and has serious consequences for the victim, his or her environment and for society itself. It has been estimated that one in every 30 Dutch children is exposed to child abuse.1 While preventable morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in childhood is enormously reduced over the past decades, unfortunately this has not been the case for the staggering statistics surrounding child abuse.2 Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotion...

  17. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  18. Wolbachia Reduces the Transmission Potential of Dengue-Infected Aedes aegypti.

    Yixin H Ye

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the causative agents of dengue, the world's most prevalent arthropod-borne disease with around 40% of the world's population at risk of infection annually. Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is being developed as a biocontrol strategy against dengue because it limits replication of the virus in the mosquito. The Wolbachia strain wMel, which has been introduced into the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, has been shown to invade and spread to near fixation in field releases. Standard measures of Wolbachia's efficacy for blocking virus replication focus on the detection and quantification of virus in mosquito tissues. Examining the saliva provides a more accurate measure of transmission potential and can reveal the extrinsic incubation period (EIP, that is, the time it takes virus to arrive in the saliva following the consumption of DENV viremic blood. EIP is a key determinant of a mosquito's ability to transmit DENVs, as the earlier the virus appears in the saliva the more opportunities the mosquito will have to infect humans on subsequent bites.We used a non-destructive assay to repeatedly quantify DENV in saliva from wMel-infected and Wolbachia-free wild-type control mosquitoes following the consumption of a DENV-infected blood meal. We show that wMel lengthens the EIP, reduces the frequency at which the virus is expectorated and decreases the dengue copy number in mosquito saliva as compared to wild-type mosquitoes. These observations can at least be partially explained by an overall reduction in saliva produced by wMel mosquitoes. More generally, we found that the concentration of DENV in a blood meal is a determinant of the length of EIP, saliva virus titer and mosquito survival.The saliva-based traits reported here offer more disease-relevant measures of Wolbachia's effects on the vector and the virus. The lengthening of EIP highlights another means, in addition to the reduction of infection

  19. Training Teachers to Identify and Intervene with Abused Children.

    Hazzard, Ann; Rupp, Gary

    Teachers are a potentially helpful resource for abused children, but generally lack training in child abuse identification and intervention. Elementary and junior high school teachers (N=104) were surveyed concerning their abuse-related experience, knowledge and attitudes. Sixty-eight percent of the teachers reported 3 or fewer hours of education…

  20. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  1. COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing results in cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for potential child abuse.

    Zarate, Yuri A; Clingenpeel, Rachel; Sellars, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xinyu; Kaylor, Julie A; Bosanko, Katherine; Linam, Leann E; Byers, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Child abuse is a major public health concern that can explain a proportion of fractures in children. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common inherited syndrome that predisposes to skeletal fractures. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from clinical, laboratory, and radiographic information from children evaluated for child abuse in which molecular testing for COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes was conducted. A total of 43 patients underwent molecular testing for OI. Pathogenic variants predicted to result in a mild form of OI were found in two patients (5%), both clinically suspected to have this diagnosis. None of the cases in whom OI molecular testing was ordered when maltreatment concerns were thought to be more likely (0/35) were identified to have pathogenic variants. After reviewing each individual case, the final diagnosis was child abuse for 34 cases (77%), and additional radiographic and laboratory studies did not identify any with inherited metabolic predisposition to fracture or rickets. We conclude that routine testing for OI in the setting of child abuse when no other suggestive clinical findings are present has a low yield. A careful review of the medical history and a detailed clinical evaluation help identify those at risk for genetic alterations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090748

  2. Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes taking place in established combustion technologies as a result of a new competition between manufacturers and technologies, encouraged both by more stringent EU legislation and new CAFE levels in the US. The short-term perspective is complemented by an analysis of future improvement potentials in internal combustion technologies, which may be realized if efficient regulation is in place. Based on a comparison of four different regulatory approaches, the paper identifies the need for a long-term technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies, arguing that this will encourage continual innovation and diffusion in the most effective way. - Highlights: ► From 1990 to 2008, CO2 emissions from road transportation in the EU increased by 21%. ► Alternative vehicles are important, but internal combustion engines (ICE) will remain dominant. ► The paper shows how competition and new regulation accelerate the improvement of ICE-vehicles. ► The key factor for long-term emissions reduction is appropriate regulation, not technology. ► Most effective is a technology-neutral framework with stepwise increasing stringencies.

  3. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: Relationships with Abuse in Childhood

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is allegedly the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis in the United States. The etiology of this syndrome appears to entail the interaction of both genes and the environment. One potential environmental contributory factor to irritable bowel syndrome is abuse in childhood. Of the various forms of abuses previously examined, sexual abuse in childhood appears to be the most patent contributor. However, both emotional and physical abuses may also contribute to irritabl...

  4. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  5. Biocathodes reducing oxygen at high potential select biofilms dominated by Ectothiorhodospiraceae populations harboring a specific association of genes.

    Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Rimboud, Mickaël; Bridier, Arnaud; Madigou, Céline; Erable, Benjamin; Bergel, Alain; Bouchez, Théodore

    2016-08-01

    Biocathodes polarized at high potential are promising for enhancing Microbial Fuel Cell performances but the microbes and genes involved remain poorly documented. Here, two sets of five oxygen-reducing biocathodes were formed at two potentials (-0.4V and +0.1V vs. saturated calomel electrode) and analyzed combining electrochemical and metagenomic approaches. Slower start-up but higher current densities were observed at high potential and a distinctive peak increasing over time was recorded on cyclic voltamogramms, suggesting the growth of oxygen reducing microbes. 16S pyrotag sequencing showed the enrichment of two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated to Ectothiorodospiraceae on high potential electrodes with the best performances. Shotgun metagenome sequencing and a newly developed method for the identification of Taxon Specific Gene Annotations (TSGA) revealed Ectothiorhodospiraceae specific genes possibly involved in electron transfer and in autotrophic growth. These results give interesting insights into the genetic features underlying the selection of efficient oxygen reducing microbes on biocathodes. PMID:27126080

  6. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  7. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (pmetabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were present in at least one of the sampling sites in a concentration leading

  8. A case of drug abuse

    Matteo Pacini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.

  9. Intergroup Contact as a Tool for Reducing, Resolving, and Preventing Intergroup Conflict: Evidence, Limitations, and Potential

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2013-01-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting …

  10. Ultra-rapid targeted analysis of 40 drugs of abuse in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS using carbon-13 isotopes of methamphetamine and MDMA to reduce detector saturation.

    Di Rago, Matthew; Chu, Mark; Rodda, Luke N; Jenkins, Elizabeth; Kotsos, Alex; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    The number of oral fluid samples collected by the road policing authority in Victoria, Australia, requiring confirmatory laboratory analysis for drugs proscribed under Victorian legislation (methamphetamine, MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) has greatly increased in recent years, driving the need for improved analysis techniques to enable expedient results. The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS-based targeted oral fluid screening technique that covers a broad range of basic and neutral drugs of abuse that can satisfy increased caseload while monitoring other compounds of interest for epidemiological purposes. By combining small sample volume, simple extraction procedure, rapid LC-MS/MS analysis and automated data processing, 40 drugs of abuse including amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and major metabolites, opioids, cannabinoids and some designer stimulants were separated over 5 min (with an additional 0.5 min re-equilibration time). The analytes were detected using a Sciex® API 4500 Q-Trap LC-MS/MS system with positive ESI in MRM mode monitoring three transitions per analyte. The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines and also monitored carbon-13 isotopes of MDMA and MA to reduce detector saturation effects, allowing for confirmation of large concentrations of these compounds without the need for dilution or re-analysis. The described assay has been successfully used for analysis of oral fluid collected as part of law enforcement procedures at the roadside in Victoria, providing forensic results as well as epidemiological prevalence in the population tested. The fast and reliable detection of a broad range of drugs and subsequent automated data processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic toxicology. PMID:26993306

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  12. Childhood sexual abuse.

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Aktepe, Evrim

    2009-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  14. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  15. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  16. The potential of Yucca schidigera extract to reduce the ammonia pollution from shrimp farming.

    Santacruz-Reyes, Roberto A; Chien, Yew-Hu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Yucca schidigera extract (YUPE) to reduce ammonia pollution resulting from shrimp farming. YUPE was added at ratios of 18, 36, and 72 mg L(-1) to effluent from an experimental shrimp culture system containing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 0.592, 0.672, and 0.718 mg L(-1). TAN reduction increased with an increase in YUPE, and at 18 mg L(-1) reduced TAN by 71-72% and 86-87% at 6 and 24h, respectively. Shrimp feed containing YUPE at 300, 600, and 1200 mg kg(-1) was submerged, allowing the ammonia to leach out. The addition of YUPE in feed reduced TAN leaching by 50-83% compared with the control. The application of YUPE in water or feed could considerably reduce the accumulation of ammonia in waste water discharge during shrimp production, thereby providing a feasible solution to ammonia pollution in coastal environments. PMID:22440573

  17. Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption

    Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

  18. Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery

    VanDeMark Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies that promote such...

  19. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  20. Child abuse - physical

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  3. Abuse during Pregnancy

    ... partner may try to hurt your body. This physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, choking, pushing or ... your unborn baby in grave danger. During pregnancy, physical abuse can lead to miscarriage and vaginal bleeding . It ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ... a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use the drugs more and more ...

  5. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Schistosomiasis Treatment for Reducing HIV Transmission in Africa – The Case of Zimbabwean Women

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Poolman, Eric M.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Orenstein, Evan W.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. Methods We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) and H...

  6. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan;

    2016-01-01

    , research also suggests that soil carbon stocks are declining. The scope of Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) approaches to effectively and efficiently address climate regulation will depend on the spatial distribution of the carbon assimilation capacity, current land use, the value of avoided emissions......Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in regulating the global carbon cycle and its feedbacks within the Earth system. Compelling evidence exists that soil carbon stocks have reduced in many regions of the world, with these reductions often associated with agriculture. In a Danish context...... compare these to the marginal abatement costs curve used in Danish climate policy. The cost effectiveness of reduced tillage as a climate mitigation PES scheme critically depends on the current debate on the net effects of carbon sequestration in reduced tillage practices. Based on existing IPCC...

  7. A comparative assessment of the curative potential of reduced intensity allografts in acute myeloid leukaemia

    Russell, N H; Kjeldsen, L; Craddock, C;

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) provides the best mechanism of preventing relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However non-relapse mortality (NRM) negates this benefit in older patients. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) permits SCT with reduced NRM, but its contribution to cure...... is uncertain. In the MRC AML15 Trial, patients in remission without favourable risk disease could receive SCT from a matched sibling or unrelated donor (MUD). If aged >45 years, a RIC was recommended and in patients aged 35-44 years, either RIC or myeloablative conditioning was permitted. The aim...... was to determine which approach improved survival and within which prespecified cytogenetic groups. RIC transplants significantly reduced relapse (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66 (0.50-0.85), P=0.002) compared to chemotherapy The 5-year overall survival from a sibling RIC (61%) was superior to a MUD RIC (37...

  8. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  9. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Inhibition of apoptosis reduces immunogeneic potential of adenoviral-treated syngeneic liver grafts.

    Puellmann, Kerstin; Beham, Alexander; Kienle, Klaus; Vogel, Mandy; Schlitt, Hans Juergen; Jauch, Karl Walter; Rentsch, Markus

    2006-11-27

    Effects of adenoviral therapy and reduced apoptosis on immune response were investigated in a rat liver transplantation model after prolonged ischemia-reperfusion. Liver donors were treated i.v. either with an adenoviral construct, expressing bcl-2, green-fluorescent-protein, or doxycyclin. Intrahepatic apoptosis was assessed by terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The intrahepatic presence of CD4, CD8a, CD163, immunoglobulin (Ig)beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was quantified by realtime polymerase chain reaction at 24 hours and seven days after transplantation. Bcl-2 expression abrogated the TNF-alpha elevation and reduced apoptosis of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells as compared to advCMV green fluorescent protein. No effects on CD4, CD8a, CD163 and MPO expression were noticed in bcl-2 pretreated livers, whereas Igbeta was slightly enhanced compared to controls. Adenoviral infected liver grafts trigger an immune response but reduced apoptosis resulted in down-regulation of TNF-alpha. Thus, bcl-2 transfer might simultaneously reduce graft ischemia reperfusion injury and immunogenicity. PMID:17130789

  11. Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    2013-08-01

    Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

  12. Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection

    Haas, de Y.; Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH4 is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH4 emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variat

  13. Drug and Substance Abuse

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect

    Yaşar Tıraşçı; Süleyman Gören

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

  15. Preventing Child Abuse

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  16. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

  17. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  18. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. Corn Belt?

    Agriculture is both an anthropogenic source of CO2, CH4, and N2O, and a sink for CO2 and CH4. Management can impact agriculture's net global warming potential (GWP) by changing source and/or sink. This study compared GWP among three crop management systems: business as usual (BAU), optimum greenhous...

  19. Strategies for reducing potentially avoidable hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions

    Freund, T.; Campbell, S.M.; Geissler, S.; Kunz, C.U.; Mahler, C.; Peters-Klimm, F.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are seen as potentially avoidable with optimal primary care. Little is known, however, about how primary care physicians rate these hospitalizations and whether and how they could be avoided. This study explores the complex c

  20. The Potential Of Fuel Cells To Reduce Energy Demands And Pollution From The UK Transport Sector

    Adams, Victor W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide and pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels is increasing. Many scientists attribute global warming to the rising levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutants, some of which also pose risks to health. These can be reduced by the more efficient use of conventional fuels and the development of non-polluting energy resources. Fuel cells offer a highly efficient and low polluting method of generating electricity, and are under development for both the power genera...

  1. [Experiences from two HIV prevention projects among drug abusers in Oslo. Is methadone maintenance treatment useful?].

    Skogstad, M

    1990-06-10

    Experience from two HIV-preventive projects among drug abusers in Oslo, Norway, shows that HIV-positive drug abusers carry on their drug abuse independent of visits to residential drug-free treatment or prison. HIV-positive former drug abusers show a tendency to relapse to drug abuse. In terms of HIV-prevention among drug abusers it is important to reduce injection of drugs among HIV-positive drug abusers. Thus, methadone maintenance programmes should be considered in HIV-prevention in Norway. PMID:2363170

  2. Piperlongumine Suppresses Dendritic Cell Maturation by Reducing Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Has Therapeutic Potential for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Xiao, Youjun; Shi, Maohua; Qiu, Qian; Huang, Mingcheng; Zeng, Shan; Zou, Yaoyao; Zhan, Zhongping; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-06-15

    Piperlongumine (PLM) is a natural product from the plant Piper longum that inhibits platelet aggregation, atherosclerosis plaque formation, and tumor cell growth. It has potential value in immunomodulation and the management of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of PLM in regulating the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), a critical regulator of immune tolerance, and evaluated its clinical effects in a rheumatoid arthritis mouse model. We found that PLM treatment reduced LPS-induced murine bone marrow-derived DC maturation, characterized by reduced expression of CD80/86, secretion of MCP-1, IL-12p70, IL-6, TNFα, IFN-γ, and IL-23, and reduced alloproliferation of T cells; however, PLM does not affect cell differentiation. Furthermore, PLM reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by DCs and inhibited the activation of p38, JNK, NF-κB, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Conversely, PLM increased the expression of GSTP1 and carbonyl reductase 1, two enzymes that counteract ROS effects. ROS inhibition by exogenous N-acetyl-l-cysteine suppressed DC maturation. PLM treatment improved the severity of arthritis and reduced in vivo splenic DC maturation, collagen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, and ROS production in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Taken together, these results suggest that PLM inhibits DC maturation by reducing intracellular ROS production and has potential as a therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27183580

  3. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. FINDINGS: We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass

  4. Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects

    Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

  5. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  6. Child Abuse in India

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  7. Estimating a mosquito repellent’s potential to reduce malaria in communities

    A.E. Kiszewski, S.T. Darling

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Probability models for assessing a mosquito repellent’s potential toreduce malaria transmission are not readily available to public health researchers. To provide ameans for estimating the epidemiological efficacy of mosquito repellents in communities, wedeveloped a simple mathematical model.Study design: A static probability model is presented to simulate malaria infection in a communityduring a single transmission season. The model includes five parameters—sporozoit...

  8. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    Monsler, M.J.

    1987-02-25

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

  9. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

  10. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity

    Lubbers, Ingrid M.; Kees Jan Van Groenigen; Lijbert Brussaard; Jan Willem van Groenigen

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have spurred the promotion of no-tillage practices as a means to stimulate carbon storage and reduce CO2 emissions in agro-ecosystems. Recent research has ignited debate about the effect of earthworms on the GHG balance of soil. It is unclear how earthworms interact with soil management practices, making long-term predictions on their effect in agro-ecosystems problematic. Here we show, in a unique two-year experiment, that earthworm p...

  11. Reduced Treatment-Emergent Sexual Dysfunction as a Potential Target in the Development of New Antidepressants

    David S. Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleasurable sexual activity is an essential component of many human relationships, providing a sense of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depressive symptoms and depressive illness are associated with impairments in sexual function and satisfaction, both in untreated and treated patients. The findings of randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that most of the currently available antidepressant drugs are associated with the development or worsening of sexual dysfunction, in a substantial proportion of patients. Sexual difficulties during antidepressant treatment often resolve as depression lifts but can endure over long periods and may reduce self-esteem and affect mood and relationships adversely. Sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment is typically associated with many possible causes, but the risk and type of dysfunction vary with differing compounds and should be considered when making decisions about the relative merits and drawbacks of differing antidepressants. A range of interventions can be considered when managing patients with sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressants, including the prescription of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, but none of these approaches can be considered “ideal.” As treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction is less frequent with certain drugs, presumably related to differences in their pharmacological properties, and because current management approaches are less than ideal, a reduced burden of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction represents a tolerability target in the development of novel antidepressants.

  12. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  13. In vivo and in vitro exposure to PCB 153 reduces long-term potentiation.

    Hussain, R J; Gyori, J; DeCaprio, A P; Carpenter, D O

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of gestational and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexaCB) on the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) observed in the CA1 region of hippocampal brain slices prepared from rats at 30 days of age. We compared these actions to those observed when PCB 153 is dissolved in normal Krebs-Ringer solution and perfused on slices from control rats of the same age. In vivo exposure was at three dose levels (1. 25, 5, and 20 mg/kg/day...

  14. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G;

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone...... without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake...

  15. Little Potential of Spring Wheat Genotypes as a Strategy to Reduce Nitrogen Leaching in Central Europe

    Juan Manuel Herrera; Christos Noulas; Peter Stamp; Didier Pellet

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses negatively impact groundwater quality. Spring wheat genotypes varying in N-fertilizer recovery were studied (by using lysimeters) for their potential to minimize NO3-N leaching during spring and summer, over a three-year period. Additionally, we examined to what extent root growth and NO3-N leaching explain the well-known difference found between apparent and isotopic N recovery. The genotypes were grown under low (2 g m−2) and high (27 g m−2) N fertilizer supply. On avera...

  16. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  17. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. PMID:22633991

  18. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  19. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial...... resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum and...... maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced by...

  20. Activated Carbon and Biochar Reduce Mercury Methylation Potentials in Aquatic Sediments.

    Bussan, Derek D; Sessums, Ryan F; Cizdziel, James V

    2016-04-01

    Much of the toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that biomagnifies in the aquatic food chain and accumulates in fish and seafood is believed to originate from microbial methylation of inorganic Hg(+2) in anoxic sediments. We examined the effect amending wetland sediments with activated carbon and biochar on Hg methylation potentials using microcosms and Hg stable isotope tracers. The inorganic (200)Hg(+2) spike was methylated at ~0.37 %/day in the untreated sediment, but that rate decreased to amended sediments, with 80 % and 88 % reductions in methylation rates for activated carbon and biochar amendments, respectively. Demethylation rates were relatively unchanged. Our key finding is that amending contaminated sediment with activated carbon and biochar decreases bioavailable Hg, and thus may also decrease Hg transfer into food webs. However, further research is needed to evaluate exactly how the sorbents impact Hg methylation rates and for related field studies. PMID:26779648

  1. An inverse problem for reduced-encoding MRI velocimetry in potential flow.

    Raguin, L Guy; Kodali, Anil K; Rovas, Dimitrios V; Georgiadis, John G

    2004-01-01

    We propose a computational technique to reconstruct internal physiological flows described by sparse point-wise MRI velocity measurements. Assuming that the viscous forces in the flow are negligible, the incompressible flow field can be obtained from a velocity potential that satisfies Laplace's equation. A set of basis functions each satisfying Laplace's equation with appropriately defined boundary data is constructed using the finite-element method. An inverse problem is formulated where higher resolution boundary and internal velocity data are extracted from the point-wise MRI velocity measurements using a least-squares method. From the results we obtained with approximately 100 internal measurement points, the proposed reconstruction method is shown to be effective in filtering out the experimental noise at levels as high as 30%, while matching the reference solution within 2%. This allows the reconstruction of a high-resolution velocity field with limited MRI encoding. PMID:17271875

  2. Reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: a potential anticancer nanotherapy

    Gurunathan S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jung Hyun Park, Eunsu Kim, Yun-Jung Choi, Deug-Nam Kwon, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites are used in various research areas including sensing, energy storage, and catalysis. The mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological properties render graphene-based nanocomposites of metallic nanoparticles useful for several biomedical applications. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the fifth most deadly cancer in women; most tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, but eventually acquire chemoresistance. Consequently, the development of novel molecules for cancer therapy is essential. This study was designed to develop a simple, non-toxic, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–silver (rGO–Ag nanoparticle nanocomposites using Tilia amurensis plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The anticancer properties of rGO–Ag were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. Methods: The synthesized rGO–Ag nanocomposite was characterized using various analytical techniques. The anticancer properties of the rGO–Ag nanocomposite were evaluated using a series of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, cellular levels of malonaldehyde and glutathione, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation in ovarian cancer cells (A2780. Results: AgNPs with an average size of 20 nm were uniformly dispersed on graphene sheets. The data obtained from the biochemical assays indicate that the rGO–Ag nanocomposite significantly inhibited cell viability in A2780 ovarian cancer cells and increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation compared with other tested nanomaterials such as graphene oxide, rGO, and AgNPs. Conclusion: T. amurensis plant extract

  3. An evaluation of new technologies with the potential to reduce air emissions from floating Mobile Offshore Drilling Units

    Larsen, Annikken

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis three new technologies with the potential to significantly reduce the release of air emissions have been evaluated. The rigs considered are semi-submersibles and drillships as they have the capacity to reach ultradeep water sites. One potential method is to implement natural gas engines on MODUs, as natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. LNG will allow for 20-25% lower CO2 emissions and 90-95% lower SOx emissions. In addition, the NOx emissions will be significantly r...

  4. Potential association of reduced cholinesterase activity with Trypanosoma evansi pathogenesis in buffaloes.

    Singh, Shanker K; Singh, Vivek K; Yadav, Brajesh K; Nakade, Udayraj P; Kumari, Priyambada; Srivastava, Mukesh K; Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhary, Soumen; Swain, Dilip; Garg, Satish K

    2016-07-30

    The present study aimed to investigate the association of cholinesterase activity with trypanosomosis in buffaloes. Thirty-three clinical cases of trypanosomosis in water buffaloes, found positive for trypomastigotes of T. evansi on blood smear examination, were divided into two groups based on clinical manifestations. Twenty diseased buffaloes revealing only common clinical signs were allocated to Group I, while the remaining 13 buffaloes showing common clinical manifestations along with neurological disturbances were allocated to Group II. Twelve clinically healthy buffaloes, free from any haemoprotozoa infection, were kept as healthy control (Group III). Blood samples were collected from buffaloes of all three groups to determine serum cholinesterase activity. Compared to buffaloes of healthy control group, cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes of Group I and II was significantly (Pbuffaloes exhibiting neurological disorders and no neurological disorders. Summing up, reduced cholinesterase activity seems to be associated with the pathogenesis of natural T. evansi infection and its clinical manifestations in buffaloes possibly by evading immune response. Further studies are warranted on association of cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes with neurological disorders. PMID:27369572

  5. Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing

    Moore, D. E.; Morrow, C. A.; Byerlee, J. D.

    1982-09-01

    The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in significant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electrolyte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1-10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subsequent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption.

  6. The role of photoperiods on photobioreactors - A potential strategy to reduce costs.

    Maroneze, Mariana Manzoni; Siqueira, Stefania Fortes; Vendruscolo, Raquel Guidetti; Wagner, Roger; de Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Zepka, Leila Queiroz; Jacob-Lopes, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the role of photoperiods (long-term, frequencies and short) on the growth and lipid content of microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05. The results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus can store sufficient energy to sustain cell growth for continuous periods of up to 2h in the dark, without affecting the photosynthetic rate. The values for maximum biomass (9.58mg/Lh) and lipid productivities (2.56mg/Lh) were obtained at photoperiod of 0.91:0.09s (light:dark) and 48 t/d, respectively. Moreover, the best trade-offs between biomass productivity and light energy economy occurred in photoperiods of 0.5:0.5s and 0.91:0.09s (light:dark), and those between lipid productivity and light energy economy occurred in the frequency photoperiod of 24 and 48 t/d. Thus, the use of the photoperiods are an effective strategy for reducing costs of microalgal biomass production. PMID:27521786

  7. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  8. An investigation of the oxidative potential of potassium permanganate and chlorine dioxide during the oxidation of reduced manganese

    Hair, David Hayne

    1987-01-01

    This project determined the thermodynamic potentials for various reactions between reduced manganese (Mn+2), manganese oxide (MnO2(s)), chlorine dioxide (C102), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4). Based on these findings, laboratory analyses were performed to determine if these reactions would occur under simulated water treatment plant conditions. In addition, a speciation procedure was developed to quantify the various species of manganese and chlorine dioxide present in a...

  9. Diversity, Abundance, and Potential Activity of Nitrifying and Nitrate-Reducing Microbial Assemblages in a Subglacial Ecosystem ▿ †

    Boyd, Eric S.; Lange, Rachel K.; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Havig, Jeff R.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Lafrenière, Melissa J.; Shock, Everett L.; Peters, John W.; Skidmore, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Subglacial sediments sampled from beneath Robertson Glacier (RG), Alberta, Canada, were shown to harbor diverse assemblages of potential nitrifiers, nitrate reducers, and diazotrophs, as assessed by amoA, narG, and nifH gene biomarker diversity. Although archaeal amoA genes were detected, they were less abundant and less diverse than bacterial amoA, suggesting that bacteria are the predominant nitrifiers in RG sediments. Maximum nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in microcosms incubate...

  10. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    Sisman, S. Lara [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-20

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  11. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  12. The potential for using non-physicians to compensate for the reduced availability of residents.

    Knickman, J R; Lipkin, M; Finkler, S A; Thompson, W G; Kiel, J

    1992-07-01

    Both the number of residents and the amount of time existing residents have in which to carry out their activities may soon be decreasing. To consider the potential for alternative ways of staffing teaching hospitals, it is necessary to know how residents spend their time. The authors sought to learn this by conducting a time-motion study of eight internal medicine residents at two urban hospitals in New York City in 1988. The residents' activities were observed and coded by premedical students, and the authors independently classified the possible activities into (1) those that had to be done by a physician, (2) those that were educational only, and (3) those that could be done by a non-physician. A total of 1,726 activities of 67 kinds were coded, averaging 7.75 minutes each. The authors analyze and project their data using two models--the traditional model of care in which the physician is the primary medical manager of the patient, and an alternative model in which a midlevel practitioner, such as a nurse practitioner, would perform the day-to-day monitoring of patients. For example, the data indicate that in the traditional model, almost half of a resident's time is spent in activities that must be done by a physician, meaning that another kind of physician would be needed to do those activities if the resident were unavailable; but in the midlevel practitioner model, only around 20% of the activities would require a physician. The authors give detailed breakdowns of their data, estimate the kinds and numbers of non-physician health care professionals necessary to substitute for residents in appropriate activities, and review possible difficulties in implementing such substitutions. PMID:1616554

  13. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  14. Anogenital Warts in Children and Sexual Abuse

    Atilla Karateke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the sexual abuse in children with anogenital warts (AGW together with their mothers by testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV typing. Material and Method: A total of 10 children with their mothers were included. HPV typing was performed in children and their mothers. Smear sample was taken from mothers. Child sexual abuse test was performed for 4 children in whom sexual abuse was suspected. Results: AGW was found in one of the mothers of 10 children with AGW. While HPV typing was positive in 4 children, 3 mothers was detected as %u201Ccompatible%u201D with HPV typing of their children. Two of those were type 6 and the remaining was type 11. While sexual abuse was identified to be %u201Cdefinite%u201D in 2 children and %u201Cprobable%u201D in 1 child. Other was identified as %u201Cpossible%u201D. Discussion: The diagnosis of sexual abuse in children with AGW and suspected sexual abuse can be facilitated by performing HPV typing in mothers of children. This requires professional teamwork to prevent any possible harm against the potential child victim of suspected sexual abuse. As other transmission routes of AGW are possible, accusing falsely innocent family before comprehensive examination should be avoided.

  15. Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.

    Straus, Murray A.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

  16. Does child abuse cause crime?

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  17. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  18. Maltreated and abused children

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  19. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  20. Child abuse and neglect

    Kiran, K

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realized. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in their treatment. Despite their frequent occurrence among dental patients, neglect is the least known and identified type of abuse. The present case reports a 3-year-old girl suffering from abuse and neglect. The girl had dental neglect and als...

  1. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse

    HROBAŘOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    My thesis deals with the problems of sexual abuse of children. It is divided into nine chapters, each of which has a subhead. In the first part, I focused on the term of child sexual abuse. In the second part, I focused on the problem of sexual abuse of children by family members. In the third part, I explained the term of commercial sexual violence committed against children. In the fourth part, I focused on the victims of sexual abuse and in the following part, I focused on the perpetrators...

  3. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  4. Substance Abuse in the Military

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  5. Sexual abuse in Malawi: patterns of disclosure.

    Mason, Carole; Kennedy, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Potential human immunodeficiency virus transmission makes prompt disclosure of child sexual abuse in Africa critical. The pattern of disclosure of 133 children presenting to the largest hospital in Malawi were analyzed. Eighty percent presented early enough for effective use of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Seventy-five percent of children made a disclosure of child sexual abuse; 29% spontaneously and 47% after prompting. Disclosures were most commonly made to a parent, and age did not affect the pattern of disclosure. The number of children reporting child sexual abuse is increasing, possibly because of increasing awareness, availability of services, and fear of HIV. Although prompt disclosure rates were relatively high, facilitating easier disclosure of child sexual abuse by a free telephone help-line and better training of teachers may be helpful. PMID:24641596

  6. Hippocampal long-term potentiation is reduced in mature compared to young male rats but not in female rats.

    Monfort, P; Felipo, V

    2007-05-11

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function which could be due to reduced synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent form of increased transmission efficacy at synapses that is considered the basis for some forms of learning and memory. We studied the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-dependent LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus in young (2 months) and mature (8 months) male and female rats. We have found that in young male rats the tetanus increased the magnitude of excitatory post-synaptic potentials to 204+/-10% of basal while in mature male rats the magnitude of the LTP was significantly lower reaching only 153+/-11% of basal. This decrease did not occur in female rats. Similar changes occurred in the content of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in hippocampus. The amount of both subunits was reduced significantly (15-16%) in hippocampus of 8-month-old compared with 2-month-old male rats. This decrease was not observed in female rats. Moreover, there is a significant correlation between the content of NR1 subunit and the magnitude of the potentiation. These data suggest that some of the neurobiological changes induced in hippocampus by aging are different in males and females. PMID:17395392

  7. Rotational excitation of H2O by para-H2 from an adiabatically reduced dimensional potential

    Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Lauvergnat, David

    2012-03-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients for low lying rotational transitions in H2O colliding with para-hydrogen pH2 are computed using an adiabatic approximation which reduces the dimensional dynamics from a 5D to a 3D problem. Calculations have been performed at the close-coupling level using the recent potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008), 10.1063/1.2988314]. A good agreement is found between the reduced adiabatic calculations and the 5D exact calculations, with an impressive time saving and memory gain. This adiabatic reduction of dimensionality seems very promising for scattering studies involving the excitation of a heavy target molecule by a light molecular projectile.

  8. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    Drewniak Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  9. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    Sexual abuse - children ... boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... anus or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  10. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments

    Meier, Elizabeth A.; Thorburn, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues (‘trash’). Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a ‘trash blanket’ in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location × soil × fertilizer × trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 years after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to reduce N

  11. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments.

    Meier, Elizabeth A; Thorburn, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues ('trash'). Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a 'trash blanket' in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location × soil × fertilizer × trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 years after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to reduce N fertilizer

  12. The Role of Family Environment and Multiple Forms of Childhood Abuse in the Shaping of Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Women.

    Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that sexual self-schemas are an important cognitive mechanism in the sexual development of women with a history of childhood abuse. This literature is only beginning to explore how multiple forms of abuse (i.e., physical, emotional, and sexual), rather than sexual abuse alone, can influence the development of adult sexuality. Moreover, the extant literature has not carefully considered important factors other than the severity of the abuse that may relate to sexual self-schemas, including family environment and quality of romantic relationships. Findings from this cross-sectional study conducted on 417 heterosexual women (ages 18-25 years) suggest that family dynamics and different types of childhood abuse contribute both directly and indirectly to adult sexual function and satisfaction and that part of those effects were mediated by other factors such as sexual self-schemas and romantic relationship quality. These results, including an exploration of the direct and indirect effects, were discussed in terms of the pervasive effects of abuse on people's lives and the potential treatment targets that can be addressed when trying to reduce sexual problems in women with a history of abuse. PMID:25339521

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  14. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  16. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  17. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  18. Moderate multiple parentage and low genetic variation reduces the potential for genetic incompatibility avoidance despite high risk of inbreeding.

    Cristina Tuni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyandry is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. In the absence of direct benefits of mating with different males, the underlying basis for polyandry is enigmatic because it can carry considerable costs such as elevated exposure to sexual diseases, physical injury or other direct fitness costs. Such costs may be balanced by indirect genetic benefits to the offspring of polyandrous females. We investigated polyandry and patterns of parentage in the spider Stegodyphus lineatus. This species experiences relatively high levels of inbreeding as a result of its spatial population structure, philopatry and limited male mating dispersal. Polyandry may provide an opportunity for post mating inbreeding avoidance that reduces the risk of genetic incompatibilities arising from incestuous matings. However, multiple mating carries direct fitness costs to females suggesting that genetic benefits must be substantial to counter direct costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic parentage analyses in two populations from Israel and a Greek island, showed mixed-brood parentage in approximately 50% of the broods. The number of fathers ranged from 1-2 indicating low levels of multiple parentage and there was no evidence for paternity bias in mixed-broods from both populations. Microsatellite loci variation suggested limited genetic variation within populations, especially in the Greek island population. Relatedness estimates among females in the maternal generation and potentially interacting individuals were substantial indicating full-sib and half-sib relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three lines of evidence indicate limited potential to obtain substantial genetic benefits in the form of reduced inbreeding. The relatively low frequency of multiple parentage together with low genetic variation among potential mates and the elevated risk of mating among related individuals as corroborated by our genetic data suggest that there are limited

  19. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    Özlem Karakuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

  20. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    Özlem Karakuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

  1. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  2. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2007-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage ...

  3. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus as potential biocontrol agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts harvested in Northern Argentina.

    Alaniz Zanon, María Silvina; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofía Noemí

    2016-08-16

    Biological control is one of the most promising strategies for preventing aflatoxin contamination in peanuts at field stage. A population of 46 native Aspergillus flavus nonaflatoxin producers were analysed based on phenotypic, physiological and genetic characteristics. Thirty-three isolates were characterized as L strain morphotype, 3 isolates as S strain morphotype, and 10 isolates did not produce sclerotia. Only 11 of 46 non-aflatoxigenic isolates did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. The vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity index for the population was 0.37. For field trials we selected the non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus AR27, AR100G and AFCHG2 strains. The efficacy of single and mixed inocula as potential biocontrol agents in Northern Argentina was evaluated through a 2-year study (2014-2015). During the 2014 peanut growing season, most of the treatments reduced the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains in both soil and peanut kernel samples, and no aflatoxin was detected in kernels. During the 2015 growing season, there was a reduction of aflatoxigenic strains in kernel samples from the plots treated with the potential biocontrol agents. Reductions of aflatoxin contamination between 78.36% and 89.55% were observed in treated plots in comparison with the un-inoculated control plots. This study provides the first data on aflatoxin biocontrol based on competitive exclusion in the peanut growing region of Northern Argentina, and proposes bioproducts with potential use as biocontrol agents. PMID:27220011

  4. Preventing Child Abuse: A Meta-Analysis of Parent Training Programs

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Nimer, Janelle; Parsons, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of parent training programs to reduce parents' risk of abusing a child. Method: A total of 23 studies were submitted to a meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included parents' attitudes toward abuse, emotional adjustment, child-rearing skills, and actual abuse. Conclusions:…

  5. Isolation of Cr(Ⅵ) reducing bacteria from industrial effluents and their potential use in bioremediation of chromium containing wastewater

    Ahmed Zahoor; Abdul Rehman

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the ability of Bacillus sp.JDM-2-1 and Staphylococcus capitis to reduce hexavalent chromium into its trivalent form.Bacillus sp.JDM-2-1 could tolerate Cr(Ⅵ) (4800 μg/mL) and S.capitis could tolerate Cr(Ⅵ) (2800 μg/mL).Both organisms were able to resist Cd2+ (50 μg/mL),Cu2+ (200 μg/mL),Pb2+ (800 μg/mL),Hg2+ (50 μg/mL) and Ni2+ (4000 μg/mL).S.capitis resisted Zn2+ at 700 μg/mL while Bacillus sp.JDM-2-1 only showed resistance up to 50 μg/mL.Bacillus sp.JDM-2-1 and S.capitis showed optimum growth at pH 6 and 7,respectively,while both bacteria showed optimum growth at 37℃.Bacillus sp.JDM-2-1 and S.capitis could reduce 85% and 81% of hexavalent chromium from the medium after 96 h and were also capable of reducing hexavalent chromium 86% and 89%,respectively,from the industrial effluents after 144 h.Cell free extracts of Bacillus sp.JDM-2-1 and S.capitis showed reduction of 83% and 70% at concentration of 10 μg Cr(Ⅵ)/mL,respectively.The presence of an induced protein having molecular weight around 25 kDa in the presence of chromium points out a possible role of this protein in chromium reduction.The bacterial isolates can be exploited for bioremediation of hexavalent chromium containing wastes,since they seem to have the potential to reduce the toxic hexavalent form to its nontoxic trivalent form.

  6. BRAIN EVOKED POTENTIAL CHANGES OF SHORT TIME METAMFETAMINE ABUSERS%短期甲基苯丙胺类物质滥用者的脑诱发电位变化

    田艳; 徐四清; 项沫; 雷国奎

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the brain evoked potential changes in short time methamphetamine abusers. Methods: Auditory evoked potential ( AEP), visual evoked potential ( VEP ),somatoform evoked potential ( SEP), and event related potential P300 were recorded in methamphetamine abusers who had used methamphetamine for no more than twelve months (n = 73 )and non -methamphetamine use controls ( n = 30). Results: In methamphetamine user group, the P1, N1 N2, P2 incubations of AEP ,the P1 incubation of VEP, and the N2 incubation of SEP were significantly longer than those in the control group(P <0. 01 or P <0. 05). But,the N1 incubation of SEP was significantly shorter than that in the control group(P <0. 05). The amplitudes of P2, N1 -P2, P2 -N2 of AEP, P2, N1 -P2,P2 - N2 of VEP ,and P2 ,P2 - N2 of SEP,were significantly lower than those in the control group( P <0. 01 or P < 0. 05 ). There was no significant difference in the N1, P2, N2, and P3 incubations and the amplitudes between methamphetamine and control groups. No significant differences in the N1, P2 incubations,and the P2 amplitude of non - target P300 were observed between groups ( P > 0. 05 ) either.Conclusion:Short time methamphetamine abuse affects AEP, VEP, SEP but not P300. Duration of methamphetamine use is related to the degree of the cognitive impairment of methamphetamine users.%目的:探讨短期滥用甲基苯丙胺类物质者的脑诱发电位变化.方法:对73例滥用时间≤12个月的甲基苯丙胺类物质者行听觉诱发电位AEP、视觉诱发电位VEP、体感诱发电位SEP及事件相关电位P300检测,并以30例正常人作对照.结果:短期滥用甲基苯丙胺类物质者AEP的P1、N1、P2、N2潜伏期;VEP的P1潜伏期;SEP的N2潜伏期均长于正常对照组(P<0.01或P<0.05);SEP的N1潜伏期短于正常对照组(P<0.05).AEP的P2、N1-P2、P2-N2波幅;VEP的P2、N1-P2、P2-N2波幅;SEP的P2、P2-N2波幅均低于正常对照组(P<0.01或P<0.05).P300

  7. Invisible Abuse: Utah's Response to Emotional Child Abuse

    Sirrine, Janae

    2010-01-01

    The very nature of emotional child abuse makes it difficult to detect and report. Nevertheless, scholars and professionals in the field of child welfare have identified emotional abuse as being equally detrimental to children as physical abuse and neglect. Many states, including Utah, have unclear definitions of emotional child abuse. The purpose of this study is to interpret how Utah has used its statute on emotional abuse in the court system and whether the current definition of emotional c...

  8. Child Abuse in India

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  9. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  10. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  11. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  12. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  13. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  14. Abuse of Our Children: The Socio-Political Context.

    Zigler, Edward; Anderson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Addresses corporal punishment in schools as a policy issue, regarding every manifestation as either abusive or potentially so. Discusses the history of physical punishment in schools, reviews current sentiment toward its use, considers policies in other countries, and examines disciplinary alternatives and child abuse prevention methods.…

  15. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  16. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  17. Educators, Schools, and Child Abuse.

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…

  18. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains.

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200mg/L), Zn (1800mg/L) and Pb (1200mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains+3mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd accumulation in

  19. Alcohol use and abuse among rural Zimbabwean adults: A test of a community-level intervention

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  20. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  1. Erythropoietin use and abuse.

    John, M Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858

  2. Erythropoietin use and abuse

    M Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient′s disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge.

  3. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Kateřina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  4. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  5. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  6. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  7. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  8. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  9. Children, contact and domestic abuse

    Morrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the issue of children’s contact with non-resident parents has been increasingly debated. The policy gaze has focused on contested contact when there are allegations of domestic abuse. Some commentators argue that in circumstances of domestic abuse, contact with an abusive father may not be in the ‘best interests’ of the child. To support these claims they point to evidence that domestic abuse adversely affects children, and domestic abuse often continues followi...

  10. Uses and Abuses of Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs): Potential Iatrogenic Impact of PROMs Implementation and How It Can Be Mitigated

    Wolpert, M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Having been a national advocate for the use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK for the last decade, I have become increasingly concerned that unless the potential iatrogenic impact of widespread policy requirement for use of PROMs (Department of Health, Children and Young People's Health Outcomes Strategy, 2012) is recognised and addressed their real potential benefits (Sapyta et al., J Clin Psychol 61(2):1...

  11. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed. PMID:26342266

  12. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  13. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  14. Duck Production: Has a Potential to Reduce Poverty among Rural Households in Asian Communities – A Review

    F. Adzitey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Duck production plays an important part in the agricultural economy of many Asia countries. The continent alone accounts for 82.6% of the total duck meat produced worldwide. Not only is Asia involved in duck production but also duck meat, eggs and their products are relished and consumed by many Asians. In spite of this, intensive education to empower rural households to increase duck production is limited. In recent times, much emphasize is being laid on commercialization to increase production at the neglect of rural household production. Subsequently this can affect the income levels of many rural households in Asia countries with the potential and can take the advantage to engage in duck production should they have been given adequate training and education. Poverty alleviation among rural communities had involved a number of strategies including women empowerment, promotion of crop, poultry and livestock production, and various activities of governmental and non-governmental organizations geared towards community development. Considering the population, importance and prospects of duck production in Asia, this mini review discusses the potentials duck farming has in reducing poverty level among rural communities in Asia

  15. Barriers to physician identification and reporting of child abuse.

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Sege, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Physicians systematically underidentify and underreport cases of child abuse. These medical errors may result in continued abuse, leading to potentially severe consequences. We have reviewed a number of studies that attempt to explain the reasons for these errors. The findings of these various studies suggest several priorities for improving the identification and reporting of child maltreatment: Improve continuing education about child maltreatment. Continuing education should focus not only on the identification of maltreatment but also on management and outcomes. This education should include an explanation of the role of CPS investigator and the physician's role in an investigation. The education should provide physicians with a better understanding of the overall outcome for children reported to CPS to help physicians gain perspective on the small number of maltreated children they may care for in their practice. This education should emphasize that the majority of maltreated children will benefit from CPS involvement. New York is the only state that mandates all physicians, as well as certain other professionals, take a 2-hour course called Identification and Reporting of Child Abuse and Maltreatment prior to licensing. Cited studies in this article suggest that such a mandate might be expected to improve identification and reporting, thereby encouraging other states to adopt similar regulations. Give physicians the opportunity to debrief with a trained professional after detecting and reporting child abuse. The concept of child abuse and the gravity of the decision to report can be troubling to the reporter. The debriefing could include discussions of uncomfortable feelings physicians may experience related to their own countertransference reactions. Provide resources to assist physicians in making the difficult determination of suspected maltreatment. The role of accessible telephone consultation should be evaluated, along with formalized collaborations

  16. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  18. Effects of Drug Abuse

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  19. Other Drugs of Abuse

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  20. Drug abuse first aid

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  1. Substance abuse, adherence with antiretroviral therapy, and clinical outcomes among HIV-infected individuals

    Lucas, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. Substance abuse is an important comorbidity that affects the delivery and outcomes of HIV medical management. In this paper I will review data examining the associations between substance abuse and HIV treatment and potential strategies to improve outcomes in this population that warrant further investigation. Current - but not past - substance abuse adversely affects engagement in care, acceptance of antiretrovir...

  2. Experiences of parents of substance-abusing young people attending support groups

    Hoeck, Sarah; van Hal, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance abuse puts a burden on the physical and mental health and well-being of individuals and their families, particularly parents. Parents of substance-abusing young people are in need of professional or informal support and information. Potential and easy accessible sources are support groups. We explored the experiences of parents of substance-abusing young people attending support groups regarding several topics related to the substance-abuse of their son or daughter, the i...

  3. The hospital child protection teams in approaching issues of child abuse and neglect Review

    Beyazova, Ufuk; Şahin, Figen

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children A multidisciplinary approach like the “Child Protection Team” is strongly encouraged to ensure adequate evaluation treatment and follow up of a potentially abused child Recently the increasing interest in the community regarding child abuse and neglect and the construction of child protection services are nbsp; important improvements for our country Child abuse and neglect should be a part of graduate ...

  4. Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production

    The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on

  5. Drug abuse in athletes

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  6. Detecting Medicare Abuse

    David Becker; Daniel Kessler; Mark McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This paper identifies which types of patients and hospitals have abusive Medicare billings that are responsive to law enforcement. For a 20 percent random sample of elderly Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized from 1994-98 with one or more of six illnesses that are prone to abuse, we obtain longitudinal claims data linked with Social Security death records, hospital characteristics, and state/year-level anti-fraud enforcement efforts. We show that increased enforcement leads certain types of t...

  7. Sexual abuse and incest

    Şahin, Figen; Taşar, Medine Ayşin

    2012-01-01

    Incest which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse an...

  8. Sexual abuse and incest

    Medine Ayşin Taşar; Figen Şahin

    2012-01-01

    Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abus...

  9. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential ris...

  10. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    ... Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMSHA Archive ... SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. 5600 Fishers Ln • Rockville, ...

  11. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  12. Are there any potentially dangerous pharmacological effects of combining ADHD medication with alcohol and drugs of abuse? A systematic review of the literature

    Barkla, Xanthe M.; McArdle, Paul A.; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Among young people up to 18 years of age, approximately 5 % have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), many of whom have symptoms persisting into adulthood. ADHD is associated with increased risk of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, including substance misuse. Many will be prescribed medication, namely methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine. If so, it is important to know if interactions exist and if they are potentially toxic. Methods Three dat...

  13. Less is more: a project to reduce the number of PIMs (potentially inappropriate medications) on an elderly care ward.

    Aung, Tin Htun; Judith Beck, Adèle; Siese, Thomas; Berrisford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Potentially inappropriate prescribing in healthcare of the elderly (HCE) is associated with avoidable adverse drug events (ADEs).1(,)2 A recent set of prescribing criteria has been designed and validated, called "Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions" (STOPP), to rationalise prescribing in hospitalised patients on HCE wards.1(,)3 The aim of this quality improvement project was to identify how many potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were prescribed on these wards, and remove them. This was executed by implementing a ward round checklist, which incorporated STOPP criteria, for the twice weekly, consultant led ward rounds. This quality improvement project was carried out over four months. In a pilot study, we identified eight inappropriate medical prescriptions among 148 medications (5.4% ) prescribed on one ward. After applying a checklist for a structured ward round, we reviewed the medications prescribed on that ward, and found 10 PIMs out of 192 (5.2% ). Utilising the increasingly recognised "plan, do, study, act" (PDSA) cycle,4 we implemented departmental teaching and meetings with other members of the multidisciplinary team, which raised awareness of PIMs among junior doctors, as well as involving our pharmacists in drug chart screening. During this process we continued with a further six cycles on a bi-weekly basis, and saw a gradual decrease in PIM to 1.5%. In conclusion, a structured ward round, facilitated by a checklist that included review of drug charts based on STOPP criteria, demonstrated a considerable reduction of PIMs. It would be interesting to apply this quality improvement project to non-HCE wards, including general surgical wards or adult psychiatry wards, as a means of not only reducing the effects of ADEs, but also the expenditure associated with unnecessary drug prescriptions, and the costs associated with additional care arising from associated ADEs. PMID:27096089

  14. Diversity, Abundance, and Potential Activity of Nitrifying and Nitrate-Reducing Microbial Assemblages in a Subglacial Ecosystem

    Skidmore, M. L.; Boyd, E. S.; Lange, R. K.; Mitchell, A. C.; Havig, J. R.; Hamilton, T. L.; Lafreniere, M. J.; Shock, E.; Peters, J.

    2011-12-01

    Ice currently covers 11% of the terrestrial landmass and has covered significantly greater portions of the planet during Earth's history. Significant microbial populations have been documented in all subglacial settings sampled to date. Recent research has demonstrated sizable volumes of subglacial sediment beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet that are greater than 1km thick in places and where sampled active microbial populations have been documented. Collectively this suggests subglacial microbial populations may impact global biogeochemical cycles on glacial-interglacial timescales, however, nitrogen cycling in subglacial systems is poorly understood. Subglacial sediments sampled from beneath Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada harbor a diverse assemblage of potential nitrifiers, nitrate reducers, and diazotrophs, as assessed by amoA, narG, and nifH gene biomarker diversity. Archaeal amoA genes were less abundant and less diverse than bacterial amoA. Nitrification and nitrate reduction were measured in microcosms incubated at 4 degrees Celsius indicating the potential for these processes to occur in situ. Subglacial sediment porewaters and bulk meltwaters have low concentrations of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds and a high C/N ratio of dissolved organic matter in sediment porewaters, indicating that the sediment communities are N limited. This may reflect the combined biological activities of organic N mineralization, nitrification, and nitrate reduction. Despite evidence for N limitation and detection of nifH, biological nitrogen fixation was not detected in subglacial sediment microcosm experiments at 4 degrees Celsius. Collectively, our results suggest a role for nitrification and nitrate reduction in sustaining microbial communities in subglacial environments.

  15. Bio-methanol potential in Indonesia: Forest biomass as a source of bio-energy that reduces carbon emissions

    Suntana, Asep S. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute/Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (LEI), Taman Bogor Baru Blok BIV No. 12, Bogor 16152 (Indonesia); Vogt, Kristiina A. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Interforest LLC, Holderness, NH 03245 (United States); Renewol LLC, 63260 Overtree Road, Bend, OR 97701 (United States); Turnblom, Eric C. [Forest Biometrics Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Upadhye, Ravi [ARU Associates, Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce biofuels, the potential to sustainably collect and convert forest materials to methanol for use in energy production was examined. Using the annually available aboveground forest biomass, from 40 to 168 billion l of bio-methanol could be produced for use as a transportation fuel and/or to supply fuel cells to produce electricity. When a lower forest biomass availability estimate was used to determine how much electricity (methanol fed into fuel cells) could be produced in Indonesia, more than 10 million households or about 12,000 villages (20% of the total rural villages in Indonesia) would be supplied annually with electricity. Collecting forest biomass at the higher end of the estimated available biomass and converting it to methanol to supply fuel cells could provide electricity to more than 42 million households annually. This would be approximately 52,000 villages, or 86% of the total rural villages in Indonesian. When electricity is produced with bio-methanol/fuel cells, it could potentially supply from half to all of the current electricity consumed in Indonesia. By generating electricity using bio-methanol/fuel cells instead of from fossil fuels, from 9 to 38% of the total carbon currently emitted each year in Indonesia could be avoided. In contrast, substituting this same amount of bio-methanol for gasoline could provide all of the annual gasoline needs of Indonesia and contribute towards reducing their carbon emissions by about 8-35%. (author)

  16. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  17. Molecular approaches to treatments for cocaine abuse

    Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; George, Clifford; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2003-02-01

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system with severe addiction potential. Its abuse is a major problem worldwide. The exact mechanism of action of cocaine is still uncertain but it is known that its reinforcing and stimulant effects are related to its ability to inhibit the membrane bound dopamine transporter (DAT). This paper discusses efforts that are underway to identify ligands for possible use in the treatment of cocaine abuse. Much of this effort has been focussed on understanding cocaine interactions at DAT receptor sites.

  18. The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components

    This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

  19. Carrying the Pain of Abuse: Gender-Specific Findings on the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Obesity in Adulthood

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Results: Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.09, 1.67. Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53. Conclusions: This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration.

  20. Analysis of the Sequence and Phenotype of Drosophila Sex combs reduced Alleles Reveals Potential Functions of Conserved Protein Motifs of the Sex combs reduced Protein

    Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Percival-Smith, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila Hox gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is required for patterning the larval and adult, labial and prothoracic segments. Fifteen Scr alleles were sequenced and the phenotypes analyzed in detail. Six null alleles were nonsense mutations (Scr2, Scr4, Scr11, Scr13, Scr13A, and Scr16) and one was an intragenic deletion (Scr17). Five hypomorphic alleles were missense mutations (Scr1, Scr3, Scr5, Scr6, and Scr8) and one was a small protein deletion (Scr15). Protein sequence changes were ...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  2. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  3. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  4. Upregulation of CRABP1 in human neuroblastoma cells overproducing the Alzheimer-typical Aβ42 reduces their differentiation potential

    Weninger Annette

    2008-12-01

    conclude that increasing the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio up-regulates CRABP1, which in turn reduces the differentiation potential of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, but increases cell proliferation. This work might contribute to the better understanding of AD neurogenesis, currently a controversial topic.

  5. Upregulation of CRABP1 in human neuroblastoma cells overproducing the Alzheimer-typical Aβ42 reduces their differentiation potential

    Uhrig, Markus; Brechlin, Peter; Jahn, Olaf; Knyazev, Yuri; Weninger, Annette; Busia, Laura; Honarnejad, Kamran; Otto, Markus; Hartmann, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio up-regulates CRABP1, which in turn reduces the differentiation potential of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, but increases cell proliferation. This work might contribute to the better understanding of AD neurogenesis, currently a controversial topic. PMID:19087254

  6. Luteolin reduces the invasive potential of malignant melanoma cells by targeting β3 integrin and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Jun-shan RUAN; Yin LU; Yu-ping LIU; Lei ZHANG; Ling-geng YAN; Fang-tian FAN; Cun-si SHEN; Ai-yun WANG; Shi-zhong ZHENG; Shao-ming WANG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate whether luteolin,a highly prevalent flavonoid,reverses the effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo and to determine the mechanisms underlying this reversal.Methods:Murine malignant melanoma B16F10 cells were exposed to 1% O2 for 24 h.Cellular mobility and adhesion were assessed using Boyden chamber transwell assay and cell adhesion assay,respectively.EMT-related proteins,such as E-cadherin and N-cad-herin,were examined using Western blotting.Female C57BL/6 mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were injected with B16F10 cells (1×106 cells in 0.2 mL per mouse) via the lateral tail vein.The mice were treated with luteolin (10 or 20 mg/kg,ip) daily for 23 d.On the 23rd day after tumor injection,the mice were sacrificed,and the lungs were collected,and metastatic foci in the lung surfaces were photographed.Tissue sections were analyzed with immunohistochemistry and HE staining.Results:Hypoxia changed the morphology of B16F10 cells in vitro from the cobblestone-like to mesenchymal-like strips,which was accompanied by increased cellular adhesion and invasion.Luteolin (5-50 μmol/L) suppressed the hypoxia-induced changes in the cells in a dose-dependent manner.Hypoxia significantly decreased the expression of E-cadherin while increased the expression of N-cadherin in the cells (indicating the occurrence of EMT-like transformation),which was reversed by luteolin (5 μmol/L).In B16F10 cells,luteolin up-regulated E-cadherin at least partly via inhibiting the β3 integrin/FAK signal pathway.In experimental metastasis model mice,treatment with luteolin (10 or 20 mg/kg) reduced metastatic colonization in the lungs by 50%.Furthermore,the treatment increased the expression of E-cadherin while reduced the expression of vimentin and β3 integrin in the tumor tissues.Conclusion:Luteolin inhibits the hypoxia-induced EMT in malignant melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via the regulation of β3integrin,suggesting that luteolin may be

  7. Effect of interventions to reduce potentially inappropriate use of drugs in nursing homes: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Gjerberg Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that residents in nursing homes often are exposed to inappropriate medication. Particular concern has been raised about the consumption of psychoactive drugs, which are commonly prescribed for nursing home residents suffering from dementia. This review is an update of a Norwegian systematic review commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate of Health. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarise the effect of interventions aimed at reducing potentially inappropriate use or prescribing of drugs in nursing homes. Methods We searched for systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, DARE and HTA, with the last update in April 2010. Two of the authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion or exclusion. Data on interventions, participants, comparison intervention, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table and GRADE, respectively. Outcomes assessed were use of or prescribing of drugs (primary and the health-related outcomes falls, physical limitation, hospitalisation and mortality (secondary. Results Due to heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes, we employed a narrative approach. Twenty randomised controlled trials were included from 1631 evaluated references. Ten studies tested different kinds of educational interventions while seven studies tested medication reviews by pharmacists. Only one study was found for each of the interventions geriatric care teams, early psychiatric intervening or activities for the residents combined with education of health care personnel. Several reviews were identified, but these either concerned elderly in general or did not satisfy all the requirements for systematic reviews. Conclusions Interventions using educational outreach, on-site education given alone or as part of an

  8. Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia

    Petković Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

  9. Substance abuse in later life.

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  10. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  11. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  12. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    ... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...

  14. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  15. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff...

  16. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  17. Recognition and prevention of child abuse in the child with disability.

    Nowak, Catherine Bearce

    2015-12-01

    Children with disabilities (CWD) are victims of abuse more frequently than children in the general population. The features of their underlying conditions make it more difficult to detect abuse and on occasion can be mistaken for abuse. Thus, the expertise of the clinical geneticist is often vital to properly identifying maltreatment in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to review the magnitude of abuse in the population of CWD, to identify the aggravating factors, and to suggest practice changes in order to both diagnose and reduce the likelihood of abuse in CWD. PMID:26473616

  18. The potential benefit of swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce swallowing dysfunction: An in silico planning comparative study

    Purpose: To apply recently developed predictive models for swallowing dysfunction to compare the predicted probabilities of swallowing dysfunction for standard intensity modulated radiotherapy (ST-IMRT) and swallowing sparing IMRT (SW-IMRT). Materials and methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients who previously underwent radiotherapy for the bilateral neck were selected for this study. For each patient, ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were created. ST-IMRT treatment plan optimisation aimed at obtaining adequate target volume coverage and sparing of the parotid and submandibular glands as much as possible. Objectives for SW-IMRT were similar, with additional objectives to spare the organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SWOARs). Dose-volume data with ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT and normal tissue complication probabilities for physician-rated and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated with recently developed predictive models. Results: All plans had adequate target volume coverage and dose to critical organs was within accepted limits. Sparing of parotid glands was similar for ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT. With SW-IMRT, the mean dose to the various SWOARs was reduced. Absolute dose values and dose reductions with SW-IMRT differed per patient and per SWOAR and depended on N stage and tumour location. The mean reduction in predicted physician-rated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was 9% (range, 3–20%). Mean reductions of the probability of patient-rated moderate to severe complaints with regard to the swallowing of solid food, soft food, liquid food and choking when swallowing were 8%, 2%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Conclusions: New predictive models for swallowing dysfunction were applied to show potential reductions in physician and patient-rated swallowing dysfunction with IMRT that was specifically optimised to spare SWOARs.

  19. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  20. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  1. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID

  2. Working with the Abused Camper.

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1990-01-01

    Describes forms of and reasons behind child abuse. Describes camp staff's role as reporters of suspected abuse. Describes techniques for identifying and dealing with abuse victims. Recommends offering victims respect, support, advocacy, and unconditional love. Describes steps staff might take to maximize camp's effectiveness in helping abuse…

  3. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  4. Commentary: Gender, Disability, and Abuse.

    Goldson, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This commentary discusses the research article "Gender Differences in Abused Children with and without Disabilities" (Sobsey and others) that follows, which found that children with disabilities are at greater risk for being maltreated, that boys are more frequently abused, and that boys with disabilities are sexually abused more frequently than…

  5. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  6. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  7. Correlates of Abuse Around the Time of Pregnancy: Results from a National Survey of Canadian Women.

    Kingston, Dawn; Heaman, Maureen; Urquia, Marcelo; O'Campo, Patricia; Janssen, Patricia; Thiessen, Kellie; Smylie, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Although several studies have examined risk factors associated with abuse during pregnancy or postpartum periods, many used clinic-based or small regional samples, and few were national or population-based, limiting their generalizability and clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlates of abuse around the time of pregnancy among a nationally representative sample of women in Canada. Methods Using data from 6421 postpartum women (weighted n = 76,500) who completed the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey from 10/2006 to 01/2007, we explored the association between demographic, psychosocial, behavioral, medical/obstetric factors and 'any' and 'severe' abuse. 'Any abuse' was defined as an affirmative answer to one or more of 10 items asked about physical or sexual abuse or threats of abuse. 'Severe abuse' was defined as experiencing a combination of threats and physical or sexual abuse. Odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals were generated from multivariable logistic regression models. Results 10.5 % of women (weighted n = 8400) reported 'any' abuse and 4.3 % (weighted n = 3400) reported 'severe' abuse in the previous 2 years. Correlates of severe abuse included: age alcohol use prior to pregnancy. Correlates of 'any' abuse were the same as 'severe' abuse with the addition of age 20-34 years, developing a new health problem during pregnancy, and inadequate support during pregnancy. Increased odds of 'any' and 'severe' abuse were found for women who self-identified as Aboriginal and reduced odds of 'any' abuse were found among immigrant women and those who took folic acid pre-pregnancy. Conclusions We identified risk factors that may enhance early detection of abuse in the perinatal period, and inform the development of interventions and preventive strategies to address this important public health problem. PMID:26694044

  8. Two New Case Reports of Propofol Abuse and a Pattern Analysis of the Literature

    Mark D Welliver

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Propofol has become the most widely used sedation and anesthetic drug worldwide. Previously it was thought to lack abuse and dependence potential.  Increased awareness of actual propofol abuse cases, however, is providing greater understanding of the associated (or perceived motivations and rewards of propofol abuse.  We report the details of two new propofol abuse cases including the motivations for choosing this drug, abuse practices, subjective experiences, and outcomes.  An exploration of reported objective and subjective patterns in propofol abuse case reports was conducted using a modified  process of thematic (pattern analysis. These patterns include: healthcare providers are the most frequent propofol abusers, hospital drug diversion is a primary access, abuse regimens consist of frequent injections, there often exists underlying psychological unrest, typically there is a history of prior drug and alcohol abuse, abusers are seeking relief from anxiety and stress along with restful sleep, abusers report a craving desire, death is frequently an outcome, and rehabilitation programs can be effective treatments. We conclude restrictive control of propofol is necessary to better monitor and control its abuse.

  9. Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 ± 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 ± 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 ± 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 ± 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 ± 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 ± 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 ± 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 ± 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 ± 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 ± 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  10. Reducing the risk of xerostomia and mandibular osteoradionecrosis: the potential benefits of intensity modulated radiotherapy in advanced oral cavity carcinoma.

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 +/- 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 +/- 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 +/- 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 +/- 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 +/- 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 +/- 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 +/- 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 +/- 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC. PMID:19647632

  11. Drug abuse in athletes

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  12. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    Azar Pirdehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001. The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001. Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders.

  13. A managed protocol for treatment of deceased potential donors reduces the incidence of cardiac arrest before organ explant

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Cordeiro, Rodrigo de Brito; Horner, Marina Borges W.; de Oliveira, Thamy Pellizzaro; Duarte, Robson; Sperotto, Geonice; da Silveira, Georgiana; Caldeira, Milton; Coll, Elisabeth; Yus-Teruel, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the application of a managed protocol for the maintenance care of deceased potential multiple organ donors at two hospitals. Methods A before (Phase 1)/after (Phase 2) study conducted at two general hospitals, which included consecutively potential donors admitted to two intensive care units. In Phase 1 (16 months), the data were collected retrospectively, and the maintenance care measures of the potential donors were instituted by the intensivists. In Phase ...

  14. Child sexual abuse

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  15. Wife abuse in rural Bangladesh.

    Dalal, Koustuv; Rahman, Fazlur; Jansson, Bjarne

    2009-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and gender problem, especially in low-income countries. The study focused on verbal abuse, physical abuse and abuse by restricting food provision to wives by their husbands by victim and perpetrator characteristics, emphasizing the socioeconomic context of rural Bangladesh. Using a cross-sectional household survey of 4411 randomly selected married women of reproductive age, the study found that a majority of the respondents are exposed to verbal abuse (79%), while 41% are exposed to physical abuse. A small proportion (5%) of the women had suffered food-related abuse. Risk factors observed were age of the wife, illiteracy (of both victims and perpetrators), alcohol misuse, dowry management, husband's monetary greed involving parents-in-law, and wife's suspicions concerning husband's extramarital affairs. Well-established risk factors for wife abuse, along with dowry and husband's monetary greed, have a relatively high prevalence in rural Bangladesh. PMID:19534836

  16. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    Özlem Karakuş

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse...

  17. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Abuse: Rationale, Methods, and Findings

    Fals-Stewart, William; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...

  18. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  19. Combating Social Loafing Performance Reductions in Virtual Groups With Increased Cohesion, Reduced Deindividuation, and Heightened Evaluation Potential Through Self-Disclosure.

    Hagen, Matthew Howard

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 years of research have shown that social loafing is a real and material psychological phenomenon that reduces performance among humans in groups. It is known that increasing evaluation potential, decreasing deindividuation, and cohesion all lead to reduced social loafing in physical environments. What has not yet been well researched is whether or not the findings associated with many of these variables also apply to virtualized working environments. In the present study, 2...

  20. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  1. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  2. Evaluation of factors influencing child abuse leading to oro-facial lesions in Isfahan, Iran: A qualitative approach

    Firoozeh Nilchian; Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar; Navid Khalighinejad; Leyli Sadri; Alireza Saeidi; Leila Arbab

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since child abuse and neglect are serious conditions which can potentially lead to inappropriate dental health, we conducted this qualitative study to define the factors influencing child abuse and neglect, which lead to oro-facial lesions. Materials and Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted by social services employees. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants to capture a range of experiences such as the physical abuse, sexual abuse, role ...

  3. Prevalence of Physical and Sexual Abuse in Women and Children

    Tahereh Farhadian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse and its respective factors in women and children referring to medical and health centers of Birjand county.Materials and Methods: A number of 301 women referring to medical and health centers of Birjand were entered into this analytical-descriptive study. Based on the research objectives, a self-administered questionnaire was prepared and approved in terms of content validity by experts of the field. The data were analyzed using SPSS-15, at a significance level of p ≤0.05.Results: Results showed that 58.8% and 25.3% of the subjects experienced physical abuse and sexual abuse, respectively. 24.3% confirmed physical abuse and 1.7% confirmed sexual abuse of their children by their husbands. There was a significant relationship between physical and sexual abuse, and the education level, husband’s education level, addiction and commitment of husband, economical disputes, husband’s job, disputes over rearing children, mental disorders of husband, and the weakness of husband in controlling his motions (p=0.001.Conclusion: The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in women and children is relatively high, and based on the investigated related causes, it is necessary to reduce such prevalence through an appropriate planning.

  4. Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances

    Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug...

  5. Drug abuse, psychiatric disorders, and AIDS. Dual and triple diagnosis.

    Batki, S L

    1990-01-01

    Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders commonly occur together. This form of dual diagnosis is notable because it complicates assessment and makes treatment more difficult for both psychiatric and drug abuse problems. Drugs can cause psychiatric disorders and can also be used as an attempt to "cure" them by self-medication. The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users has added a third potential clinical problem, that of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, to t...

  6. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  7. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  8. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse

    Lacher, Simone; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    PRINCIPLES Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. METHODS Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to...

  9. A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN

    The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

  10. Medical Diagnosis of the Sexually Abused Child.

    Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David

    1993-01-01

    This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)

  11. Dental Treatment Abuse

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-01-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry.

  12. Dental treatment abuse.

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-07-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  13. Opportunities for computer abuse

    Willison, Robert; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the ‘insider’ threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer abuse. Against this backdrop, a number of researchers have addressed the extent to which security managers are cognizant of the very nature of systems risk. In particular, they note how security pr...

  14. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    Batrićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

  15. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  16. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  17. Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats

    D'Amore, V.; Santolini, I.; Rijn, C.M. van; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Prete, A.; Conn, P.J.; Lindsley, C.W.; Zhou, Y.; Vinson, P.N.; Rodriguez, A.L.; Jones, C.K.; Stauffer, S.R.; Nicoletti, F.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Ngomba, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat

  18. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  19. Possible therapeutic benefits of adenosine-potentiating drugs in reducing age-related degenerative disease in dogs and cats.

    Scaramuzzi, R J; Baker, D J

    2003-10-01

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous, biologically important molecule that is a precursor of other biologically active molecules. It also is a component of some co-factors and has distinct physiological actions in its own right. Levels are maintained by synthesis from dietary precursors and re-cycling. The daily turnover of adenosine is very high. Adenosine can act either as a hormone by binding to adenosine receptors, four adenosine receptor subtypes have been identified, and as an intracellular modulator, after transport into the cell by membrane transporter proteins. One of the principal intracellular actions of adenosine is inhibition of the enzyme phosphodiesterase. Extracellular adenosine also has specific neuromodulatory actions on dopamine and glutamate. Selective and nonselective agonists and antagonists of adenosine are available. The tasks of developing, evaluating and exploiting the therapeutic potential of these compounds is still in its infancy. Adenosine has actions in the central nervous system (CNS), heart and vascular system, skeletal muscle and the immune system and the presence of receptors suggests potential actions in the gonads and other organs. Adenosine agonists improve tissue perfusion through actions on vascular smooth muscle and erythrocyte fluidity and they can be used to improve the quality of life in aged dogs. This article reviews the therapeutic potential of adenosine-potentiating drugs in the treatment of age-related conditions in companion animals, some of which may be exacerbated by castration or spaying at an early age. PMID:14633184

  20. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues

    For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

  1. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio...... composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw...

  2. The potential of papain and alcalase enzymes and process optimizations to reduce allergenic gliadins in wheat flour.

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to select effective enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of allergenic proteins, gliadins, in wheat flour and to optimize the enzymatic treatment conditions. Six proteases were tested. Hydrolyzed samples were tested for residual gliadin concentrations and in vitro allergenicity. The hydrolysis conditions of wheat protein by the effective enzymes were optimized by central composite design. Results showed that alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis, and papain from latex of papaya fruit had greater ability to reduce gliadin content of wheat flour than flavourzyme, pepsin, trypsin or α-chymotrypsin. The sequential-treatment of wheat flour by alcalase-papain was more effective in reducing gliadin content than single enzyme treatment. Under the optimal conditions of sequential enzymatic treatment, gliadin was almost completely removed, resulting in the flour extract showing lowest IgE-binding. Therefore, this could be a promising biotechnology for preparing low allergenic wheat products. PMID:26593625

  3. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be

  4. Plant growth reducers: an alternative to increase the juice production potential and decrease the lodging of sweet sorghum

    Carvalho, Marcia Eugenia Amaral; Castro, Paulo Roberto de Camargo; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth regulators can improve the crop performance, making the plant architecture more adapted and efficient in order to use environmental resources and inputs to support the high-yielding agronomic traits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three growth reducers on the sweet sorghum development. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD) with four treatments and eight replications. The treatments were control (water), maleic hydrazide 1.44 g a.i...

  5. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose–volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves

  6. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  7. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. PMID:25890665

  8. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

  9. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  10. ART TEACHERS AND ABUSED CHILDREN

    Vesela Bilić, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a basic overview of how art teachers can use art drawings (artistic expression) to identify and assist children who are traumatized by abuse. Children's exposure to different forms of child abuse in families (physical, emotional and sexual abuse and neglect), and exposure to traditional (bullying) or electronic (cyberbullying) peer violence may result in  serious consequences for the child's health, welfare and functioning in life and school. Since th...

  11. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  12. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  13. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse

    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon.Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them.Methods: Data were coll...

  14. Effectiveness of Role Play on Knowledge of Adolescents Regarding Substance Abuse

    Nomimol Lucy Thomas,; Prakash M Naregal,; Vaishali R. Mohite; Sunita H Tata; Rajashri B Karale; S.V. Kakade

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to...

  15. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  16. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  17. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  18. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  19. Reduced vagal control of the heart in high-fat diet mice: a potential role of increased butyrylcholinesterase

    Hartnett, Sigurd; Gao, Hongbo; Schnack, Sabrina; Li, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Suppressed parasympathetic function is commonly present in cardiovascular diseases, aging, obesity, and various other health conditions. Impaired parasympathetic action is known as a detrimental factor and contributes to the adverse outcomes in these conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed. In this study, using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model, the potential peripheral mechanisms underlying the impaired parasympathetic vagal control of the ...

  20. Experimental evidence that intra-specific competition in seagrass meadows reduces reproductive potential in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck)

    Tomàs Nash, Fiona; Romero, Javier; Turon Barrera, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the biological controls that regulate sea urchin dynamics, we studied the effects of potential inter- and intra-specific competition for food on several biological variables of the main sea urchin in the Mediterranean (Paracentrotus lividus). We carried out a caging experiment in which we manipulated sea urchin density (natural vs. high density) and herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa) accessibility (free access vs. exclusion) in a Posidonia oceanica meadow. No evidence of comp...

  1. Biotin Deficiency Reduces Expression of SLC19A3, a Potential Biotin Transporter, in Leukocytes from Human Blood12

    Vlasova, Tatyana I; Stratton, Shawna L.; Wells, Amanda M.; Mock, Nell I.; Mock, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate c...

  2. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance and hexavalent chromium reducing potential of Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 isolated from chromite mine seepage

    Satarupa Dey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 (MTCC 8730, a heavy metal tolerant and chromate reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine seepage of Odisha, India has been evaluated for chromate reduction under batch culture. The isolate was found to tolerate metals like Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, Mn(II, Zn(II, Fe(III and Hg(II along with Cr(VI and was resistant to different antibiotics as evaluated by disc-diffusion method. The isolate, SKPD 1204 was found to reduce 62.5% of 2 mM Cr(VI in Vogel Bonner broth within 8 days of incubation. Chromate reduction capability of SKPD 1204 decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration, but increased with increase in cell density and attained its maximum at 1010 cells/mL. Chromate reducing efficiency of SKPD 1204 was promoted in the presence of glycerol and glucose, while the highest reduction was recorded at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Zn(II, Cd(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II, but not by Mn(II. Anions like nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sulphite was found to be inhibitory to the process of Cr(VI reduction. Similarly, sodium fluoride, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, sodium azide and N, N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while 2,4-dinitrophenol appeared to be neither promotive nor inhibitory to the process.

  3. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms...... review the salubrious effects of suberythemogenic doses of UVB irradiation for the skin barrier. We then discuss how the lack of sufficient UVB exposure could have contributed to the rapid increase in the incidence of AD in developed countries. This hypothesis offers a separate but not competing partial...

  4. Cranial Electrical Stimulation Potential Use in Reducing Sleep and Mood Disturbances in Persons With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Rose, Karen M.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Utz, Sharon W.; Goehler, Lisa E.

    2009-01-01

    Family caregivers of persons with dementia and their care recipients frequently experience sleep and mood disturbances throughout their caregiving and disease trajectories. Because conventional pharmacologic treatments of sleep and mood disturbances pose numerous risks and adverse effects to elderly persons, the investigation of other interventions is warranted. As older adults use complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the relief of sleep and mood disturbances, cranial electrical stimulation, an energy-based complementary and alternative medicine, may be a viable intervention. The proposed mechanism of action and studies that support cranial electrical stimulation as a modality to reduce distressing symptoms are reviewed. Directions for research are proposed. PMID:18552605

  5. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  6. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  8. 4.5 Tesla magnetic field reduces range of high-energy positrons -- Potential implications for positron emission tomography

    The authors have theoretically and experimentally investigated the extent to which homogeneous magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla reduce the spatial distance positrons travel before annihilation (positron range). Computer simulations of a noncoincident detector design using a Monte Carlo algorithm calculated the positron range as a function of positron energy and magnetic field strength. The simulation predicted improvements in resolution, defined as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line-spread function (LSF) for a magnetic field strength up to 7 Tesla: negligible for F-18, from 3.35 mm to 2.73 mm for Ga-68 and from 3.66 mm to 2.68 mm for Rb-82. Also a substantial noise suppression was observed, described by the full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM) for higher positron energies. The experimental approach confirmed an improvement in resolution for Ga-68 from 3.54 mm at 0 Tesla to 2.99 mm FWHM at 4.5 Tesla and practically no improvement for F-18 (2.97 mm at 0 Tesla and 2.95 mm at 4.5 Tesla). It is concluded that the simulation model is appropriate and that a homogeneous static magnetic field of 4.5 Tesla reduces the range of high-energy positrons to an extent that may improve spatial resolution in positron emission tomography

  9. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Kumar, Dharmendra; Nath, Gopal; Kumar Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir; Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake & latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.

  10. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    Amit Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake& latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.

  11. [Medical child abuse, another name for Munchausen's syndrome by proxy].

    Ben-Yehuda, Yoram

    2009-08-01

    Medical child abuse or its better known name, Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy, is a form of child maltreatment combining physical and emotional abuse as well as child neglect. As in other forms of child abuse and neglect that pediatricians encounter, the diagnosis is medical and is based on the existence of actual or potential harm to the child. A high index of suspicion is necessary when the medical team is faced with inexplicable findings as well as repeated treatment failure. There is extensive variability in the manifestation of this syndrome as well as a wide range of severity including the risk to the patient's life. In this article we describe medical child abuse and the means of diagnosing the syndrome. It is also stressed that, as in the case of any other form of child maltreatment, reporting is mandatory. PMID:19899249

  12. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, psubstance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  13. Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse

    Lisa R. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  15. Responses of corn root protoplasts to exogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: Oxygen consumption, ion uptake, and membrane potential

    Lin, Willy

    1982-01-01

    Addition of 1.5 mM NADH tripled the O2 consumption in corn root protoplasts. The stimulation was temperature and pH dependent, specific to NADH, and accompanied by a 2- to 3-fold increase in K+ and Pi uptake into protoplasts. The increase in ion uptake was not due to the accumulation of NADH into protoplasts. The effect of exogenous NADH on O2 consumption and ion uptake was also evident in corn root segments but to a lesser extent. A 20-mV hyperpolarization of protoplast membrane potential oc...

  16. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  17. Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models of Drug Abuse

    Jacobs, Phillip E.

    1976-01-01

    In a paper presented at the National Drug Abuse Conference April 4-7, 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, epidemiological and psychosocial approaches to drug abuse are discussed. An approach reflecting an appreciation of the psychological/social/political realities involved in addiction as well as a grounding in epidemiological principles and data is…

  18. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report

    Garrocho Rangel, Arturo; Márquez Preciado, Raúl; Olguín Vivar, Ana Isabel; Ruiz Rodríguez, Socorro; Pozos Guillén, Amaury de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is “every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”. The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and...

  19. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  20. Assessment of self-help methods to reduce potential exposure to radiological contamination after a large-scale radiological release.

    Snyder, Emily; Drake, John; Cardarelli, John; Hall, Kathy; Szabo, Jeff; Demmer, Rick; Lindberg, Michael; Riggs, Karen; James, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    After the release of radioactive materials from a large radiological dispersal device (e.g., dirty bomb), improvised nuclear detonation, or nuclear power plant accident, up to hundreds of square miles may be contaminated. A portion of this area will be evacuated; however, people living in the portion that is not evacuated yet is still contaminated with low-levels of radioactive contamination will be asking for ways they can reduce their exposure. Whether cleaning activities can significantly reduce exposure is not fully understood. In this effort, the ability of cleaning activities to remove cesium (137Cs) was studied. The removal efficacy of cleaning with a commercial product, Simple Green®, was compared to cleaning with water for hard surfaces typically seen in residences. The removal efficacy of laundering fabric material surfaces was also determined for a range of conditions (e.g., fabric material type, wash temperature). During these studies, assessments of the implications of these activities (e.g., cross-contamination, resulting waste streams) were also completed. Simple Green and water were effective for removing 137Cs from plastic laminate and vinyl flooring (93.4-96.8%) but were not effective for removing 137Cs from painted wallboard and wood (7.3-68.1%). It was also determined that there was no significant difference between the two cleaners on all of the surfaces, except plastic laminate, for which Simple Green was slightly more effective. Laundering was effective for removing 137Cs contamination from polyester and cotton swatches and cotton comforters (up to 96.8% in the single swatch testing). PMID:25068960

  1. Set-up of a multivariate approach based on serum biomarkers as an alternative strategy for the screening evaluation of the potential abuse of growth promoters in veal calves

    Pirro, Valentina; Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Gardini, Giulia; Badino, Paola; Nebbia, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A chemometric class modelling strategy (unequal dispersed classes – UNEQ) was applied for the first time as a possible screening method to monitor the abuse of growth promoters in veal calves. Five serum biomarkers, known to reflect the exposure to classes of compounds illegally used as growth promoters, were determined from 50 untreated animals in order to design a model of controls, representing veal calves reared under good, safe and highly standardised breeding conditions. The class model...

  2. Opportunities for computer abuse

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  3. Abusing National Privilege

    2011-01-01

    As U.S. mortgage finance giants-Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac-try to sell their huge backlog of foreclosed homes, they face foreclosures themselves as the U.S. Government contemplates cutting their government-backed support as indicated by a white paper issued by the Obama administration in February. Zhang Monan, an associate research fellow with the State Information Center, said the downfall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is the result of abuses of privileges the two companies have enjoyed since their inception.

  4. Geomatics and Remote Sensing in the assessment of PV potential in a roof to reduce the use of agricultural land

    The assessment of impacts, potential and actual, of realization of installations for the production of energy from renewable sources in modern management the territory must prioritize the evaluation of landscape ecology. In order to avoid the consumption of soil to the detriment of agricultural or natural areas, has been favored in recent times, a tense orientation to favor and support greater dissemination of photovoltaic systems (PV) installed (or inserted) over the roofs of the buildings compared to those installed on the ground. ENEA is committed to developing and refining of methodologies able to support and supplement decision making regarding land use for what concerns the choices for the production of energy from renewable sources.

  5. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    Savian, Ana L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Daiane [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Weber, Julia; Ribeiro, Roseane F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana H. [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Diego F. de; Beck, Ruy C.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-01

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

  6. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  7. Drug Abuse and the Schools

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1971-01-01

    In reviewing some of the background information regarding the extent of drug abuse and the types of measures presently being used, this article describes in more detail the role of the school in drug abuse. Emphasis is placed on drug education from the viewpoint of youth. (Author)

  8. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  9. Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse

    ... how to report it: The National Center on Elder Abuse 1225 I Street, N.W., Suite 725 Phone: (202) 898-2586 Washington, D.C. 20005 Email: NCEA@nasua.org http://www.elderabusecenter.org National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse 1101 Vermont Ave. NW, Suite 1000 Phone: ( ...

  10. Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.

    Tong, Liz; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)

  11. The abuse of nuclear power

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  12. Studies on potential of Portland cement mortar for binding of waterworks sludge to reduce heavy metal leaching

    PARAMALINGGAM THANALECHUMI; ABDULL RAHIM MOHD YUSOFF; MOHANADOSS PONRAJ; HANIM AWAB

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of heavy metal leaching and physicochemical properties of cement-solidified waterworks sludge (CMWWS) formed by incorporating waterworks sludge (WWS) into cement mortar was carried out. The chemical composition, compressive strength and other physicochemical properties of the CMWWS cube specimens were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The major type of chemical components present in CMWWS was found to be Al and Fe. The increasing amount of WWS added to cement mortar resulted in the increasing of organic matter, urchin-like morphology and clear peak intensity. At the end of 28 days of curing, the soaking solution became strongly basic and CMWWS cube specimens leached out higher amount of heavy metals. The compressive strength of CMWWS increased up to a WWS percentage of 10%, and basic (pH [ 7) curing solution was found to be better than water for curing purposes. It is concluded that solidification–stabilisation (S/S) technique is able to effectively reduce the leaching of heavy metals from the WWS and CMWWS containing up to 10% WWS can be used as construction material.

  13. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:22855041

  14. The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477

    The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

  15. Childhood abuse and deprivation are associated with distinct sex-dependent differences in brain morphology.

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; Zwiers, Marcel; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; van Oostrom, Iris; Schene, Aart; Fernández, Guillén; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with long-term structural brain alterations and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Evidence is emerging that subtypes of CA, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation, lead to distinct neural and behavioral outcomes. However, these specific associations have yet to be established without potential confounders such as psychopathology. Moreover, differences in neural development and psychopathology necessitate the exploration of sexual dimorphism. Young healthy adult subjects were selected based on history of CA from a large database to assess gray matter (GM) differences associated with specific subtypes of adversity. We compared voxel-based morphometry data of subjects reporting specific childhood exposure to abuse (n=127) or deprivation (n=126) and a similar sized group of controls (n=129) without reported CA. Subjects were matched on age, gender, and educational level. Differences between CA subtypes were found in the fusiform gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, where subjects with a history of deprivation showed reduced GM compared with subjects with a history of abuse. An interaction between sex and CA subtype was found. Women showed less GM in the visual posterior precuneal region after both subtypes of CA than controls. Men had less GM in the postcentral gyrus after childhood deprivation compared with abuse. Our results suggest that even in a healthy population, CA subtypes are related to specific alterations in brain structure, which are modulated by sex. These findings may help understand neurodevelopmental consequences related to CA. PMID:26576924

  16. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  17. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

  18. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+

    This paper presents an overview of the state of measurement and monitoring capabilities for forests in the context of REDD+ needs, with a focus on what is currently possible, where improvements are needed, and what capabilities will be advanced in the near-term with new technologies already under development. We summarize the role of remote sensing (both satellite and aircraft) for observational monitoring of forests, including measuring changes in their current and past extent for setting baselines, their carbon stock density for estimating emissions in areas that are deforested or degraded, and their regrowth dynamics following disturbance. We emphasize the synergistic role of integrating field inventory measurements with remote sensing for best practices in monitoring, reporting and verification. We also address the potential of remote sensing for enforcing safeguards on conservation of natural forests and biodiversity. We argue that capabilities exist now to meet operational needs for REDD+ measurement, reporting, and verification and reference levels. For some other areas of importance for REDD+, such as safeguards for natural forests and biodiversity, monitoring capabilities are approaching operational in the near term. For all REDD+ needs, measurement capabilities will rapidly advance in the next few years as a result of new technology as well as advances in capacity building both within and outside of the tropical forest nations on which REDD+ is primarily focused. (topical review)

  19. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+

    Goetz, Scott J.; Hansen, Matthew; Houghton, Richard A.; Walker, Wayne; Laporte, Nadine; Busch, Jonah

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of measurement and monitoring capabilities for forests in the context of REDD+ needs, with a focus on what is currently possible, where improvements are needed, and what capabilities will be advanced in the near-term with new technologies already under development. We summarize the role of remote sensing (both satellite and aircraft) for observational monitoring of forests, including measuring changes in their current and past extent for setting baselines, their carbon stock density for estimating emissions in areas that are deforested or degraded, and their regrowth dynamics following disturbance. We emphasize the synergistic role of integrating field inventory measurements with remote sensing for best practices in monitoring, reporting and verification. We also address the potential of remote sensing for enforcing safeguards on conservation of natural forests and biodiversity. We argue that capabilities exist now to meet operational needs for REDD+ measurement, reporting, and verification and reference levels. For some other areas of importance for REDD+, such as safeguards for natural forests and biodiversity, monitoring capabilities are approaching operational in the near term. For all REDD+ needs, measurement capabilities will rapidly advance in the next few years as a result of new technology as well as advances in capacity building both within and outside of the tropical forest nations on which REDD+ is primarily focused.

  20. Homeless Youths' Caretakers: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse on Street Victimization and Housing Instability.

    Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2016-04-01

    Homeless youths who live on the streets are particularly vulnerable to victimization and continued homelessness. Identifying factors associated with housing stability and victimization while homeless can offer useful guidance for those who serve these youths. The current study examined the relationship between multiple caretakers and the unique effect of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) on past-year housing and victimization experiences. Seventy-nine substance-using, street-living youths ages 14 to 24 years completed the survey. Findings confirmed a relationship between multiple caretaker transitions and childhood sexual abuse and neglect, but not physical abuse. Sexual abuse was further associated with higher street victimization and reduced housing stability. In addition, sexual abuse mediated the relationship between multiple caretakers and past-year victimization and housing instability. These findings suggest that sexually abused homeless youths are at particular risk for future victimization and housing instability compared with other youths, and specialized intervention for these youths is indicated. PMID:27180525

  1. Toward a sustainable and wise healthcare approach: potential contributions from hospital Internal Medicine Departments to reducing inappropriate medical spending

    Roberto Nardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available All countries are facing the question of how to maintain quality of care with shrinking health budgets, in the presence of a persistent increase in life expectancy, and with a significant growing demand for health care from aging populations and chronically ill patients. Current implementation of legislative measures is largely presented as a cost-cutting policy. With this political approach, there is a risk of services and the number of hospital beds being drastically reduced, mainly to detriment of the most vulnerable groups of the population and without considering the results obtained by each regional healthcare organization according to explicit evaluation markers. In our Scientific Society of Internal Medicine (the Federation of Associations of Hospital Doctors on Internal Medicine, FADOI, we want to support good medical practice because essential medicine is still a goal to be achieved throughout medical hospital care. We are looking for original ways to implement a sustainable and frugal hospital Internal Medicine policy by searching for wise and efficient clinical methodology to be applied in the care of patients admitted to internal medicine wards according to their real needs. We firmly believe that reinforcing a common agenda between medicine and public health, and sharing a common vision among professionals and decision makers in the planning of care, may be the greatest opportunity for any every health care reform. The future of the health care system cannot be restricted to mere cost reduction, but should aim to deliver better health care in relation to the money spent. Even in this period of austerity, new opportunities can still be found and doctors must lead efforts to meet this challenge.

  2. Copper-resistant bacteria reduces oxidative stress and uptake of copper in lentil plants: potential for bacterial bioremediation.

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ali, Qasim; Mubin, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    For effective microbe-assisted bioremediation, metal-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) must facilitate plant growth by restricting excess metal uptake in plants, leading to prevent its bio-amplification in the ecosystem. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize copper (Cu)-resistant PGPB from waste water receiving contaminated soil. In addition, we investigated the phytotoxic effect of copper on the lentil plants inoculated with copper-resistant bacteria Providencia vermicola, grown in copper-contaminated soil. Copper-resistant P. vermicola showed multiple plant growth promoting characteristics, when used as a seed inoculant. It protected the lentil plants from copper toxicity with a considerable increase in root and shoot length, plant dry weight and leaf area. A notable increase in different gas exchange characteristics such as A, E, C i , g s , and A/E, as well as increase in N and P accumulation were also recorded in inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated copper stressed plants. In addition, leaf chlorophyll content, root nodulation, number of pods, 1,000 seed weight were also higher in inoculated plants as compared with non-inoculated ones. Anti-oxidative defense mechanism improved significantly via elevated expression of reactive oxygen species -scavenging enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase with alternate decrease in malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents, reduced electrolyte leakage, proline, and total phenolic contents suggesting that inoculation of P. vermicola triggered heavy metals stress-related defense pathways under copper stress. Overall, the results demonstrated that the P. vermicola seed inoculation confer heavy metal stress tolerance in lentil plant which can be used as a potent biotechnological tool to cope with the problems of copper pollution in crop plants for better yield. PMID:26387695

  3. Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels. Ansatzpunkte und Potentiale zur Minderung des Treibhauseffektes aus Sicht der fossilen Energietraeger

    Ziegler, A.; Schlemm, F.; Cremer, G.; Fabri, J.; Grosser, A.; Wiegand, D.; Engelhard, J.; Altmann, B.R.

    1992-02-01

    On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs.

  4. A process evaluation of a cluster randomised trial to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people in primary care (OPTI-SCRIPT study)

    Clyne, Barbara; Cooper, Janine A; Hughes, Carmel M.; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe OPTI-SCRIPT cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) found that a three-phase multifaceted intervention including academic detailing with a pharmacist, GP-led medicines reviews, supported by web-based pharmaceutical treatment algorithms, and tailored patient information leaflets, was effective in reducing potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in Irish primary care. We report a process evaluation exploring the implementation of the intervention, the experiences of those pa...

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan: Coin-Operated-Locker Babies.

    Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of reported cases…

  6. Job Stress, Coping Strategies, and Burnout among Abuse-Specific Counselors

    Wallace, Sam Loc; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether effective coping strategies play an important role to reduce burnout levels among sexual or substance abuse counselors. The authors examined whether coping strategies mediated or moderated relations between job stress and burnout in a sample of 232 abuse-specific counselors. Results indicated…

  7. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  8. Drug abuse among the students

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  9. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO3. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  10. Minibeam Therapy With Protons and Light Ions: Physical Feasibility and Potential to Reduce Radiation Side Effects and to Facilitate Hypofractionation

    Purpose: Despite several advantages of proton therapy over megavoltage x-ray therapy, its lack of proximal tissue sparing is a concern. The method presented here adds proximal tissue sparing to protons and light ions by turning their uniform incident beams into arrays of parallel, small, or thin (0.3-mm) pencil or planar minibeams, which are known to spare tissues. As these minibeams penetrate the tissues, they gradually broaden and merge with each other to produce a solid beam. Methods and Materials: Broadening of 0.3-mm-diameter, 109-MeV proton pencil minibeams was measured using a stack of radiochromic films with plastic spacers. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the broadening in water of minibeams of protons and several light ions and the dose from neutron generated by collimator. Results: A central parameter was tissue depth, where the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) reached 0.7 mm, beyond which tissue sparing decreases. This depth was 22 mm for 109-MeV protons in a film stack. It was also found by simulations in water to be 23.5 mm for 109 MeV proton pencil minibeams and 26 mm for 116 MeV proton planar minibeams. For light ions, all with 10 cm range in water, that depth increased with particle size; specifically it was 51 mm for Li-7 ions. The ∼2.7% photon equivalent neutron skin dose from the collimator was reduced 7-fold by introducing a gap between the collimator and the skin. Conclusions: Proton minibeams can be implemented at existing particle therapy centers. Because they spare the shallow tissues, they could augment the efficacy of proton therapy and light particle therapy, particularly in treating tumors that benefit from sparing of proximal tissues such as pediatric brain tumors. They should also allow hypofractionated treatment of all tumors by allowing the use of higher incident doses with less concern about proximal tissue damage

  11. Minibeam Therapy With Protons and Light Ions: Physical Feasibility and Potential to Reduce Radiation Side Effects and to Facilitate Hypofractionation

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham, E-mail: avraham.dilmanian@stonybrook.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Eley, John G. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Despite several advantages of proton therapy over megavoltage x-ray therapy, its lack of proximal tissue sparing is a concern. The method presented here adds proximal tissue sparing to protons and light ions by turning their uniform incident beams into arrays of parallel, small, or thin (0.3-mm) pencil or planar minibeams, which are known to spare tissues. As these minibeams penetrate the tissues, they gradually broaden and merge with each other to produce a solid beam. Methods and Materials: Broadening of 0.3-mm-diameter, 109-MeV proton pencil minibeams was measured using a stack of radiochromic films with plastic spacers. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the broadening in water of minibeams of protons and several light ions and the dose from neutron generated by collimator. Results: A central parameter was tissue depth, where the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) reached 0.7 mm, beyond which tissue sparing decreases. This depth was 22 mm for 109-MeV protons in a film stack. It was also found by simulations in water to be 23.5 mm for 109 MeV proton pencil minibeams and 26 mm for 116 MeV proton planar minibeams. For light ions, all with 10 cm range in water, that depth increased with particle size; specifically it was 51 mm for Li-7 ions. The ∼2.7% photon equivalent neutron skin dose from the collimator was reduced 7-fold by introducing a gap between the collimator and the skin. Conclusions: Proton minibeams can be implemented at existing particle therapy centers. Because they spare the shallow tissues, they could augment the efficacy of proton therapy and light particle therapy, particularly in treating tumors that benefit from sparing of proximal tissues such as pediatric brain tumors. They should also allow hypofractionated treatment of all tumors by allowing the use of higher incident doses with less concern about proximal tissue damage.

  12. CE: Mental Health Matters: Revisiting Child Sexual Abuse and Survivor Issues.

    Sabella, Donna

    2016-03-01

    Child sexual abuse is a global issue that nurses must be aware of and knowledgeable about as they care for children in various care settings. This article focuses on the prevalence, potential risk factors, and possible signs and symptoms of child sexual abuse. It also provides information about what nurses can do should they suspect that a child has been or is being abused. Because consequences can be far reaching and exist for many years after the abuse, this article also addresses the possible long-term issues faced by survivors and provides resources that nurses can share with patients. PMID:26871893

  13. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  14. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  15. [Child abuse in the family].

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  16. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance. PMID:19809096

  17. Substance abuse intervention for health care workers: a preliminary report.

    Lapham, S C; Chang, I; Gregory, C

    2000-05-01

    The Workplace Managed Care Cooperative Agreement project targets 3,300 health care professionals in hospital, specialty clinic, and primary care settings located in metropolitan New Mexico communities. This project will evaluate whether enhancements to existing substance abuse prevention/early intervention programs can prevent the onset of risky drinking, reduce prevalence of risky drinking, better identify employees who abuse alcohol and drugs, and improve employee wellness. This article describes one such enhancement (Project WISE [Workplace Initiative in Substance Education]), implemented at Lovelace Health Systems. Project WISE includes relatively low-cost elements such as substance abuse awareness training, information on how to reduce drinking, and brief motivational counseling. Evaluation will consist of baseline comparisons of the intervention and comparison sites, a process evaluation, a qualitative analysis using focus groups, and an outcome evaluation using health and work records. Methodological challenges, solutions, and implications for researchers undertaking similar projects are presented. PMID:10795124

  18. Child abuse, a case report

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  19. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  20. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…