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1

Modular, Multilayer Perceptron

Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

1991-01-01

2

Auto-kernel using multilayer perceptron

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents a constructive method to train the multilayer perceptron layer after layer successively and to accomplish the kernel used in the support vector machine. Data in different classes will be trained to map to distant points in each layer. This will ease the mapping of the next layer. A perfect mapping kernel can be accomplished successively. Those distant mapped points can be discriminated easily by a single perceptron.

Wei-Chen Cheng

2012-06-01

3

Quaternionic Multilayer Perceptron with Local Analyticity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multi-layered perceptron type neural network is presented and analyzed in this paper. All neuronal parameters such as input, output, action potential and connection weight are encoded by quaternions, which are a class of hypercomplex number system. Local analytic condition is imposed on the activation function in updating neurons’ states in order to construct learning algorithm for this network. An error back-propagation algorithm is introduced for modifying the connection weights of the network.

Nobuyuki Matsui

2012-11-01

4

Multilayer Perceptrons to Approximate Quaternion Valued Functions.

In this paper a new type of multilayer feedforward neural network is introduced. Such a structure, called hypercomplex multilayer perceptron (HMLP), is developed in quaternion algebra and allows quaternionic input and output signals to be dealt with, requiring a lower number of neurons than the real MLP, thus providing a reduced computational complexity. The structure introduced represents a generalization of the multilayer perceptron in the complex space (CMLP) reported in the literature. The fundamental result reported in the paper is a new density theorem which makes HMLPs universal interpolators of quaternion valued continuous functions. Moreover the proof of the density theorem can be restricted in order to formulate a density theorem in the complex space. Due to the identity between the quaternion and the four-dimensional real space, such a structure is also useful to approximate multidimensional real valued functions with a lower number of real parameters, decreasing the probability of being trapped in local minima during the learning phase. A numerical example is also reported in order to show the efficiency of the proposed structure. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved. PMID:12662531

Xibilia, M G.; Muscato, G; Fortuna, L; Arena, P

1997-03-01

5

Training trajectories by continuous recurrent multilayer networks.

This paper addresses the problem of training trajectories by means of continuous recurrent neural networks whose feedforward parts are multilayer perceptrons. Such networks can approximate a general nonlinear dynamic system with arbitrary accuracy. The learning process is transformed into an optimal control framework where the weights are the controls to be determined. A training algorithm based upon a variational formulation of Pontryagin's maximum principle is proposed for such networks. Computer examples demonstrating the efficiency of the given approach are also presented. PMID:18244431

Leistritz, L; Galicki, M; Witte, H; Kochs, E

2002-01-01

6

Fourier-Lapped Multilayer Perceptron Method for Speech Quality Assessment

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper introduces a new objective method for speech quality assessment called Fourier-lapped multilayer perceptron (FLMLP. This method uses an overcomplete transform based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT and modulated lapped transform (MLT. This transform generates the DFT and the MLT speech spectral domains from which several relevant perceptual parameters are extracted. The proposed method also employs a multilayer perceptron neural network trained by a modified version of the scaled conjugated gradient method. This neural network maps the perceptual parameters into a subjective score. The numerical results show that FLMLP is an effective alternative to previous methods. As a result, it is worth stating that the techniques here described may be potentially useful to other researches facing the same kind of problem.

Ribeiro MoisésVidal

2005-01-01

7

A Parallel Framework for Multilayer Perceptron for Human Face Recognition

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Artificial neural networks have already shown their success in face recognition and similar complex pattern recognition tasks. However, a major disadvantage of the technique is that it is extremely slow during training for larger classes and hence not suitable for real-time complex problems such as pattern recognition. This is an attempt to develop a parallel framework for the training algorithm of a perceptron. In this paper, two general architectures for a Multilayer Perce...

Mita Nasipuri; Mahantapas Kundu; Dipak Kumar Basu; Debotosh Bhattacharjee; Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik

2010-01-01

8

Speeding up the Training of Lattice-Ladder Multilayer Perceptrons

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lattice-ladder multilayer perceptron (LLMLP) is an appealing structure for advanced signal processing in a sense that it is nonlinear, possesses infinite impulse response and stability monitoring of it during training is simple. However, even moderate implementation of LLMLP training hinders the fact that a lot of storage and computation power must be allocated. In this paper we deal with the problem of computational efficiency of LLMLP training algorithms that are based on computation of g...

Navakauskas, Dalius

2002-01-01

9

A Parallel Framework for Multilayer Perceptron for Human Face Recognition

Artificial neural networks have already shown their success in face recognition and similar complex pattern recognition tasks. However, a major disadvantage of the technique is that it is extremely slow during training for larger classes and hence not suitable for real-time complex problems such as pattern recognition. This is an attempt to develop a parallel framework for the training algorithm of a perceptron. In this paper, two general architectures for a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) have been demonstrated. The first architecture is All-Class-in-One-Network (ACON) where all the classes are placed in a single network and the second one is One-Class-in-One-Network (OCON) where an individual single network is responsible for each and every class. Capabilities of these two architectures were compared and verified in solving human face recognition, which is a complex pattern recognition task where several factors affect the recognition performance like pose variations, facial expression changes, occlusions, and ...

Bhowmik, M K; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

2010-01-01

10

Classification of fused face images using multilayer perceptron neural network

This paper presents a concept of image pixel fusion of visual and thermal faces, which can significantly improve the overall performance of a face recognition system. Several factors affect face recognition performance including pose variations, facial expression changes, occlusions, and most importantly illumination changes. So, image pixel fusion of thermal and visual images is a solution to overcome the drawbacks present in the individual thermal and visual face images. Fused images are projected into eigenspace and finally classified using a multi-layer perceptron. In the experiments we have used Object Tracking and Classification Beyond Visible Spectrum (OTCBVS) database benchmark thermal and visual face images. Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the verification and identification performance and the success rate is 95.07%. The main objective of employing fusion is to produce a fused image that provides the most detailed and reliable information. Fusion of multip...

Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

2010-01-01

11

Prediction of Parametric Roll Resonance by Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been acknowledged in the last few years. This work proposes a prediction system based on a multilayer perceptron (MP) neural network. The training and testing of the MP network is accomplished by feeding it with simulated data of a three degrees-of-freedom nonlinear model of a fishing vessel. The neural network is shown to be capable of forecasting the ship’s roll motion in realistic scenarios.

Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

2011-01-01

12

Online learning dynamics of multilayer perceptrons with unidentifiable parameters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the over-realizable learning scenario of multilayer perceptrons, in which the student network has a larger number of hidden units than the true or optimal network, some of the weight parameters are unidentifiable. In this case, the teacher network consists of a union of optimal subspaces included in the parameter space. The optimal subspaces, which lead to singularities, are known to affect the estimation performance of neural networks. Using statistical mechanics, we investigate the online learning dynamics of two-layer neural networks in the over-realizable scenario with unidentifiable parameters. We show that the convergence speed strongly depends on the initial parameter conditions. We also show that there is a quasi-plateau around the optimal subspace, which differs from the well-known plateaus caused by permutation symmetry. In addition, we discuss the property of the final learning state, relating this to the singular structures

13

Data classification with multilayer perceptrons using a generalized error function.

The learning process of a multilayer perceptron requires the optimization of an error function E(y,t) comparing the predicted output, y, and the observed target, t. We review some usual error functions, analyze their mathematical properties for data classification purposes, and introduce a new one, E(Exp), inspired by the Z-EDM algorithm that we have recently proposed. An important property of E(Exp) is its ability to emulate the behavior of other error functions by the sole adjustment of a real-valued parameter. In other words, E(Exp) is a sort of generalized error function embodying complementary features of other functions. The experimental results show that the flexibility of the new, generalized, error function allows one to obtain the best results achievable with the other functions with a performance improvement in some cases. PMID:18572384

Silva, Luís M; Marques de Sá, J; Alexandre, Luís A

2008-11-01

14

Inversion of Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

This study investigates the inverse solution on a buried and polarized sphere-shaped body using the self-potential method via multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The polarization angle ( ?), depth to the centre of sphere ( h), electrical dipole moment ( K) and the zero distance from the origin ( x 0) were estimated. For testing the success of the MLPNN for sphere model, parameters were also estimated by the traditional Damped Least Squares (Levenberg-Marquardt) inversion technique (DLS). The MLPNN was first tested on a synthetic example. The performance of method was also tested for two S/N ratios (5 % and 10 %) by adding noise to the same synthetic data, the estimated model parameters with MLPNN and DLS method are satisfactory. The MLPNN also applied for the field data example in ?zmir, Urla district, Turkey, with two cross-section data evaluated by MLPNN and DLS, and the two methods showed good agreement.

Kaftan, Ilknur; S?nd?rg?, Petek; Akdemir, Özer

2014-08-01

15

Fast parallel off-line training of multilayer perceptrons.

Various approaches to the parallel implementation of second-order gradient-based multilayer perceptron training algorithms are described. Two main classes of algorithm are defined involving Hessian and conjugate gradient-based methods. The limited- and full-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithms are selected as representative examples and used to show that the step size and gradient calculations are critical components. For larger problems the matrix calculations in the full-memory algorithm are also significant. Various strategies are considered for parallelization, the best of which is implemented on parallel virtual machine (PVM) and transputer-based architectures. Results from a range of problems are used to demonstrate the performance achievable with each architecture. The transputer implementation is found to give excellent speed-ups but the problem size is limited by memory constraints. The speed-ups achievable with the PVM implementation are much poorer because of inefficient communication, but memory is not a difficulty. PMID:18255667

McLoone, S; Irwin, G W

1997-01-01

16

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study of powers of multidimensional classifiers on the basis of integral nonparametric goodness-off-fit criteria ?nk and multilayer perceptrons was carried out in the cases where investigated distributions present simultaneous measurements of the same physical values in some detectors of experimental set-up. With the help of a numerical experiment it has been shown that multilayer perceptron provides the power close to limit if the identification of events is carried out in the space of effective variables. A procedure of transformation to such variables is described. Recommendations for the joint usage of the ?nk criteria and multilayer perceptrons are given. (author). 29 refs.; 15 figs

17

Multilayer perceptron in damage detection of bridge structures

Recent developments in artificial neural networks (ANN) have opened up new possibilities in the domain of structural engineering. For inverse problems like structural identification of large civil engineerlng structures such as bridges and buildings where the in situ measured data are expected to be imprecise and often incomplete, the ANN holds greater promise. The detection of structural damage and identification of damaged element in a large complex structure is a challenging task indeed. This paper presents an application of multilayer perceptron in the damage detection of steel bridge structures. The ssues relating to the design of network and learning paradigm are addressed and network architectures have been developed with reference to trussed bridge structures. The training patterns are generated for multiple damaged zones in a structure and performance of the networks with one and two hidden layers are examined. It has been observed that the performance of the network with two hidden layers was better than that of a single-layer architecture in general. The engineering importance of the whole exercise is demonstrated from the fact that measured input at only a few locations in the structure is needed in the identification process using the ANN.

Pandey, P. C.; Barai, S. V.

1995-02-01

18

Ground Radar Target Classification Using Singular Value Decomposition and Multilayer Perceptron

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with classification of ground radar targets. Areceived radar signal backscattered from a ground radar target wasdigitized and in the form of radar signal matrix utilized for a featureextraction based on Singular Value Decomposition. Furthermore, singularvalues of a backscattered radar signal matrix, as a target feature,were utilized for Radar Target Classification by multilayer perceptron.In the learning phase of a multilayer perceptron we used the learningtarget set and in the testing phase the testing target set was used.The learning and testing target sets were created on the basis of realground radar targets.

I. Mokris

2001-12-01

19

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP NN are well known for their simplicity, ease of training for small-scale problems, and suitability for online implementation. This paper presents the methodology and challenges in the design of near-optimal MLP NN based classifier with maximize classification accuracy under the constraints of minimum network dimension for implementation intelligent sensors.

Nadir N. Charniya

2013-02-01

20

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to apply a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP neural network technique to create classification models from a portfolio of Non-Performing Loans (NPLs to classify this type of credit derivative. These credit derivatives are characterized as the amount of loans that were not paid and are already overdue more than 90 days. Since these titles are, because of legislative motives, moved by losses, Credit Rights Investment Funds (FDIC performs the purchase of these debts and the recovery of the credits. Using the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP architecture of Artificial Neural Network (ANN, classification models regarding the posterior recovery of these debts were created. To evaluate the performance of the models, evaluation metrics of classification relating to the neural networks with different architectures were presented. The results of the classifications were satisfactory, given the classification models were successful in the presented economics costs structure.

Flávio Clésio Silva de Souza

2014-06-01

21

Training Algorithm for Extra Reduced Size Lattice-Ladder Multilayer Perceptrons

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A quick gradient training algorithm for a specific neural network structure called an extra reduced size lattice-ladder multilayer perceptron is introduced. Presented derivation of the algorithm utilizes recently found by author simplest way of exact computation of gradients for rotation parameters of lattice-ladder filter. Developed neural network training algorithm is optimal in terms of minimal number of constants, multiplication and addition operations, while the regularity of the structu...

Navakauskas, Dalius

2003-01-01

22

Belief Propagation for Error Correcting Codes and Lossy Compression Using Multilayer Perceptrons

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The belief propagation (BP) based algorithm is investigated as a potential decoder for both of error correcting codes and lossy compression, which are based on non-monotonic tree-like multilayer perceptron encoders. We discuss that whether the BP can give practical algorithms or not in these schemes. The BP implementations in those kind of fully connected networks unfortunately shows strong limitation, while the theoretical results seems a bit promising. Instead, it reveals ...

Mimura, Kazushi; Cousseau, Florent; Okada, Masato

2011-01-01

23

Second-Order Learning Methods for a Multilayer Perceptron

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First- and second-order learning methods for feed-forward multilayer neural networks are studied. Newton-type and quasi-Newton algorithms are considered and compared with commonly used back-propagation algorithm. It is shown that, although second-order algorithms require enhanced computer facilities, they provide better convergence and simplicity in usage. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

24

Belief Propagation for Error Correcting Codes and Lossy Compression Using Multilayer Perceptrons

The belief propagation (BP) based algorithm is investigated as a potential decoder for both of error correcting codes and lossy compression, which are based on non-monotonic tree-like multilayer perceptron encoders. We discuss that whether the BP can give practical algorithms or not in these schemes. The BP implementations in those kind of fully connected networks unfortunately shows strong limitation, while the theoretical results seems a bit promising. Instead, it reveals it might have a rich and complex structure of the solution space via the BP-based algorithms.

Mimura, Kazushi; Okada, Masato

2011-01-01

25

Belief Propagation for Error Correcting Codes and Lossy Compression Using Multilayer Perceptrons

The belief propagation (BP) based algorithm is investigated as a potential decoder for both of error correcting codes and lossy compression, which are based on non-monotonic tree-like multilayer perceptron encoders. We discuss that whether the BP can give practical algorithms or not in these schemes. The BP implementations in those kind of fully connected networks unfortunately shows strong limitation, while the theoretical results seems a bit promising. Instead, it reveals it might have a rich and complex structure of the solution space via the BP-based algorithms.

Mimura, Kazushi; Cousseau, Florent; Okada, Masato

2011-03-01

26

Multilayered perceptron neural networks to compute energy losses in magnetic cores

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new approach based on multilayered perceptrons (MLPs) to compute the specific energy losses of toroidal wound cores built from 3% SiFe 0.27 mm thick M4, 0.1 and 0.08 mm thin gauge electrical steel strips. The MLP has been trained by a back-propagation and extended delta-bar-delta learning algorithm. The results obtained by using the MLP model were compared with a commonly used conventional method. The comparison has shown that the proposed model improved loss estimation with respect to the conventional method

27

Apply Multi-Layer Perceptrons Neural Network for Off-Line Signature Verification and Recognition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the applying of Multi-layer perceptrons for signature verification and recognition using a new approach enables the user to recognize whether a signature is original or a fraud. The approach starts by scanning images into the computer, then modifying their quality through image enhancement and noise reduction, followed by feature extraction and neural network training, and finally verifies the authenticity of the signature. The paper discusses the different stages of the process including: image pre-processing, feature extraction and pattern recognition through neural networks.

Suhail Odeh

2011-11-01

28

Highly Accurate Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network for Air Data System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The error backpropagation multi-layer perceptron algorithm is revisited. This algorithm is used to train and validate two models of three-layer neural networks that can be used to calibrate a 5-hole pressure probe. This paper addresses Occam.s Razor problem as it describes the adhoc training methodology applied to improve accuracy and sensitivity. The trained outputs from 5-4-3 feed-forward network architecture with jump connection are comparable to second decimal digit (~0.05 accuracy, hitherto unreported in literature.

H.S. Krishna

2009-11-01

29

Missing value imputation on missing completely at random data using multilayer perceptrons.

Data mining is based on data files which usually contain errors in the form of missing values. This paper focuses on a methodological framework for the development of an automated data imputation model based on artificial neural networks. Fifteen real and simulated data sets are exposed to a perturbation experiment, based on the random generation of missing values. These data set sizes range from 47 to 1389 records. A perturbation experiment was performed for each data set where the probability of missing value was set to 0.05. Several architectures and learning algorithms for the multilayer perceptron are tested and compared with three classic imputation procedures: mean/mode imputation, regression and hot-deck. The obtained results, considering different performance measures, not only suggest this approach improves the quality of a database with missing values, but also the best results are clearly obtained using the Multilayer Perceptron model in data sets with categorical variables. Three learning rules (Levenberg-Marquardt, BFGS Quasi-Newton and Conjugate Gradient Fletcher-Reeves Update) and a small number of hidden nodes are recommended. PMID:20875726

Silva-Ramírez, Esther-Lydia; Pino-Mejías, Rafael; López-Coello, Manuel; Cubiles-de-la-Vega, María-Dolores

2011-01-01

30

Neural and stochastic models for signal classification generate output probabilities to indicate whether or not their inputs are members of the modeled class. This paper presents a feature enhancing neural network with weights based on the modeled class which can improve the classification performance of single output classifiers, by increasing output probabilities for members of the modeled class or decreasing output probabilities for non-members. The neural network is demonstrated as a front-end for multi-layer perceptron and semi-continuous hidden Markov model based classifiers for speech recognition applications. It is unique in that the weights and width of the input layer adapt based on extracted characteristics from the input speech signal. The connectionist architecture is motivated by the highly successful time-delay neural network and the desire to find efficient training procedures for class-dependent, short- time transformations. The weights are determined using a principal component analysis process and can be found by applying iterative or conventional algorithms. The neural network reduces false acceptances by more than one-third for a defined mono-syllable keyword spotting application using a semi-continuous hidden Markov model based system. An evaluation of the neural network as a front-end for multi-layer perceptron based classifiers which distinguish a word from confusable words is also presented.

Clary, Gregory J.; Hansen, John H. L.

1992-12-01

31

Image Binarization Using Multi-Layer Perceptron: A Semi-Supervised Approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we have discussed the Image Binarization technique using Multilayer Perceptron (MLP. The purpose of Image Binarization is to extract the lightness (brightness, density as a feature amount from the Image. It converts a gray-scale image of up to 256 gray levels to a black and white image. We use Backpropagation algorithm for training MLP. It is a supervised learning technique. Here Kmeans clustering algorithm has been used for clustering a 256 × 256 gray-level image. The dataset obtained by this is fed to the MLP and processed in a Semi-Supervised way where some training samples are taken as Known patterns (for training and others as Unknown patterns. Finally through this approach a Binarized image is produced.

Amlan Raychaudhuri

2012-04-01

32

Analysis of (7)Be behaviour in the air by using a multilayer perceptron neural network.

A multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of the (7)Be behaviour in the air as the function of meteorological parameters was developed. The model was optimized and tested using (7)Be activity concentrations obtained by standard gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air samples collected in Belgrade (Serbia) during 2009-2011 and meteorological data for the same period. Good correlation (r = 0.91) between experimental values of (7)Be activity concentrations and those predicted by ANN was obtained. The good performance of the model in prediction of (7)Be activity concentrations could provide basis for construction of models which would forecast behaviour of other airborne radionuclides. PMID:25106024

Samolov, A; Dragovi?, S; Dakovi?, M; Ba?i?, G

2014-11-01

33

Static Digits Recognition Using Rotational Signatures and Hu Moments with a Multilayer Perceptron

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two systems for recognizing static signs (digits from American Sign Language (ASL. These systems avoid the use color marks, or gloves, using instead, low-pass and high-pass filters in space and frequency domains, and color space transformations. First system used rotational signatures based on a correlation operator; minimum distance was used for the classification task. Second system computed the seven Hu invariants from binary images; these descriptors fed to a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP in order to recognize the 9 different classes. First system achieves 100% of recognition rate with leaving-one-out validation and second experiment performs 96.7% of recognition rate with Hu moments and 100% using 36 normalized moments and k-fold cross validation.

Francisco Solís

2014-10-01

34

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is being applied to the solution of problems in many areas of biomedical and pharmaceutical research. In this paper we investigate the use of NIR spectroscopy as an analytical tool to quantify concentrations of urea, creatinine, glucose and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Measurements have been made in vitro with a portable spectrometer developed in our labs that consists of a two beam interferometer operating in the range of 800-2300 nm. For the data analysis a pattern recognition philosophy was used with a preprocessing stage and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network for the measurement stage. Results show that the interferogram signatures of the above compounds are sufficiently strong in that spectral range. Measurements of three different concentrations were possible with mean squared error (MSE) of the order of 10(-6). PMID:17947035

Kalamatianos, Dimitrios; Liatsis, Panos; Wellstead, Peter E

2006-01-01

35

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

Mohammad Fathian

2012-04-01

36

Offensive and defensive systems of play represent important aspects of team sports. They include the players' positions at certain situations during a match, i.e., when players have to be on specific positions on the court. Patterns of play emerge based on the formations of the players on the court. Recognition of these patterns is important to react adequately and to adjust own strategies to the opponent. Furthermore, the ability to apply variable patterns of play seems to be promising since they make it harder for the opponent to adjust. The purpose of this study is to identify different team tactical patterns in volleyball and to analyze differences in variability. Overall 120 standard situations of six national teams in women's volleyball are analyzed during a world championship tournament. Twenty situations from each national team are chosen, including the base defence position (start configuration) and the two players block with middle back deep (end configuration). The shapes of the defence formations at the start and end configurations during the defence of each national team as well as the variability of these defence formations are statistically analyzed. Furthermore these shapes data are used to train multilayer perceptrons in order to test whether artificial neural networks can recognize the teams by their tactical patterns. Results show significant differences between the national teams in both the base defence position at the start and the two players block with middle back deep at the end of the standard defence situation. Furthermore, the national teams show significant differences in variability of the defence systems and start-positions are more variable than the end-positions. Multilayer perceptrons are able to recognize the teams at an average of 98.5%. It is concluded that defence systems in team sports are highly individual at a competitive level and variable even in standard situations. Artificial neural networks can be used to recognize teams by the shapes of the players' configurations. These findings support the concept that tactics and strategy have to be adapted for the team and need to be flexible in order to be successful. PMID:21414679

Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

2012-04-01

37

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a novel land cover change detection method that employs a sliding window over hyper-temporal multi-spectral images acquired from the 7 bands of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface reflectance product. The method uses a Feedforward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) for supervised change detection that operates on multi-spectral time series extracted with a sliding window from the dataset. The method was evaluated on both real and simulated land ...

Salmon, Brian Paxton; Olivier, Jan Corne; Kleynhans, Waldo; Wessels, Konrad J.; Den Bergh, Frans; Steenkamp, Karen C.

2011-01-01

38

Geomagnetic Dst index forecast using a multilayer perceptrons artificial neural network

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The best known manifestations of the impact of solar wind on the magnetosphere are the geomagnetic storms. The prediction of geomagnetic field behavior allows the alert of geomagnetic storms occurrence, as those phenomena can cause many damages in the planet. The Artificial Intelligence tools have been applied in many multidisciplinary studies, covering several areas of knowledge, as a choice of approach to the solution of problems with characteristics like non-linearity, imprecision, and other features that can not be easily solved with conventional computational models. Techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Expert Systems and Decision Trees have been used in the Space Weather studies to perform tasks such as forecasting geomagnetic storms and the investigation of rules and parameters related on its occurrence. The main focus of this work is on forecasting the geomagnetic field behavior, represented this time by the Dst index, using for that task, mainly, the interplanetary magnetic field components and solar wind data. The tool chosen here to solve the non-linear problem was a Multi-layer Perceptrons Artificial Neural Network, trained with the backpropagation algorithm. Unlike what was done in other studies, we chose to predict calm and disturbed periods like, for example, a full month of data, for application in a real time forecasting system. It was possible to predict the geomagnetic Dst index one or two hours before with great percentage efficiency.

39

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seismic object detection is a relatively new field in which 3-D bodies are visualized and spatial relationships between objects of different origins are studied in order to extract geologic information. In this paper, we propose a method for finding an optimal classifier with the help of a statistical feature ranking technique and combining different classifiers. The method, which has general applicability, is demonstrated here on a gas chimney detection problem. First, we evaluate a set of input seismic attributes extracted at locations labeled by a human expert using regularized discriminant analysis (RDA. In order to find the RDA score for each seismic attribute, forward and backward search strategies are used. Subsequently, two non-linear classifiers: multilayer perceptron (MLP and support vector classifier (SVC are run on the ranked seismic attributes. Finally, to capitalize on the intrinsic differences between both classifiers, the MLP and SVC results are combined using logical rules of maximum, minimum and mean. The proposed method optimizes the ranked feature space size and yields the lowest classification error in the final combined result. We will show that the logical minimum reveals gas chimneys that exhibit both the softness of MLP and the resolution of SVC classifiers.

H. Hashemi

2008-11-01

40

Seismic object detection is a relatively new field in which 3-D bodies are visualized and spatial relationships between objects of different origins are studied in order to extract geologic information. In this paper, we propose a method for finding an optimal classifier with the help of a statistical feature ranking technique and combining different classifiers. The method, which has general applicability, is demonstrated here on a gas chimney detection problem. First, we evaluate a set of input seismic attributes extracted at locations labeled by a human expert using regularized discriminant analysis (RDA). In order to find the RDA score for each seismic attribute, forward and backward search strategies are used. Subsequently, two non-linear classifiers: multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector classifier (SVC) are run on the ranked seismic attributes. Finally, to capitalize on the intrinsic differences between both classifiers, the MLP and SVC results are combined using logical rules of maximum, minimum and mean. The proposed method optimizes the ranked feature space size and yields the lowest classification error in the final combined result. We will show that the logical minimum reveals gas chimneys that exhibit both the softness of MLP and the resolution of SVC classifiers.

Hashemi, H.; Tax, D. M. J.; Duin, R. P. W.; Javaherian, A.; de Groot, P.

2008-11-01

41

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained by developing a methodology to detect 5 types of heartbeats (Normal (N, Right bundle branch block (RBBB, Left bundle branch block (LBBB, Premature atrial contraction (APC and Premature ventricular contraction (PVC, using Wavelet transform packets with non-adaptative mode applied on features extraction from heartbeats. It was used the Shannon function to calculate the entropy and It was added an identification nodes stage per every type of cardiac signal in the Wavelet tree. The using of Wavelet packets transform allows the access to information which results of decomposition of low and high frecuency, giving providing a more integral analysis than achieved by the discrete Wavelet transform. Three families of mother Wavelet were evaluated on transformation: Daubechies, Symlet and Reverse Biorthogonal, which were results from a previous research in that were identified the mother Wavelet that had higher entropy with the cardiac signals. With non-adaptive mode, the computational cost is reduced when Wavelet packets are used; this cost represents the most marked disadvantage from the transform. To classify the heartbeats were used Support Vector Machines and Multilayer Perceptron. The best classification error was achieved employing Support Vector Machine and a radial basis function; it was 2.57 %.

Alejandro J. Orozco-Naranjo

2013-11-01

42

In the past decade, the treatment amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) by incineration has increased significantly in Taiwan. By year 2008, approximately 70% of the total MSW generated will be incinerated. The energy content (usually expressed by lower heating value [LHV]) of MSW is an important parameter for the selection of incinerator capacity. In this work, wastes from 55 sampling sites, including villages, towns, cities, and remote islands in the Taiwan area, were sampled and analyzed once a season from April 2002 to March 2003 to determine the waste characteristics. The LHV of MSW in Taiwan was predicted by the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks model using the input parameters of elemental analysis and dry- or wet-base physical compositions. Although all three of the models predicted LHV values rather accurately, the elemental analysis model provided the most accurate prediction of LHV values. Additionally, the wet-base physical composition model was the easiest and most economical. Therefore, the waste treatment operators can choose the more appropriate analysis method considering situations themselves, such as time, equipment, technology, and cost. PMID:16805410

Shu, Hung-Yee; Lu, Hsin-Chung; Fan, Huan-Jung; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chen, Jyh-Cherng

2006-06-01

43

Estimate of significant wave height from non-coherent marine radar images by multilayer perceptrons

One of the most relevant parameters to characterize the severity of ocean waves is the significant wave height ( H s ). The estimate of H s from remotely sensed data acquired by non-coherent X-band marine radars is a problem not completely solved nowadays. A method commonly used in the literature (standard method) uses the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to linearly estimate H s . This method has been widely used during the last decade, but it presents some limitations, especially when swell-dominated sea states are present. To overcome these limitations, a new non-linear method incorporating additional sea state information is proposed in this article. This method is based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), specifically on multilayer perceptrons (MLPs). The information incorporated in the proposed MLP-based method is given by the wave monitoring system (WaMoS II) and concerns not only to the square root of the SNR, as in the standard method, but also to the peak wave length and mean wave period. Results for two different platforms (Ekofisk and FINO 1) placed in different locations of the North Sea are presented to analyze whether the proposed method works regardless of the sea states observed in each location or not. The obtained results empirically demonstrate how the proposed non-linear solution outperforms the standard method regardless of the environmental conditions (platform), maintaining real-time properties.

Vicen-Bueno, Raúl; Lido-Muela, Cristina; Nieto-Borge, José Carlos

2012-12-01

44

In this paper, we propose a wideband dynamic behavioral model for a bulk reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) used as a modulator in colorless radio over fiber (RoF) systems using a tapped-delay multilayer perceptron (TDMLP). 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals with 20 Msymbol/s were used to train, validate and test the model. Nonlinear distortion and dynamic effects induced by the RSOA modulator are demonstrated. The parameters of the model such as the number of nodes in the hidden layer and memory depth were optimized to ensure the generality and accuracy. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) is used as a figure of merit. The NMSE was up to -44.33 dB when the number of nodes in the hidden layer and memory depth were set to 20 and 3, respectively. The TDMLP model can accurately approximate to the dynamic characteristics of the RSOA modulator. The dynamic AM-AM and dynamic AM-PM distortions of the RSOA modulator are drawn. The results show that the single hidden layer TDMLP can provide accurate approximation for behaviors of the RSOA modulator. PMID:23481795

Liu, Zhansheng; Violas, Manuel Alberto; Carvalho, Nuno Borges

2013-02-11

45

Cross Validation Evaluation for Breast Cancer Prediction Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The presence of metastasis in the regional lymph nodes is the most important factor in predicting prognosis in breast cancer. Many biomarkers have been identified that appear to relate to the aggressive behaviour of cancer. However, the nonlinear relation of these markers to nodal status and also the existence of complex interaction between markers have prohibited an accurate prognosis. Approach: The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP for predicting breast cancer progression using a set of four biomarkers of breast tumors. The biomarkers include DNA ploidy, cell cycle distribution (G0G1/G2M, steroid receptors (ER/PR and S-Phase Fraction (SPF. A further objective of the study is to explore the predictive potential of these markers in defining the state of nodal involvement in breast cancer. Two methods of outcome evaluation viz. stratified and simple k-fold Cross Validation (CV are studied in order to assess their accuracy and reliability for neural network validation. Criteria such as output accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are used for selecting the best validation technique besides evaluating the network outcome for different combinations of markers. Results: The results show that stratified 2-fold CV is more accurate and reliable compared to simple k-fold CV as it obtains a higher accuracy and specificity and also provides a more stable network validation in terms of sensitivity. Best prediction results are obtained by using an individual marker-SPF which obtains an accuracy of 65%. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our findings suggest that MLP-based analysis provides an accurate and reliable platform for breast cancer prediction given that an appropriate design and validation method is employed.

Shirin A. Mojarad

2011-01-01

46

Fast accurate MEG source localization using a multilayer perceptron trained with real brain noise

Iterative gradient methods such as Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) are in widespread use for source localization from electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. Unfortunately, LM depends sensitively on the initial guess, necessitating repeated runs. This, combined with LM's high per-step cost, makes its computational burden quite high. To reduce this burden, we trained a multilayer perceptron (MLP) as a real-time localizer. We used an analytical model of quasistatic electromagnetic propagation through a spherical head to map randomly chosen dipoles to sensor activities according to the sensor geometry of a 4D Neuroimaging Neuromag-122 MEG system, and trained a MLP to invert this mapping in the absence of noise or in the presence of various sorts of noise such as white Gaussian noise, correlated noise, or real brain noise. A MLP structure was chosen to trade off computation and accuracy. This MLP was trained four times, with each type of noise. We measured the effects of initial guesses on LM performance, which motivated a hybrid MLP-start-LM method, in which the trained MLP initializes LM. We also compared the localization performance of LM, MLPs, and hybrid MLP-start-LMs for realistic brain signals. Trained MLPs are much faster than other methods, while the hybrid MLP-start-LMs are faster and more accurate than fixed-4-start-LM. In particular, the hybrid MLP-start-LM initialized by a MLP trained with the real brain noise dataset is 60 times faster and is comparable in accuracy to random-20-start-LM, and this hybrid system (localization error: 0.28 cm, computation time: 36 ms) shows almost as good performance as optimal-1-start-LM (localization error: 0.23 cm, computation time: 22 ms), which initializes LM with the correct dipole location. MLPs trained with noise perform better than the MLP trained without noise, and the MLP trained with real brain noise is almost as good an initial guesser for LM as the correct dipole location.

Jun, Sung Chan; Pearlmutter, Barak A.; Nolte, Guido

2002-07-01

47

Fast accurate MEG source localization using a multilayer perceptron trained with real brain noise

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iterative gradient methods such as Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) are in widespread use for source localization from electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. Unfortunately, LM depends sensitively on the initial guess, necessitating repeated runs. This, combined with LM's high per-step cost, makes its computational burden quite high. To reduce this burden, we trained a multilayer perceptron (MLP) as a real-time localizer. We used an analytical model of quasistatic electromagnetic propagation through a spherical head to map randomly chosen dipoles to sensor activities according to the sensor geometry of a 4D Neuroimaging Neuromag-122 MEG system, and trained a MLP to invert this mapping in the absence of noise or in the presence of various sorts of noise such as white Gaussian noise, correlated noise, or real brain noise. A MLP structure was chosen to trade off computation and accuracy. This MLP was trained four times, with each type of noise. We measured the effects of initial guesses on LM performance, which motivated a hybrid MLP-start-LM method, in which the trained MLP initializes LM. We also compared the localization performance of LM, MLPs, and hybrid MLP-start-LMs for realistic brain signals. Trained MLPs are much faster than other methods, while the hybrid MLP-start-LMs are faster and more accurate than fixed-4-start-LM. In particular, the hybrid MLP-start-LM initialized by a MLP trained with the real brain noise dataset is 60 times faster and is comparable in accuracy to random-20-start-LM, and this hybrid system (localization error: 0.28 cm, computation time: 36 ms) shows almost as good performance as optimal-1-start-LM (localization error: 0.23 cm, computation time: 22 ms), which initializes LM with the correct dipole location. MLPs trained with noise perform better than the MLP trained without noise, and the MLP trained with real brain noise is almost as good an initial guesser for LM as the correct dipole location. (author) )

48

Fast accurate MEG source localization using a multilayer perceptron trained with real brain noise

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iterative gradient methods such as Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) are in widespread use for source localization from electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. Unfortunately, LM depends sensitively on the initial guess, necessitating repeated runs. This, combined with LM's high per-step cost, makes its computational burden quite high. To reduce this burden, we trained a multilayer perceptron (MLP) as a real-time localizer. We used an analytical model of quasistatic electromagnetic propagation through a spherical head to map randomly chosen dipoles to sensor activities according to the sensor geometry of a 4D Neuroimaging Neuromag-122 MEG system, and trained a MLP to invert this mapping in the absence of noise or in the presence of various sorts of noise such as white Gaussian noise, correlated noise, or real brain noise. A MLP structure was chosen to trade off computation and accuracy. This MLP was trained four times, with each type of noise. We measured the effects of initial guesses on LM performance, which motivated a hybrid MLP-start-LM method, in which the trained MLP initializes LM. We also compared the localization performance of LM, MLPs, and hybrid MLP-start-LMs for realistic brain signals. Trained MLPs are much faster than other methods, while the hybrid MLP-start-LMs are faster and more accurate than fixed-4-start-LM. In particular, the hybrid MLP-start-LM initialized by a MLP trained with the real brain noise dataset is 60 times faster and is comparable in accuracy to random-20-start-LM, and this hybrid system (localization error: 0.28 cm, computation time: 36 ms) shows almost as good performance as optimal-1-start-LM (localization error: 0.23 cm, computation time: 22 ms), which initializes LM with the correct dipole location. MLPs trained with noise perform better than the MLP trained without noise, and the MLP trained with real brain noise is almost as good an initial guesser for LM as the correct dipole location. (author)

Jun, Sung Chan [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (Mexico)]. E-mail: junsc@cs.unm.edu; Pearlmutter, Barak A.; Nolte, Guido [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (Mexico)

2002-07-21

49

Replica Symmetry Breaking and the Kuhn-Tucker Cavity Method in simple and multilayer Perceptrons

Within a Kuhn-Tucker cavity method introduced in a former paper, we study optimal stability learning for situations, where in the replica formalism the replica symmetry may be broken, namely (i) the case of a simple perceptron above the critical loading, and (ii) the case of two-layer AND-perceptrons, if one learns with maximal stability. We find that the deviation of our cavity solution from the replica symmetric one in these cases is a clear indication of the necessity of replica symmetry breaking. In any case the cavity solution tends to underestimate the storage capabilities of the networks.

Gerl, F

1996-01-01

50

On-line Gibbs learning. II. Application to perceptron and multilayer networks

In the preceding paper (``On-line Gibbs Learning. I. General Theory'') we have presented the on-line Gibbs algorithm (OLGA) and studied analytically its asymptotic convergence. In this paper we apply OLGA to on-line supervised learning in several network architectures: a single-layer perceptron, two-layer committee machine, and a winner-takes-all (WTA) classifier. The behavior of OLGA for a single-layer perceptron is studied both analytically and numerically for a variety of rules: a realizable perceptron rule, a perceptron rule corrupted by output and input noise, and a rule generated by a committee machine. The two-layer committee machine is studied numerically for the cases of learning a realizable rule as well as a rule that is corrupted by output noise. The WTA network is studied numerically for the case of a realizable rule. The asymptotic results reported in this paper agree with the predictions of the general theory of OLGA presented in paper I. In all the studied cases, OLGA converges to a set of weights that minimizes the generalization error. When the learning rate is chosen as a power law with an optimal power, OLGA converges with a power law that is the same as that of batch learning.

Kim, J. W.; Sompolinsky, H.

1998-08-01

51

The random initialization of weights of a multilayer perceptron makes it possible to model its training process as a Las Vegas algorithm, i.e. a randomized algorithm which stops when some required training error is obtained, and whose execution time is a random variable. This modelling is used to perform a case study on a well-known pattern recognition benchmark: the UCI Thyroid Disease Database. Empirical evidence is presented of the training time probability distribution exhibiting a heavy tail behavior, meaning a big probability mass of long executions. This fact is exploited to reduce the training time cost by applying two simple restart strategies. The first assumes full knowledge of the distribution yielding a 40% cut down in expected time with respect to the training without restarts. The second, assumes null knowledge, yielding a reduction ranging from 9% to 23%.

Cebrian, Manuel

2007-01-01

52

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Critical heat flux (CHF) is an important parameter for the design of nuclear reactors. Although many experimental and theoretical researches have been performed, there is not a single correlation to predict CHF because it is influenced by many parameters. These parameters are based on fixed inlet, local and fixed outlet conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to a wide variety of different areas such as prediction, approximation, modeling and classification. In this study, two types of neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP), are trained with the experimental CHF data and their performances are compared. RBF predicts CHF with root mean square (RMS) errors of 0.24%, 7.9%, 0.16% and MLP predicts CHF with RMS errors of 1.29%, 8.31% and 2.71%, in fixed inlet conditions, local conditions and fixed outlet conditions, respectively. The results show that neural networks with RBF structure have superior performance in CHF data prediction over MLP neural networks. The parametric trends of CHF obtained by the trained ANNs are also evaluated and results reported

53

Time series modeling with pruned multi-layer perceptron and 2-stage damped least-squares method

A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) defines a family of artificial neural networks often used in TS modeling and forecasting. Because of its "black box" aspect, many researchers refuse to use it. Moreover, the optimization (often based on the exhaustive approach where "all" configurations are tested) and learning phases of this artificial intelligence tool (often based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm; LMA) are weaknesses of this approach (exhaustively and local minima). These two tasks must be repeated depending on the knowledge of each new problem studied, making the process, long, laborious and not systematically robust. In this paper a pruning process is proposed. This method allows, during the training phase, to carry out an inputs selecting method activating (or not) inter-nodes connections in order to verify if forecasting is improved. We propose to use iteratively the popular damped least-squares method to activate inputs and neurons. A first pass is applied to 10% of the learning sample to determine weights significantly different from 0 and delete other. Then a classical batch process based on LMA is used with the new MLP. The validation is done using 25 measured meteorological TS and cross-comparing the prediction results of the classical LMA and the 2-stage LMA.

Voyant, Cyril; Tamas, Wani; Paoli, Christophe; Balu, Aurélia; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure; Notton, Gilles

2014-03-01

54

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to perceive of rainfall- runoff process, essential prediction for water surface source management has special importance. Thereby in this paper, Tang-e Karzin hydrometric station which is located in sub-domain of salman-farsi dam had been considered. By utilizing of weekly statistical discharge information related to past 36 years, multilayer perceptron neural network model was used to predict the average weekly discharge of Tang-e Karzin station through the discharge information of its two upside stations. In order to optimize the weights and biases of the MLP network, we tried to use Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm within training phase of the ANN network. The results indicated that by changing of different parameters of hidden layer of perceptron model, ABC can well optimize ANN’s weights and biases. Among five activation function Log-sigmoid was performed better than others with 9 neurons in hidden layer

Saleh Salimi

2013-10-01

55

Self-potential (SP) is one of the oldest geophysical methods that provides important information about near-surface structures. Several methods have been developed to interpret SP data using simple geometries. This study investigated inverse solution of a buried, polarized sphere-shaped self-potential (SP ) anomaly via Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks ( MLPNN ). The polarization angle ( ? ) and depth to the centre of sphere ( h )were estimated. The MLPNN is applied to synthetic and field SP data. In order to see the capability of the method in detecting the number of sources, MLPNN was applied to different spherical models at different depths and locations.. Additionally, the performance of MLPNN was tested by adding random noise to the same synthetic test data. The sphere model successfully obtained similar parameters under different S/N ratios. Then, MLPNN method was applied to two field examples. The first one is the cross section taken from the SP anomaly map of the Ergani-Süleymanköy (Turkey) copper mine. MLPNN was also applied to SP data from Seferihisar Izmir (Western Turkey) geothermal field. The MLPNN results showed good agreement with the original synthetic data set. The effect of The technique gave satisfactory results following the addition of 5% and 10% Gaussian noise levels. The MLPNN results were compared to other SP interpretation techniques, such as Normalized Full Gradient (NFG), inverse solution and nomogram methods. All of the techniques showed strong similarity. Consequently, the synthetic and field applications of this study show that MLPNN provides reliable evaluation of the self potential data modelled by the sphere model.

Kaftan, Ilknur; Sindirgi, Petek

2013-04-01

56

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prediction of temporal concentration profiles of a transported pollutant in a river is still a subject of ongoing research efforts worldwide. The present paper is aimed at studying the possibility of using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks to evaluate the whole concentration versus time profile at several cross-sections of a river under various flow conditions, using as little information about the river system as possible. In contrast with the earlier neural networks based work on longitudinal dispersion coefficients, this new approach relies more heavily on measurements of concentration collected during tracer tests over a range of flow conditions, but fewer hydraulic and morphological data are needed. The study is based upon 26 tracer experiments performed in a small river in Edinburgh, UK (Murray Burn at various flow rates in a 540 m long reach. The only data used in this study were concentration measurements collected at 4 cross-sections, distances between the cross-sections and the injection site, time, as well as flow rate and water velocity, obtained according to the data measured at the 1st and 2nd cross-sections.

The four main features of concentration versus time profiles at a particular cross-section, namely the peak concentration, the arrival time of the peak at the cross-section, and the shapes of the rising and falling limbs of the profile are modeled, and for each of them a separately designed neural network was used. There was also a variant investigated in which the conservation of the injected mass was assured by adjusting the predicted peak concentration. The neural network methods were compared with the unit peak attenuation curve concept.

In general the neural networks predicted the main features of the concentration profiles satisfactorily. The predicted peak concentrations were generally better than those obtained using the unit peak attenuation method, and the method with mass-conservation assured generally performed better than the method that did not account for mass-conservation. Predictions of peak travel time were also better using the neural networks than the unit peak attenuation method. Including more data into the neural network training set clearly improved the prediction of the shapes of the concentration profiles. Similar improvements in peak concentration were less significant and the travel time prediction appeared to be largely unaffected.

A. Piotrowski

2007-12-01

57

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prediction of temporal concentration profiles of a transported pollutant in a river is still a subject of ongoing research efforts worldwide. The present paper is aimed at studying the possibility of using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks to evaluate the whole concentration versus time profile at several cross-sections of a river under various flow conditions, using as little information about the river system as possible. In contrast with the earlier neural networks based work on longitudinal dispersion coefficients, this new approach relies more heavily on measurements of concentration collected during tracer tests over a range of flow conditions, but fewer hydraulic and morphological data are needed. The study is based upon 26 tracer experiments performed in a small river in Edinburgh, UK (Murray Burn at various flow rates in a 540 m long reach. The only data used in this study were concentration measurements collected at 4 cross-sections, distances between the cross-sections and the injection site, time, as well as flow rate and water velocity, obtained according to the data measured at the 1st and 2nd cross-sections.

The four main features of concentration versus time profiles at a particular cross-section, namely the peak concentration, the arrival time of the peak at the cross-section, and the shapes of the rising and falling limbs of the profile are modeled, and for each of them a separately designed neural network was used. There was also a variant investigated in which the conservation of the injected mass was assured by adjusting the predicted peak concentration. The neural network methods were compared with the unit peak attenuation curve concept.

In general the neural networks predicted the main features of the concentration profiles satisfactorily. The predicted peak concentrations were generally better than those obtained using the unit peak attenuation method, and the method with mass-conservation assured generally performed better than the method that did not account for mass-conservation. Predictions of peak travel time were also better using the neural networks than the unit peak attenuation method. Including more data into the neural network training set clearly improved the prediction of the shapes of the concentration profiles. Similar improvements in peak concentration were less significant and the travel time prediction appeared to be largely unaffected.

A. Piotrowski

2007-08-01

58

Optical scattering spectra obtained in the clinical trials of breast cancer diagnostic system were analyzed for the purpose to detect in the dataflow the segments corresponding to malignant tissues. Minimal invasive probe with optical fibers inside delivers white light from the source and collects the scattering light while being moved through the tissue. The sampling rate is 100 Hz and each record contains the results of measurements of scattered light intensity at 184 fixed wavelength points. Large amount of information acquired in each procedure, fuzziness in criteria of 'cancer' family membership and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive tool for analysis of these data. To define the dividing rule between 'cancer' and 'non-cancer' spectral families a three-layer perceptron was applied. In the process of perceptron learning back propagation method was used to minimize the learning error. Regularization was done using the Bayesian approach. The learning sample was formed by the experts. End-to-end probability calculation throughout the procedure dataset showed reliable detection of the 'cancer' segments. Much attention was paid on the spectra of the tissues with high blood content. Often the reason is vessel injury caused by the penetrating optical probe. But also it can be a dense vessel net surrounding the malignant tumor. To make the division into 'cancer' and 'non-cancer' families for the tissues with high blood content a special perceptron was learnt exceptionally on such spectra.

Nuzhny, Anton S.; Shumsky, Sergey A.; Korzhov, Alexey G.; Lyubynskaya, Tatiana E.

2008-02-01

59

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normalization is important for Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT data due to the very small capacitance values obtained either from the physical or simulated ECT system. Thus far, there are two commonly used normalization methods for ECT, but their suitability has not been investigated. This paper presents the work on comparing the performances of two Multilayer Perceptron (MLP neural networks; one trained based on ECT data normalized using the conventional equation and the other normalized using the improved equation, to recognize gas-oil flow patterns. The correct pattern recognition percentages for both MLPs were calculated and compared. The results showed that the MLP trained with the conventional ECT normalization equation out-performed the ones trained with the improved normalization data for the task of gas-oil pattern recognition.

Hafizah Talib

2009-02-01

60

Local linear perceptrons for classification.

A structure composed of local linear perceptrons for approximating global class discriminants is investigated. Such local linear models may be combined in a cooperative or competitive way. In the cooperative model, a weighted sum of the outputs of the local perceptrons is computed where the weight is a function of the distance between the input and the position of the local perceptron. In the competitive model, the cost function dictates a mixture model where only one of the local perceptrons give output. Learning of the local models' positions and the linear mappings they implement are coupled and both supervised. We show that this is preferable to the uncoupled case where the positions are trained in an unsupervised manner before the separate, supervised training of mappings. We use goodness criteria based on the cross-entropy and give learning equations for both the cooperative and competitive cases. The coupled and uncoupled versions of cooperative and competitive approaches are compared among themselves and with multilayer perceptrons of sigmoidal hidden units and radial basis functions (RBFs) of Gaussian units on the application of recognition of handwritten digits. The criteria of comparison are the generalization accuracy, learning time, and the number of free parameters. We conclude that even on such a high-dimensional problem, such local models are promising. They generalize much better than RBF's and use much less memory. When compared with multilayer perceptrons, we note that local models learn much faster and generalize as well and sometimes better with comparable number of parameters. PMID:18263476

Alpaydin, E; Jordan, M I

1996-01-01

61

This study proposes the use of multi-layer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN) to invert dispersion curves obtained via multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) for shear S-wave velocity profile. The dispersion curve used in inversion includes the fundamental-mode dispersion data. In order to investigate the applicability and performance of the proposed MLPNN algorithm, test studies were performed using both synthetic and field examples. Gaussian random noise with a standard deviation of 4 and 8% was added to the noise-free test data to make the synthetic test more realistic. The model parameters, such as S-wave velocities and thicknesses of the synthetic layered-earth model, were obtained for different S/N ratios and noise-free data. The field survey was performed over the natural gas pipeline, located in the Germencik district of Ayd?n city, western Turkey. The results show that depth, velocity, and location of the embedded natural gas pipe are successfully estimated with reasonably good approximation.

Çaylak, Ça?r?; Kaftan, ?lknur

2014-04-01

62

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, multilayered perceptron neural networks (MLPNNs) were presented for the computation of the gamma-ray energy absorption buildup factors (BA) of seven thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) materials [LiF, BeO, Na2B4O7, CaSO4, Li2B4O7, KMgF3, Ca3(PO4)2] in the energy region 0.015–15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 10 mfp (mean-free-path). The MLPNNs have been trained by a Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm. The developed model is in 99% agreement with the ANSI/ANS-6.4.3 standard data set. Furthermore, the model is fast and does not require tremendous computational efforts. The estimated BA data for TLD materials have been given with penetration depth and incident photon energy as comparative to the results of the interpolation method using the Geometrical Progression (G-P) fitting formula. - Highlights: ? Gamma-ray energy absorption buildup factors estimation in TLD materials. ? The ANN approach can be alternative to G-P fitting method for BA calculations. ? The applied model is not time-consuming and easily predicted

63

Storage capacity of correlated perceptrons

We consider an ensemble of $K$ single-layer perceptrons exposed to random inputs and investigate the conditions under which the couplings of these perceptrons can be chosen such that prescribed correlations between the outputs occur. A general formalism is introduced using a multi-perceptron costfunction that allows to determine the maximal number of random inputs as a function of the desired values of the correlations. Replica-symmetric results for $K=2$ and $K=3$ are compared with properties of two-layer networks of tree-structure and fixed Boolean function between hidden units and output. The results show which correlations in the hidden layer of multi-layer neural networks are crucial for the value of the storage capacity.

Malzahn, D; Kanter, Yu

1996-01-01

64

In this letter, we use the firing rates from an array of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to distinguish different chemical classes of volatile odorants. Bootstrapping is implemented for the optimized networks, providing an accurate estimate of a network's predicted values. Initially a simple linear predictor was used to assess the complexity of the data and was found to provide low prediction performance. A nonlinear ANN in the form of a single multilayer perceptron (MLP) was also used, providing a significant increase in prediction performance. The effect of the number of hidden layers and hidden neurons of the MLP was investigated and found to be effective in enhancing network performance with both a single and a double hidden layer investigated separately. A hybrid array of MLPs was investigated and compared against the single MLP architecture. The hybrid MLPs were found to classify all vectors of the validation set, presenting the highest degree of prediction accuracy. Adjustment of the number of hidden neurons was investigated, providing further performance gain. In addition, noise injection was investigated, proving successful for certain network designs. It was found that the best-performing MLP was that of the double-hidden-layer hybrid MLP network without the use of noise injection. Furthermore, the level of performance was examined when different numbers of OSNs used were varied from the maximum of 24 to only 5 OSNs. Finally, the ideal OSNs were identified that optimized network performance. The results obtained from this study provide strong evidence of the usefulness of ANNs in the field of olfaction for the future realization of a signal processing back end for an artificial olfactory biosensor. PMID:23020109

Bachtiar, Luqman R; Unsworth, Charles P; Newcomb, Richard D; Crampin, Edmund J

2013-01-01

65

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several neural network implementations using either software, hardware-based or a hardware/software co-design. This work proposes a hardware architecture to implement an artificial neural network (ANN, whose topology is the multilayer perceptron (MLP. In this paper, we explore the parallelism of neural networks and allow on-thefly changes of the number of inputs, number of layers and number of neurons per layer of the net. This reconfigurability characteristic permits that any application of ANNs may be implemented using the proposed hardware. In order to reduce the processing time that is spent in arithmetic computation, a real number is represented using a fraction of integers. In this way, the arithmetics is limited to integer operations, performed by fast combinational circuits. A simple state machine is required to control sums and products of fractions. Sigmoid is used as the activation function in the proposed implementation. It is approximated by polynomials, whose underlying computation requires only sums and products. A theorem is introduced and proven so as to cover the arithmetic strategy of the computation of the activation function. Thus, the arithmetic circuitry used to implement the neuron weighted sum is reused for computing the sigmoid. this resource sharing decreased drastically the total area of the system. After modeling and simulation for functionality validation, the proposed architecture synthesized using reconfigurable hardware. The results are promising.Em termos computacionais, uma rede neural artificial (RNA pode ser implementada em software ou em hardware, ou ainda de maneira híbrida, combinando ambos os recursos. O presente trabalho propõe uma arquitetura de hardware para a computação de uma rede neural do tipo perceptron com múltiplas camadas (MLP. Soluções em hardware tendem a ser mais eficientes do que soluções em software. O projeto em questão, além de explorar fortemente o paralelismo das redes neurais, permite alterações do número de entradas, número de camadas e de neurônios por camada, de modo que diversas aplicações de RNAs possam ser executadas no hardware proposto. Visando a uma redução de tempo do processamento aritmético, um número real é aproximado por uma fração de inteiros. Dessa forma, as operações aritméticas limitam-se a operações inteiras, executadas por circuitos combinacionais. Uma simples máquina de estados é demandada para controlar somas e produtos de frações. A função de ativação usada neste projeto é a sigmóide. Essa função é aproximada mediante o uso de polinômios, cujas operações são regidas por somas e produtos. Um teorema é introduzido e provado, permitindo a fundamentação da estratégia de cálculo da função de ativação. Dessa forma, reaproveita-se o circuito aritmético da soma ponderada para também computar a sigmóide. Essa re-utilização dos recursos levou a uma redução drástica de área total de circuito. Após modelagem e simulação para validação do bom funcionamento, a arquitetura proposta foi sintetizada utilizando recursos reconfiguráveis, do tipo FPGA. Os resultados são promissores.

Rodrigo Martins da Silva

2011-12-01

66

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em termos computacionais, uma rede neural artificial (RNA) pode ser implementada em software ou em hardware, ou ainda de maneira híbrida, combinando ambos os recursos. O presente trabalho propõe uma arquitetura de hardware para a computação de uma rede neural do tipo perceptron com múltiplas camadas [...] (MLP). Soluções em hardware tendem a ser mais eficientes do que soluções em software. O projeto em questão, além de explorar fortemente o paralelismo das redes neurais, permite alterações do número de entradas, número de camadas e de neurônios por camada, de modo que diversas aplicações de RNAs possam ser executadas no hardware proposto. Visando a uma redução de tempo do processamento aritmético, um número real é aproximado por uma fração de inteiros. Dessa forma, as operações aritméticas limitam-se a operações inteiras, executadas por circuitos combinacionais. Uma simples máquina de estados é demandada para controlar somas e produtos de frações. A função de ativação usada neste projeto é a sigmóide. Essa função é aproximada mediante o uso de polinômios, cujas operações são regidas por somas e produtos. Um teorema é introduzido e provado, permitindo a fundamentação da estratégia de cálculo da função de ativação. Dessa forma, reaproveita-se o circuito aritmético da soma ponderada para também computar a sigmóide. Essa re-utilização dos recursos levou a uma redução drástica de área total de circuito. Após modelagem e simulação para validação do bom funcionamento, a arquitetura proposta foi sintetizada utilizando recursos reconfiguráveis, do tipo FPGA. Os resultados são promissores. Abstract in english There are several neural network implementations using either software, hardware-based or a hardware/software co-design. This work proposes a hardware architecture to implement an artificial neural network (ANN), whose topology is the multilayer perceptron (MLP). In this paper, we explore the parall [...] elism of neural networks and allow on-thefly changes of the number of inputs, number of layers and number of neurons per layer of the net. This reconfigurability characteristic permits that any application of ANNs may be implemented using the proposed hardware. In order to reduce the processing time that is spent in arithmetic computation, a real number is represented using a fraction of integers. In this way, the arithmetics is limited to integer operations, performed by fast combinational circuits. A simple state machine is required to control sums and products of fractions. Sigmoid is used as the activation function in the proposed implementation. It is approximated by polynomials, whose underlying computation requires only sums and products. A theorem is introduced and proven so as to cover the arithmetic strategy of the computation of the activation function. Thus, the arithmetic circuitry used to implement the neuron weighted sum is reused for computing the sigmoid. this resource sharing decreased drastically the total area of the system. After modeling and simulation for functionality validation, the proposed architecture synthesized using reconfigurable hardware. The results are promising.

Rodrigo Martins da, Silva; Luiza de Macedo, Mourelle; Nadia, Nedjah.

67

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em termos computacionais, uma rede neural artificial (RNA) pode ser implementada em software ou em hardware, ou ainda de maneira híbrida, combinando ambos os recursos. O presente trabalho propõe uma arquitetura de hardware para a computação de uma rede neural do tipo perceptron com múltiplas camadas [...] (MLP). Soluções em hardware tendem a ser mais eficientes do que soluções em software. O projeto em questão, além de explorar fortemente o paralelismo das redes neurais, permite alterações do número de entradas, número de camadas e de neurônios por camada, de modo que diversas aplicações de RNAs possam ser executadas no hardware proposto. Visando a uma redução de tempo do processamento aritmético, um número real é aproximado por uma fração de inteiros. Dessa forma, as operações aritméticas limitam-se a operações inteiras, executadas por circuitos combinacionais. Uma simples máquina de estados é demandada para controlar somas e produtos de frações. A função de ativação usada neste projeto é a sigmóide. Essa função é aproximada mediante o uso de polinômios, cujas operações são regidas por somas e produtos. Um teorema é introduzido e provado, permitindo a fundamentação da estratégia de cálculo da função de ativação. Dessa forma, reaproveita-se o circuito aritmético da soma ponderada para também computar a sigmóide. Essa re-utilização dos recursos levou a uma redução drástica de área total de circuito. Após modelagem e simulação para validação do bom funcionamento, a arquitetura proposta foi sintetizada utilizando recursos reconfiguráveis, do tipo FPGA. Os resultados são promissores. Abstract in english There are several neural network implementations using either software, hardware-based or a hardware/software co-design. This work proposes a hardware architecture to implement an artificial neural network (ANN), whose topology is the multilayer perceptron (MLP). In this paper, we explore the parall [...] elism of neural networks and allow on-thefly changes of the number of inputs, number of layers and number of neurons per layer of the net. This reconfigurability characteristic permits that any application of ANNs may be implemented using the proposed hardware. In order to reduce the processing time that is spent in arithmetic computation, a real number is represented using a fraction of integers. In this way, the arithmetics is limited to integer operations, performed by fast combinational circuits. A simple state machine is required to control sums and products of fractions. Sigmoid is used as the activation function in the proposed implementation. It is approximated by polynomials, whose underlying computation requires only sums and products. A theorem is introduced and proven so as to cover the arithmetic strategy of the computation of the activation function. Thus, the arithmetic circuitry used to implement the neuron weighted sum is reused for computing the sigmoid. this resource sharing decreased drastically the total area of the system. After modeling and simulation for functionality validation, the proposed architecture synthesized using reconfigurable hardware. The results are promising.

Rodrigo Martins da, Silva; Luiza de Macedo, Mourelle; Nadia, Nedjah.

2011-12-01

68

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó un estudio estadístico de variables físico químicas asociadas al fenómeno de contaminación ambiental, en particular concentración media mensual de SO2 , medidas en la ciudad Salta Capital, Argentina, simultáneamente a concentraciones de NO2 y O3 . Las series bajo estudio presentaban comportamientos dinámicos no lineales, datos atípicos y cambios estructurales, lo que hizo imposible modelarlas con tipologías econométricas tradiciones (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, entre otras. Una solución eficiente que se encontró, hace uso de la teoría de los perceptrones multicapa. Mediante el modelo estructural de series de tiempo, esta solución se presenta como un proceso matemático iterativo que permite obtener un modelado final el cual tiene una muy alta confiabilidad (95%, para realizar pronoósticos a futuro sobre el comportamiento de la variable estudiada.In this paper a statistical study of phisical-chemistry variables connected with enviroment pollution, specifically SO2 monthly average concentration, measured in Salta Capital city, Argentina, together with NO2 and O3 concentrations, was made. Time series under study shown non linear dinamic behaviour, outliers and structural changes. Due to these it was impossible to use typical econometric typologies (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, among others. An effective solution which uses multistep perceptrons theory was found. By using structural time series modelling, this solution is presented by an iterative mathematical process that allows us to obtain a final model with a high confidence level (95% in order to do the forecasting step on the studied variable.

Haydeé Elena Musso

2013-01-01

69

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se realizó un estudio estadístico de variables físico químicas asociadas al fenómeno de contaminación ambiental, en particular concentración media mensual de SO2 , medidas en la ciudad Salta Capital, Argentina, simultáneamente a concentraciones de NO2 y O3 . Las series bajo estudio p [...] resentaban comportamientos dinámicos no lineales, datos atípicos y cambios estructurales, lo que hizo imposible modelarlas con tipologías econométricas tradiciones (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, entre otras). Una solución eficiente que se encontró, hace uso de la teoría de los perceptrones multicapa. Mediante el modelo estructural de series de tiempo, esta solución se presenta como un proceso matemático iterativo que permite obtener un modelado final el cual tiene una muy alta confiabilidad (95%), para realizar pronoósticos a futuro sobre el comportamiento de la variable estudiada. Abstract in english In this paper a statistical study of phisical-chemistry variables connected with enviroment pollution, specifically SO2 monthly average concentration, measured in Salta Capital city, Argentina, together with NO2 and O3 concentrations, was made. Time series under study shown non linear dinamic behavi [...] our, outliers and structural changes. Due to these it was impossible to use typical econometric typologies (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, among others). An effective solution which uses multistep perceptrons theory was found. By using structural time series modelling, this solution is presented by an iterative mathematical process that allows us to obtain a final model with a high confidence level (95%) in order to do the forecasting step on the studied variable.

Haydeé Elena, Musso; Orlando José, Ávila Blas.

2013-01-01

70

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se realizó un estudio estadístico de variables físico químicas asociadas al fenómeno de contaminación ambiental, en particular concentración media mensual de SO2 , medidas en la ciudad Salta Capital, Argentina, simultáneamente a concentraciones de NO2 y O3 . Las series bajo estudio p [...] resentaban comportamientos dinámicos no lineales, datos atípicos y cambios estructurales, lo que hizo imposible modelarlas con tipologías econométricas tradiciones (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, entre otras). Una solución eficiente que se encontró, hace uso de la teoría de los perceptrones multicapa. Mediante el modelo estructural de series de tiempo, esta solución se presenta como un proceso matemático iterativo que permite obtener un modelado final el cual tiene una muy alta confiabilidad (95%), para realizar pronoósticos a futuro sobre el comportamiento de la variable estudiada. Abstract in english In this paper a statistical study of phisical-chemistry variables connected with enviroment pollution, specifically SO2 monthly average concentration, measured in Salta Capital city, Argentina, together with NO2 and O3 concentrations, was made. Time series under study shown non linear dinamic behavi [...] our, outliers and structural changes. Due to these it was impossible to use typical econometric typologies (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, among others). An effective solution which uses multistep perceptrons theory was found. By using structural time series modelling, this solution is presented by an iterative mathematical process that allows us to obtain a final model with a high confidence level (95%) in order to do the forecasting step on the studied variable.

Haydeé Elena, Musso; Orlando José, Ávila Blas.

71

Storage capacity of correlated perceptrons

We consider an ensemble of K single-layer perceptrons exposed to random inputs and investigate the conditions under which the couplings of these perceptrons can be chosen such that prescribed correlations between the outputs occur. A general formalism is introduced using a multiperceptron cost function that allows one to determine the maximal number of random inputs as a function of the desired values of the correlations. Replica-symmetric results for K=2 and K=3 are compared with properties of two-layer networks of tree-structure and fixed Boolean function between hidden units and output. The results show which correlations in the hidden layer of multilayer neural networks are crucial for the value of the storage capacity.

Malzahn, D.; Engel, A.; Kanter, I.

1997-06-01

72

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El perceptrón multicapa (PMC) figura dentro de los tipos de redes neuronales artificiales (RNA) con resultados útiles en los estudios de relación estructura-actividad. Dado que los volúmenes de datos en proyectos de Bioinformática son eventualmente grandes, se propuso evaluar algoritmos para acortar [...] el tiempo de entrenamiento de la red sin afectar su eficiencia. Se desarrolló un algoritmo para el entrenamiento local y distribuido del PMC con la posibilidad de variar las funciones de transferencias para lo cual se utilizaron el Weka y la Plataforma de Tareas Distribuidas Tarenal para distribuir el entrenamiento del perceptrón multicapa. Se demostró que en dependencia de la muestra de entrenamiento, la variación de las funciones de transferencia pueden reportar resultados mucho más eficientes que los obtenidos con la clásica función Sigmoidal, con incremento de la g-media entre el 4.5 y el 17 %. Se encontró además que en los entrenamientos distribuidos es posible alcanzar eventualmente mejores resultados que los logrados en ambiente local. Abstract in english The multilayer perceptron (PMC) ranks among the types of artificial neural networks (ANN), which has provided better results in studies of structure-activity relationship. As the data volumes in Bioinformatics' projects are eventually big, it was proposed to evaluate algorithms to shorten the traini [...] ng time of the network without affecting its efficiency. There were evaluated different tools that work with ANN and were selected Weka algorithm for extracting the network and the Platform for Distributed Task Tarenal to distribute the training of multilayer perceptron. Finally, it was developed a training algorithm for local and distributed the MLP with the possibility of varying transfer functions. It was shown that depending on the training sample, the change of transfer functions can yield results much more efficient than those obtained with the classic sigmoid function with increased g-media between 4.5 and 17 %. Moreover, it was found that with distributed training can be achieved eventually, better results than those achieved in the local environment.

Yuleidys, Mejías César; Ramón, Carrasco Velar; Isbel, Ochoa Izquierdo; Edel, Moreno Lemus.

73

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El perceptrón multicapa (PMC) figura dentro de los tipos de redes neuronales artificiales (RNA) con resultados útiles en los estudios de relación estructura-actividad. Dado que los volúmenes de datos en proyectos de Bioinformática son eventualmente grandes, se propuso evaluar algoritmos para acortar [...] el tiempo de entrenamiento de la red sin afectar su eficiencia. Se desarrolló un algoritmo para el entrenamiento local y distribuido del PMC con la posibilidad de variar las funciones de transferencias para lo cual se utilizaron el Weka y la Plataforma de Tareas Distribuidas Tarenal para distribuir el entrenamiento del perceptrón multicapa. Se demostró que en dependencia de la muestra de entrenamiento, la variación de las funciones de transferencia pueden reportar resultados mucho más eficientes que los obtenidos con la clásica función Sigmoidal, con incremento de la g-media entre el 4.5 y el 17 %. Se encontró además que en los entrenamientos distribuidos es posible alcanzar eventualmente mejores resultados que los logrados en ambiente local. Abstract in english The multilayer perceptron (PMC) ranks among the types of artificial neural networks (ANN), which has provided better results in studies of structure-activity relationship. As the data volumes in Bioinformatics' projects are eventually big, it was proposed to evaluate algorithms to shorten the traini [...] ng time of the network without affecting its efficiency. There were evaluated different tools that work with ANN and were selected Weka algorithm for extracting the network and the Platform for Distributed Task Tarenal to distribute the training of multilayer perceptron. Finally, it was developed a training algorithm for local and distributed the MLP with the possibility of varying transfer functions. It was shown that depending on the training sample, the change of transfer functions can yield results much more efficient than those obtained with the classic sigmoid function with increased g-media between 4.5 and 17 %. Moreover, it was found that with distributed training can be achieved eventually, better results than those achieved in the local environment.

Yuleidys, Mejías César; Ramón, Carrasco Velar; Isbel, Ochoa Izquierdo; Edel, Moreno Lemus.

2013-12-01

74

The synaptic morphological perceptron

In recent years, several researchers have constructed novel neural network models based on lattice algebra. Because of computational similarities to operations in the system of image morphology, these models are often called morphological neural networks. One neural model that has been successfully applied to many pattern recognition problems is the single-layer morphological perceptron with dendritic structure (SLMP). In this model, the fundamental computations are performed at dendrites connected to the body of a single neuron. Current training algorithms for the SLMP work by enclosing the target patterns in a set of hyperboxes orthogonal to the axes of the data space. This work introduces an alternate model of the SLMP, dubbed the synaptic morphological perceptron (SMP). In this model, each dendrite has one or more synapses that receive connections from inputs. The SMP can learn any region of space determined by an arbitrary configuration of hyperplanes, and is not restricted to forming hyperboxes during training. Thus, it represents a more general form of the morphological perceptron than previous architectures.

Myers, Daniel S.

2006-08-01

75

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos al desarrollar una metodología para la detección de 5 tipos de latidos cardiacos (Normal (N), Bloqueo de Rama Derecha (RBBB), Bloqueo de Rama Izquierda (LBBB), Contracción Auricular Prematura (APC) y Contracción Ventricular Prematura (PVC)) utilizando [...] la transformada por paquetes Wavelet de manera no adaptativa en la extracción de características de las señales cardiacas, empleando la función Shanon para cálculo de la entropía y adicionando una fase de identificación de nodos por cada tipo de señal cardiaca en el árbol Wavelet. La utilización de la transformada por paquetes Wavelet permite acceder a información obtenida de la descomposición tanto de baja como de alta frecuencia proporcionando un análisis más integral que el logrado con la transformada Wavelet discreta. Se evaluaron Wavelets madre de las familias Daubechies, Symlet 5 y Biortogonal inversa; que fueron resultado de una investigación previa en que se identificaron las Wavelet madre que mayor entropía presentaban con las señales cardiacas. Con la modalidad no adaptativa se reduce el costo computacional al utilizar los paquetes Wavelet, coste que representa la mayor desventaja de esta transformada, dando validez a la investigación realizada. Para la clasificación de los patrones cardiacos se emplearon las máquinas de soporte vectorial y el perceptrón multicapa. Con las máquinas de soporte vectorial empleando kernel de función de base radial, se logró un error de clasificación del 2,57 %. Abstract in english This paper presents the results obtained by developing a methodology to detect 5 types of heartbeats (Normal (N), Right bundle branch block (RBBB), Left bundle branch block (LBBB), Premature atrial contraction (APC) and Premature ventricular contraction (PVC)), using Wavelet transform packets with n [...] on-adaptative mode applied on features extraction from heartbeats. It was used the Shannon function to calculate the entropy and It was added an identification nodes stage per every type of cardiac signal in the Wavelet tree. The using of Wavelet packets transform allows the access to information which results of decomposition of low and high frecuency, giving providing a more integral analysis than achieved by the discrete Wavelet transform. Three families of mother Wavelet were evaluated on transformation: Daubechies, Symlet and Reverse Biorthogonal, which were results from a previous research in that were identified the mother Wavelet that had higher entropy with the cardiac signals. With non-adaptive mode, the computational cost is reduced when Wavelet packets are used; this cost represents the most marked disadvantage from the transform. To classify the heartbeats were used Support Vector Machines and Multilayer Perceptron. The best classification error was achieved employing Support Vector Machine and a radial basis function; it was 2.57 %.

Alejandro J., Orozco-Naranjo; Pablo A., Muñoz-Gutiérrez.

2013-12-30

76

The Perceptron with Dynamic Margin

The classical perceptron rule provides a varying upper bound on the maximum margin, namely the length of the current weight vector divided by the total number of updates up to that time. Requiring that the perceptron updates its internal state whenever the normalized margin of a pattern is found not to exceed a certain fraction of this dynamic upper bound we construct a new approximate maximum margin classifier called the perceptron with dynamic margin (PDM). We demonstrate that PDM converges in a finite number of steps and derive an upper bound on them. We also compare experimentally PDM with other perceptron-like algorithms and support vector machines on hard margin tasks involving linear kernels which are equivalent to 2-norm soft margin.

Panagiotakopoulos, Constantinos

2011-01-01

77

Predicting shifts in generalization gradients with perceptrons.

Perceptron models have been used extensively to model perceptual learning and the effects of discrimination training on generalization, as well as to explore natural classification mechanisms. Here, we assess the ability of existing models to account for the time course of generalization shifts that occur when individuals learn to distinguish sounds. A set of simulations demonstrates that commonly used single-layer and multilayer perceptron networks do not predict transitory shifts in generalization over the course of training but that such dynamics can be accounted for when the output functions of these networks are modified to mimic the properties of cortical tuning curves. The simulations further suggest that prudent selection of stimuli and training criteria can allow for more precise predictions of learning-related shifts in generalization gradients in behavioral experiments. In particular, the simulations predict that individuals will show maximal peak shift after different numbers of trials, that easier contrasts will lead to slower development of shifted peaks, and that whether generalization shifts persist or dissipate will depend on which stimulus dimensions individuals use to distinguish stimuli and how those dimensions are neurally encoded. PMID:21983938

Wisniewski, Matthew G; Radell, Milen L; Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B; Mercado, Eduardo

2012-06-01

78

Prior estimation of motion using recursive perceptron with sEMG: a case of wrist angle.

Muscle activity is followed by myoelectric potentials. Prior estimation of motion by surface electromyography can be utilized to assist the physically impaired people as well as surgeon. In this paper, we proposed a real-time method for the prior estimation of motion from surface electromyography, especially in the case of wrist angle. The method was based on the recursive processing of multi-layer perceptron, which is trained quickly. A single layer perceptron calculates quasi tensional force of muscles from surface electromyography. A three-layer perceptron calculates the wrist's change in angle. In order to estimate a variety of motions properly, the perceptron was designed to estimate motion in a short time period, e.g. 1ms. Recursive processing enables the method to estimate motion in the target time period, e.g. 50ms. The results of the experiments showed statistical significance for the precedence of estimated angle to the measured one. PMID:23367118

Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Takeshi; Imura, Masataka; Oshiro, Osamu

2012-01-01

79

A learning rule for very simple universal approximators consisting of a single layer of perceptrons.

One may argue that the simplest type of neural networks beyond a single perceptron is an array of several perceptrons in parallel. In spite of their simplicity, such circuits can compute any Boolean function if one views the majority of the binary perceptron outputs as the binary output of the parallel perceptron, and they are universal approximators for arbitrary continuous functions with values in [0,1] if one views the fraction of perceptrons that output 1 as the analog output of the parallel perceptron. Note that in contrast to the familiar model of a "multi-layer perceptron" the parallel perceptron that we consider here has just binary values as outputs of gates on the hidden layer. For a long time one has thought that there exists no competitive learning algorithm for these extremely simple neural networks, which also came to be known as committee machines. It is commonly assumed that one has to replace the hard threshold gates on the hidden layer by sigmoidal gates (or RBF-gates) and that one has to tune the weights on at least two successive layers in order to achieve satisfactory learning results for any class of neural networks that yield universal approximators. We show that this assumption is not true, by exhibiting a simple learning algorithm for parallel perceptrons - the parallel delta rule (p-delta rule). In contrast to backprop for multi-layer perceptrons, the p-delta rule only has to tune a single layer of weights, and it does not require the computation and communication of analog values with high precision. Reduced communication also distinguishes our new learning rule from other learning rules for parallel perceptrons such as MADALINE. Obviously these features make the p-delta rule attractive as a biologically more realistic alternative to backprop in biological neural circuits, but also for implementations in special purpose hardware. We show that the p-delta rule also implements gradient descent-with regard to a suitable error measure-although it does not require to compute derivatives. Furthermore it is shown through experiments on common real-world benchmark datasets that its performance is competitive with that of other learning approaches from neural networks and machine learning. It has recently been shown [Anthony, M. (2007). On the generalization error of fixed combinations of classifiers. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 73(5), 725-734; Anthony, M. (2004). On learning a function of perceptrons. In Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE international joint conference on neural networks (pp. 967-972): Vol. 2] that one can also prove quite satisfactory bounds for the generalization error of this new learning rule. PMID:18249524

Auer, Peter; Burgsteiner, Harald; Maass, Wolfgang

2008-06-01

80

A novel single neuron perceptron with universal approximation and XOR computation properties.

We propose a biologically motivated brain-inspired single neuron perceptron (SNP) with universal approximation and XOR computation properties. This computational model extends the input pattern and is based on the excitatory and inhibitory learning rules inspired from neural connections in the human brain's nervous system. The resulting architecture of SNP can be trained by supervised excitatory and inhibitory online learning rules. The main features of proposed single layer perceptron are universal approximation property and low computational complexity. The method is tested on 6 UCI (University of California, Irvine) pattern recognition and classification datasets. Various comparisons with multilayer perceptron (MLP) with gradient decent backpropagation (GDBP) learning algorithm indicate the superiority of the approach in terms of higher accuracy, lower time, and spatial complexity, as well as faster training. Hence, we believe the proposed approach can be generally applicable to various problems such as in pattern recognition and classification. PMID:24868200

Lotfi, Ehsan; Akbarzadeh-T, M-R

2014-01-01

81

Feature competition and domain of attraction in artificial-perceptron pattern recognizer

As we reported previously, learning of a multi-layered hard-limited perceptron can be formulated into a set of simultaneous linear inequalities. Solving these inequalities under a given training set would then allow us to achieve the goal of learning in this system. If the dimension N of the input vector is much larger than the number M of different patterns to be learned, then there is considerable freedom for the system to select a proper solution of the connection matrix. In most cases, even a single layer perceptron will do the learning satisfactorily. This paper reports the results of some theoretical and experimental studies of this one-layered, hard-limited perceptron trained under the novel, one-step, noniterative learning scheme. Particularly, the analysis of some important properties of this novel learning system, such as automatic feature competition, domain of convergence, and robustness of recognition, are discussed in detail.

Hu, Chia-Lun J.

1993-10-01

82

Online learning in a chemical perceptron.

Autonomous learning implemented purely by means of a synthetic chemical system has not been previously realized. Learning promotes reusability and minimizes the system design to simple input-output specification. In this article we introduce a chemical perceptron, the first full-featured implementation of a perceptron in an artificial (simulated) chemistry. A perceptron is the simplest system capable of learning, inspired by the functioning of a biological neuron. Our artificial chemistry is deterministic and discrete-time, and follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. We present two models, the weight-loop perceptron and the weight-race perceptron, which represent two possible strategies for a chemical implementation of linear integration and threshold. Both chemical perceptrons can successfully identify all 14 linearly separable two-input logic functions and maintain high robustness against rate-constant perturbations. We suggest that DNA strand displacement could, in principle, provide an implementation substrate for our model, allowing the chemical perceptron to perform reusable, programmable, and adaptable wet biochemical computing. PMID:23514238

Banda, Peter; Teuscher, Christof; Lakin, Matthew R

2013-01-01

83

Simulation is often used to evaluate the relevance of a Directing Program of Production (PDP) or to evaluate its impact on detailed sc\\'enarii of scheduling. Within this framework, we propose to reduce the complexity of a model of simulation by exploiting a multilayer perceptron. A main phase of the modeling of one system using a multilayer perceptron remains the determination of the structure of the network. We propose to compare and use various pruning algorithms in order to determine the optimal structure of the network used to reduce the complexity of the model of simulation of our case of application: a sawmill.

Thomas, Philippe

2008-01-01

84

Fuzzy and Multilayer Perceptron for Evaluation of HV Bushings

The work proposes the application of fuzzy set theory (FST) to diagnose the condition of high voltage bushings. The diagnosis uses dissolved gas analysis (DGA) data from bushings based on IEC60599 and IEEE C57-104 criteria for oil impregnated paper (OIP) bushings. FST and neural networks are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Both FST and NN simulations were able to diagnose the bushings condition with 10% error. By using fuzzy theory, the maintenance department can classify bushings and know the extent of degradation in the component.

Dhlamini, Sizwe M; Majozi, Thokozani

2007-01-01

85

Classification of fuels using multilayer perceptron neural networks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical impedance data obtained with an array of conducting polymer chemical sensors was used by a neural network (ANN) to classify fuel adulteration. Real samples were classified with accuracy greater than 90% in two groups: approved and adulterated.

86

FPGA Implementation of Multilayer Perceptron for Modeling of Photovoltaic panel

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Number of electronic applications using artificial neural network-based solutions has increased considerably in the last few years. However, their applications in photovoltaic systems are very limited. This paper introduces the preliminary result of the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic panel based on neural network and VHDL-language. In fact, an experimental database of meteorological data (irradiation, temperature) and output electrical generation signals of the PV-panel (current and voltage) has been used in this study. The inputs of the ANN-PV-panel are the daily total irradiation and mean average temperature while the outputs are the current and voltage generated from the panel. Firstly, a dataset of 4x364 have been used for training the network. Subsequently, the neural network (MLP) corresponding to PV-panel is simulated using VHDL language based on the saved weights and bias of the network. Simulation results of the trained MLP-PV panel based on Matlab and VHDL are presented. The proposed PV-panel model based ANN and VHDL permit to evaluate the performance PV-panel using only the environmental factors and involves less computational efforts, and it can be used for predicting the output electrical energy from the PV-panel

87

Classification of Parking Spots Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project intends to develop a prototype for the identification of free spots in open air parking area where there is a good aerial view without obstacles, allowing for the identification of occupied and free spots. We used image processing techniques and pattern recognition using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In order to help implement the prototype, we used Matlab. In order to simulate the parking area, we created a model so that we could acquire the images using a webcam, process th...

Falcao, H. S.; Lovato, A. V.; Dos, Santos A. F.; Oliveira, L. S.

2013-01-01

88

Classification of Parking Spots Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project intends to develop a prototype for the identification of free spots in open air parking area where there is a good aerial view without obstacles, allowing for the identification of occupied and free spots. We used image processing techniques and pattern recognition using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. In order to help implement the prototype, we used Matlab. In order to simulate the parking area, we created a model so that we could acquire the images using a webcam, process them, train the neural network, classify the spots and finally, show the results. The results show that it is viable to apply pattern recognition through image capture to classify parking spots

FALCAO, H. S.

2013-12-01

89

The margitron: a generalized perceptron with margin.

We identify the classical perceptron algorithm with margin as a member of a broader family of large margin classifiers, which we collectively call the margitron. The margitron, (despite its) sharing the same update rule with the perceptron, is shown in an incremental setting to converge in a finite number of updates to solutions possessing any desirable fraction of the maximum margin. We also report on experiments comparing the margitron with decomposition support vector machines, cutting-plane algorithms, and gradient descent methods on hard margin tasks involving linear kernels which are equivalent to 2-norm soft margin. Our results suggest that the margitron is very competitive. PMID:21216709

Panagiotakopoulos, Constantinos; Tsampouka, Petroula

2011-03-01

90

Parallel strategy for optimal learning in perceptrons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a parallel strategy for learning optimally specific realizable rules by perceptrons, in an online learning scenario. Our result is a generalization of the Caticha-Kinouchi (CK) algorithm developed for learning a perceptron with a synaptic vector drawn from a uniform distribution over the N-dimensional sphere, so called the typical case. Our method outperforms the CK algorithm in almost all possible situations, failing only in a denumerable set of cases. The algorithm is optimal in the sense that it saturates Bayesian bounds when it succeeds.

91

Learning by a population of perceptrons

Learning by examples of a population of neural networks is studied in a statistical physics framework. A population of single-layer perceptrons learns from a two-layer neural network. Each member is trained independently either from the same or from different example sets. The outputs of multiple networks are combined by majority vote. We calculate the generalization curve of the group decision of the perceptrons with both discrete and continuous weights. We find an interesting nonmonotonic learning curve for the case of discrete weights, indicating that majority vote shows optimal performance when the size of the example set is finite.

Kang, Kukjin; Oh, Jong-Hoon; Kwon, Chulan

1997-03-01

92

Learning action representations using kernel perceptrons

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Action representation is fundamental to many aspects of cognition, including language. Theories of situated cognition suggest that the form of such representation is distinctively determined by grounding in the real world. This thesis tackles the question of how to ground action representations, and proposes an approach for learning action models in noisy, partially observable domains, using deictic representations and kernel perceptrons. Agents operating in real-world setti...

Mourao, Kira Margaret Thom

2012-01-01

93

Ensemble learning of linear perceptron; Online learning theory

Within the framework of on-line learning, we study the generalization error of an ensemble learning machine learning from a linear teacher perceptron. The generalization error achieved by an ensemble of linear perceptrons having homogeneous or inhomogeneous initial weight vectors is precisely calculated at the thermodynamic limit of a large number of input elements and shows rich behavior. Our main findings are as follows. For learning with homogeneous initial weight vectors, the generalization error using an infinite number of linear student perceptrons is equal to only half that of a single linear perceptron, and converges with that of the infinite case with O(1/K) for a finite number of K linear perceptrons. For learning with inhomogeneous initial weight vectors, it is advantageous to use an approach of weighted averaging over the output of the linear perceptrons, and we show the conditions under which the optimal weights are constant during the learning process. The optimal weights depend on only correlat...

Hara, K; Hara, Kazuyuki; Okada, Masato

2004-01-01

94

Perceptron with one layer based on optical devices

The perceptron is useful to be used in different forms and implemented into different technologies for could study of limits and development directions of neural networks in respectively technologies. In this paper the authors present, from theoretical point of view one model of perceptron with a single layer achieved with optoelectronic and optic devices. The showed perceptron has more advantage such as: its threshold can be modified, the type of inputs can be modified from excitatory to inhibitory and vice versa etc.

Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Stefania; Schiopu, Paul

2005-08-01

95

Generalization ability of perceptrons with continuous outputs

In this paper we examine the influence of different input-output relations on the generalization ability of a single-layer perceptron. The input-output relations can be linear, binary, or sigmoid. With this choice we take into account most of the cases which are of present interest. The generalization problem will be realizable or unrealizable if the input-output relations for teacher and student are identical or not. We show that sometimes it can have a positive effect on the generalization ability, if one learns with errors.

Bös, S.; Kinzel, W.; Opper, M.

1993-02-01

96

Experimental characterization of the perceptron laser rangefinder

In this report, we characterize experimentally a scanning laser rangefinder that employs active sensing to acquire three-dimensional images. We present experimental techniques applicable to a wide variety of laser scanners, and document the results of applying them to a device manufactured by Perceptron. Nominally, the sensor acquires data over a 60 deg x 60 deg field of view in 256 x 256 pixel images at 2 Hz. It digitizes both range and reflectance pixels to 12 bits, providing a maximum range of 40 m and a depth resolution of 1 cm. We present methods and results from experiments to measure geometric parameters including the field of view, angular scanning increments, and minimum sensing distance. We characterize qualitatively problems caused by implementation flaws, including internal reflections and range drift over time, and problems caused by inherent limitations of the rangefinding technology, including sensitivity to ambient light and surface material. We characterize statistically the precision and accuracy of the range measurements. We conclude that the performance of the Perceptron scanner does not compare favorably with the nominal performance, that scanner modifications are required, and that further experimentation must be conducted.

Kweon, I. S.; Hoffman, Regis; Krotkov, Eric

1991-01-01

97

Learning from correlated patterns by simple perceptrons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance

98

Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos, and its structure and learning algorithm are designed. The multilayer feedforward neural network, diagonal recurrent neural network, and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map. The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

99

A novel algorithm for tunable compression to within the precision of reproduction targets, or storage, is proposed. The new algorithm is termed the `Perceptron Algorithm', which utilises simple existing concepts in a novel way, has multiple immediate commercial application aspects as well as it opens up a multitude of fronts in computational science and technology. The aims of this paper are to present the concepts underlying the algorithm, observations by its application to some example cases, and the identification of a multitude of potential areas of applications such as: image compression by orders of magnitude, signal compression including sound as well, image analysis in a multilayered detailed analysis, pattern recognition and matching and rapid database searching (e.g. face recognition), motion analysis, biomedical applications e.g. in MRI and CAT scan image analysis and compression, as well as hints on the link of these ideas to the way how biological memory might work leading to new points of view i...

Vassiliadis, V S

2006-01-01

100

PENGENALAN CITRA OBJEK SEDERHANA DENGAN JARINGAN SARAF TIRUAN METODE PERCEPTRON

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Konsep bangunan dan benda-benda yang ada di sekeliling didasarkan dan dipengaruhi oleh konsep objek sederhana atau sering disebut geometri ruang tiga dimensi, yaitu memiliki panjang, lebar dan tinggi. Namun, dalam rancangan dan penggambarannya menggunakan gambar berdimensi dua saja. Sehingga pada konsep penggambarannya membutuhkan visualisasi yang lebih detail. Diharapkan jaringan syaraf tiruan metode perceptron dapat mengenali gambar yang sesuai dengan bentuk aslinya. Pada penelitian ini metode jaringan saraf yang digunakan adalah metode perceptron untuk mengenali citra objek sederhana. Objek yang digunakan yaitu bentuk bangun ruang yang terdiri dari kubus, kerucut, tabung, prisma, dan limas dengan berbagai jenisnya. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan pada pembuatan aplikasi ini adalah Borland Delphi 7.0. Dari hasil pelatihan dan pengujian jaringan saraf tiruan perceptron dapat mengenali pola dengan rata-rata 75,25 % dengan prosentase terendah yaitu 50,75 % dan prosentase tertinggi yaitu 92,65 %. Dengan prosentase yang cukup baik tersebut, sistem dapat digunakan untuk mengenali citra objek sederhana.

Ardi Pujiyanta

2012-05-01

101

Nonseparable data models for a single-layer perceptron

This paper describes two nonseparable data models that can be used to study the convergence properties of perceptron learning algorithms. A system identification formulation generates the training signal, with an input that is a zero-mean Gaussian random vector. One model is based on a two-layer perceptron configuration, while the second model has only one layer but with a multiplicative output node. The analysis in this paper focuses on Rosenblatt's training procedure, although the approach can be applied to other learning algorithms. Some examples of the performance surfaces are presented to illustrate possible convergence points of the algorithm for both nonseparable data models.

Shynk, John J.; Bershad, Neil J.

1992-07-01

102

Equivalence between learning in noisy perceptrons and tree committee machines

We study learning from single presentation of examples (on-line learning) in single-layer perceptrons and tree committee machines (TCMs). Lower bounds for the perceptron generalization error as a function of the noise level ? in the teacher output are calculated. We find that local learning in a TCM with K hidden units is simply related to learning in a simple perceptron with a corresponding noise level ?(K). For a large number of examples and finite K the generalization error decays as ?-1CM, where ?CM is the number of examples per adjustable weight in the TCM. We also show that on-line learning is possible even in the K-->? limit, but with the generalization error decaying as ?-1/2CM. The simple Hebb rule can also be applied to the TCM, but now the error decays as ?-1/2CM for finite K and ?-1/4CM for K-->?. Exponential decay of the generalization error in both the noisy perceptron learning and in the TCM is obtained by using the learning by queries strategy.

Copelli, Mauro; Kinouchi, Osame; Caticha, Nestor

1996-06-01

103

Dilution in Boolean perceptrons that learn from noisy examples

We investigate the effect of dilution after learning on the generalization ability of single-layer Boolean perceptrons that learn from noisy examples. We present a thorough comparison between the relative performances of several well known learning rules. In particular, we show that the effect of dilution is always deleterious, and that the Bayes algorithm always gives the best generalization performance.

Barbato, D. M. L.; Fontanari, J. F.

1996-11-01

104

Parallel perceptrons (PPs) are very simple and efficient committee machines (a single layer of perceptrons with threshold activation functions and binary outputs, and a majority voting decision scheme), which nevertheless behave as universal approximators. The parallel delta (P-Delta) rule is an effective training algorithm, which, following the ideas of statistical learning theory used by the support vector machine (SVM), raises its generalization ability by maximizing the difference between the perceptron activations for the training patterns and the activation threshold (which corresponds to the separating hyperplane). In this paper, we propose an analytical closed-form expression to calculate the PPs' weights for classification tasks. Our method, called Direct Parallel Perceptrons (DPPs), directly calculates (without iterations) the weights using the training patterns and their desired outputs, without any search or numeric function optimization. The calculated weights globally minimize an error function which simultaneously takes into account the training error and the classification margin. Given its analytical and noniterative nature, DPPs are computationally much more efficient than other related approaches (P-Delta and SVM), and its computational complexity is linear in the input dimensionality. Therefore, DPPs are very appealing, in terms of time complexity and memory consumption, and are very easy to use for high-dimensional classification tasks. On real benchmark datasets with two and multiple classes, DPPs are competitive with SVM and other approaches but they also allow online learning and, as opposed to most of them, have no tunable parameters. PMID:21984498

Fernandez-Delgado, Manuel; Ribeiro, Jorge; Cernadas, Eva; Ameneiro, Senén Barro

2011-11-01

105

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estimativa do perfil de concentração de clorofila, em águas naturais, a partir da radiação emergente na superfície de um corpo d'agua, com o uso de rede neural artificial do tipo Perceptron de Múltiplas Camadas. A concentração de clorofila está relacionada com os coeficientes de absorção e espalhame [...] nto via modelos bio-ópticos. O treinamento da rede é formulado como um problema de otimização, no qual a atualização das variáveis livres da rede (pesos, viés e parâmetros de cada função de ativação) é feita através do método quasi-Newton. Abstract in english In this work the average profile of chlorophyll concentration is estimated from the emitted radiation at the surface of natural waters. This is performed through the use an Artificial Neural Network of Multilayer Perceptron type to act as the inverse operator. Bio-optical models are used to correlat [...] e the chlorophyll concentration with the absorption and scattering coefficients. The network training is formulated as an optimization problem, in which the update of the free variables of network (weights, viéses and each slope of the activation functions) is performed through the quasi-Newton method.

F., Dall Cortivo; E. S., Chalhoub; H. F., Campos Velho.

2012-12-01

106

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estimativa do perfil de concentração de clorofila, em águas naturais, a partir da radiação emergente na superfície de um corpo d'agua, com o uso de rede neural artificial do tipo Perceptron de Múltiplas Camadas. A concentração de clorofila está relacionada com os coeficientes de absorção e espalhame [...] nto via modelos bio-ópticos. O treinamento da rede é formulado como um problema de otimização, no qual a atualização das variáveis livres da rede (pesos, viés e parâmetros de cada função de ativação) é feita através do método quasi-Newton. Abstract in english In this work the average profile of chlorophyll concentration is estimated from the emitted radiation at the surface of natural waters. This is performed through the use an Artificial Neural Network of Multilayer Perceptron type to act as the inverse operator. Bio-optical models are used to correlat [...] e the chlorophyll concentration with the absorption and scattering coefficients. The network training is formulated as an optimization problem, in which the update of the free variables of network (weights, viéses and each slope of the activation functions) is performed through the quasi-Newton method.

F., Dall Cortivo; E. S., Chalhoub; H. F., Campos Velho.

107

The Role of Weight Shrinking in Large Margin Perceptron Learning

We introduce into the classical perceptron algorithm with margin a mechanism that shrinks the current weight vector as a first step of the update. If the shrinking factor is constant the resulting algorithm may be regarded as a margin-error-driven version of NORMA with constant learning rate. In this case we show that the allowed strength of shrinking depends on the value of the maximum margin. We also consider variable shrinking factors for which there is no such dependence. In both cases we obtain new generalizations of the perceptron with margin able to provably attain in a finite number of steps any desirable approximation of the maximal margin hyperplane. The new approximate maximum margin classifiers appear experimentally to be very competitive in 2-norm soft margin tasks involving linear kernels.

Panagiotakopoulos, Constantinos

2012-01-01

108

Generalization in the programed teaching of a perceptron

According to a widely used model of learning and generalization in neural networks, a single neuron (perceptron) can learn from examples to imitate another neuron, called the teacher perceptron. We introduce a variant of this model in which examples within a layer of thickness 2Y around the decision surface are excluded from teaching. That restriction transmits global information about the teacher's rule. Therefore for a given number p=?N of presented examples (i.e., those outside of the layer) the generalization performance obtained by Boltzmannian learning is improved by setting Y to an optimum value Y0(?), which diverges for ?-->0 and remains nonzero while ?

Derényi, Imre; Geszti, Tamás; Györgyi, Géza

1994-10-01

109

Three Methods to Speed up the Training of Feedforward and Feedback Perceptrons.

Training of artificial neural networks is normally a time consuming task due to iterative search imposed by the implicit nonlinearity of the network behaviour. In this work, three improvements to "batch-mode" offline training methods, gradient-based or gradient-free, are proposed. For nonlinear multilayer perceptrons (NMLP) with linear output layers, a method based on linear regression in the output layer is presented. For arbitrary NMLPs, an algorithm is developed for detecting "saturated" hidden nodes and re-activating them while transferring their contribution onto the bias node in the same layer. For state-feedback NMLPs with incomplete learning data in the state variables, a method is shown that interpolates the unknown state values to form an intermediate training set used for finding good initial weights for the final training with only the original training set. In addition, three conventional gradient-based training methods-steepest-descent gradient search, conjugate gradient, and Gauss-Newton-are compared mutually and with the above improvements on the same two example problems. Where conventional methods get stuck in bad local minima, saturation avoidance leads to satisfactory results, and the speed-up achieved by the two other improvements is about two orders of magnitude. PMID:12662484

Agarwal, Mukul; Stäger, Fritz

1997-11-01

110

Convergence Analysis of Adaptive Recurrent Neural Network

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of a modified Feed Forward Multilayer Perceptron (FMP by inserting an ARMA (Auto Regressive Moving Average model at each neuron (processor node with the Backp ropagation learning algorithm. The stability analysis is presented to establish the convergence theory of the Back propagation algorithm based on the Lyapunov function. Furthermore, the analysis extends the Back propagation learning rule by introducing the adaptive learning factors. A range of possible learning factors is derived from the stability analysis. Performance of such network learning with adaptive learning factors is presented and demonstrates that the adaptive learning factor enhance the performance of training while avoiding oscillation phenomenon.

Hong Li

2014-06-01

111

FORECASTING ON FOREX MARKET WITH RBF AND PERCEPTRON NEURAL NETWORKS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with an alternative approach in financial modelling -artificial neural networks approach. The aim of this paper is to show that this type oftime series modelling is an excellent alternative to classical econometric modelling. Atfirst, neural networks using methods of supervised machine learning are discussed.After explaining theoretical basis of ANN, these models are then applied to specificexchange rate (AUD/USD. Finally, the comparison between statistical models andRBF and perceptron neural networks is made to illustrate the sense of using ANNmodels

ALEXANDRA KOTTILOVÁ

2012-01-01

112

Perceptron capacity revisited: classification ability for correlated patterns

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we address the problem of how many randomly labeled patterns can be correctly classified by a single-layer perceptron when the patterns are correlated with each other. In order to solve this problem, two analytical schemes are developed based on the replica method and the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) approach by utilizing an integral formula concerning random rectangular matrices. The validity and relevance of the developed methodologies are shown for one known result and two example problems. A message-passing algorithm to perform the TAP scheme is also presented.

Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: shinzato@sp.dis.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: kaba@dis.titech.ac.jp

2008-08-15

113

Learning algorithm that gives the Bayes generalization limit for perceptrons

A variational approach to the study of learning a linearly separable rule by a single-layer perceptron leads to a gradient descent learning algorithm with exactly the same generalization ability as the Bayes limit calculated by Opper and Haussler [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2677 (1991)]. This is done by finding, through the Gardner-Derrida replica method, the student-teacher overlap R as a functional of the algorithm cost function and maximizing this functional. The resulting cost function is closely related to the optimal cost function derived for on-line learning.

Kinouchi, Osame; Caticha, Nestor

1996-07-01

114

Perceptron capacity revisited: classification ability for correlated patterns

In this paper, we address the problem of how many randomly labeled patterns can be correctly classified by a single-layer perceptron when the patterns are correlated with each other. In order to solve this problem, two analytical schemes are developed based on the replica method and the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) approach by utilizing an integral formula concerning random rectangular matrices. The validity and relevance of the developed methodologies are shown for one known result and two example problems. A message-passing algorithm to perform the TAP scheme is also presented.

Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

2008-08-01

115

The reactor safety study with help of artificial neuron networks (multilayer perceptrons)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One deals with deposition of insulation large amounts on settling tank components that may result in malfunction of residual heat removal systems. Paper describes briefly simulation of pressure drops in confinement systems by means of an artificial neuron nets and compares the simulation data with the experiment ones

116

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are comparatively straightforward to understand and use in the analysis of scientific data. However, this relative transparency may encourage their use in an uncritical, and therefore possibly unproductive, fashion. The geometry of a network is among the most crucial factors in the successful deployment of network tools; in this review, we cover methods that can be used to determine optimum or near-optimum geometries. These methods of determining neural netwo...

Curteanu, S.; Cartwright, H.

2011-01-01

117

Classification of Polar-Thermal Eigenfaces using Multilayer Perceptron for Human Face Recognition

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a novel approach to handle the challenges of face recognition. In this work thermal face images are considered, which minimizes the affect of illumination changes and occlusion due to moustache, beards, adornments etc. The proposed approach registers the training and testing thermal face images in polar coordinate, which is capable to handle complicacies introduced by scaling and rotation. Polar images are projected into eigenspace and finally classified ...

Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

2010-01-01

118

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the segmentation of printed Bangla characters for efficient recognition of the characters. The segmentation of characters is an important step in the process of character recognitions because it allows the system to classify the characters more accurately and quickly. The system takes the scanned image file of the printed document as its input. A structural feature extraction method is used to extract the feature. In this case, each individual Bangla character is convert...

Md. Musfique Anwar; Nasrin Sultana Shume; Moniruzzaman, P. K. M.; Md. Al-Amin Bhuiyan

2010-01-01

119

Electron/pion identification in the CBM TRD using a multilayer perceptron

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of electron/pion identification in the CBM experiment based on the measurements of energy losses and transition radiation in the TRD detector is discussed. A possibility to solve such a problem by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) is considered. As input information for the network we used both the samples of energy losses of pions or electrons in the TRD absorbers and the 'clever' variable obtained on the basis of the original data. We show that usage of this new variable permits one to reach a reliable level of particle recognition no longer than after 10-20 training epochs; there are practically no fluctuations against the trend, and the needed level of pions suppression is obtained under the condition of a minimal loss of electrons

120

Visualization of learning in multilayer perceptron networks using principal component analysis.

This paper is concerned with the use of scientific visualization methods for the analysis of feedforward neural networks (NNs). Inevitably, the kinds of data associated with the design and implementation of neural networks are of very high dimensionality, presenting a major challenge for visualization. A method is described using the well-known statistical technique of principal component analysis (PCA). This is found to be an effective and useful method of visualizing the learning trajectories of many learning algorithms such as backpropagation and can also be used to provide insight into the learning process and the nature of the error surface. PMID:18238154

Gallagher, M; Downs, T

2003-01-01

121

A new and novel training algorithm, based upon the matrix pseudoinverse least-squares method, is introduced for training hidden layer, forward-feed neural networks with high accuracy and speed for nonlinear and chaotic time series prediction. Model-generated chaotic time series, including that of the Lorenz system, are used to measure performance and robustness. Our new training algorithm has rendered application of forward-feed, hidden-layer neural networks for adaptive chaotic time series analysis, as well as other signal processing, practical and near real time using standard desktop computation facilities. We have applied our method, in conjunction with other standard methods, to the analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering under cw pump conditions involving a single Stokes and pump signal in a single- mode optical fiber as the nonlinear medium. We use Stokes signal data generated from a standard model and correlate the training performance of our algorithm with statistical and dynamical characteristics of the system determined by other means.

Pethel, Shawn D.; Bowden, Charles M.; Scalora, Michael

1993-12-01

122

Most real and engineered systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and it is important to take such features into account to try to obtain a complete understanding of these systems. It is thus necessary to generalize "traditional" network theory by developing (and validating) a framework and associated tools to study multilayer systems in a comprehensive fashion. The origins of such efforts occurred several decades ago, but now the study of multilayer networks has become one of the major directions in network science. In this paper, we discuss the history of multilayer networks (and related concepts) and then review the exploding body of work on such networks. To unify the disparate terminology in the large body of recent work, we discuss a general framework for multilayer networks, construct a dictionary of terminology to relate the numerous existing concepts to each other, and provide a thorough discussion that compares, contrasts, and translates between related notions such as multila...

Kivelä, Mikko; Barthelemy, Marc; Gleeson, James P; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A

2013-01-01

123

Entropy landscape of solutions in the binary perceptron problem

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The statistical picture of the solution space for a binary perceptron is studied. The binary perceptron learns a random classification of input random patterns by a set of binary synaptic weights. The learning of this network is difficult especially when the pattern (constraint) density is close to the capacity, which is supposed to be intimately related to the structure of the solution space. The geometrical organization is elucidated by the entropy landscape from a reference configuration and of solution-pairs separated by a given Hamming distance in the solution space. We evaluate the entropy at the annealed level as well as replica symmetric level and the mean field result is confirmed by the numerical simulations on single instances using the proposed message passing algorithms. From the first landscape (a random configuration as a reference), we see clearly how the solution space shrinks as more constraints are added. From the second landscape of solution-pairs, we deduce the coexistence of clustering and freezing in the solution space. (paper)

124

Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

2010-01-01

125

The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose ?-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the ?-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the ? coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=?. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way to achieve classification accuracies which are not too far from the best one for a given problem. The C and Matlab code of DKP are freely available. PMID:24287336

Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

2014-02-01

126

Computational capabilities of restricted two-layered perceptrons

We study the extent to which fixing the second-layer weights reduces the capacity and generalization ability of a two-layer perceptron. Architectures with N inputs, K hidden units, and a single output are considered, with both overlapping and nonoverlapping receptive fields. We obtain from simulations one measure of the strength of a network-its critical capacity, ?c. Using the ansatz ?med~(?c-?)-2 to describe the manner in which the median learning time diverges as ?c is approached, we estimate ?c in a manner that does not depend on arbitrary impatience parameters. The chir learning algorithm is used in our simulations. For K=3 and overlapping receptive fields we show that the general machine is equivalent to the committee machine with the same architecture. For K=5 and the same connectivity the general machine is the union of four distinct networks with fixed second layer weights, of which the committee machine is the one with the highest ?c. Since the capacity of the union of a finite set of machines equals that of the strongest constituent, the capacity of the general machine with K=5 equals that of the committee machine. We were not able to prove this for general K , but believe that it does hold. We investigated the internal representations used by different machines, and found that high correlations between the hidden units and the output reduce the capacity. Finally we studied the Boolean functions that can be realized by networks with fixed second layer weights. We discovered that two different machines implement two completely distinct sets of Boolean functions.

Priel, Avner; Blatt, Marcelo; Grossmann, Tal; Domany, Eytan; Kanter, Ido

1994-07-01

127

Perceptron-like computation based on biologically-inspired neurons with heterosynaptic mechanisms

Perceptrons are one of the fundamental paradigms in artificial neural networks and a key processing scheme in supervised classification tasks. However, the algorithm they provide is given in terms of unrealistically simple processing units and connections and therefore, its implementation in real neural networks is hard to be fulfilled. In this work, we present a neural circuit able to perform perceptron's computation based on realistic models of neurons and synapses. The model uses Wang-Buzsáki neurons with coupling provided by axodendritic and axoaxonic synapses (heterosynapsis). The main characteristics of the feedforward perceptron operation are conserved, which allows to combine both approaches: whereas the classical artificial system can be used to learn a particular problem, its solution can be directly implemented in this neural circuit. As a result, we propose a biologically-inspired system able to work appropriately in a wide range of frequencies and system parameters, while keeping robust to noise and error.

Kaluza, Pablo; Urdapilleta, Eugenio

2014-10-01

128

Recurrent intussusception is defined as an occurrence of intussusception of a bowel loop in a patient with a prior resolution of intussusception, either spontaneously or with an intervention. It is not rare to develop a subsequent episode after a successful reduction of intussusception. We report the cases of 2 children who presented to the emergency department with recurrent intussusception and review the pertinent literature. PMID:23736072

Haber, Jordana J; Waseem, Muhammad

2013-06-01

129

How to guess the inter magnetic bubble potential by using a simple perceptron ?

It is shown that magnetic bubble films behaviour can be described by using a 2D super-Ising hamiltonian. Calculated hysteresis curves and magnetic domain patterns are successfully compared with experimental results taken in literature. The reciprocal problem of finding paramaters of the super-Ising model to reproduce computed or experimental magnetic domain pictures is solved by using a perceptron neural network.

Padovani, S

2004-01-01

130

Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuator Element.

NEC has succeeded in fabricating multilayer piezo electric actuator element applied by multilayer ceramic techniques. Relationship between strain and AC driving voltage show a symmetrical sharpness. Temperature change of strain is not recognized from 0 C ...

T. Nishizawa, T. Sirasu, T. Inoi, K. Mizoguchi, I. Tochihara

1987-01-01

131

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recurrent miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies with the same biological father in the first trimester; it affects 1% to 2% of women, in half of whom there is no identifiable cause. Overall, 75% of affected women will have a successful subsequent pregnancy, but this rate falls for older mothers and with increasing number of miscarriages.Antiphospholipid syndrome, with anticardiolipin or lupus anticoagulant antibodies, is present in 15% of women with r...

Duckitt, Kirsten; Qureshi, Aysha

2011-01-01

132

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recurrent miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies with the same biological father in the first trimester; it affects 1-2% of women, in half of whom there is no identifiable cause. Overall, 75% of affected women will have a successful subsequent pregnancy, but this rate falls for older mothers and with increasing number of miscarriages.Antiphospholipid syndrome, with anticardiolipin or lupus anticoagulant antibodies, is present in 15% of women with recur...

Duckitt, Kirsten; Qureshi, Aysha

2008-01-01

133

Light scattering by a multilayer sphere

The recurrence algorithm for calculating electromagnetic scattering from a multilayer sphere, which was described recently by Wu and Wang [Radio Sci. 26, 1393, (1991)], is derived in a slightly modified form and extended to include a calculation of the internal field and the absorption cross sections of the individual layers. The original algorithm calculates the scattering by a recurrence procedure that propagates the log derivatives of the Debye potentials outward from the core to the outer layer. The extended algorithm then continues the calculation by an inward recurrence procedure that propagates the Debye potentials from the outer layer to the core. Concurrent with the inward propagation, a separate algorithm calculates the absorption cross sections of the imbedded concentric spheres. The results of several example calculations are presented, including the differential cross section and internal electric field of a Luneburg lens.

Johnson, B. R.

1996-06-01

134

Analysis of ensemble learning using simple perceptrons based on online learning theory

Ensemble learning of $K$ nonlinear perceptrons, which determine their outputs by sign functions, is discussed within the framework of online learning and statistical mechanics. One purpose of statistical learning theory is to theoretically obtain the generalization error. This paper shows that ensemble generalization error can be calculated by using two order parameters, that is, the similarity between a teacher and a student, and the similarity among students. The differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of these order parameters are derived in the case of general learning rules. The concrete forms of these differential equations are derived analytically in the cases of three well-known rules: Hebbian learning, perceptron learning and AdaTron learning. Ensemble generalization errors of these three rules are calculated by using the results determined by solving their differential equations. As a result, these three rules show different characteristics in their affinity for ensemble learnin...

Okada, S M K H M

2004-01-01

135

Noise and randomlike behavior in perceptrons: theory and application to protein structure prediction

In this paper we study the effective behavior of a single-layer perceptron that is forced to learn a noisy mapping (e.g. associations of patterns with classes). The effect of different kinds of noise on the output of the network is discussed as a function of the noise intensity. It is argued that noise induces a random-like component in the overall behavior of the perceptron which we describe in terms of independent biased random flights in the space of the weights. These random processes (one for each class) are ruled by probability distributions specified by the weights themselves. Our model is applied to the real world application of the prediction of protein secondary structures. Several observations made in this task domain are rationalized in terms of the present model that, among others, provides a link between the seeming existence of an upper bound for the prediction efficiency and the amount of noise in the mapping.

Compiani, Mario; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

1996-03-01

136

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel algorithm for tunable compression to within the precision of reproduction targets, or storage, is proposed. The new algorithm is termed the `Perceptron Algorithm', which utilises simple existing concepts in a novel way, has multiple immediate commercial application aspects as well as it opens up a multitude of fronts in computational science and technology. The aims of this paper are to present the concepts underlying the algorithm, observations by its application to...

Vassiliadis, Vassilios S.

2006-01-01

137

Learning rate and attractor size of the single-layer perceptron

We study the simplest possible order one single-layer perceptron with two inputs, using the delta rule with online learning, in order to derive closed form expressions for the mean convergence rates. We investigate the rate of convergence in weight space of the weight vectors corresponding to each of the 14 out of 16 linearly separable rules. These vectors follow zigzagging lines through the piecewise constant vector field to their respective attractors. Based on our studies, we conclude that a single-layer perceptron with N inputs will converge in an average number of steps given by an Nth order polynomial in (t)/(l) , where t is the threshold, and l is the size of the initial weight distribution. Exact values for these averages are provided for the five linearly separable classes with N=2 . We also demonstrate that the learning rate is determined by the attractor size, and that the attractors of a single-layer perceptron with N inputs partition RN?RN .

Singleton, Martin S.; Hübler, Alfred W.

2007-02-01

138

Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines

Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines provides data on multilayer insulation materials used by previous spacecraft such as Spacelab and the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and outlines other concerns. The data presented in the document are presented for information only. They can be used as guidelines for multilayer insulation design for future spacecraft provided the thermal requirements of each new design and the environmental effects on these materials are taken into account.

Finckenor, M. M.; Dooling, D.

1999-01-01

139

Electrodeposition of Multilayered Nanostructures

Electrodeposition is one of the techniques used to produce nanostructured magnetic multilayers as well as single thin films. We have developed an experimental system to produce nanostructure materials such as metal/metal multilayers and multilayer nanowires by electrodeposition. The properties of such structures may depend on many electrochemical parameters such as the electrolyte concentration, the electrolyte pH, the deposition potentials of metals and the current efficiency. The growth mechanisms and the structural and magnetotransport properties of ferromagnetic multilayers grown by electrodeposition from a single electrolyte are studied.

Alper, Muersel

140

Noise and randomlike behavior of perceptrons: Theory and applicationto protein structure prediction

In the first part of this paper we study the performance of a single-layer perceptron that is expected to classify patterns into classes in the case where the mapping to be learned is corrupted by noise. Extending previous results concerning the statistical behavior of perceptrons, we distinguish two mutually exclusive kinds of noise (I noise and R noise) and study their effect on the statistical information that can be drawn from the output. In the presence of I noise, the learning stage results in the convergence of the output to the probabilities that the input occurs in each class. R noise, on the contrary, perturbs the learning of probabilities to the extent that the performance of the perceptron deteriorates and the network becomes equivalent to a random predictor. We derive an analytical expression for the efficiency of classification of inputs affected by strong R noise. We argue that, from the standpoint of the efficiency score, the network is equivalent to a device performing biased random flights in the space of the weights, which are ruled by the statistical information stored by the network during the learning stage. The second part of the paper is devoted to the application of our model to the prediction of protein secondary structures where one has to deal with the effects of R noise. Our results are shown to be consistent with data drawn from experiments and simulations of the folding process. In particular, the existence of coding and noncoding traits of the protein is properly rationalized in terms of R-noise intensity. In addition, our model provides a justification of the seeming existence of a relationship between the prediction efficiency and the amount of R noise in the sequence-to-structure mapping. Finally, we define an entropylike parameter that is useful as a measure of R noise.

Compiani, M.; Fariselli, P.; Casadio, R.

1997-06-01

141

Universal perceptron (UP), a generalization of Rosenblatt's perceptron, is considered in this paper, which is capable of implementing all Boolean functions (BFs). In the classification of BFs, there are: 1) linearly separable Boolean function (LSBF) class, 2) parity Boolean function (PBF) class, and 3) non-LSBF and non-PBF class. To implement these functions, UP takes different kinds of simple topological structures in which each contains at most one hidden layer along with the smallest possible number of hidden neurons. Inspired by the concept of DNA sequences in biological systems, a novel learning algorithm named DNA-like learning is developed, which is able to quickly train a network with any prescribed BF. The focus is on performing LSBF and PBF by a single-layer perceptron (SLP) with the new algorithm. Two criteria for LSBF and PBF are proposed, respectively, and a new measure for a BF, named nonlinearly separable degree (NLSD), is introduced. In the sense of this measure, the PBF is the most complex one. The new algorithm has many advantages including, in particular, fast running speed, good robustness, and no need of considering the convergence property. For example, the number of iterations and computations in implementing the basic 2-bit logic operations such as AND, OR, and XOR by using the new algorithm is far smaller than the ones needed by using other existing algorithms such as error-correction (EC) and backpropagation (BP) algorithms. Moreover, the synaptic weights and threshold values derived from UP can be directly used in designing of the template of cellular neural networks (CNNs), which has been considered as a new spatial-temporal sensory computing paradigm. PMID:23460987

Chen, Fangyue; Chen, Guanrong Ron; He, Guolong; Xu, Xiubin; He, Qinbin

2009-10-01

142

Multifunctional lipid multilayer stamping.

Nanostructured lipid multilayers on surfaces are a promising biofunctional nanomaterial. For example, surface-supported lipid multilayer diffraction gratings with optical properties that depend on the microscale spacing of the grating lines and the nanometer thickness of the lipid multilayers have been fabricated previously by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), with immediate applications as label-free biosensors. The innate biocompatibility of such gratings makes them promising as biological sensor elements, model cellular systems, and construction materials for nanotechnology. Here a method is described that combines the lateral patterning capabilities and scalability of microcontact printing with the topographical control of nanoimprint lithography and the multimaterial integration aspects of dip-pen nanolithography in order to create nanostructured lipid multilayer arrays. This approach is denoted multilayer stamping. The distinguishing characteristic of this method is that it allows control of the lipid multilayer thickness, which is a crucial nanoscale dimension that determines the optical properties of lipid multilayer nanostructures. The ability to integrate multiple lipid materials on the same surface is also demonstrated by multi-ink spotting onto a polydimethoxysilane stamp, as well as higher-throughput patterning (on the order of 2 cm(2) s(-1) for grating fabrication) and the ability to pattern lipid materials that could not previously be patterned with high resolution by lipid DPN, for example, the gel-phase phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or the steroid cholesterol. PMID:22307810

Nafday, Omkar A; Lowry, Troy W; Lenhert, Steven

2012-04-10

143

Efficient new Bayesian inference technique is employed for studying critical properties of the Ising linear perceptron and for signal detection in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The approach is based on a recently introduced message passing technique for densely connected systems. Here we study both critical and non-critical regimes. Results obtained in the non-critical regime give rise to a highly efficient signal detection algorithm in the context of CDMA; while in the critical regime one observes a first order transition line that ends in a continuous phase transition point. Finite size effects are also studied.

Neirotti, J P; Neirotti, Juan P.; Saad, David

2005-01-01

144

Perfect transmission and highly asymmetric light localization in photonic multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General principles for the existence of perfect transmission resonances in photonic multilayer structures are formulated in terms of light interference described by recurrent Airy formulas. Mirror symmetry in the multilayer is shown to be a sufficient but not necessary condition for perfect transmission resonances. Asymmetric structures displaying perfect transmission in accordance with the proposed principles are demonstrated. A hybrid Fabry-Perot photonic-crystal structure of the type (BA)k(AB)k(AABB)m is proposed, combining perfect transmission and highly asymmetric electric field localization. Strength and asymmetry of localization can be controlled independently to be of use in tailoring nonreciprocal behavior of nonlinear all-optical diodes.

145

Unlike many other investigations on this topic, the present one considers the non-linear single-layer perceptron (SLP) as a process in which the weights of the perceptron are increasing, and the cost function of the sum of squares is changing gradually. During the backpropagation training, the decision boundary of of SLP becomes identical or close to that of seven statistical classifiers: (1) the Euclidean distance classifier, (2) the regularized linear discriminant analysis, (3) the standard Fisher linear discriminant function, (4) the Fisher linear discriminant function with a pseudoinverse covariance matrix, (5) the generalized Fisher discriminant function, (6) the minimum empirical error classifier, and (7) the maximum margin classifier. In order to obtain a wider range of classifiers, five new complexity-control techniques are proposed: target value control, moving of the learning data centre into the origin of coordinates, zero weight initialization, use of an additional negative weight decay term called "anti-regularization", and use of an exponentially increasing learning step. Which particular type of classifier will be obtained depends on the data, the cost function to be minimized, the optimization technique and its parameters, and the stopping criteria. PMID:12662838

Raudys, S

1998-03-01

146

SoftDoubleMaxMinOver: perceptron-like training of support vector machines.

The well-known MinOver algorithm is a slight modification of the perceptron algorithm and provides the maximum-margin classifier without a bias in linearly separable two-class classification problems. DoubleMinOver as an extension of MinOver, which now includes a bias, is introduced. An O(t(-1)) convergence is shown, where t is the number of learning steps. The computational effort per step increases only linearly with the number of patterns. In its formulation with kernels, selected training patterns have to be stored. A drawback of MinOver and DoubleMinOver is that this set of patterns does not consist of support vectors only. DoubleMaxMinOver, as an extension of DoubleMinOver, overcomes this drawback by selectively forgetting all nonsupport vectors after a finite number of training steps. It is shown how this iterative procedure that is still very similar to the perceptron algorithm can be extended to classification with soft margins and be used for training least squares support vector machines (SVMs). On benchmarks, the SoftDoubleMaxMinOver algorithm achieves the same performance as standard SVM software. PMID:19497817

Martinetz, Thomas; Labusch, Kai; Schneegass, Daniel

2009-07-01

147

Applications of multilayer optics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent development of multilayer mirror and its applications in extreme ultraviolet (EUV), soft X-ray ranges in China was reviewed in this paper. Three types of multilayer mirrors were developed with special performance for dense plasma diagnostics, EUV astronomical observation. Firstly, dual-periodic W/B4C multilayer mirror was designed for Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) microscopy working at TiK? line (4.75 keV), which is highly reflective both at hard X-ray (CuK? line at 8.05 keV) and soft X-ray (4.75 keV). Using this mirror, the K-B system can be aligned conveniently in air using hard X-ray instead of in vacuum. The second mirror is aperiodic Mg/SiC multilayer, also a bi-functional mirror with high reflectivity for He-II emission line (30.4 nm) but suppressing He-I emission line (58.4 nm) in astronomy observation, which will replace the traditional combination of periodic multilayer and the fragile film filter. This will be more safe in satellite launching. The third mirror is Mo/Si periodic multilayer, depositing on a parabolic substrate with diameter of 230 mm, which is designed for EUV telescope for imaging of solar corona by selecting Fe-XII emission (19.5 nm). The uniformity of lateral layer thickness distribution is within ±0.3% along the diameter of mirror, measured by X-ray reflectometry. The measured peak reflectivity is 42% at the wavelength of 19.5 nm. All these multilayer mirrors were prepared by using magnetron sputtering system in our group.

148

Magnetic anisotropy in multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic anisotropy between in-plane and out of plane magnetic alignments is studied in a variety of multilayer systems using Moessbauer spectrosopy to observe the (Fe) magnetic orientation. The surface anisotropy in Fe/Au (1 1 1) multilayers is measured as Ks = 0.9 x 10-3 Jm-2. In Fe/Ni multilayers the dependence of magnetic orientation on external field applied normal to the layers enables volume and interface anisotropies Kv = (-5 ± 1) x 104 Jm-3 and Ks = (-0.6 ± 0.4)x 10-3 Jm-2 to be evaluated. In similar applied field experiments coherent rotation of the magnetic Fe and NiFe layers in Fe/Cu/NiFe/Cu multilayers was observed for intervening Cu layer thickness x = 5 A but independent rotation for x = 50 A. Out of plane magnetic components are observed for DyFe2, YFe2 thin films and DyFe2/YFe2 multilayers. In fields of up to 0.25 T applied inplane only the moments of the YFe2 film showed significant rotation

149

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown

150

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown.

Kabashima, Y [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: kaba@dis.titech.ac.jp

2008-01-15

151

A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown.

Kabashima, Y.

2008-01-01

152

A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

2007-01-01

153

Full Text Available Resources Brochures & Videos Resource Links Books & Periodicals Cancer Centers print email Resources » Brochures & Videos Dealing with Recurrence We know that the topic of recurrence in cancer patients can be ...

154

Recurrent Surface Homeomorphisms

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An orientation-preserving recurrent homeomorphism of the two-sphere which is not the identity is shown to admit exactly two fixed points. A recurrent homeomorphism of a compact surface with negative Euler characteristic is periodic.

Kolev, Boris; Peroueme, Marie-christine

2003-01-01

155

Full Text Available Resources Brochures & Videos Resource Links Books & Periodicals Cancer Centers print email Resources » Brochures & Videos Dealing with Recurrence We know that the topic of recurrence in cancer patients can be an overwhelming ...

156

Full Text Available Resources Brochures & Videos Resource Links Books & Periodicals Cancer Centers print email Resources » Brochures & Videos Dealing with Recurrence We know that the topic of recurrence in cancer patients ...

157

Recurrent zosteriform herpes simplex

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 25-year-old man had recurrent zosteriform herpes simplex for past 6 years. The attacks were precipitated by prolonged exposure to sunlight. Pain was mild and lesions used to subside each time in about 7 days. Clinical features which help in differentiating recurrent herpes simplex from recurrent herpes zoster are summarized.

Inamadar Arun

1992-01-01

158

Core reactivity estimation in space reactors using recurrent dynamic networks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recurrent Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) network topology is used in the identification of nonlinear dynamic systems from only the input/output measurements. This effort is part of a research program devoted in developing real-time diagnostics and predictive control techniques for large-scale complex nonlinear dynamic systems. The identification is performed in the discrete time domain, with the learning algorithm being a modified form of the Back Propagation (BP) rule. The Recurrent Dynamic Network (RDN) developed is applied for the total core reactivity prediction of a spacecraft reactor from only neutronic power level measurements. Results indicate that the RDN can reproduce the nonlinear response of the reactor while keeping the number of nodes roughly equal to the relative order of the system. As accuracy requirements are increased, the number of required nodes also increases, however, the order of the RDN necessary to obtain such results is still in the same order of magnitude as the order of the matematical model of the system. There are a number of issues identified regarding the behavior of the RDN, which at this point are unresolved and require further research. Nevertheless, it is believed that use of the recurrent MLP structure with a variety of different learning algorithms may prove useful in utilizing artifical neural networks (ANNs) for recognition, classification and prediction of dynamic systems

159

Imaging recurrent parosteal osteosarcoma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to document the imaging features of recurrent parosteal osteosarcoma. The clinical and imaging records of 33 patients with a parosteal osteosarcoma referred to an orthopaedic oncology service over a 17-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The mode of identification of locally recurrent tumour was noted, together with the management and clinical outcome. Five patients developed a local recurrence of their parosteal osteosarcoma ranging from 6 months to 10 years after initial surgery. In 4 patients the recurrence was first suspected clinically due to the development of a mass. In the fifth patient recurrence was first detected on routine follow-up radiography. In 4 patients the recurrence could be identified on radiography as a mineralized mass. All the recurrences were readily identified on MR imaging, despite artefacts from prostheses. The recurrences were also evident in the 3 cases in which bone scintigraphy was performed. Local recurrence of parosteal osteosarcoma is adequately detected with a combination of clinical examination and conventional radiography. MR imaging is required to stage local recurrence or where radiography has failed to confirm clinically suspected recurrence. The routine use of MR imaging to follow-up patients is of doubtful value because of the frequently long time between initial surgery and relapse. (orig.)

160

Development of multilayer chopper

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

12C(?,?)16O experiment is planned at TRIAC. This experiment needs single bunched beam without back ground particles. Therefore, we developed the buncher and the chopper. To suppress the leakage of the electric field, the chopper adopted the multilayer type. As a result of the beam test, the beam loss by the chopper was about 20% and the beams has decreased to 1.7x10-5 when electrodes is impressed 100V. (author)

161

X-ray diffuse scattering by multilayer structure with rough interfaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of x-ray diffuse scattering by a multilayer structure with rough interfaces is solved with the use of recurrence formulas. X-ray diffuse scattering by a waveguide-type three-layer heterostructure is studied in detail. The effect of the mutual correlation of the roughnesses of various interfaces on the angular distribution of the diffusely scattered radiation is analyzed

162

A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.

Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

Araújo, Ricardo de A

2012-04-01

163

Multicategory nets of single-layer perceptrons: complexity and sample-size issues.

The standard cost function of multicategory single-layer perceptrons (SLPs) does not minimize the classification error rate. In order to reduce classification error, it is necessary to: 1) refuse the traditional cost function, 2) obtain near to optimal pairwise linear classifiers by specially organized SLP training and optimal stopping, and 3) fuse their decisions properly. To obtain better classification in unbalanced training set situations, we introduce the unbalance correcting term. It was found that fusion based on the Kulback-Leibler (K-L) distance and the Wu-Lin-Weng (WLW) method result in approximately the same performance in situations where sample sizes are relatively small. The explanation for this observation is by theoretically known verity that an excessive minimization of inexact criteria becomes harmful at times. Comprehensive comparative investigations of six real-world pattern recognition (PR) problems demonstrated that employment of SLP-based pairwise classifiers is comparable and as often as not outperforming the linear support vector (SV) classifiers in moderate dimensional situations. The colored noise injection used to design pseudovalidation sets proves to be a powerful tool for facilitating finite sample problems in moderate-dimensional PR tasks. PMID:20215067

Raudys, Sarunas; Kybartas, Rimantas; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras

2010-05-01

164

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

2010-01-01

165

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied 12 patients, clinically suspected of recurrent brain tumor, using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) and 11C-methionine (11C-MET). The main purpose of this study is the evaluation of the clinical capacity of PET for (1) early diagnosis of recurrent brain tumor, (2) malignant transformation of low grade glioma, and (3) differentiation between recurrent brain tumor and radiation necrosis. PET with 11C-MET clearly delineated the extension of recurrent tumor as focal high uptake of 11C-MET and was useful for early detection of recurrent tumor. Focal 18FDG-hypermetabolism was detected in 2 patients with malignant transformation of low grade glioma and revealed the usefulness for evaluation of malignant transformation. 18FDG-hypometabolism was observed in all patients with radiation necrosis, but was also found in one patient with recurrent malignant tumor. On the other hand, 11C-MET uptakes in radiation necrosis were similar to those in normal cortices in 2 patients with radiation necrosis. PET with 18FDG can be used to initially rule out recurrent tumor as hypermetabolism, and then recurrent tumor with 18FDG-hypometabolism might be differentiate from radiation necrosis by PET with 11C-MET. (author)

166

Multilayer graphene waveguides

We study dispersion properties of TM-polarized electromagnetic waves guided by a multilayer graphene metamaterial. We demonstrate that both dispersion and localization of the guided modes can be efficiently controlled by changing the number of layers in the structure. Remarkably, we find that in the long wavelength limit, the dispersion of the fundamental mode of the N-layer graphene structure coincides with the dispersion of a plasmon mode supported by a single graphene layer, but with N times larger conductivity. We also compare our exact dispersion relations with the results provided by the effective media model.

Smirnova, Daria; Shadrivov, Ilya; Kivshar, Yuri

2014-01-01

167

Multilayer graphene waveguides

We study dispersion properties of TM-polarized electromagnetic waves guided by a multilayer graphene metamaterial. We demonstrate that both dispersion and localization of the guided modes can be efficiently controlled by changing the number of layers in the structure. Remarkably, we find that in the long wavelength limit, the dispersion of the fundamental mode of the N-layer graphene structure coincides with the dispersion of a plasmon mode supported by a single graphene layer, but with N times larger conductivity. We also compare our exact dispersion relations with the results provided by the effective media model.

Smirnova, D. A.; Iorsh, I. V.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Y. S.

2014-06-01

168

Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

169

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600°C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc.

Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Medlin, D.L.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Missert, N.; Newcomer, P.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.

1999-05-01

170

The interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter can be controlled by structuring the matter on the scale of the wavelength of light, and various photonic components have been made by structuring materials using top-down or bottom-up approaches. Dip-pen nanolithography is a scanning-probe-based fabrication technique that can be used to deposit materials on surfaces with high resolution and, when carried out in parallel, with high throughput. Here, we show that lyotropic optical diffraction gratings-composed of biofunctional lipid multilayers with controllable heights between ~5 and 100 nm-can be fabricated by lipid dip-pen nanolithography. Multiple materials can be simultaneously written into arbitrary patterns on pre-structured surfaces to generate complex structures and devices, allowing nanostructures to be interfaced by combinations of top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods. We also show that fluid and biocompatible lipid multilayer gratings allow label-free and specific detection of lipid-protein interactions in solution. This biosensing capability takes advantage of the adhesion properties of the phospholipid superstructures and the changes in the size and shape of the grating elements that take place in response to analyte binding.

Lenhert, Steven; Brinkmann, Falko; Laue, Thomas; Walheim, Stefan; Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Soenke; Xu, Miao; Sekula, Sylwia; Mappes, Timo; Schimmel, Thomas; Fuchs, Harald

2010-04-01

171

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600 ampersand deg;C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc

172

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons.

Hood, R.Q.

1994-04-01

173

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons

174

Recurrence in generic staircases

The straight-line flow on almost every staircase and on almost every square tiled staircase is recurrent. For almost every square tiled staircase the set of periodic orbits is dense in the phase space.

Troubetzkoy, Serge

2010-01-01

175

Exploration of an unusual case of a painful, recurrent, perineal mass revealed partial priapism of the right corpora cavernosa. Etiology is speculative and no definitive therapy is offered. PMID:1274013

Gottesman, J E

1976-05-01

176

Ultrasonic NDE of Multilayered Structures

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project developed ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques based on guided and bulk waves in multilayered structures using arrays. First, a guided wave technique was developed by preferentially exciting dominant modes with energy in the layer of interest via an ultrasonic array. Second, a bulk wave technique uses Fermat's principle of least time as well as wave-based properties to reconstruct array data and image the multilayered structure. The guided wave technique enables the inspection of inaccessible areas of a multilayered structure without disassembling it. Guided waves propagate using the multilayer as a waveguide into the inaccessible areas from an accessible position. Inspecting multi-layered structures with a guided wave relies on exciting modes with sufficient energy in the layer of interest. Multilayered structures are modeled to determine the possible modes and their distribution of energy across the thickness. Suitable modes were determined and excited by designing arrays with the proper element spacing and frequency. Bulk wave imaging algorithms were developed to overcome the difficulties of multiple reflections and refractions at interfaces. Reconstruction algorithms were developed to detect and localize flaws. A bent-ray algorithm incorporates Fermat's principle to correct time delays in the ultrasonic data that result from the difference in wave speeds in each layer and refractions at the interfaces. A planar wave-based algorithm was developed using the Green function for the multilayer structure to enhance focusing on reception for improved imaging.

Quarry, M J; Fisher, K A; Lehman, S K

2005-02-14

177

High-reflectivity multilayer monochromators for neutrons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ni-Ti multilayers were fabricated in an r.f. sputtering system. Reflectivities of the multilayers were measured with a neutron beam having a beam divergence of 0.29 mrad and a beam width of 0.32 mm. Reflectivities of the multilayers and their diffraction properties were compared with results obtained from the dynamical theory for perfect multilayers. Attempts were then made to minimize the imperfections in multilayers and obtain good-reflectivity multilayers with small d spacings. Multilayers with d spacings from 60 A up could be fabricated with reflectivities between 0.95 and 1.00. (orig.)

178

Management of recurrent miscarriage.

Recurrent miscarriage is classically defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Many researchers have now revised this definition to two or more pregnancy losses because of the recent increase in the prevalence of childless couples. Established causes of recurrent miscarriage are antiphospholipid antibodies, uterine anomalies and abnormal chromosomes in either partner, particularly translocations. Antiphospholipid syndrome is the most important treatable cause of recurrent miscarriage. However, it is not yet established as to what kind of testing should be conducted in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Standardization of tests for antiphospholipid antibodies is needed. On the other hand, embryonic aneuploidy is the most frequent cause of recurrent miscarriage. Chromosome analysis of the embryo is important, because it has good predictive value for subsequent live birth. It is not necessary to give any medications for unexplained cases of recurrent miscarriage, and provision of psychological support may be the most important to encourage the couples to continue to conceive until a live birth results. PMID:24754846

Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro

2014-05-01

179

Diffusion Processes on Multilayer Networks

Several systems can be modelled as sets of interdependent networks or networks with multiple types of connections, here generally called multilayer networks. Diffusion processes like the propagation of information or the spreading of diseases are fundamental phenomena occurring in these networks. However, while the study of diffusion processes in single networks has received a great deal of interest from various disciplines for over a decade, diffusion on multilayer networks is still a young and promising research area presenting many challenging research issues. In this paper we review the main models, results and applications of multilayer diffusion and discuss some promising research directions.

Salehi, Mostafa; Marzolla, Moreno; Montesi, Danilo; Siyari, Payam; Magnani, Matteo

2014-01-01

180

Multilayer 500 Gbyte Optical Disk

To confirm the feasibility of realizing subterabyte or terabyte optical memories, we evaluated a multilayer read-only disk having 20 information layers. We propose a new disk structure, which is an alternative structure to reduce interlayer crosstalk, optimized by computer simulations. We fabricated multilayer read-only optical disks using a conventional manufacturing process for Blu-ray disk (BD) dual-layer media. Moreover, we improved the reproduction system to compensate for the large spherical aberration. From the experimental results, we obtained sufficiently low jitter values reproduced from a 20-layer disk. We confirmed the feasibility of the multilayer read-only disk with a capacity of 500 Gbytes.

Mitsumori, Ayumi; Higuchi, Takanobu; Yanagisawa, Takuma; Ogasawara, Masakazu; Tanaka, Satoru; Iida, Tetsuya

2009-03-01

181

Multilayered folding with voids

In the deformation of layered materials such as geological strata, or stacks of paper, mechanical properties compete with the geometry of layering. Smooth, rounded corners lead to voids between the layers, while close packing of the layers results in geometrically-induced curvature singularities. When voids are penalized by external pressure, the system is forced to trade off these competing effects, leading to sometimes striking periodic patterns. In this paper we construct a simple model of geometrically nonlinear multi-layered structures under axial loading and pressure confinement, with non-interpenetration conditions separating the layers. Energy minimizers are characterized as solutions of a set of fourth-order nonlinear differential equations with contact-force Lagrange multipliers, or equivalently of a fourth-order free-boundary problem. We numerically investigate the solutions of this free boundary problem, and compare them with the periodic solutions observed experimentally.

Dodwell, Timothy; Peletier, Mark; Budd, Chris

2011-01-01

182

Ruthenocuprates Intrinsic magnetic multilayers

We report ac susceptibility measurements on polycrystalline samples of SrRuO_3 and three ruthenocuprates: superconducting RuSr_2GdCu_2O_8 (Ru-1212), superconducting RuSr_2Eu_(2-x)Ce_xCu_2O_y (Ru-1222, x=0.5) and nonsuperconducting, insulating RuSr_2Eu_(2-x)Ce_xCu_2O_z$ (Ru-1222, x=1.0). Ac susceptibility of both Ru-1222 compositions exhibit logarithmic time relaxation and `inverted' hysteresis loops. Ru-1212 samples exhibit none of these behaviors. We interpret the magnetic behavior of Ru-1222 in the framework of weakly coupled magnetic multilayers and argue that superconductivity coexists with qualitatively different magnetic behaviors.

Zivkovic, L; Prester, M; Drobac, D; Ariosa, D; Margaritondo, G; Felner, I; Frazer, B H; Onellion, M

2001-01-01

183

Integrated Multilayer Insulation

Integrated multilayer insulation (IMLI) is being developed as an improved alternative to conventional multilayer insulation (MLI), which is more than 50 years old. A typical conventional MLI blanket comprises between 10 and 120 metallized polymer films separated by polyester nets. MLI is the best thermal- insulation material for use in a vacuum, and is the insulation material of choice for spacecraft and cryogenic systems. However, conventional MLI has several disadvantages: It is difficult or impossible to maintain the desired value of gap distance between the film layers (and consequently, it is difficult or impossible to ensure consistent performance), and fabrication and installation are labor-intensive and difficult. The development of IMLI is intended to overcome these disadvantages to some extent and to offer some additional advantages over conventional MLI. The main difference between IMLI and conventional MLI lies in the method of maintaining the gaps between the film layers. In IMLI, the film layers are separated by what its developers call a micro-molded discrete matrix, which can be loosely characterized as consisting of arrays of highly engineered, small, lightweight, polymer (typically, thermoplastic) frames attached to, and placed between, the film layers. The term "micro-molded" refers to both the smallness of the frames and the fact that they are fabricated in a process that forms precise small features, described below, that are essential to attainment of the desired properties. The term "discrete" refers to the nature of the matrix as consisting of separate frames, in contradistinction to a unitary frame spanning entire volume of an insulation blanket.

Dye, Scott

2009-01-01

184

In recent decades, the world has experienced unprecedented urban growth which endangers the green environment in and around urban areas. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) based model is developed to predict future impacts of urban and agricultural expansion on the uplands of Deepor Beel, a Ramsar wetland in the city area of Guwahati, Assam, India, by 2025 and 2035 respectively. Simulations were carried out for three different transition rates as determined from the changes during 2001-2011, namely simple extrapolation, Markov Chain (MC), and system dynamic (SD) modelling, using projected population growth, which were further investigated based on three different zoning policies. The first zoning policy employed no restriction while the second conversion restriction zoning policy restricted urban-agricultural expansion in the Guwahati Municipal Development Authority (GMDA) proposed green belt, extending to a third zoning policy providing wetland restoration in the proposed green belt. The prediction maps were found to be greatly influenced by the transition rates and the allowed transitions from one class to another within each sub-model. The model outputs were compared with GMDA land demand as proposed for 2025 whereby the land demand as produced by MC was found to best match the projected demand. Regarding the conservation of Deepor Beel, the Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) Index revealed that wetland restoration zoning policies may reduce the impact of urban growth on a local scale, but none of the zoning policies was found to minimize the impact on a broader base. The results from this study may assist the planning and reviewing of land use allocation within Guwahati city to secure ecological sustainability of the wetlands.

Mozumder, Chitrini; Tripathi, Nitin K.

2014-10-01

185

Hyperhomocysteinemia in Recurrent Miscarriage

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: An elevated total plasma homocysteine level has been suggested as a possible risk factor in women suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss. The current study was undertaken to assess the association between homocysteine, folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12) and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss. Design: Case . control study Materials and Methods: The study included 57 non-pregnant Egyptian women. They were classified according to their obstetric history into 2 groups: 32 cases with at least two consecutive miscarriages (Study group), and 25 cases with normal obstetric history (Control group). All cases were tested for plasma total homocysteine, serum folate and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Results: The fasting total homocysteine was significantly higher in the study group as compared to the control group. While the median concentrations for the vitamins studied were significantly lower in women of the study group as compared to the controls. Elevated homocysteine and reduced vitamin B12 can be considered risk factors for recurrent miscarriage with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 1.839 (1.286, 2.63) and 1.993 (1.346, 2.951) respectively in the group of recurrent miscarriages. The OR (95% CI) in the study population for low serum folate concentrations was 1.23 (0.776, 2.256). Conclusion: Elevated homocysteine and reduced serum vitamin B12 are risk factors for recurrent miscarriage. Low serum folate did not seem a risk factor for recurrent miscarriage. Testing for homocysteine levels in women suffering from unexplained recurrent miscarriage and pre-conceptional supplementation with vitamin B12 might be beneficial to improve pregnancy outcome

186

SOM-MLP Multi-Layered Neural Network with False-Alarming Nodes for Large Scale Pattern Recognition

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, an SOM-MLP multi-layered neural network was studied for the large-scale pattern recognition problem such as the multilingual character recognition. The multi-layered neural network is made of the preclassification and the fine recognition modes. We constructed clusters for the preclassification mode using self-organizing map (SOM) learning and performed modifying steps for reducing the number of clusters. The clusters contain patterns that have the similar characteristics. We adopted the multi-layer perceptron(MLP) networks to the corresponding clusters for the fine recognition mode. And we proposed the use of false-alarming nodes in output layer of the MLP network, which could be constructed on error-prone negative examples quite similar to the patterns of the selected cluster but actually belonging to different nearby clusters through SOM`s topology-preserving mapping. The proposed system could be successfully adopted for recognizing the large number of printed Korean/Chinese characters database as well as IRIS database. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Kang, B.S.; Lim, K.T.; Chien, S.I. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

187

Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

Recent years have seen a new wave of interest in layered media - namely, plasmonic multilayers - in several emerging applications ranging from transparent metals to hyperbolic metamaterials. In this paper, we review the optical properties of such subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials A number of fundamental electromagnetic effects unique to the latter are identified and demonstrated. Examples include the evolution of isofrequency contour shape from elliptical to hyperbolic, all-angle negative refraction, and nonlocality-induced optical birefringence. Analysis of the underlying physical causes, which are spatial dispersion and optical nonlocality, is also reviewed. These recent results are extremely promising for a number of applications ranging from nanolithography to optical cloaking.

Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Iorsh, Ivan V.; Belov, Pavel A.

2014-06-01

188

Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent years have seen a new wave of interest in layered media - namely, plasmonic multilayers - in several emerging applications ranging from transparent metals to hyperbolic metamaterials. In this paper, we review the optical properties of such subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials A number of fundamental electromagnetic effects unique to the latter are identified and demonstrated. Examples include the evolution of isofrequency contour shape from elliptical to hyperbolic, all-angle negative refraction, and nonlocality-induced optical birefringence. Analysis of the underlying physical causes, which are spatial dispersion and optical nonlocality, is also reviewed. These recent results are extremely promising for a number of applications ranging from nanolithography to optical cloaking. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Zhukovsky, Sergei

2014-01-01

189

Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials

The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author’s studies are described. (1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism. (2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures. (3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers. (4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires). A subject of particular interest in the author’s research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author’s research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint. PMID:23391605

SHINJO, Teruya

2013-01-01

190

In recent years, recurrent nova eruptions are often observed very intensely in wide range of wavelengths from radio to optical to X-rays. Here I present selected highlights from recent multi-wavelength observations. The enigma of T Pyx is at the heart of this paper. While our current understanding of CV and symbiotic star evolution can explain why certain subset of recurrent novae have high accretion rate, that of T Pyx must be greatly elevated compared to the evolutionary mean. At the same time, we have extensive data to be able to estimate how the nova envelope was ejected in T Pyx, and it turns to be a rather complex tale. One suspects that envelope ejection in recurrent and classical novae in general is more complicated than the textbook descriptions. At the end of the review, I will speculate that these two may be connected.

Mukai, Koji

2014-01-01

191

Immunomodulation in recurrent miscarriage.

There are many etiological factors responsible for recurrent abortions. However, no explanation can be identified in approximately 40-50 % of women with recurrent miscarriage (RM). Several studies demonstrated that successful pregnancy is dependant on shifting of maternal immune response from (proinflammatory) Th1 toward (anti-inflammatory) Th2 phenotypes. It was suggested that unexplained RM might be due to immunologic factors. Recently, there is improved understanding regarding the role of the different immune cells and proteins that are important at each stage of a normal pregnancy. Various immune-based therapies with variable clinical evidences have been reported in women with RM with variable efficacy. Still there is lack of information about the mode of action and possible adverse effects of the treatment and a reliable marker for patient selection for immunopotentiation. Adequately powered placebo-controlled studies are required to study and treat couples with the so-called idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. PMID:24966498

Kumar, Ashok

2014-06-01

192

Recurrent Pneumonia in Children

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency and describe the predisposing causes of recurrent pneumonia in children. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with pneumonia at Uludag University Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, between January 1998 and December 2007. Recurrent pneumonia was defined as at least two episodes in a 1 year period or at least three episodes over a lifetime. Patients with recurrent pneumonia were included in this study.Results: During the study period, 1617 children were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of pneumonia, 185 (11.4% met the criteria for recurrent pneumonia. The mean age of patients was 16±32 months (3 months-14 years and 61% were male. An underlying cause was identified in 143 patients (77%. Of these, the underlying cause was diagnosed prior the pneumonia in 25 patients (17%, during the first episode in 30 (21%, and during recurrence in 88 (62%. Underlying causes included congenital cardiac defects in 32 patients (17.2%, gastroesophageal reflux in 31 patients (16.7%, aspiration syndrome in 27 patients (14.5%, asthma in 16 patients (8.6%, cystic fibrosis in 12 patients (6.4% immune disorders in 10 patients (5.4%, tuberculosis in 9 patients (4.8% and anomalies of the chest and lung in 6 patients (3.2%. No predisposing illness could be demonstrated in 42 patients (33%. Conclusion: Recurrent pneumonia occurred in 11.4% of all children hospitalized for pneumonia. The underlying cause was identified in 77% of the children. The most common causes were congenital cardiac defects, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration syndrome.

Solmaz Çelebi

2010-06-01

193

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When investors decide to “adventure” through stock markets they search for a method to provide safety on making decision. In fact, there is no precise way to know which stocks will became a profitable investiment. Technical analysis is a discipline that support the investors on making decisions. Such a discipline uses a set of tools and statistical methods to forecast the market’s movement. Such a paper presents the develpment of a robotical Trade System, using a heuristic method. The system has a Neural Network multilayer perceptron, trained with an algorithm for back propagation error. Thus, approaching to the technical analysis without emotional aspects, using the Neural Network forecast on supporting the decisions of a investor on stock market. In analyzing the results of the neural network can be seen that the neural network got a result of 42.6% higher than the diagnostic of the technical analysis.Quando investidores decidem se “aventurar” pelo mercado de renda variável, como pelo mercado de ações, buscam um método de ter mais segurança na tomada de decisão. Na prática, não há como saber quais ativos tornar-se-ão um investimento lucrativo. No mercado acionário, a Análise Técnica procura auxiliar o investidor na tomada de decisão. Para isso, utiliza-se de ferramentas e de métodos estatísticos para tentar predizer os movimentos do mercado. Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um Trade System robótico, utilizando um método heurístico. O sistema conta com uma rede neural multilayer perceptron, treinada com o algoritmo de retro propagação de erro, aproximando-se da análise técnica sem o fator emoção. Ao avaliar os resultados da rede neural, pode ser visto que a mesma obteve um resultado de 42,6% maior do que o diagnóstico da análise técnica.

Vânia Medianeira Flores Costa

2012-04-01

194

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. The majority of women are diagnosed with early-stage, low-grade endometrioid tumors that are highly curable with primary surgery. Patients with more advanced and/or higher grade disease require multimodality therapy and have a higher risk for recurrence. Although uterine papillary serous carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma are diagnosed infrequently, they account for almost half of all relapses. As women with recurrent endometrial cancer constitute a heterogeneous group, an individualized approach is required. We review the treatment options of surgery, radiation, hormonal therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and biological agents. PMID:21508696

Del Carmen, Marcela G; Boruta, David M; Schorge, John O

2011-06-01

195

Tackling a Recurrent Pinealoblastoma

Pineoblastomas are rare, malignant, pineal region lesions that account for <0.1% of all intracranial tumors and can metastasize along the neuroaxis. Pineoblastomas are more common in children than in adults and adults account for <10% of patients. The management of pinealoblastoma is multimodality approach, surgery followed with radiation and chemotherapy. In view of aggressive nature few centres use high dose chemotherapy with autologus stem cell transplant in newly diagnosed cases but in recurrent setting the literature is very sparse. The present case represents the management of pinealoblastoma in the recurrent setting with reirradiation and adjuvant carmustine chemotherapy wherein the management guidelines are not definitive. PMID:25210636

Palled, Siddanna; Kalavagunta, Sruthi; Beerappa Gowda, Jaipal; Umesh, Kavita; Aal, Mahalaxmi; Abdul Razack, Tanvir pasha Chitraduraga; Gowda, Veerabhadre; Viswanath, Lokesh

2014-01-01

196

Recurrent gliosarcoma in pregnancy.

Gliosarcoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system and it constitutes about 1 to 8% of all malignant gliomas. In this report we are presenting a recurrent gliosarcoma case during a pregnancy in a 30-year-old woman. This is the first report presenting gliosarcoma in the pregnancy. PMID:24900931

Gül?en, Ismail; Ak, Hakan; Yilmaz, Tevfik; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alk??, Ismet; Bayram, Irfan

2014-01-01

197

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that a cocycle, which is nothing but a generalized random walk with index set Ã¢Â„Â¤d, with bounded step sizes is recurrent whenever its associated random entropy is zero, and transient whenever its associated random entropy is positive. This generalizes a well-known one-dimensional result and implies a Polya type dichotomy for this situation.

Ronald Meester

2003-01-01

198

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case report describes a boy who had Kawasaki disease (KD) at age 12 months and had a recurrence one year later. The coronary arteries were normal following the initial episode; however, during the second episode he developed coronary aneurysms. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging, echocardiography, and angiography were used to diagnose the coronary abnormalities

199

A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

Dobbs, David E.

2013-01-01

200

Unfolding single- and multilayers

When planar structures (e.g. sedimentary layers, veins, dykes, cleavages, etc.) are subjected to deformation, they have about equal chances to be shortened or stretched. The most common shortening and stretching structures are folds and boudinage, respectively. However, boudinage requires additional deformation mechanisms apart from viscous flow, like formation of fractures or strain localization. When folded layers are subjected to extension, they could potentially unfold back to straight layers. Although probably not uncommon, this would be difficult to recognize. Open questions are whether folded layers can unfold, what determines their mechanical behaviour and how we can recognize them in the field. In order to approach these questions, we present a series of numerical experiments that simulate stretching of previously folded single- and multi-layers in simple shear, using the two dimensional numerical modelling platform ELLE, including the finite element module BASIL that calculates viscous deformation. We investigate the parameters that affect a fold train once it rotates into the extensional field. The results show that the unfolding process strongly depends on the viscosity contrast between the layer and matrix (Llorens et al., 2013). Layers do not completely unfold when they experience softening before or during the stretching process or when other neighbouring competent layers prevent them from unfolding. The foliation refraction patterns are the main indicators of unfolded folds. Additionally, intrafolial folds and cusp-like folds adjacent to straight layers, as well as variations in fold amplitudes and limb lengths of irregular folds can also be used as indicators of stretching of a layer after shortening and folding. References: Llorens, M-.G., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566.

Llorens, Maria-Gema; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

2014-05-01

201

The work presents a comparative assessment of seven different feature sets for recognition of handwritten Arabic numerals using a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier. The seven feature sets employed here consist of shadow features, octant centroids, longest runs, angular distances, effective spans, dynamic centers of gravity, and some of their combinations. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the maximum recognition rate of 95.80% is observed with both of two separate combinations of features. One of these combinations consists of shadow and centriod features, i. e. 88 features in all, and the other shadow, centroid and longest run features, i. e. 124 features in all. Out of these two, the former combination having a smaller number of features is finally considered effective for applications related to Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic numerals. The work can also be extended to include OCR of handwritten characters of Arabic alphabet.

Das, Nibaran; Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip

2010-01-01

202

Thermoelastic stresses in multilayered beams

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The functionality and reliability of multilayered systems are strongly influenced by thermoelastic stresses. Recently Hsueh formulated a closed-form solution [Hsueh, Thermal stresses in elastic multilayer systems, Thin Solid Films 418 (2002) 182] by decomposing the total strain into a uniform strain component and a bending strain component in order to overcome the complexity of the traditional analytical models. The present study develops an alternative analytical model in terms of the curvature radius of the neutral axis for zero normal strain and the normal strain at the interface between the substrate and the films. Numerical results are calculated for thermoelastic stresses in five-layer (AlGa)As laser diodes. Also two approximate models for the case of multilayered films on a thick substrate are obtained

203

Multilayer adsorption on fractal surfaces.

Multilayer adsorption is often observed in liquid chromatography. The most frequently employed model for multilayer adsorption is the BET isotherm equation. In this study we introduce an interpretation of multilayer adsorption measured on liquid chromatographic stationary phases based on the fractal theory. The fractal BET isotherm model was successfully used to determine the apparent fractal dimension of the adsorbent surface. The nonlinear fitting of the fractal BET equation gives us the estimation of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the monolayer saturation capacity of the adsorbent as well. In our experiments, aniline and proline were used as test molecules on reversed phase and normal phase columns, respectively. Our results suggest an apparent fractal dimension 2.88-2.99 in the case of reversed phase adsorbents, in the contrast with a bare silica column with a fractal dimension of 2.54. PMID:24315680

Vajda, Péter; Felinger, Attila

2014-01-10

204

Optical transmittance of multilayer graphene

We study the optical transmittance of multilayer graphene films up to 65 layers thick. By combing large-scale tight-binding simulation and optical measurement on CVD multilayer graphene, the optical transmission through graphene films in the visible region is found to be solely determined by the number of graphene layers. We argue that the optical transmittance measurement is more reliable in the determination of the number of layers than the commonly used the Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the optical transmittance measurement can be applied also to other 2D materials with weak van der Waals interlayer interaction.

Zhu, Shou-En; Yuan, Shengjun; Janssen, G. C. A. M.

2014-10-01

205

Thin film multilayer neutron monochromators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin film multilayer monochromators have been prepared in a specially designed RF sputtering chamber by translating a glass substrate back and forth under cathode targets made of selected materials. These monochromators have high reflectivities, and their angular acceptance and bandwidth can be selected according to experimental requirements to produce a neutron beam of desired characteristics. Multilayers are especially useful for monochromatizing long wavelength neutrons from a cold source, and for small angle scattering experiments in which ?lambda/lambda of about 10% is acceptable

206

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

Francine Blanchet-Sadri

2011-08-01

207

Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words). Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

Blanchet-Sadri, Francine; Manuelli, Lucas; Schwartz, Jarett; Stich, Slater; 10.4204/EPTCS.63.11

2011-01-01

208

Recurrent maturing perineal lipoblastoma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of fetal adipose tissue that we see mostly in infants and young children less than 3 years of age. Most lipoblastomas occur on the extremities, trunk, head and neck, and various other organs have been described. We report a case of a recurrent perineal lipoblastoma in a 2.5-year-old boy, which showed maturation of the lipoblasts as compared to the primary tumor. (author)

209

Multilayer printed wiring board lamination

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship of delamination resistance of multilayer PWBs made from GF material to manufacturing process variables was investigated. A unique quantitative test method developed during this project shows that delamination resistance is highly sensitive to material conditioning, to innerlayer surface treatment, and to post-lamination storage conditions, but is relatively insensitive to cure cycle variations.

Lula, J.W.

1980-06-01

210

Delamination of strained multilayered nanowires

The mechanical stability of a strained multilayered nanowire has been investigated qualitatively from an energy variation calculation. Depending on the strain and Dupré energy of the interfaces, it is found that the layers may delaminate. The expression of the critical radius of the coherent zone below which the layers may delaminate has been determined, and a stability diagram is presented for the nanowire.

Colin, Jérôme; Cimetière, Alain; Grilhé, Jean

2012-09-01

211

Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a research project within the field of automated agriculture and precision farming.

Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

2006-01-01

212

Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators are vacuum insulating structures composed of thin, alternating layers of dielectric and metal. They are currently being developed for application to high-current accelerators and related pulsed power systems. This paper describes some of the High-Gradient Insulator research currently being conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

213

Ultra-thin Multilayer Capacitors.

The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laborat...

T. C. Monson, T. J. Renk

2009-01-01

214

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

215

Equine recurrent airway obstruction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dustexposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.

Artur Nied?wied?

2014-10-01

216

A 50-year old female patient with unilateral knee pain demonstrated a recurrent ultrasound-proven popliteal cyst (Baker's cyst). Even though a proper differential diagnosis was done, the MRT of the knee showed in a secondary step a tibial fissure as the cause of the treatment-refractory knee pain and Baker's cyst. A fracture of the tibia is a rare cause for a symptomatic Baker's cysts. Mechanical, degenerative or inflamed diseases of the joint are more frequent associated with a Baker's cyst. PMID:21792809

Stöckli, C; Hunziker, R; Tamborrini, G

2011-07-27

217

Regrowth of splenic tissue after splenectomy for trauma and splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura have been reported. However, rupture of splenic tissue, either spontaneous or traumatic, that requires a second surgical intervention for hemoperitoneum caused by a ruptured splenic nodule or splenosis has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 43-year-old man in whom hemoperitoneum developed 25 years after he underwent an open splenectomy, after a motor vehicle accident, that required removal of a recurrent ruptured splenotic nodule. PMID:24398211

Redan, Jay A; Halili, Francisco R; Villarosa, Jill S

2013-01-01

218

Immunomodulators to treat recurrent miscarriage.

Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part of its pathophysiology. Modulating the maternal immune system toward pregnancy tolerance could benefit pregnancy outcome. Although there is a clear scientific rationale that modulating the maternal immune system could benefit recurrent miscarriage, only a few studies suggest possible beneficial effects of immune modulators as a therapy for recurrent miscarriage. Therapies skewing the maternal immune response to a tolerating regulatory T cell rich environment seem especially promising; however, more research is needed to find effective and safe maternal immune modulators for reproductive pathologies as recurrent miscarriage. Moreover, the possible side effects on maternal, fetal, and neonatal immune function are essentially unknown, and its elucidation is crucial before any possible therapeutic strategies could be clinically implemented. PMID:25156972

Prins, Jelmer R; Kieffer, Tom E C; Scherjon, Sicco A

2014-10-01

219

Line Structures in Recurrence Plots

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recurrence plots exhibit line structures which represent typical behaviour of the investigated system. The local slope of these line structures is connected with a specific transformation of the time scales of different segments of the phase-space trajectory. This provides us a better understanding of the structures occuring in recurrence plots. The relationship between the time-scales and line structures are of practical importance in cross recurrence plots. Using this rela...

Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen

2004-01-01

220

Recurrence Statistics of Great Earthquakes

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numeric...

Ben-naim, E.; Daub, E. G.; Johnson, P. A.

2013-01-01

221

Line Structures in Recurrence Plots

Recurrence plots exhibit line structures which represent typical behaviour of the investigated system. The local slope of these line structures is connected with a specific transformation of the time scales of different segments of the phase-space trajectory. This provides us a better understanding of the structures occuring in recurrence plots. The relationship between the time-scales and line structures are of practical importance in cross recurrence plots. Using this relationship within cross recurrence plots, the time-scales of differently sampled or time-transformed measurements can be adjusted. An application to geophysical measurements illustrates the capability of this method for the adjustment of time-scales in different measurements.

Marwan, N; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen

2004-01-01

222

Entropy of weighted recurrence plots

The Shannon entropy of a time series is a standard measure to assess the complexity of a dynamical process and can be used to quantify transitions between different dynamical regimes. An alternative way of quantifying complexity is based on state recurrences, such as those available in recurrence quantification analysis. Although varying definitions for recurrence-based entropies have been suggested so far, for some cases they reveal inconsistent results. Here we suggest a method based on weighted recurrence plots and show that the associated Shannon entropy is positively correlated with the largest Lyapunov exponent. We demonstrate the potential on a prototypical example as well as on experimental data of a chemical experiment.

Eroglu, Deniz; Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Marwan, Nobert; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Costa, Luciano da F.; Sebek, Michael; Kiss, István Z.; Kurths, Jürgen

2014-10-01

223

Brain scintigraphy in recurrent medulloblastoma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-three patients with previously treated medulloblastoma had brain scintigrams during evaluation for recurrent or metastatic tumor. The scintigrams revealed posterior fossa recurrence in 15 patients and supratentorial metastases in 9; only 1 of the latter was clinically suspected. Two subdural hematomas and one calvarial metastasis were also detected. Comparison with other diagnostic evidence shows agreement in 13 out of 14 cases (93 percent) for posterior fossa recurrence and 8/10 (80 percent) for supratentiorial masses. Brain scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive and specific test for the detection of recurrence and metastasis in patients with treated medulloblastoma

224

Anomalous magnetoresistance in Fibonacci multilayers.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We theoretically investigated magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely, [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear coupling, and biquadratic coupling. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case, there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations, and, more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case, we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A. (Materials Science Division); (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte)

2012-01-01

225

Thermally induced delamination of multilayers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion coefficients may be an effective way of reducing the delamination energy release rate. Uneven layer thickness and increasing elastic mismatch are shown to raise the energy release rate. Experimental work confirms important trends of the model.

SØrensen, Bent F.; JØrgensen, O.

1998-01-01

226

Giant magnetoresistance of thin multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport properties in magnetic ultrathin multilayers for a current in the plane configuration are considered. Using the Boltzmann approach and density functional theory, we show that the magnetoresistance for a very thin trilayer Fe-Cr-Fe exhibits an oscillatory behavior versus thickness of ferromagnetic layer and depends on the relative ratio of parameters responsible for spin-dependent scattering of electrons at interfaces and outer surfaces

227

Giant magnetoresistance of thin multilayers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport properties in magnetic ultrathin multilayers for a current in the plane configuration are considered. Using the Boltzmann approach and density functional theory, we show that the magnetoresistance for a very thin trilayer Fe-Cr-Fe exhibits an oscillatory behavior versus thickness of ferromagnetic layer and depends on the relative ratio of parameters responsible for spin-dependent scattering of electrons at interfaces and outer surfaces.

Warda, K. E-mail: kwarda@mvii.uni.lodz.pl; Wojtczak, L.; Wiatrowski, G.; Baldomir, D.; Pereiro, M.; Arias, J

2004-05-01

228

Ultra-thin multilayer capacitors.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this work was to increase the energy density of ceramic capacitors through the formation of a multilayer device with excellent materials properties, dielectric constant, and standoff voltage. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including achieving correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT, as well as the creation of a defect free homogenous film. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, although 900 C temperatures were necessary for PLZT perovskite phase formation. These temperatures were applied to a previously deposited multi-layer film which was then post-annealed to this temperature. The film exhibited mechanical distress attributable to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the various layers. This caused significant defects in the deposited films that led to shorts across devices. A follow-on single layer deposition without post-anneal produced smooth layers with good interface behavior, but without the perovskite phase formation. These issues will need to be addressed in order for ion beam deposited MLCCs to become a viable technology. It is possible that future in-situ heating during deposition may address both the CTE issue, and result in lowered processing temperatures, which in turn could raise the probability of successful MLCC formation.

Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd C.

2009-06-01

229

Mathematical Formulation of Multilayer Networks

A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems are very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing “traditional” network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multilayer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multilayer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes—including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, von Neumann entropy, and diffusion—for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multilayer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.

De Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A.; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

2013-10-01

230

Multilayered Transducers Using Polyurea Film

We have been investigating ultrasonic transducers using a polyurea piezoelectric material, which is fabricated by vapor deposition. To enhance the transducer performance, a multilayered configuration is studied in this work. First, the fabrication and transducer design of the multilayered structure are described. A special twin-vacuum chamber is used for laminating the polyurea layers and aluminum electrodes alternately without breaking vacuum. We fabricate two- and four-layered transducers with 1.5 ?m polyurea films. The calculation results show that the force factor and electromechanical coupling coefficient increase as the number of layers increases. Second, to evaluate the transducer performance, we measure the electromechanical coupling factors and electric admittances. The coupling coefficients also increase as the number of layers increases at the resonant frequencies of about 30, 65, and 100 MHz. The pulse/echo measurements are conducted to determine the transmission and receiving characteristics using a reflector. The results of the experiment show that the voltage amplitudes of the received signal increase because of multilayer lamination.

Nakazawa, Marie; Tabaru, Masaya; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki; Maezawa, Akihiro

2007-07-01

231

Parity and valley degeneracy in multilayer graphene

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study spatial symmetry in general ABA-stacked multilayer graphene to illustrate how electronic spectra at the two valleys are related in a magnetic field. We show that the lattice of multilayers with an even number of layers as well as that of monolayer graphene satisfy spatial inversion symmetry, which rigorously guarantees valley degeneracy in the absence of time-reversal symmetry. A multilayer with an odd number of layers (three or more) lacks inversion symmetry, but there is another tr...

Koshino, Mikito; Mccann, Edward

2010-01-01

232

Multilayer Analysis and Visualization of Networks

Multilayer relationships among and information about biological entities must be accompanied by the means to analyze, visualize, and obtain insights from such data. We report a methodology and a collection of algorithms for the analysis of multilayer networks in our new open-source software (muxViz). We demonstrate the ability of muxViz to analyze and interactively visualize multilayer data using empirical genetic and neuronal networks.

De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex

2014-01-01

233

Shortest Recurrence Periods of Novae

Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass-accretion rates, we identified the shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M_\\sun WD with a mass-accretion rate of 3.6 \\times 10^{-7} M_\\sun yr^{-1}. One year recurrence period is realized for very massive (> 1.3 M_\\sun) WDs with very high accretion rates (>1.5 \\times 10^{-7} M_\\sun yr^{-1}). We also present a revised stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

2014-01-01

234

Shortest Recurrence Periods of Novae

Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M ? WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10-7 M ? yr-1. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (gsim 1.3 M ?) WDs with very high accretion rates (gsim 1.5 × 10-7 M ? yr-1). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

2014-10-01

235

Genetics Home Reference: Recurrent hydatidiform mole

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Recurrent hydatidiform mole On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed October 2014 What is recurrent hydatidiform mole? Recurrent hydatidiform mole occurs when women have at ...

236

Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis Recurrence During Pregnancy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic condition seen by practitioners rendering primary care to women. Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis (VVC is the most common type of vaginitis and this study aimed at specifying VVC recurrence during pregnancy. In this prospective study, 150 pregnant women suffering from vaginal excretion, morsus and itching were studied. Initially, the patients were treated using clotrimazole local cream (5 g for 7 successive days. After initial treatment, the patients were freely visited once a month until delivery considering vaginitis symptoms and VVC recurrence was examined during pregnancy. Mean age of the understudy mothers was 27.26±3.76. Mean of recurrence number was 0.17±0.48 during the first trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 0.92±0.76 during the second trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 2.16±0.63 during the third trimester. Statistically significant difference was between recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy (p<0.001. There is statistically significant difference between mean number of recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy.

R. Torab

2012-01-01

237

Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Darwin plateau as d is varied obeys a universal scaling law universal in the sense that it is the same for all layer materials and all orders of reflection. The width of the Darwin plateau also obeys a universal scaling law. It is verified that the values of the center and width of the Darwin plateau calculated from the optical matrix method for Ni/Ti and Fe/Ge multilayers obey these scaling laws for a wide range of parameters. (author)

Sears, V.F

1997-07-01

238

Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Darwin plateau as d is varied obeys a universal scaling law universal in the sense that it is the same for all layer materials and all orders of reflection. The width of the Darwin plateau also obeys a universal scaling law. It is verified that the values of the center and width of the Darwin plateau calculated from the optical matrix method for Ni/Ti and Fe/Ge multilayers obey these scaling laws for a wide range of parameters. (author)

239

Thermionic cooling in semiconductor multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A solid-state refrigerator in which electrons transport heat has advantages over the conventional vapour-cycle, compressor-based domestic refrigerator since it has no moving parts, it is low-maintenance, silent, vibration-free and does not require the use of refrigerant gases. The usual approach to making an all-electrical refrigerator is by thermoelectric refrigeration. After a period of intense research in the 1950s and 60s it was realised that the efficiency of thermoelectric devices was less than, and unlikely to exceed, that of conventional compressor units. While thermoelectric cooling has found specialised applications in cases where reliability, compactness and weight are important considerations, it does not appear that thermo-electrics will ever successfully compete in the domestic market, in spite of recent advances in the design and fabrication of thermoelectric materials. A new approach to an all-electric refrigerator is to employ thermionic emission over potential barriers. A key difference between a thermoelectric device and a thermionic device is that in the former the electrons are scattered in their motion and in the latter they are not. Thus thermionic cooling, in principle, can be much more efficient than thermoelectric cooling. A radical new realisation of the thermionic refrigerator was suggested recently in which a multilayer semiconductor structure would be used. We discuss the optimisation of such a multilayer semiconductor cooling f such a multilayer semiconductor cooling system by considering (1) electron-phonon interactions in the barriers and electrodes; (2) the detailed treatment of thermal conductivity; (3) an exact numerical solution of the heat and energy currents (in contrast to the previous approximate analytic solutions); (4) the effect of varying layer thickness across the device; and (5) the effect of varying current density across the device

240

Hall effect in multilayer graphenes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss Hall effect of multilayer graphenes with several stacking structures (Bernal, rhombohedral and simple hexagonal) in strong- and weak-magnetic field regimes. For bilayer systems in strong-magnetic field region, we observed crossover of integer quantum Hall effect from two independent monolayer type system to strongly coupled bilayer systems by changing the ratio of interlayer hopping energy and the Fermi energy. In weak-magnetic field regime of few layer systems, Hall conductivity shows plateaux as functions of Fermi energy which reflects difference of stacking structures.

241

Hall effect in multilayer graphenes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss Hall effect of multilayer graphenes with several stacking structures (Bernal, rhombohedral and simple hexagonal) in strong- and weak-magnetic field regimes. For bilayer systems in strong-magnetic field region, we observed crossover of integer quantum Hall effect from two independent monolayer type system to strongly coupled bilayer systems by changing the ratio of interlayer hopping energy and the Fermi energy. In weak-magnetic field regime of few layer systems, Hall conductivity shows plateaux as functions of Fermi energy which reflects difference of stacking structures.

Nakamura, Masaaki [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Hirasawa, Lila [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2009-02-01

242

Nanoassemblies of sulfonated polyaniline multilayers

A self-assembly layer-by-layer (LBL) technique was used for the sequential adsorption of polycation, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyanion, sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) on glass, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates, polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)/glass and PSS/ITO surfaces, respectively. The building up of such multilayers was characterized by the increment of the adsorbed amount through UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The atomic force microscopic study showed the granular surface topology of such self-assembled films of sulfonated polyaniline. PDDA/SPANI LBL films were electrically active and detailed electrochemical parameters were investigated.

Sarkar, Nabin; Ram, Manoj Ku; Sarkar, Anjana; Narizzano, Riccardo; Paddeu, Sergio; Nicolini, Claudio

2000-03-01

243

Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene.

Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei

2014-01-01

244

Method of making coherent multilayer crystals

A new material consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 .ANG. to 2500 .ANG.. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01

245

STDP in recurrent neuronal networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent results about spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP in recurrently connected neurons are reviewed, with a focus on the relationship between the weight dynamics and the emergence of network structure. In particular, the evolution of synaptic weights in the two cases of incoming connections for a single neuron and recurrent connections are compared and contrasted. A theoretical framework is used that is based upon Poisson neurons with a temporally inhomogeneous firing rate and the asymptotic distribution of weights generated by the learning dynamics. Different network configurations examined in recent studies are discussed and an overview of the current understanding of STDP in recurrently connected neuronal networks is presented.

MatthieuGilson

2010-09-01

246

$\\omega$-recurrence in cocycles

After relating the notion of $\\omega$-recurrence in skew products to the range of values taken by partial ergodic sums and Lyapunov exponents, ergodic $\\mathbb{Z}$-valued cocycles over an irrational rotation are presented in detail. First, the generic situation is studied and shown to be $1/n$-recurrent. It is then shown that for any $\\omega(n) 1/2$, there are uncountably many infinite staircases (a certain specific cocycle over a rotation) which are \\textit{not} $\\omega$-recurrent, and therefore have positive Lyapunov exponent. A further section makes brief remarks regarding cocycles over interval exchange transformations of periodic type.

Chaika, Jon

2011-01-01

247

Recurrent and weakly recurrent points in ÃŽÂ²G

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shown in this paper that if ÃŽÂ²G is the Stone-Ã„ÂŒech compactification of a group G, and G satisfying a certain condition, then there is a weakly recurrent point in ÃŽÂ²G which is not almost periodic, and if another condition will be added, then there is a recurrent point in ÃŽÂ²G which is not almost periodic point.

Mostafa Nassar

1986-06-01

248

Recurrent and weakly recurrent points in ÃŽÂ²G

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is shown in this paper that if ÃŽÂ²G is the Stone-Ã„ÂŒech compactification of a group G, and G satisfying a certain condition, then there is a weakly recurrent point in ÃŽÂ²G which is not almost periodic, and if another condition will be added, then there is a recurrent point in ÃŽÂ²G which is not almost periodic point.

Mostafa Nassar

1986-01-01

249

Polyelectrolyte Multilayers: Towards Single Cell Studies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Single cell analysis (SCA is nowadays recognized as one of the key tools for diagnostics and fundamental cell biology studies. The Layer-by-layer (LbL polyelectrolyte assembly is a rather new but powerful technique to produce multilayers. It allows to model the extracellular matrix in terms of its chemical and physical properties. Utilization of the multilayers for SCA may open new avenues in SCA because of the triple role of the multilayer film: (i high capacity for various biomolecules; (ii natural mimics of signal molecule diffusion to a cell and (iii cell patterning opportunities. Besides, light-triggered release from multilayer films offers a way to deliver biomolecules with high spatio-temporal resolution. Here we review recent works showing strong potential to use multilayers for SCA and address accordingly the following issues: biomolecule loading, cell patterning, and light-triggered release.

Dmitry Volodkin

2014-05-01

250

Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

Chapman; Henry N. (Livermore, CA), Taylor; John S. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-16

251

Impact properties of multilayered materials

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities of multilayered materials as high impact resistance materials are considered with reference to safety in transportation. The mechanism of fracture of the different layers of the material produces an enhancement of the impact resistance behavior and, as a consequence, a lower quantity of material is needed with the corresponding saving in weight of the transport vehicle. The reinforcing material of this multilayered composite are steel sheets. The sheets, two or more, are dipped in molten zinc and pressed together during the withdrawal. The still molten zinc outside of the surface of the sheets, i.e., between the different sheets, solidifies and all the sheets with the solidified zinc forms the composite where the zinc is as a glue. The adherence of this composite is very good because of the metallurgical bond between the steel sheets and the zinc. Also, the composite presents a very good behavior from the point of view of the corrosion resistance because the cathodic protection of zinc. That means the material may be safely used during the whole life time of the vehicle or equipment. Some tests concerning the impact resistance and the corrosion resistance are presented and discussed. Applications in vehicles, containers and highway guard rails are considered the most promising. (orig.)

252

Recurrence Quantification of Fractal Structures

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By definition, fractal structures possess recurrent patterns. At different levels repeating patterns can be visualized at higher magnifications. The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, general characteristics of dynamical systems are addressed from a theoretical mathematical perspective. Second, qualitative and quantitative recurrence analysis is reviewed in brief, but the reader is directed to other sources for explicit details. Third, example mathematical systems that generate strange attractors are explicitly defined, giving the reader the ability to reproduce the rich dynamics of continuous chaotic flows or discrete chaotic iterations. The challenge is then posited for the reader to study for themselves the recurrent structuring of these different dynamics. With a firm appreciation of the power of recurrence analysis, the reader will be prepared to turn their sights on real world systems (physiological, psychological, mechanical, etc..

CharlesWebber

2012-10-01

253

Management Science and Recurrent Education

Attempts to apply management science techniques to educational planning. Advocates "recurrent education." Asserts that deterministic linear programing formulations of educational planning models could form a sound base from which to develop toward stochastic representation. (Author/WM)

Houghton, V. P.; Gear, T. E.

1974-01-01

254

Management of recurrent vault prolapse.

In the ageing female population, recurrent vaginal vault prolapse is a significant healthcare burden. There is limited evidence regarding the optimal management strategy for recurrent vault prolapse. This paper aims to discuss treatment modalities available for recurrent vault prolapse. A literature search and analysis was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane database, current texts and references from relevant articles. We found inconclusive evidence supporting conservative, mechanical and some surgical options for treating recurrent vault prolapse; including iliococcygeal fixation, McCall culdoplasty, and infracoccygeal sacropexy. Sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF), sacrocolpopexy, mesh implants and colpocleisis are shown to have good outcomes in Level II studies. Nevertheless, the first two are associated with haemorrhage, dyspareunia and scarring whilst colpocleisis is limited to selected patients. More well-designed studies are required for recurrent vault prolapse. Current evidence suggests SSLF, and sacrocolpopexy are alternative surgical options to colpocleisis in treating recurrent vault prolapse. Randomised trials are required to determine the efficacy and safety of trocar-guided mesh kits. PMID:21725676

Toh, V V; Bogne, V; Bako, A

2012-01-01

255

Recent advances in etched multilayer X-ray optics

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the recent advances achieved in the Laboratoire de Chimie Physique of Université Paris 6, in the field of the soft X-ray etched multilayer optics. Modellings and characterizations are given for the laminar multilayer amplitude gratings, the highly resolutive X-ray multilayer monochromators, the X-ray polychromators and the Bragg-Fresnel multilayer linear lenses.?

Andre?, J.; Sammar, A.; Bac, S.; Ouahabi, M.; Idir, M.; Soullie?, G.; Barchewitz, R.

1994-01-01

256

Innovative multilayer coated optics for Solar Physics

Development of multilayer coated optics with specific spectral characteristics and enhanced temporal, thermal and radiation stability requires an innovative approach to the design of reflecting multilayers and optimization of the coating process. Here we report on the progress in design, calculations and fabrication of reflecting multilayer coatings for solar imaging in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) range. We will present recent results of characterization of new tri-component periodic multilayer structures containing aluminum as a low absorbing material within the spectral range from 17 to 40 nm. The EUV peak reflectance of these coatings (for instance, the Al/Mo/SiC multilayers) reaches 56% at 17.4 nm and 42% at 30 nm, highest reported up to now for these wavelengths. We have studied the temporal and thermal stability of structural and optical parameters of Al-based multilayer coatings as well as the resistivity of the coatings to high-energy and high-dose proton irradiation. A special attention will be drawn to specific bi-periodic systems with enhanced selectivity, which possess two efficient reflection bands and attenuate some unwanted emission lines in the EUV range. Experimental results show that such multilayer coatings are good candidates for the EUV imaging telescopes of Solar Orbiter and future solar missions.

Meltchakov, Evgueni; Auchere, Frederic; Delmotte, Franck; De Rossi, Sebastien; Mercier, Raymond; Zhang, Xueyan

257

Investigation of multilayer local tilt within long portion of single Co /Cu nanowires

In this work arrays of Co /Cu multilayer nanowires were fabricated by electrodeposition to develop giant magnetoresistive sensors. Structure and morphology defects within 6?m long portions of single nanowires have been probed by electron and ion-beam microscopies. It has been discovered that the most recurrent growth defect is a tilt of the nanowire layers, which varies along the length of the nanowires, this effect being more significant for nanowires of larger diameters; nevertheless, the nanowire arrays fabricated in this work demonstrated a magnetoresistive response which is very close to the behavior of analogous systems previously reported in the literature.

Pullini, D.; Innocenti, G.; Busquets, D.; Ruotolo, A.

2007-03-01

258

[The use of prostheses in recurrent hernias].

The use of inert plastic (Prolene mesh, 0,027 inches in thickness fournited by Ethicon) as preperitoneal prosthesis in repair of incisional hernias and inguinal hernia recurrencies has been investigated in 28 patients operated upon then 1977 to 1984. In 9 patients the inguinal approach was used with one recurrence (11%). In 9 patients the posterior approach through a midline incision has been used with two recurrences (22%). In 10 patients with incisional hernias there was only one recurrence (10%). Total recurrences rate was 14%. Most recurrences occur in patients operated from 1977 to 1980 (40%). Patients operated in the last period from 1980 to 1984 had no recurrences. PMID:6529507

Tanzini, G; Setacci, C; Piccolotti, T; Salvestrini, F; Palasciano, G; Papi, F; Calfa, C

1984-12-30

259

Application of high temperature multilayer insulations

Low temperature multilayer insulation systems are highly efficient in usual satellite applications. Thermal control in the field of earth reentry systems as well as space power plants benefits from the application of high temperature multilayer insulations. The analytic prediction of high temperature multilayer insulation performance in a changing environment is enabled if the dependence of the heat transfer modes on the various design parameters is known. Systematic and tailored design of the insulation becomes feasible then. This is illustrated by three typical examples like a planetary probe for the exploration of the solar system, an earth based space transportation system and a solar-dynamic space power system for low earth orbit application.

Keller, K.; Hoffmann, M.; Zoerner, W.; Blumenberg, J.

1992-06-01

260

Tunable optical properties of multilayers black phosphorus

We calculated the optical conductivity tensor of multilayers black phosphorus using the Kubo formula within an effective low-energy Hamiltonian. The optical absorption spectra of multilayers black phosphorus are shown to vary sensitively with thickness, doping, and light polarization. In conjunction with experimental spectra obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy, we discuss the role of interband coupling and disorder on the observed anisotropic absorption spectra. Multilayers black phosphorus might offer attractive alternatives to narrow gap compound semiconductors for optoelectronics across mid- to near-infrared frequencies.

Low, Tony; Carvalho, A; Jiang, Yongjin; Wang, Han; Xia, Fengnian; Neto, A H Castro

2014-01-01

261

Multilayer inkjet printing of materials

Inkjet printing is familiar as a method for printing ink on absorbent paper. In principle the method can be used to print multilayer devices, but we will then need to be able to control the structure of material deposited onto hard surfaces and to overprint different materials on one another. This paper deals addresses the approaches available to form materials by reaction between successive ink layers. The short diffusion distances allow uniform structures to form instead of interfacial barriers or precipitates that would result on a larger scale. Many aspects of these processes can be compared to those that occur during growth of biological tissues. Thus, biology may be a fruitful source of ideas on how to exploit this technology.

Yoshioka, Yuka; Jabbour, Ghassan E.; Calvert, Paul D.

2002-11-01

262

Centrality in Interconnected Multilayer Networks

Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases, they require to be modeled by interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions on several levels simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology, from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network. However, defining the centrality of actors in an interconnected structure is not trivial. In this paper, we capitalize on the tensorial formalism, recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, to show how several centrality measures -- well-known in the case of standard ("monoplex") networks -- can be extended naturally to the realm of interconnected multiplexes. We consider diagnostics widely used in different fields, e.g., computer science, biology, communication and social sciences, to cite only some of them. We show, both theoretically and numerically, that using the weighted monoplex obta...

De Domenico, Manlio; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

2013-01-01

263

An Undecidable Nested Recurrence Relation

Roughly speaking, a recurrence relation is nested if it contains a subexpression of the form ... A(...A(...)...). Many nested recurrence relations occur in the literature, and determining their behavior seems to be quite difficult and highly dependent on their initial conditions. A nested recurrence relation A(n) is said to be undecidable if the following problem is undecidable: given a finite set of initial conditions for A(n), is the recurrence relation calculable? Here calculable means that for every n >= 0, either A(n) is an initial condition or the calculation of A(n) involves only invocations of A on arguments in {0,1,...,n-1}. We show that the recurrence relation A(n) = A(n-4-A(A(n-4)))+4A(A(n-4)) +A(2A(n-4-A(n-2))+A(n-2)). is undecidable by showing how it can be used, together with carefully chosen initial conditions, to simulate Post 2-tag systems, a known Turing complete problem.

Celaya, Marcel

2012-01-01

264

Review of the multilayer coating model

The recent theoretical study on the multilayer-coating model published in Applied Physics Letters [1] is reviewed. Magnetic-field attenuation behavior in a multilayer coating model is different from a semi-infinite superconductor and a superconducting thin film. This difference causes that of the vortex-penetration field at which the Bean-Livingston surface barrier disappears. A material with smaller penetration depth, such as a pure Nb, is preferable as the substrate for pushing up the vortex-penetration field of the superconductor layer. The field limit of the whole structure of the multilayer coating model is limited not only by the vortex-penetration field of the superconductor layer, but also by that of the substrate. Appropriate thicknesses of superconductor and insulator layers can be extracted from contour plots of the field limit of the multilayer coating model given in Ref.[1].

Kubo, Takayuki; Saeki, Takayuki

2014-01-01

265

Electromagnetic transmission through Cantor multilayers with defects

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transfer matrix method is used to investigate the electromagnetic transmission spectrum of a triadic Cantor multilayer when one or two dielectric defects are introduced. Unlike the periodic multilayer, the defects only cause frequency shift and distortion of the transmission spectrum. When the defect with a positive refractive index, we obtain a negative frequency shift. On the contrary, when the defect has negative refractive index, it causes a positive frequency shift. If we insert these two kinds of defects into the Cantor multilayer simultaneously, both frequency shifts exist, moreover, the frequency shift is a non-monotonic function of the thickness of the defects. This is different from the result of the triadic Cantor multilayer with only one defect

266

Microwave sintering of multilayer ceramic capacitors.

Multilayer ceramic capacitors of several compositions (both Z5U and NPO types) were sintered in air in both conventional and microwave furnaces. Several casketing and insulation techniques were used to improve temperature uniformity and minimize dopant lo...

R. J. Lauf, C. E. Holcombe, C. Hamby

1992-01-01

267

Lapatinib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma

2014-05-07

268

New fabrication technology of multilayer diffraction gratings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fabrication technology of the multilayer diffraction gratings is proposed. The technology is based on three consecutive technological operations: formation of the grating profile in resist by photo- or electron beam lithography methods, deposition of X-ray mirror by sputtering and operation lift-off. The given technology was used for fabrication of one- and two-dimensional multilayer diffraction gratings. Diffraction properties of the created gratings were investigated using a laboratory X-ray source

269

Planar multilayer assemblies containing block copolymer aggregates.

The design, preparation, and properties of planar multilayer structures composed of various combinations of sequentially deposited polyelectrolyte (PE) chains and self-assembled layers of individual block copolymer aggregates (vesicles, micelles, or large compound micelles (LCMs)) are described. The aggregates contain negatively or positively charged corona chains while the PE multilayers contain alternating polyanionic or polycationic chains deposited on silicon wafers. The final structures consist of combinations of layers of various charged species: multilayers of alternating PEs of poly(allyl hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as well as vesicles, micelles, or large compound micelles of ionized poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) or of poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA). Two types of layer-by-layer (LbL) multilayer structures were studied: individual aggregate layers sandwiched between PE multilayers and layers of individual aggregates of various morphologies and of different corona chain charges, deposited on top of each other without intermediate multilayers or individual layers of PEs. The strong interactions between the successive layers are achieved mainly by electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged layers. The planar LbL multilayers containing block copolymer aggregates could, potentially, be used as carriers for multiple functional components; each aggregate layer could be loaded with hydrophobic (in the core of the micelles, LCMs, or vesicle walls) or hydrophilic functional molecules (in the vesicular cavities). The overall thickness of such planar LbL multilayers can be controlled precisely and can vary from tens of nanometers to several micrometers depending on the number of layers, the sizes of the aggregates, and the complexity of the structure. PMID:24417699

Xiao, Lin; Vyhnalkova, Renata; Sailer, Miloslav; Yang, Guang; Barrett, Christopher J; Eisenberg, Adi

2014-01-28

270

The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD:

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of physical quantities like time-dependent displacements, stresses and strains, permanent deformations and dissipated energies in a multi-layer system built of visco-elastic materials. All the quantiti...

Hopman, P. C.

1996-01-01

271

Recurrence of planar graph limits

We prove that any distributional limit of finite planar graphs in which the degree of the root has an exponential tail is almost surely recurrent. As a corollary, we obtain that the uniform infinite planar triangulation and quadrangulation (UIPT and UIPQ) are almost surely recurrent, resolving a conjecture of Angel, Benjamini and Schramm. We also settle another related problem of Benjamini and Schramm. We show that in any bounded degree, finite planar graph the probability that the simple random walk started at a uniform random vertex avoids its initial location for T steps is at most C/log T.

Gurel-Gurevich, Ori

2012-01-01

272

Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various numerical experiments on time series prediction problems are used to illustrate the potential of the suggested methods

Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

1997-01-01

273

Hyperthermia of recurrent breast sarcoma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Breast sarcomas comprise approximately 3 % of all malignant breast tumors. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy, hormone therapy or radiotherapy has not been proven. Recently, hyperthermia (HT) has been recognized as an effective adjuvant in treatment of locally advanced recurrent breast cancer. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to our breast unit. In her history she had 10 resections for recurrent liposarcoma of the left breast over a period of 14 years, comprising resection of the infiltrated axillary vein. After a new wide resection and implantation of two interstitial devices HT was performed with a total number of 6 sessions over 3 weeks. The time for each session was 60 minutes. Temperature was exactly calibrated between 40 and 43 degrees Celsius. No notable complications were observed. The patient is free of local recurrence for a follow up period of 49 months. Our results suggest that local hyperthermia may be useful to prevent local recurrence in liposarcoma of the breast. The data should encourage further clinical studies. (author)

274

Late Recurrent Uveitis after Phacoemulsification

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is now assumed that recurrent late onset uveitis after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL is due to indolent infection. Fifteen such cases were observed after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with-in-the-bag IOL implant. These cases were considered noninfective and treated medically with good visual recovery.

Saraf Pradeep

2004-01-01

275

Recurrent processing during object recognition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of of naturally-occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain's visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time.

DeanWyatte

2013-04-01

276

Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3x10-4 N/m2(1 x 10-6 torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K(200 R) and 361 K(650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 m3 (120 gal) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars

277

Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

Dempsey, P. J.; Stochl, R. J.

1995-01-01

278

It is quite obvious that in the real world, more than one kind of relationship can exist between two actors and that those ties can be so intertwined that it is impossible to analyse them separately [Fienberg 85], [Minor 83], [Szell 10]. Social networks with more than one type of relation are not a completely new concept [Wasserman 94] but they were analysed mainly at the small scale, e.g. in [McPherson 01], [Padgett 93], and [Entwisle 07]. Just like in the case of regular single-layered social network there is no widely accepted definition or even common name. At the beginning such networks have been called multiplex network [Haythornthwaite 99], [Monge 03]. The term is derived from communications theory which defines multiplex as combining multiple signals into one in such way that it is possible to separate them if needed [Hamill 06]. Recently, the area of multi-layered social network has started attracting more and more attention in research conducted within different domains [Kazienko 11a], [Szell 10], [...

Bródka, Piotr

2012-01-01

279

Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2008-01-01

280

Moisture in multilayer ceramic capacitors

When both precious metal electrode and base metal electrode (BME) capacitors were subjected to autoclave (120°C/100% RH) testing, it was found that the precious metal capacitors aged according to a well known aging mechanism (less than 3% from their starting values), but the BME capacitors degraded to below the -30% criterion at 500 hours of exposure. The reasons for this new failure mechanism are complex, and there were two theories that were hypothesized. The first was that there could be oxidation or corrosion of the nickel plates. The other hypothesis was that the loss of capacitance was due to molecular changes in the barium titanate. This thesis presents the evaluation of these hypotheses and the physics of the degradation mechanism. It is concluded by proof by elimination that there are molecular changes in the barium titanate. Furthermore, the continuous reduction in capacitor size makes the newer base metal electrode capacitors more vulnerable to moisture degradation than the older generation precious metal capacitors. In addition, standard humidity life testing, such as JESD-22 THB and HAST, will likely not uncover this problem. Therefore, poor reliability due to degradation of base metal electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors may catch manufacturers and consumers by surprise.

Donahoe, Daniel Noel

281

Does circumcision influence recurrences in herpes genitalis?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: The effect of therapeutic circumcision in men for preventing recurrences of herpes genitalis remains largely unelucidated despite its well documented albeit conflicting role in reducing the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including genital herpes. Methods: Twenty volunteer adult males with a history of recurrent herpes genitalis were included in the study after informed consent and circumcision was carried out. Twenty more adult males having recurrent herpes genitalis and registered in the clinic during the same period were selected as controls. All patients and controls were followed-up for recurrences of herpes genitalis. Results and Conclusions: Six patients and six controls did not follow-up. Seven patients reported no recurrences during 3-18 years, seven patients had two to six recurrences during 11-27 years of postcircumcision follow-up, 0.0080 (average recurrences per person per year as compared with 0.20 (average recurrences per person per year recorded before the circumcision. Two patients had first recurrence 11 years after the circumcision. In comparison, 14 controls had 0.17 (average recurrences per person per year, comparable with the number of recurrences in uncircumcised patients, and frequently at shorter intervals. Despite being a small study, the circumcision appears to reduce the number of recurrences on an average and evidently prolongs the disease-free period in between two recurrences.

Jerath V

2009-01-01

282

Genetics Home Reference: Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

... benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis? Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is characterized by episodes of liver dysfunction called ... a lack of appetite. A common feature of BRIC is the reduced absorption of fat in the ...

283

14 CFR 121.427 - Recurrent training.

...respectively. (4) Approved recurrent CRM training. For flight crewmembers, this...training (LOFT) session. The recurrent CRM training requirement does not apply until a person has completed the applicable initial CRM training required by §§ 121.419,...

2010-01-01

284

Giant recurrent retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as a recurrent inguinal hernia.

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as an inguinal hernia is a rare entity. We present the first case of Giant recurrent liposarcoma presenting as a recurrent inguinal hernia in a 40-year-old male. Physical examination showed an irreducible lump in the right inguinal region and a scar in the right lumbar and right inguinal region. Computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen revealed it to be a retro peritoneal mass extending into the right inguinal region along and involving the cord structures. Wide local excision of the tumour with right orchidectomy and inguinal hernioplasty was performed. Histo-pathology confirmed it to be a liposarcoma. Patient received postoperative radio therapy. Follow up of two years has shown him to be disease free. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma can grow along cord structures into the inguinal canal and mimic an irreducible indirect inguinal hernia. PMID:24765371

Bhandarwar, Ajay H; Bakhshi, Girish D; Borisa, Ashok D; Shenoy, Sachin S; Kori, Channabasappa G; Vora, Sameer

2011-09-28

285

Giant recurrent retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as a recurrent inguinal hernia

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as an inguinal hernia is a rare entity. We present the first case of Giant recurrent liposarcoma presenting as a recurrent inguinal hernia in a 40-year-old male. Physical examination showed an irreducible lump in the right inguinal region and a scar in the right lumbar and right inguinal region. Computed tomography (CT scan of abdomen revealed it to be a retro peritoneal mass extending into the right inguinal region along and involving the cord structures. Wide local excision of the tumour with right orchidectomy and inguinal hernioplasty was performed. Histo-pathology confirmed it to be a liposarcoma. Patient received postoperative radio therapy. Follow up of two years has shown him to be disease free. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma can grow along cord structures into the inguinal canal and mimic an irreducible indirect inguinal hernia.

Sameer Vora

2011-09-01

286

Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two of the most important properties of a porous silicon multilayer for photonic applications are flat interfaces and a relative large refractive index contrast between layers in the optical wavelength range. In this work, we studied the effect of the current density and HF electrolyte concentration on the refractive index of porous silicon. With the purpose of increasing the refractive index contrast in a multilayer, the refractive index of porous silicon produced at low current was studied in detail. The current density applied to produce the low porosity layers was limited in order to keep the electrolyte flow through the multilayer structure and to avoid deformation of layer interfaces. We found that an electrolyte composed of hydrofluoric acid, ethanol and glycerin in a ratio of 3:7:1 gives a refractive index contrast around 1.3/2.8 at 600 nm. Several multilayer structures with this refractive index contrast were fabricated, such as dielectric Bragg mirrors and microcavities. Reflectance spectra of the structures show the photonic quality of porous silicon multilayers produced under these electrochemical conditions. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Nava, R.; Mora, M.B. de la; Tagueena-Martinez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Rio, J.A. del [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Estado de Morelos (Mexico)

2009-07-15

287

Recurrent Idiopathic Facial Paralysis: A Case Report

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idiopathic facial paralysis is the mononeuropathy Multiple recurrences of idiopathic facial paralysis in a patient may be the sign or sympton of a serious illness. therefore; in recurrent cases, family history, systemic diseases and malignancy must be investigated. In this report, a case of recurrent idiopathic facial paralysis is presented.

Hale Hekim Balo?lu

2010-09-01

288

Recurrent infection in the child.

In the child with recurrent infection, early recognition of defects in host defenses is critical for appropriate treatment and for patient survival and well-being. Familiarity on the physician's part with the clinical clues of an anatomic or functional defect can save time, money, and patient discomfort. When no such defect is apparent, the problem may be in the child's immunologic system and more specific testing is necessary to identify whether the defect is in cell-mediated immunity or is in the functioning of the phagocytic, complement, or humoral system. Treatments for these problems are available, but their success depends on early diagnosis before recurrent infection and malnutrition result in irreversible tissue damage. PMID:7054773

Regelmann, W E

1982-01-01

289

Recurrent gossypiboma in the thigh

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gossypiboma, an iatrogenic mass lesion caused by a retained surgical sponge is an extremely rare event following musculoskeletal procedures. This entity is therefore a very unusual experience and can create considerable confusion. Unsuspecting surgeons may thus be caught out by this unlikely presentation. We present our experience with a recurrent gossypiboma in the thigh occurring several years after surgical evacuation of a similar gossypiboma from the same anatomic location with interval resolution of symptoms. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the possibility of a ''recurrent'' soft tissue mass occurring for reasons other than a neoplasm. In the absence of a definitive biopsy diagnosis of tumor in patients who have undergone prior surgical procedures in that area, it may be more prudent to adopt a conservative surgical resection rather than a conventional radical resection as warranted by the dramatic clinical presentation mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. (orig.)

Puri, Ajay; Anchan, Chetan; Agarwal, Manish G. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Mumbai (India); Jambhekar, Nirmala A. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Mumbai (India); Badwe, Rajendra A. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Mumbai (India)

2007-06-15

290

Recurrent gossypiboma in the thigh

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gossypiboma, an iatrogenic mass lesion caused by a retained surgical sponge is an extremely rare event following musculoskeletal procedures. This entity is therefore a very unusual experience and can create considerable confusion. Unsuspecting surgeons may thus be caught out by this unlikely presentation. We present our experience with a recurrent gossypiboma in the thigh occurring several years after surgical evacuation of a similar gossypiboma from the same anatomic location with interval resolution of symptoms. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the possibility of a ''recurrent'' soft tissue mass occurring for reasons other than a neoplasm. In the absence of a definitive biopsy diagnosis of tumor in patients who have undergone prior surgical procedures in that area, it may be more prudent to adopt a conservative surgical resection rather than a conventional radical resection as warranted by the dramatic clinical presentation mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. (orig.)

291

Theory of Earthquake Recurrence Times

The statistics of recurrence times in broad areas have been reported to obey universal scaling laws, both for single homogeneous regions (Corral, 2003) and when averaged over multiple regions (Bak et al.,2002). These unified scaling laws are characterized by intermediate power law asymptotics. On the other hand, Molchan (2005) has presented a mathematical proof that, if such a universal law exists, it is necessarily an exponential, in obvious contradiction with the data. First, we generalize Molchan's argument to show that an approximate unified law can be found which is compatible with the empirical observations when incorporating the impact of the Omori law of earthquake triggering. We then develop the full theory of the statistics of inter-event times in the framework of the ETAS model of triggered seismicity and show that the empirical observations can be fully explained. Our theoretical expression fits well the empirical statistics over the whole range of recurrence times, accounting for different regime...

Saichev, A

2006-01-01

292

[Suicidal risk in recurrent depression].

Recurrent depression represents a major target of suicide prevention, due to its high prevalence and its strong association to Suicidal Behaviour (SB). In France, every year, nearly 11,000 persons dye from completed suicide and 200,000 attempt suicide. It has been recently shown that the adjusted population attributable fraction of the time spent depressed for suicide attempts was 78%. Thus, suicidal risk in recurrent depression being related to severity, partial response to treatment, chronicity and recurrences, the expectancies of treatment should be elevated. The assessment of the suicidal risk should involve psychiatric comorbidities that facilitate the act, particularly alcohol misuse, and also the lack of social support. The current conceptualisation of SB allows considering them as psychiatric entities per se. Consequently, the evaluation will be focused on the specific suicidal vulnerability: personal and family history of SB, hopelessness and impulsive aggression, and childhood maltreatment. The existence of this vulnerability would help to detect very high-risk patients, in order to deliver the necessary protections. Current advances provided by the use of neuroscientific tools open the way to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of SB. Based on this multifocal evaluation, the clinician would identify potential therapeutic targets. Indeed, the priority is first to treat adequately recurrent depression, as it is clear that too many patients do not receive such a treatment. Next steps would be related to the efforts allowing obtaining complete remission. Comorbid disorders would need specific care. This is the case for the suicidal comorbidity that may justify implementing specific treatments such as lithium or focused psychotherapies. Finally, innovative care management need to be developed, as they are likely to be helpful to provide continuously assistance to people who are suffering in order to avoid a suicidal act. PMID:21211632

Courtet, P

2010-12-01

293

Management of Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma.

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of recurrent endometrial carcinoma has traditionally focused on providingtargeted adjuvant therapy in select groups of patients based on their risk factors. Majorprogress has been made over the last two decades in identifying these clinical-pathologicalrisk factors, which has led to the classification of patients into different risk groups. Patientswith high-risk factors are generally treated with adjunctive radiation therapy immediatelyfollowing surgery to minimize the incidence o...

Ming-Shian Kao

2004-01-01

294

Recurrent Leiomyosarcoma of The Scrotum

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum is a rare tumor. These tumors usually present as firm, rubbery, nontender,irregular masses. Scrotal leimyosarcomas tend to be slow growing tumors that tend to be present foryears. It is best treated by wide local excision. We present a case of recurrent leiomyosarcoma of scrotumin a 57 year old patient, who recurred four times after excision in 3 years and was controlled by combinationchemotherapy.

Vivek Kaushal, Harmeet Singh

2009-04-01

295

Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

Kalsow, C. M.; Dwyer, A. E.; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T. P.

1993-01-01

296

Theory of Earthquake Recurrence Times

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The statistics of recurrence times in broad areas have been reported to obey universal scaling laws, both for single homogeneous regions (Corral, 2003) and when averaged over multiple regions (Bak et al.,2002). These unified scaling laws are characterized by intermediate power law asymptotics. On the other hand, Molchan (2005) has presented a mathematical proof that, if such a universal law exists, it is necessarily an exponential, in obvious contradiction with the data. Fir...

Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

2006-01-01

297

Thermal performance of multilayer insulation. Part 2

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new heat-flux model that is able to explain the two thermal-conduction terms in the prediction-based heat-flux equation of multilayer insulation is proposed. Based on the new model, the expansion and applicability of the equation to various parameters of multilayer insulation are examined in detail. The prediction equation was derived from various parameters and the predicted heat-flux values were evaluated. The treatment parameters were the mesh size of the net, the number of layers of net inserted between films, film thickness, single- vs. double-aluminized films, the winding method for the multilayer insulation, the layer density, and the hot and cold boundary temperatures. Predicted values for the various parameters coincided well with measured values

298

Multilayer fuel assemblies for SCWR reactor cores

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a new type of fuel assembly - multilayer fuel assembly is proposed with the main purpose to reduce the hot channel factor. The main idea is to axially divide the active zone into several sub-layers, between which inactive layers are introduced, where fluid from the previous active layer mixes well with each other and enters the next active layer with a wall homogenous distribution of fluid temperature. A coupled method using 3-D neutron-physical code and sub-channel analysis code is applied to assess the performance of the multi-layer FAs. Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) method is used to study the fluid mixing behavior in the mixing layer. The preliminary results show promising feasibility of the multi-layer concepts and emphasize at the same time the necessity of further detailed studies. (author)

299

Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

Zhang, Yafei

2013-01-01

300

Long Range Surface Plasmons in Multilayer Structures

We present a new strategy, based on a Fresnel coefficient pole analysis, for designing an asymmetric multilayer structure that supports long range surface plasmons (LRSP). We find that the electric field intensity in the metal layer of a multilayer LRSP structure can be even slightly smaller than in the metal layer of the corresponding symmetric LRSP structure, minimizing absorption losses and resulting in LRSP propagation lengths up to 2mm. With a view towards biosensing applications, we also present semi-analytic expressions for a standard surface sensing parameter in arbitrary planar resonant structures, and in particular show that for an asymmetric structure consisting of a gold film deposited on a multilayer of SiO2 and TiO2 a surface sensing parameter G = 1.28(1/nm) can be achieved.

Delfan, Aida

2013-01-01

301

Localized modes in defective multilayer structures

In this paper, the localized surface modes in a defective multilayer structure has been investigated. It is shown that the defective multilayer structures can support two different kind of localized modes depending on the position and the thickness of the defect layer. One of these modes is localized at the interface between the multilayer structure and a homogeneous medium (the so-called surface mode) and the other one is localized at the defect layer (defect localized mode). We reveal that the presence of defect layer pushes the dispersion curve of surface modes to the lower or the upper edge of the photonic bandgap depending on the homogeneous medium is a left-handed or right-handed medium (e.g. vacuum), respectively. So, the existence region of the surface modes restricted. Moreover, the effect of defect on the energy flow velocity of the surface modes is discussed.

Entezar, S Roshan

2009-01-01

302

Recurrent frequency-size distribution

Many complex systems, including a sand-pile model, a slider-block model, and actual earthquakes, have been discussed whether they obey the principles of self-organized criticality. Behavior of these systems can be investigated from two different points of view: interoccurrent behavior in a region and recurrent behavior at a given point on a fault or at a given fault. The interoccurrent frequency-size statistics are known to be scale-invariant and obey the power-law Gutenberg-Richter distribution. This paper investigates the recurrent frequency-size behavior at a given point on a fault or at a given fault. For this purpose sequences of creep events at a creeping section of the San Andreas fault are investigated. The applicability of Brownian passage-time, lognormal, and Weibull distributions to the recurrent frequency-size statistics of slip events is tested and the Weibull distribution is found to be a best-fit distribution. To verify this result the behavior of the numerical slider-block and sand-pile models...

Abaimov, S G

2008-01-01

303

Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Fatigue; Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Pain; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

2014-05-20

304

Strength of cemented multilayer solenoid windings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a method for calculating tangential, radial, and shear unwinding stresses produced in cemented multilayer windings under the influence of pondermotive forces. Winding damage occurs when one type of stress exceeds the allowable limit. It is shown that radial and shear stresses can cause winding damage before tangential stresses reach the allowable limit. The results of 12 series of coils, which confirm the validity of the method, are presented. The described procedure is used to design cemented multilayer solenoids for strong magnetic fields

305

Spontaneous reorientation of bimetal multilayer nanowires

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multilayered structures are proposed to extend the size range at which metal nanowires can transform spontaneously from one orientation to another due to the interfacial stress. The principle is demonstrated on gold-palladium (Au-Pd) multilayer nanowires by using the molecular dynamics (MD) method and two distinctly different mechanisms are identified for the reorientation which take place mainly via slipping and twinning at low temperature and by amorphization and recrystallization at high temperature. Our results show that the time response of devices fabricated with the nanostructures is consequently affected

306

Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

2013-02-05

307

Giant magnetostrictive spring magnet type multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin film magnetostrictive materials can be extremely useful as the active material in microactuators. In this article, some results on a novel type of multilayer structure which combines exchange coupled giant magnetostrictive materials and materials with large magnetic polarizations are presented for the first time. Giant magnetostrictions are achieved at low fields, due to the polarization enhancement in such multilayers. Therefore such composite materials should be much more appropriate for applications than the simple homogeneous alloy films studied up to now. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

308

Synthesis and electrical conductivity of multilayer silicene

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The epitaxial growth and the electrical resistance of multilayer silicene on the Ag(111) surface has been investigated. We show that the atomic structure of the first silicene layer differs from the next layers and that the adsorption of Si induces the formation of extended silicene terraces surrounded by step bunching. Thanks to the controlled contact formation between the tips of a multiple probe scanning tunneling microscope and these extended terraces, a low sheet resistance, albeit much higher than the electrical resistance of the underlying silver substrate, has been measured, advocating for the electrical viability of multilayer silicene.

Vogt, P., E-mail: patrick.vogt@tu-berlin.de, E-mail: bruno.grandidier@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bruhn, T. [Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Capiod, P.; Berthe, M.; Grandidier, B., E-mail: patrick.vogt@tu-berlin.de, E-mail: bruno.grandidier@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), CNRS, UMR 8520 Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Resta, A. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS-CINaM, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); De Padova, P. [Instituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - ISM, via Fosso del Cavaliere, 00133 Roma (Italy); Le Lay, G. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS-CINaM, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Instituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - ISM, via Fosso del Cavaliere, 00133 Roma (Italy)

2014-01-13

309

Spontaneous reorientation of bimetal multilayer nanowires

Multilayered structures are proposed to extend the size range at which metal nanowires can transform spontaneously from one orientation to another due to the interfacial stress. The principle is demonstrated on gold-palladium (Au-Pd) multilayer nanowires by using the molecular dynamics (MD) method and two distinctly different mechanisms are identified for the reorientation which take place mainly via slipping and twinning at low temperature and by amorphization and recrystallization at high temperature. Our results show that the time response of devices fabricated with the nanostructures is consequently affected.

Ma, Fei; Ma, Sheng-Li; Xu, Ke-Wei; Chu, Paul K.

2007-12-01

310

YBCO based multilayers for optoelectronic devices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

YBCO based multilayers have been deposited independently by three techniques: laser ablation, inverted cylindrical target sputtering (ICM) and on-axis planar D.C. Magnetron Sputtering. The last technique is used to cover uniformly R-plane sapphire and LaAlO3 2 inch wafers with YBCO or multilayers to achieve optoelectronic devices such as infrared detectors. Very thin (- 3 nm) YSZ and MgO dielectric films have been studied as tunnel barriers for making such high Tc tunnel junctions. 14 refs., 11 figs

311

Interface resistance of disordered magnetic multilayers

We study the effect of interface disorder on the spin-dependent interface resistances of Co/Cu, Fe/Cr and Au/Ag multilayers using a newly developed method for calculating transmission matrices from first-principles. The efficient implementation using tight-binding linear-muffin-tin orbitals allows us to model interface disorder using large lateral supercells whereby specular and diffuse scattering are treated on an equal footing. Without introducing any free parameters, quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained. We predict that disorder {\\it reduces} the majority-spin interface resistance of Fe/Cr(100) multilayers by a factor 3.

Xia, K; Bauer, G E W; Turek, I; Kudrnovsky, J; Drchal, V

2001-01-01

312

Surface superconductivity in multilayered rhombohedral graphene: Supercurrent

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The supercurrent for the surface superconductivity of a flat-band multilayered rhombohedral graphene is calculated. Despite the absence of dispersion of the excitation spectrum, the supercurrent is finite. The critical current is proportional to the zero-temperature superconducting gap, i.e., to the superconducting critical temperature and to the size of the flat band in the momentum space.

Kopnin, N. B.

2011-01-01

313

Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J{sub A} and J{sub B} and spin quantum numbers S{sub A} and S{sub B}, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J{sub C} and spin quantum number S{sub C}. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: > We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. > We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. > Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. > Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. > Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Imperatriz-MA 65919-050 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G., E-mail: cbezerra@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

2011-12-15

314

Multilayer Film Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach to assemble multilayers of carbon nanotubes on a substrate is resented. Chemical vapor deposition using a transition metal catalyst formulation is used to grow the nanotubes. Results show a bilayer assembly of nanotubes each with a different density of tubes

315

Study of thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents experimental determination of the apparent thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation for a cryogenic system. The variation of thermal conductivity with residual gas pressure is studied and the optimum vacuum for good insulating performance is determined. Evaporation loss technique for heat-inleak determination is employed. (author)

316

Laminated multilayer sheet structure and its utilization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

room, which comprises applying to the surface of a floor, wall, ceiling or partition in the room a laminated multilayer sheet structure comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B1) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer

317

Interfacial reactions in Al/Ni multilayers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In thin-film multilayers, the reactions at the interfaces can proceed quite differently from those in bulk samples because of the short diffusion distances involved. In the present work Al/Ni multilayers have been made by DC magnetron sputtering. The initial Ni and Al layers have strong (111) texture. The reactions taking place have been studied in relation to the layer thickness and film structure (grain size and texture). Also multilayers have been made with alloy layers Al/Ni(Al). Typically, differential scanning calorimetry shows a sequence of reactions on heating. X-ray diffraction, including texture goniometry, has been used to identify the compounds produced. In common with earlier work, it is found that Al{sub 3}Ni is the first phase to form, but the present results differ from those reported previously in that the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} phase is not formed in the course of phase evolution. The difference from the earlier results is attributed to the sharper texture in the films in the present work. Thus it is concluded that for Al/Ni multilayers, reaction sequences can be affected by crystallographic orientation, as well as other factors. (orig.) 13 refs.

Takahashi, F.; Greer, A.L. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

1998-08-01

318

Diffraction Gratings Based on Multilayer Structures

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of High Efficiency Diffraction Gratings on the Basis of Multilayer Structures for Monochromators and Polychromators of X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation and for Ultra-High Spectral Resolution X-Ray Diagnostics in the 0.1 – 10 Kev Energy Range

319

Thermal expansion properties of thin multilayer films

Under synchrotron radiation white beam exposure, strong mechanical stress can build up in multilayer optics, caused by the thermal mismatch between layer material and substrate material. To study the stability and performance of multilayer optics under heat load, Pd, Cr, and B4C single layers of thicknesses in the nanometer range and [Pd/B4C] multilayers were prepared in the sputter-depositing facility of the ESRF Multilayer Laboratory. Curvature changes versus temperature were measured using a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor. Films coated on 200 ?m thin Si wafers induced significant curvature changes over a temperature range from 60°C to 200°C. A combined parameter K including Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) was defined to describe the thermal deformation properties of the thin-film layer. The investigation shows that all three materials in thin film cause less thermal expansion than expected from material properties for bulk material in the literature. In particular, the thermal expansion of B4C films appears to be close to that of the Si substrate.

Cheng, Xianchao; Morawe, Christian; Peffen, Jean-Christophe; Zhang, Lin

2014-09-01

320

Theoretical modeling of bifunctional multilayer systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline multilayer systems with structure ABABA... offer the possibility of combining functional properties of two distinctly different materials, and of exploiting the interfaces to couple functionality of one component to the other. The multilayer environment permits the amplification of interface properties as would be important for device applications. The manipulation of ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and/or ferroelastic properties in so-called ferroic materials through growth of thin films, multilayers, and graded composition structures has received considerable experimental and theoretical attention in recent years. We survey the current status of atomic-scale modeling of multilayer systems which could exhibit ferroic behavior; i.e., spontaneous order below a critical temperature and hysteresis in stimulus-response behavior. The roles of interfacial strain, chemical variability at the interface, and film thickness are explored, taking as a primary example the classic BaTiO3 vertical bar vertical bar Fe3O4 ferroelectric vertical bar vertical bar ferrimagnetic interactions. First principles band structure calculations are used to determine relaxed interface structures and residual stresses, as well as the underlying electronic distributions. Embedded cluster methods are then used to extract local chemical bonding characteristics and hyperfine properties.

321

Magnetostatic spin waves in metallic multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetostatic spin waves in a multilayer film consisting of two magnetic conductive layers separated by a nonmagnetic conductor are analyzed. Two magnetostatic spin wave branches are shown to exist and their dispersion laws are analyzed. Structures of finite width, which are relevant for device applications, are also considered

322

Recurrent priapism from therapeutic quetiapine.

Priapism is rarely related to use of non-erectile related medications. The objective was to educate about the multiple possible causes of priapism and to provide treatment recommendations for the different types of priapism. We present the case of a 43-year-old African American male with a history of schizoaffective disorder who presented to our emergency department multiple times over a three year period with priapism, each episode related to the ingestion of quetiapine. Following penile aspiration and intercavernosal injection of phenylephrine, this patient had resolution of his priapism. This case demonstrates an unusual case of recurrent priapism. PMID:24578777

Saghafi, Omeed; Kao, Amanda; Druck, Jeffrey

2014-02-01

323

Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

2002-09-01

324

The production of Regge recurrences

For resonance states lying on a given Regge trajectory, the two-body production mechanism as a function of the excitation of the recurrence state is discussed. A dual resonance model suggests general features for the Regge-Regge-particle coupling involved in such production. An application is made to the high energy production in pi N to pi pi N of rho , f/sub 0/ and g mesons with emphasis on the relative production cross sections, the relative t-dependences, the ratio of natural to unnatural parity exchange and the helicity dependence. (18 refs).

Michael, C

1973-01-01

325

Systemic Treatment of Recurrent Meningioma

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meningioma is the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumour. Although only a subset of meningioma patients suffer recurrence after standard therapy, these patients require further rescue treatment. Owing to the fact that meningioma over-expresses a great number of potential therapeutic targets, some systemic therapies have been evaluated in recurrent meningioma patients. Cytostatic agents, including combined chemotherapeutic regimens, hydroxyurea and temozolomide, are generally ineffective. Immunotherapy and hormonal therapy with somatostatin analogues have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents, even though studies have presented contradictory results. Recently, several studies using targeted therapies, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors, showed early promising results. However, additional long-term results are still under evaluation. Furthermore, the combination of various medical therapies, such as hydroxyurea and a PDGFR inhibitor, appears to hold some promise. This review provides an overview of the current rationale and evidence base for the various medical therapy approaches tested.

Simo M

2013-01-01

326

Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2014-10-01

327

Axillary recurrence after modified radical mastectomy

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimal management for axillary recurrence is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for overall survival in the patients with axillary recurrence. Data of 1098 patients were collected from breast cancer registers from Clinic for Oncology Niš between 1990- 1995. All patients underwent modified radical mastectomy. Axillary recurrence was diagnosed in 43(3.92%) patients. Most patients were presented with a localized, palpable axillary mass 30(69.77%). Cox mul...

?or?evi? I.; Bu?evac Dragana; Mili? D.; Peši? M.; Filipovi? S.; ?or?evi? N.; Karanikoli? Aleksandar

2005-01-01

328

Recurrent bacterial meningitis associated with Mondini dysplasia.

We reported two cases of recurrent meningitis and both of them had Mondini dysplasia, which provides a link between the brain and inner ear and is associated with cerebrospinal fluid, otorrhea/rhinorrhea, hearing impairment, and recurrent meningitis. Patients who have hearing impairment and recurrent meningitis should be evaluated for the possibility of this congenital dysplasia, and early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention may prevent further episodes. PMID:22036227

Lien, Tien-Hau; Fu, Chun-Min; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lu, Li; Peng, Steven Shinn-Forng; Chang, Luan-Yin

2011-10-01

329

Local recurrence of a unilateral cystic nephroma.

Cystic nephroma is an uncommon, benign renal lesion. We report the first case of local recurrence of a unilateral cystic nephroma in an adult. Only three cases of recurrence in bilateral cystic nephroma have been described in the literature before. Other renal lesions may not be differentiated preoperatively from cystic nephroma and thus require surgical exploration. Long-term follow-up is recommended to rule out local recurrence. PMID:15147551

Bastian, Patrick J; Kuhlmann, Richard; Vogel, Jürgen; Bastian, Hans-Peter

2004-05-01

330

Prevention of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Up to 75% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) will have intestinal resection during their life. Most patients will, however, develop postoperative recurrence (endoscopic, clinical or surgical). Several medical and surgical strategies have been attempted to prevent postoperative recurrence. This review evaluates the efficacy of different drug regimens and surgical techniques in the prevention of clinical, endoscopic and surgical postoperative recurrence of CD. Methods: A literatu...

Loo, Es; Dijkstra, G.; Ploeg, Rj; Nieuwenhuijs, Vb

2012-01-01

331

Recurrent odontogenic keratocyst within the masticatory space

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst typically occurring in the jaws. Since the first description of OKC was published in 1956, the lesion has been of particular interest because of its specific histopathologic features, high recurrence rate, and aggressive behavior. Recurrences most commonly arise within bone at the site of the original cyst. However, as lining cells may find their way into surrounding tissues either from implantation during surgery or from cortical perforation recurrences may arise at a distance from the original cyst. Here, we report a rare case of recurrent OKC which was first developed in mandible and recurred within the masticatory space.

Lim, Su Yeon; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2008-06-15

332

Recurrence and Relapse in Bipolar Mood Disorder

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in acute phase of bipolar mood disorder, patients often experience relapses or recurrent episodes. Hospitalization of patients need a great deal of financial and humanistic resources which can be saved through understanding more about the rate of relapse and factors affecting this rate. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 380 patients with bipolar disorder who were hospitalized in psychiatric emergency ward of Noor hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were followed. Each patient was considered for; the frequency of relapse and recurrence, kind of pharmachotherapy, presence of psychotherapeutic treatments, frequency of visits by psychiatrist and the rank of present episode. Results: The overall prevalence of recurrence was 42.2%. Recurrence was lower in patients using lithium carbonate or sodium valproate or combined therapy (about 40%, compared to those using carbamazepine (80%. Recurrence was higher in patients treated with only pharmacotherapy (44.5% compared to those treated with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (22.2%. Patients who were visited monthy by psychiatrist had lower rate of recurrence compared to those who had irregular visits. Conclusion: The higher rate of recurrence observed in carbamazepine therapy may be due to its adverse reactions and consequently poor compliance to this drug. Lower rates of recurrence with psychotherapy and regular visits may be related to the preventive effects of these procedures and especially to the effective management of stress. Keywords: Bipolar Mood Disorder, Recurrence, Relapse.

S Gh Mousavi

2004-06-01

333

Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

Madhavan, Krishna

334

Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Hepatoblastoma; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer

2013-06-04

335

Treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The suggested classifications of locally recurrent rectal cancer are based on the presence of symptoms and the degree of tumour fixation to the pelvic wall, or, otherwise, account for factor T in the TMN system. Although the results of rectal cancer treatment have improved, which may be attributed to total meso rectal excision and application of perioperative radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy, the ratio of cases of locally recurrent rectal cancer still amount from several to over a dozen percent. Among the available diagnostic methods for detecting locally recurrent rectal cancer after anterior rectal resection, endorectal sonography is of special importance. In the estimation of prognostic factors the lack of vascular invasion in recurrent cancer and the long period between the treatment of primary rectal cancer and the development of recurrence are a sign of good prognosis, while pain prior to recurrence treatment and male sex diminish the chances for cure. Locally recurrent rectal cancer impairs the patient's quality of life in all measurable aspects, but even after complete recovery we observe severe disturbances of sexual activity in most patients, and a number of patients require hygiene pads or suffer from chronic pain. Local recurrence of rectal cancer is more commonly qualified for excision after surgical treatment only, than after preoperative radiotherapy. The probability of total recurrent rectal cancer excision increases when the patient is younger, the primary tumours was less advanced and the first operation was sphincter-sparing surgery. Progress in the surgical treatment of recurrent rectal cancer was brought on by the introduction of the composite musculocutaneous flap to compensate the loss of perineal tissue. The application of intraoperative radiotherapy improves treatment results of recurrent rectal cancer, however at the cost of more frequent, serious postoperative complications and intense pain. In inoperable cases high dose regional chemotherapy accounts for some 30% of responses which last for several months. After RO resections of locally recurrent rectal cancer combined with intraoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy 5-year survival periods are obtained in approx. 35 % of cases. If complete response (pTO) is observed within the excised tissues after preoperative radio- or chemotherapy the likelihood of curability is significantly higher. Recurrence after local excision or electrocoagulation of rectal cancer can be efficiently treated with abdomino-perneal resection. According to various sources, perioperative mortality in patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer ranges from null to 30%. Local recurrence of rectal cancer should be treated in well equipped institutions with a high reference status.(author)

336

Risk Factors for Idiopathic Optic Neuritis Recurrence

Background Approximately 30–50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION) patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence. Methods Clinical data on hospitalized patients diagnosed with ION between January 2003 and January 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on factors that might cause ION recurrence. In total, 115 ION cases (32 recurrent and 83 non-recurrent cases) with complete data were analyzed. The length of the follow-up period ranged from 12 to 108 months (median: 42 months). Results The univariate analysis showed that the recurrence rate for unilateral ION was higher than that for bilateral ION (40% vs. 12%, p?=?0.001). Underlying diseases had a significant impact on recurrence (p<0.001): the recurrence rates due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO), multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelinating lesions alone of the central nervous system, and unknown causes were 89%, 70%, 41%, and 8.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors causing relatively high recurrence rates included NMO (odds ratio [OR], 73.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 740.9), MS (OR, 33.9; 95% CI, 5.2 to 222.2), and demyelinating lesions alone (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.4), unilateral involvement (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.3), relatively low initial glucocorticoid dosage (equivalent to ?100 mg prednisone/day) (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 17.9). Conclusion Underlying diseases, laterality (unilateral or bilateral), and initial glucocorticoid dosage are important risk factors of ION recurrence. Clinical physicians are advised to treat ION patients with a sufficient dose of glucocorticoid in the initial treatment stage to reduce the recurrence risk. PMID:25255372

Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Li, Kaijun; He, Jian-Feng

2014-01-01

337

Recurrent Priapism from Therapeutic Quetiapine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Priapism is rarely related to use of non-erectile related medications. The objective was to educate about the multiple possible causes of priapism and to provide treatment recommendations for the different types of priapism. We present the case of a 43 year-old African American male with a history of schizoaffective disorder who presented to our emergency department multiple times over a three year period with priapism, each episode related to the ingestion of quetiapine. Following penile aspiration and intercavernosal injection of phenylephrine, this patient had resolution of his priapism. This case demonstrates an unusual case of recurrent priapism. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:114–116.

Omeed Saghafi

2014-02-01

338

Recurrent myalgias associated with cimetidine.

A chronically hemodialyzed patient experienced recurrent episodes of myalgia while on cimetidine treatment (400 mg/day). After two uneventful courses of cimetidine, the pain appeared at the end of a third fourteen-weeks long course. Severe myalgia occurred at the sixth week of a fourth exposure to cimetidine. Pain was predominant in the hip area, disappeared within a few days after withdrawal and recurred three weeks after resuming therapy. There was no sign of neurological involvement and CPK remained consistently normal. Ranitidine was subsequently administered for four months whereby the patient showed no symptoms of myalgia. This observation suggests that, in susceptible individuals, a progressive decrease in tolerance to cimetidine might occur with repeated courses. PMID:3733285

Labeeuw, M; Cabanne, J F; Dubot, P

1986-07-01

339

The structure and dynamics of multilayer networks

In the past years, network theory has successfully characterized the interaction among the constituents of a variety of complex systems, ranging from biological to technological, and social systems. However, up until recently, attention was almost exclusively given to networks in which all components were treated on equivalent footing, while neglecting all the extra information about the temporal- or context-related properties of the interactions under study. Only in the last years, taking advantage of the enhanced resolution in real data sets, network scientists have directed their interest to the multiplex character of real-world systems, and explicitly considered the time-varying and multilayer nature of networks. We offer here a comprehensive review on both structural and dynamical organization of graphs made of diverse relationships (layers) between its constituents, and cover several relevant issues, from a full redefinition of the basic structural measures, to understanding how the multilayer nature of the network affects processes and dynamics.

Boccaletti, S.; Bianconi, G.; Criado, R.; del Genio, C. I.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Romance, M.; Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Wang, Z.; Zanin, M.

2014-11-01

340

Optical model for multilayer glazing systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the design phase of a glazing system, multiple laminated glass configurations may be conceived for various architectural purposes (mainly related to aesthetical issues, energy efficiency, safety and security and/or acoustic insulation). Therefore, the availability of computational simulations of optical and thermal properties of laminated glass as a function of the properties of its constituents (glass panes, polymeric films, selective coatings) may be of great utility. Standardised procedures for this kind of calculations are still being prepared by CEN (European Committee for Standardization). The theoretical study of laminated glass with internal selective coatings is especially relevant due to the introduction of reflectivity within the multilayer optical system. Here, a theoretical model based on transfer matrix method and applied to multilayer glazing with external and internal coatings is presented. Simulation results are compared with UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometric measurements. (Author)

341

Thermal performance of multilayer insulation. Part 3

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of various parameters on heat flux between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature through multilayer insulation (MLI) are examined using prediction equations and experimental results. The investigated parameters were the following: the winding method of multilayer insulation, hot boundary temperature, mesh size of the net, number of layers of net inserted between films, direction of layer installation, film thickness, and use of single- vs. double-aluminized films. To accomplish good thermal performance, laminated winding, larger mesh size, a layer of net inserted between films, thinner film (light weight), and double-aluminized film are needed. The optimum number of layers for different parameters is also discussed. It is found that the optimum number of layers is in the range of 30 to 60 layers in many cases

342

Multilayer insulation with applications in cryogenic equipment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known the fact that the most important problem in the cryogenic systems is the heat leak. This study is about the major heat leak of the system, which is the thermal radiation. Our purpose is to find the most suitable shielding method with Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI), using highly reflective foils of aluminium for the reflecting surfaces, interleaved with spacers to minimize conduction. The project proposes theoretical and applied research on methods of cryogenic cooling and control of heat transfer through multilayer thermal insulation at low temperatures and very low (including liquid helium), with applications in detritiation of heavy water and cooled superconducting electromagnetic fusion facility, as well as in general thermal insulation industry. Underlined are the opportunities created to a multidisciplinary team by partnership approach of the research material basis. (authors)

343

Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors

The usable power and the collector optics lifetime of high-power extreme ultraviolet light sources at 13.5 nm are considered as the major challenges in the transitioning of EUV lithography from the current pre-production phase to high volume manufacturing. We give a detailed performance summary of the large ellipsoidal multilayer collector mirrors used in Cymer's laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet light sources. In this paper we present the optical performance - reflectance and wavelength - of the multilayer-coated ellipsoidal collectors as well as a novel approach for the roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics based on light scattering measurements at 442 nm. We also describe the optical performance and characteristics during operation of the light source and the substantial increase of collector lifetime by the implementation of new coating designs.

Feigl, Torsten; Perske, Marco; Pauer, Hagen; Fiedler, Tobias; Yulin, Sergiy; Trost, Marcus; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas; Böwering, Norbert R.; Ershov, Alex I.; Hoffmann, Kay; La Fontaine, Bruno; Cummings, Kevin D.

2012-03-01

344

Interlayer coupling in rotationally faulted multilayer graphenes

This paper reviews progress in the theoretical modelling of the electronic structure of rotationally faulted multilayer graphenes. In these systems the crystallographic axes of neighbouring layers are misaligned so that the layer stacking does not occur in the Bernal structure observed in three-dimensional graphite and frequently found in exfoliated bilayer graphene. Notably, rotationally faulted graphenes are commonly found in other forms of multilayer graphene including epitaxial graphenes thermally grown on SiC (0\\,0\\,0\\,\\bar 1) , graphenes grown by chemical vapour deposition, folded mechanically exfoliated graphenes, and graphene flakes deposited on graphite. Rotational faults are experimentally associated with a strong reduction of the energy scale for coherent single particle interlayer motion. The microscopic basis for this reduction and its consequences have attracted significant theoretical attention from several groups that are highlighted in this review.

Mele, E. J.

2012-04-01

345

Mo-C Multilayered CVD Coatings

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production processes of multi-layered Mo-C coatings by the method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD with the use of organometallic compounds were developed. Coatings are applied on technical purpose steel DIN 1.2379 (H12F1 and DIN 1.7709 (25H2MF (ÉI10 heat-treated ball with the high class of surface roughness (> 10. The average deposition rate was 50 ?m / h. The optimal conditions of deposition coatings for different technological schemas were defined. Metallographic investigations of the obtained coatings were carried out. Tribological studies of the friction and wear characteristics of sliding friction in conditions of boundary lubrication of Ï-S multilayered CVD coatings shows, that coatings have low friction coefficients (0075-0095 at loads up to 2.0 kN, showed high resistance to wear and are effective in increasing the stability of the pair for precision friction pairs of hydraulical units.

A. Sagalovych

2013-12-01

346

Lateral mobility of polyelectrolyte chains in multilayers.

In this work, the lateral mobility of polyelectrolyte multilayers was investigated by means of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, with special attention to the effect of relevant parameters during and after preparation. Different polyelectrolytes with respect to charge density, stiffness, and hydrophilicity were compared. From the experimental results emerged that the density of charged sites along the polymer is the most important parameter controlling the formation of polymer complexes. At higher charge density, more complexes are formed, and the diffusion coefficient decreases. It was observed that the intrinsic backbone stiffness reduces the interpenetration of polyelectrolyte layers and the formation of complexes promoting the lateral mobility. In addition, the lateral mobility increases with increasing ionic strength and with decreasing hydration shell of the added anion in the polyelectrolyte solution. The effect of heating or annealing in electrolyte solution after preparation was also investigated along with the embedding of the probing layer at controlled distances to the multilayer surface. PMID:17461569

Nazaran, P; Bosio, V; Jaeger, W; Anghel, D F; Klitzing, R V

2007-07-26

347

Multilayered (Hg,Cd)Te infrared detector

Multilayered mercury-cadmium telluride photoconductive detectors were developed which are capable of providing individual coverage of three separate spectral wavelength bands without the use of beam splitters. The multilayered "three-color" detector on a single dewar takes the place of three separate detector/filter/dewar units and enables simpler and more reliable mechanical and optical designs for multispectral scanners and radiometers. Wavelength channel design goals (in micrometers) were: 10.1 to 11.0, 11.0 to 12.0, and 13.0. Detectivity for all channels was 1 x 10 to the 10th power cm-Hz 1/2/Watt. A problem occurred in finding an epoxy layer which had good infrared transmission properties and which also was chemically and mechanically compatible with HgCdTe processing techniques. Data on 6 candidate bonding materials are surveyed and discussed.

Rae, W. G.

1977-01-01

348

Lead-free multilayer piezoelectric transformer.

In this article, a multilayer piezoelectric transformer based on lead-free Mn-doped 0.94(Bi(12)Na(12))TiO(3)-0.06BaTiO(3) ceramics is presented. This piezoelectric transformer, with a multilayered construction in the thickness direction, is 8.3 mm long, 8.3 mm wide, and 2.3 mm thick. It operates in the second thickness extensional vibration mode. For a temperature rise of 20 degrees C, the transformer has an output power of >0.3 W. With a matching load resistance of 10 Omega, its maximum efficiency approaches 81.5%, and the maximum voltage gain is 0.14. It has potential to be used in low voltage power supply units such as low power adapter and other electronic circuits. PMID:17503954

Guo, Mingsen; Jiang, X P; Lam, K H; Wang, S; Sun, C L; Chan, Helen L W; Zhao, X Z

2007-01-01

349

Mathematical Formulation of Multi-Layer Networks

A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems is very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing "traditional" network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multi-layer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multi-layer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes ---including degree centr...

De Domenico, Manlio; Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A; Gòmez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

2013-01-01

350

Multi-layer weighted social network model

Recent empirical studies using large-scale datasets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multi-layered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, sufficient amount of inter-layer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights but these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multi-layer WSN model, where the indirect inter-layer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at t...

Murase, Yohsuke; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

2014-01-01

351

Solar absorption behaviour of multilayer stacks

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The absorption spectra of multilayer structures have been obtained and analyzed in the wavelength range 0.5-10 ..mu..m. The multilayer system is an SMS type in which M is a thin metallic layer sandwiched between two semiconducting layers. The systems (i) B.S./Cu/B.S. and (ii) Cu/sub 2/S/Cu/Cu/sub 2/S (where B.S. = black sulphide) are developed by the methods of electrodeposition/chemical dipping, whereas the ZnS/Cu/ZnS system is fabricated in vacuo. The ..cap alpha../epsilon ratios are also calculated using the experimentally observed absorption spectra, and found to be higher in the case of the ZnS/Cu/ZnS system, in comparison to the other two systems. The absorption spectra have also been calculated using our theoretical model of the above-mentioned systems.

Chandra, A.; Mishra, M.

1985-01-01

352

Analysis of multilayered frequency-selective surfaces

The electromagnetic scattering characteristics of a plane wave incident on multilayered frequency-selective surfaces (FSS) are analyzed by the method of moments combined with the generalized scattering matrix theory. The reflection and transmission coefficients of single- and double-layered FSS composed of circular and rectangular aperture arrays are calculated. Numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with available values in the literature.

Shen, Zhongxiang; Hua, Rongxi; Zhu, Hailing

1992-06-01

353

Multilayer insulation with aluminized dimpled polyester film

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimpled multilayer insulation with high layer density has been developed and applied to the TOPAZ thin superconducting solenoid at KEK. For this development several problems were studied, such as the dimple configuration and height, the radiation shield film spacing by dimples, the aluminum deposition process and the deposition thickness. Thermal insulation performances of the newly developed dimpled MLI were measured using the cylindrical calorimeter. These data were compared with those found for MLI with net spacers

354

Apparent Thermal Conductivity Of Multilayer Insulation

Mathematical model of apparent or effective thermal conductivity between two successive layers of multilayer thermal insulation (MLI) offers potential for optimizing performance of insulation. One gains understanding of how each physical mechanism contributes to overall flow of heat through MLI blanket. Model helps analyze engineering tradeoffs among such parameters as number of layers, thicknesses of gaps between layers, types of spacers placed in gaps, weight, overall thickness, and effects of foregoing on apparent thermal conductivity through blanket.

Mcintosh, Glen E.

1995-01-01

355

Multilayer graded boron carbide-aluminum composites

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boron carbide aluminum composites with multi-layer microstructure were developed by molten aluminum infiltration of boron carbide preforms. A centrifugal casting process was employed to obtain preforms with multiple graded layer structure, where particles were distributed gradually from fine particles on one side to coarse particles on the other side within each layer. A tape casting process was also developed. Uniform or stepwise multiple gradient layer structures were obtained by stacking l...

Zhang, Fuhong

2002-01-01

356

Adsorption of ammonia on multilayer iron phthalocyanine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adsorption of ammonia on multilayers of well-ordered, flat-lying iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules on a Au(111) support was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the electron-donating ammonia molecules coordinate to the metal centers of iron phthlalocyanine. The coordination of ammonia induces changes of the electronic structure of the iron phthalocyanine layer, which, in particular, lead to a modification of the FePc valence electron spin.

357

Explosive synchronization in adaptive and multilayer networks

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Explosive synchronization (ES) is nowadays a hot topic of interest in nonlinear science and complex networks. So far, it is conjectured that ES is rooted in the setting of specific microscopic correlation features between the natural frequencies of the networked oscillators and their effective coupling strengths. We show that ES, in fact, is far more general, and can occur in adaptive and multilayer networks also in the absence of such correlation properties. Precisely, we f...

Zhang, Xiyun; Boccaletti, Stefano; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua

2014-01-01

358

Adsorption of ammonia on multilayer iron phthalocyanine

The adsorption of ammonia on multilayers of well-ordered, flat-lying iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules on a Au(111) support was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the electron-donating ammonia molecules coordinate to the metal centers of iron phthlalocyanine. The coordination of ammonia induces changes of the electronic structure of the iron phthalocyanine layer, which, in particular, lead to a modification of the FePc valence electron spin.

Isvoranu, Cristina; Knudsen, Jan; Ataman, Evren; Schulte, Karina; Wang, Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Andersen, Jesper N.; Schnadt, Joachim

2011-03-01

359

Ultrapure Multilayer Graphene in Bromine Intercalated Graphite

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the optical properties of bromine intercalated highly orientated pyrolytic graphite (Br-HOPG) and provide a novel interpretation of the data. We observe new absorption features below 620 meV which are absent in the absorption spectrum of graphite. Comparing our results with those of theoretical studies on graphite, single and bilayer graphene as well as recent optical studies of multilayer graphene, we conclude that Br-HOPG contains the signatures of ultrapure...

Hwang, J.; Carbotte, J. P.; Tongay, S.; Hebard, A. F.; Tanner, D. B.

2011-01-01

360

Radiation multilayer shield in the reactor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the reactor radiation shield is an integrated multi-step process and consists of interdependent stages. On it is early stages the approximate calculation methods with different accuracy may be applied. We consider here a semi-empirical calculation model of radiation multilayer shield in the reactor having the core and shield configuration-infinite slab. Numerical calculations for three different geometrical configurations (infinite slab, cylinder, and sphere) are carried out with taking into consideration the geometrical corrections. (Author)

361

Signal detection based on recurrence matrix statistics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work considers the problem of detecting signals in noise in the absence of a well-defined signal model. Specifically, we compare detectors based on recurrence plots to one of the more commonly used detection strategies. Results indicate improvements are possible using the recurrence-based detectors for certain signal-to-noise ratios

362

Decomposable spaces of recurrent conformal curvature

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definitions of a decomposable space, decomposition spaces and a space of recurrent conformal curvature are given. A decomposable space of recurrent conformal curvature Vn, (shortly CKn) is looked upon as decomposition spaces Vr and Vn-r. With this concept some results on decomposable CKn are derived. (author). 5 refs

363

Lesson learned from (some) recurrent novae

In this talk we present early decline and nebular spectra of the recurrent novae YY Dor and nova LMC 2009. These and a few other recurrent novae of the same type, share similar spectral characteristics and evolution. We will critically discuss those common features suggesting same white dwarf progenitor and post outburst phases for all of them.

Mason, Elena

2013-01-01

364

Corneal keloid mimicking a recurrent limbal dermoid.

We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with the clinical appearance of a limbal dermoid recurrence. Histologic study of the lesion revealed it to be a corneal keloid. In the event of a recurrent mass following dermoid excision, keloid should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:15977875

Gaviria, Juan G; Johnson, Daniel A; Scribbick, Frank

2005-01-01

365

Recurrent Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Case Report

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 42-year-old woman with malignant pleural mesothelioma was admitted initially to the Texas Heart Institute in 1967 for removal of a chest wall tumor. She subsequently underwent 17 additional thoracotomies for removal of recurrent localized tumor during a 15-year period. She died in 1982 at age 56 from cardiopulmonary failure secondary to extensive recurrent mesothelioma.

Cooley, Denton A.; Frazier, O. Howard

1983-01-01

366

Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

2011-01-01

367

Recurrence Effects in the Parametric Spring Pendulum.

Gives a perturbation analysis to recurrence effects of the spring pendulum. The recurrence depends on two conservation laws which determine the motion in an intermediate region; oscillations outside this region are unstable and must return. Gives the relation to Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem together with the explicit solution. (Author/GA)

Falk, Lars

1978-01-01

368

Alternative therapy for recurrent Hodgkin's disease

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with recurrent Hodgkin's disease have returned to apparent normality after simple treatment regimes with radiotherapy and hyperthermia from 434 MHz electromagnetic radiation. None have experienced any complication or sequelae from this treatment. All the patients with recurrent active Hodgkin's disease who attended the author's practice since February 1976 have been treated with this combined treatment and are reported here. (author)

369

Recurrent hypersomnia: a review of 339 cases.

Based on 339 cases this review identifies, quantifies and compares 4 clinical forms of recurrent hypersomnia (1) Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) (239 cases), (2) Kleine-Levin syndrome without compulsive eating (KLS WOCE) (54 cases), (3) Menstrual related hypersomnia (MRH) (18 cases) and Recurrent hypersomnia with comorbidity (RHC) (28 cases). A second part of the review considers the main current issues on recurrent hypersomnia: the predisposing factors, including a window on family cases; the pathophysiology based on clinical patterns, neuroimaging data, neuropathological examinations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 measurements; the issues of recurrence and of a possible disruption of the circadian timing system; the relationships between recurrent hypersomnia and mood disorders; and a note on the atypical Kleine-Levin syndrome. The main outcomes of this study are a clear nosologic distinction of the different forms of recurrent hypersomnia, the finding that the prevalence of familial cases of KLS is in the same range as in narcolepsy, the suggestion of the possible involvement of a large set of cortical and subcortical structures in recurrent hypersomnia and some clues in favour of a relationship between recurrent hypersomnia and mood disorders. PMID:20970360

Billiard, Michel; Jaussent, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Besset, Alain

2011-08-01

370

The Salt Dome problem: A multilayered approach

The dynamical evolution of buoyancy-driven geological systems is mainly influenced by two physical parameters: density and equivalent viscosity. Salt structures are an appropriate geological representation of these systems. Important variations of these parameters are directly related to changes in mass, and thus the internal structures themselves and their changes in time become significant parameters. In order to decipher these structures in nature by means of experiments it is therefore necessary to extend model calculations on intrusion processes to multilayer systems. A two-dimensional finite element program has been developed to simulate the rise of individual diapirs through multi-layered overburdens exhibiting Newtonian-viscous rheologies. This program includes the following features: arbitrarily shaped interfaces between different fluid boundaries, layers of finite thickness and subsidence of the model within the model-frame as well as time- and depth-dependent material properties. This paper is concerned with single diapirs intruding upbuilt multilayered overburdens, the effect of a subsiding salt base due to pure downbuilding, and differential loading of gravitationally unstable distributions of mass. Variable density and viscosity of the overburden with depth control the shape and ascent rates of diapiric bodies. The subsidence history of "salt structures" dominates the development of maximum horizontal pressure gradients with time and thus the ascend histories of diapirs.

RöMer, Mathias-M.; Neugebauer, Horst J.

1991-02-01

371

Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

2010-12-01

372

Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well. PMID:17328332

Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

2007-02-01

373

Heat Transfer in High Temperature Multilayer Insulation

High temperature multilayer insulations have been investigated as an effective component of thermal-protection systems for atmospheric re-entry of reusable launch vehicles. Heat transfer in multilayer insulations consisting of thin, gold-coated, ceramic reflective foils and Saffil(TradeMark) fibrous insulation spacers was studied both numerically and experimentally. A finite volume numerical thermal model using combined conduction (gaseous and solid) and radiation in porous media was developed. A two-flux model with anisotropic scattering was used for radiation heat transfer in the fibrous insulation spacers between the reflective foils. The thermal model was validated by comparison with effective thermal conductivity measurements in an apparatus based on ASTM standard C201. Measurements were performed at environmental pressures in the range from 1x10(exp -4) to 760 torr over the temperature range from 300 to 1300 K. Four multilayer samples with nominal densities of 48 kg/cu m were tested. The first sample was 13.3 mm thick and had four evenly spaced reflective foils. The other three samples were 26.6 mm thick and utilized either one, two, or four reflective foils, located near the hot boundary with nominal foil spacing of 1.7 mm. The validated thermal model was then used to study relevant design parameters, such as reflective foil spacing and location in the stack-up and coating of one or both sides of foils.

Daryabeigi, Kamran; Miller, Steve D.; Cunnington, George R.

2007-01-01

374

Infrared Transmission in Porous Silicon Multilayers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Porous silicon is a nanostructured material and exhibits efficient photo- and electro-luminescence in the visible range at room temperature, as well as a tunable refractive index determined by its porosity. Porous silicon samples can be obtained by etching a crystalline silicon wafer in a solution of hydrofluoric acid. In this work, we report the fabrication of porous silicon multilayers alternating layers with high and low porosities, which correspondingly produce low and high refractive indices. The free-standing multilayers were formed following three different sequences: periodic, Fibonacci and ThueMorse. These structures were verified by scanning electron microscopy and their infrared transmission spectra were measured by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. On the other hand, we calculate the light transmittance of porous silicon multilayers by using the transfer matrix method for all directions of incidence and a wide range of wavelengths. The experimental measurements are compared with theoretical results and a good agreement is observed. In addition, an analysis of infrared absorption peaks due to the molecular vibrations at pore surfaces reveals the presence of hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Alessio Palavicini

2013-06-01

375

Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.

2010-01-01

376

Multilayer polymeric color-shifting polarizer films

Color-shifts have been used in the field of optical security for many years. Through the use of birefringent polymers, 3M has pioneered highly reflective, multilayer, all-polymeric interference optical films for use as mirrors and polarizers. Polarizer and mirror multilayer films with reflectance bands covering all of the visible wavelengths have found uses in LCD displays and solar light pipes. Color-shifting polarizer (CSP) films may be made by uniaxially orienting a multilayer stack that has sharp band edges and does not cover all of the visible wavelengths. By judicious choice of polymers, the refractive indices of the two polymers have a large difference in refractive index in the stretch direction and match in the transverse direction. The resulting film has a noticeable color shift to the unaided eye, and a readily verifiable feature when viewed with both polarization states. In the pass condition, the film becomes colorless; in the block direction, the color is very saturated and noticeably shifts in hue when the viewing angle is changed. The films may have reverse printing under the CSP films, which hides during verification. The indelible marking of the film for the intended end use and the tamper resistance of labels made from these films will also be discussed.

Jonza, James M.; Dubner, Andrew D.

2004-06-01

377

Modeling of composite materials and multilayered structures

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to present efficient tools for predicting mechanical properties of most of the usual composite materials, and the response to the loading for multilayered structures. The essence of these tools is such that they are especially appropriate to the design of composite constructions. Three types of composite materials have been considered: composite materials with a matrix reinforced by long parallel fibers; composite materials with a matrix reinforced by randomly distributed short fibers; and last, two-dimensional woven fabric composites. For all these composite materials homogenized elastic properties are given and some indications are provided for hygrothermal properties. Experimental techniques in statics and in dynamics by ultrasonic wave propagation have allowed us to validate the above homogenization models. In order to provide a complete set of tools for the composite designer, a multilayered, doubly curved shallow shell model has been designed. This model is based on a new type of kinematics which has a three-dimensional essence and allows us to take into account a proper transverse shear deformation distribution and avoid transverse shear correction factors. Finally, contact conditions at interfaces between layers of the laminate have been taken into account both for displacements and for transverse shear stresses, the latter satisfying the free boundary conditions upon the top and bottom surfaces of the multilayered structures. Thus this model allows for instance, analyzing interface stresses useful to the design of composite structures in order to prevent delamination. The analysis may use analytical and/or finite element computations.

Touratier, M. [ENSAM, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Mecanique des Structures

1993-12-31

378

Evidence-based management of recurrent miscarriages.

Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based. PMID:25395740

Jeve, Yadava B; Davies, William

2014-07-01

379

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A method is presented to improve power system stability using IPFC. ? Recurrent neural network controllers damp oscillations in a power system. ? Training is based on back propagation with adaptive training parameters. ? Selection of effectiveness damping control signal carried out using SVD method. -- Abstract: This paper presents a method to improve power system stability using IPFC based damping online learning recurrent neural network controllers for damping oscillations in a power system. Parameters of equipped controllers for enhancing dynamical stability at the IPFC are tuned using mathematical methods. Therefore these control parameters are often fixed and are set for particular system configurations or operating points. Multilayer recurrent neural network, which can be tuned for changing system conditions, is used in this paper for effectively damp the oscillations. Training is based on back propagation with adaptive training parameters. This controller is tested to variations in system loading and fault in the power system and its performance is compared with performance of a controller that the phase compensation method is used to set its parameters. Selection of effectiveness damping control signal for the design of robust IPFC damping controller carried out through singular value decomposition (SVD) method. Simulation studies show the superior robustness and stabilizing effect of the proposed controller in comparison with phase compensation method.

380

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} A method is presented to improve power system stability using IPFC. {yields} Recurrent neural network controllers damp oscillations in a power system. {yields} Training is based on back propagation with adaptive training parameters. {yields} Selection of effectiveness damping control signal carried out using SVD method. -- Abstract: This paper presents a method to improve power system stability using IPFC based damping online learning recurrent neural network controllers for damping oscillations in a power system. Parameters of equipped controllers for enhancing dynamical stability at the IPFC are tuned using mathematical methods. Therefore these control parameters are often fixed and are set for particular system configurations or operating points. Multilayer recurrent neural network, which can be tuned for changing system conditions, is used in this paper for effectively damp the oscillations. Training is based on back propagation with adaptive training parameters. This controller is tested to variations in system loading and fault in the power system and its performance is compared with performance of a controller that the phase compensation method is used to set its parameters. Selection of effectiveness damping control signal for the design of robust IPFC damping controller carried out through singular value decomposition (SVD) method. Simulation studies show the superior robustness and stabilizing effect of the proposed controller in comparison with phase compensation method.

Banaei, M.R., E-mail: m.banaei@azaruniv.ed [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kami, A. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-15

381

Theory of the acoustical properties of symmetric multilayer structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical investigation has been made of the acoustical properties of symmetrical multilayer structures. Acoustic symmetric multilayers (ASMs) exhibit behavior analogous to that of optical symmetric multilayers. For a three-layer ASM, a range of effective acoustic impedances is possible merely by varying the thickness of the middle layer for a given frequency. This has the advantage that one can design an antireflection coating for virtually any substrate impedance. Some illustrative examples are given

382

Multiperiodicity in plasmonic multilayers: General description and diversity of topologies

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce multiperiodicity in periodicmetal-dielectric multilayers by stacking more than two types of metal and/or dielectric layers into the unit cell. A simple way to characterize arbitrary multiperiodic multilayers using permutation vectors is suggested and employed. Effects of multiperiodicity up to its fourth order are investigated. We demonstrate that various topologies of multiple-sheet isofrequency and dispersion surfaces exist for such plasmonic multilayers, including a photonic realization of nontrivial isolated Dirac cones.

Orlov, Alexey A.; Krylova, Anastasia K.

2014-01-01

383

New Si-based multilayers for solar cell applications

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this article, we have fabricated and studied a new multilayer structure Si-SiO2/SiN x by reactive magnetron sputtering. The comparison between SiO2 and SiN x host matrices in the optical properties of the multilayers is detailed. Structural analysis was made on the multilayer structures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of specific annealing treatments on the optical properties is stu...

Nalini Ramesh; Gourbilleau Fabrice

2011-01-01

384

Neutron diffraction studies of thin film multilayer structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of neutron diffraction methods to the study of the microscopic chemical and magnetic structures of thin film multilayers is reviewed. Multilayer diffraction phenomena are described in general and in particular for the case in which one of the materials of a bilayer is ferromagnetic and the neutron beam polarized. Recent neutron diffraction measurements performed on some interesting multilayer systems are discussed. 70 refs., 5 figs

385

Neutron diffraction studies of thin film multilayer structures

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of neutron diffraction methods to the study of the microscopic chemical and magnetic structures of thin film multilayers is reviewed. Multilayer diffraction phenomena are described in general and in particular for the case in which one of the materials of a bilayer is ferromagnetic and the neutron beam polarized. Recent neutron diffraction measurements performed on some interesting multilayer systems are discussed. 70 refs., 5 figs.

Majkrzak, C.F.

1985-01-01

386

Hall Effect in Multilayers Based on Pd and Fe

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental investigations of singularities of the Hall effect in multilayers based on Pd and Fe. It is shown that the value of the Hall coefficient depends on the total thickness of the multilayer (the number of fragments, thickness of the nonmagnetic layer and the range of annealing studied film samples. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated data of based on the model of parallel connection of individual fragments of a multilayer.

O.P. ?kach

2011-01-01

387

Depth Resolution During C60+ Profiling of Multilayer Molecular Films

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is utilized to characterize the response of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) multilayers under the bombardment by buckminsterfullerene primary ions. The LB multilayers are formed by barium arachidate and barium dimyristoyl phosphatidate on a Si substrate. The unique sputtering properties of the C60 ion beam result in successful molecular depth profiling of both the single component and multilayers of alternating chemical composition. At cryogenic (liquid...

Zheng, Leiliang; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

2008-01-01

388

Ultra hydrophobicity of Polydimethylsiloxanes-Based Multilayered Thin Films

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs)-based layer-by-layer multilayer ultrathin films on charged surfaces prepared from water and phosphate buffer solutions has been investigated. The multilayer films prepared under these conditions showed different surface roughness. Nano scale islands and network structures were observed homogeneously on the multilayer film prepared from pure water solutions, which is attributing to the ultrahydrobic property of the multilayer film. The formation of nano scale islands and network structures was due to the aggregation of PDMS-based poly electrolytes in water. This work provides a facile approach for generating ultra hydrophobic thin films on any charged surfaces by PDMS poly electrolytes

389

A degree centrality in multi-layered social network

Multi-layered social networks reflect complex relationships existing in modern interconnected IT systems. In such a network each pair of nodes may be linked by many edges that correspond to different communication or collaboration user activities. Multi-layered degree centrality for multi-layered social networks is presented in the paper. Experimental studies were carried out on data collected from the real Web 2.0 site. The multi-layered social network extracted from this data consists of ten distinct layers and the network analysis was performed for different degree centralities measures.

Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemys?aw; Musia?, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

390

Multi-Periodicity Induces Prominent Optical Phenomena in Plasmonic Multilayers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce multi-periodicity in plasmonic multilayers and develop a general theory for the description of their eigenwaves. We define the order of multi-periodicity as the number of different kinds of plasmonic interfaces present in the multilayer, and investigate the optical effects that arise as this order increases from one (simple periodic multilayers) to two (bi- periodic multilayers) and beyond. For example, we show the formation of additional photonic bands, multi-refringence of p -polarized light, Dirac and mixed states.

Orlov, Alexey A.; Krylova, A. K.

2014-01-01

391

Stabilization of layer-by-layer engineered multilayered hollow microspheres.

Polymer multilayered hollow microspheres prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly attract more and more interest due to their unique application, especially as drug delivery system (DDS). Unfortunately, the multilayered hollow microspheres assembled via weak linkages could fuse and/or aggregate in high ionic strength media or strong acidic or basic media. This severely restricts the practical applications of the multilayered hollow microspheres as DDS in human physiological medium. In the present work, the progress in stabilization of the multilayered hollow microspheres is reviewed, with emphasis on the assembling process and their crosslinking mechanism. PMID:24321861

Liu, Peng

2014-05-01

392

...Administration [A-570-970] Multilayered Wood Flooring from the People's Republic of...antidumping duty investigation on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of...1\\ See Multilayered Wood Flooring from the People's Republic...

2011-03-11

393

...Administration [A-570-970] Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of...antidumping duty order on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of...antidumping duty order on multilayered wood flooring from the PRC was published...

2012-07-31

394

...Administration [C-570-971] Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of...initiated an investigation of multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic...

2011-01-03

395

Alisertib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia

Childhood Hepatoblastoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

2014-03-17

396

MDX-010 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Lymphoma

Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-05-22

397

Urban legends: recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common idiopathic intraoral ulcerative disease in the USA. Aphthae typically occur in apparently healthy individuals, although an association with certain systemic diseases has been reported. Despite the unclear etiopathogenesis, new drug trials are continuously conducted in an attempt to reduce pain and dysfunction. We investigated four controversial topics: (1) Is complex aphthosis a mild form of Behçet's disease (BD)? (2) Is periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome a distinct medical entity? (3) Is RAS associated with other systemic diseases [e.g., celiac disease (CD) and B12 deficiency]? (4) Are there any new RAS treatments? Results from extensive literature searches, including a systematic review of RAS trials, suggested the following: (1) Complex aphthosis is not a mild form of BD in North America or Western Europe; (2) Diagnostic criteria for PFAPA have low specificity and the characteristics of the oral ulcers warrant further studies; (3) Oral ulcers may be associated with CD; however, these ulcers may not be RAS; RAS is rarely associated with B12 deficiency; nevertheless, B12 treatment may be beneficial, via mechanisms that warrant further study; (4) Thirty-three controlled trials published in the past 6 years reported some effectiveness, although potential for bias was high. PMID:21812866

Baccaglini, L; Lalla, R V; Bruce, A J; Sartori-Valinotti, J C; Latortue, M C; Carrozzo, M; Rogers, R S

2011-11-01

398

Seasonal dynamics of recurrent epidemics.

Seasonality is a driving force that has a major effect on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases (such as influenza, measles, chickenpox and pertussis), and is of great relevance for host-parasite relationships in general. Here we gain further insights into the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent diseases through the analysis of the classical seasonally forced SIR (susceptible, infectious or recovered) epidemic model. Our analysis differs from other modelling studies in that the focus is more on post-epidemic dynamics than the outbreak itself. Despite the mathematical intractability of the forced SIR model, we identify a new threshold effect and give clear analytical conditions for predicting the occurrence of either a future epidemic outbreak, or a 'skip'-a year in which an epidemic fails to initiate. The threshold is determined by the population's susceptibility measured after the last outbreak and the rate at which new susceptible individuals are recruited into the population. Moreover, the time of occurrence (that is, the phase) of an outbreak proves to be a useful parameter that carries important epidemiological information. In forced systems, seasonal changes can prevent late-peaking diseases (that is, those having high phase) from spreading widely, thereby increasing population susceptibility, and controlling the triggering and intensity of future epidemics. These principles yield forecasting tools that should have relevance for the study of newly emerging and re-emerging diseases controlled by seasonal vectors. PMID:17392785

Stone, Lewi; Olinky, Ronen; Huppert, Amit

2007-03-29

399

Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recurrent ovarian cancer is a common clinical problem and the management of eachpatient must be individualized. Diagnosis is usually based on a progressively rising CA-125titre, and a CT scan of the pelvis and abdomen, together with a chest X-ray should be performed.Although there is no study to support immediate treatment in the asymptomaticpatient, our approach is to commence such patients on Tamoxifen. Chemotherapy isreserved for asymptomatic patients or those who progress on Tamoxifen. The longer thetreatment-free interval of 18-24 months. The choice of non-platinum second or subsequentline chemotherapy is based on many factors including likelihood of benefit, potential toxicity,schedule and convenience to the patient, as well as organ function and residual toxicityfrom prior treatment. Aggressive secondary cytoreductive surgery can significantly prolongsurvival in those with a disease-free interval of 24 months or more and in those in whom allmacroscopic disease can be removed. Radiation therapy to the tumour bed following resectionof localized disease may be beneficial in selected patients. Quality of life issues are particularlyimportant for this group of patients and have not been adequately studies.Communication regarding the objectives of therapy is important, and the multidisciplinaryapproach should include palliative care and psycho-social support, in addition to the moretraditional medical options.

Neville F. Hacker

2004-08-01

400

Szemeredi's theorem, frequent hypercyclicity and multiple recurrence

The purpose of the present note is, on one hand, to prove that every frequently Ces\\`{a}ro hypercyclic operator is topologically multiply recurrent. To achieve such a result one has to carefully apply Szemer\\'edi's theorem in arithmetic progressions. On the other hand we show that there exist Ces\\`{a}ro hypercyclic operators which are not even recurrent. In the case of bilateral shifts and adjoints of multiplication operators we provide characterizations of topological multiple recurrence in terms of the weight sequence and the symbol of the multiplication operator respectively.

Costakis, George

2010-01-01

401

Recurrence of fidelity in nearly integrable systems.

Within the framework of simple perturbation theory, recurrence time of quantum fidelity is related to the period of the classical motion. This indicates the possibility of recurrence in nearly integrable systems. We have studied such possibility in detail with the kicked rotor as an example. In accordance with the correspondence principle, recurrence is observed when the underlying classical dynamics is well approximated by the harmonic oscillator. Quantum revival of fidelity is noted in the interior of resonances, while classical-quantum correspondence of fidelity is seen to be very short for states initially in the rotational Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser region. PMID:14524877

Sankaranarayanan, R; Lakshminarayan, Arul

2003-09-01

402

Generalised Recurrence Plot Analysis for Spatial Data

Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more self-similar during the bone loss in osteoporosis.

Marwan, N; Saparin, P; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

2006-01-01

403

Recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and hormone therapy.

The role of hormone therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer is not clear. Data on the efficacy and safety of antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors in recurrent ovarian cancer have been accumulated through phase II clinical studies. Most of these studies were conducted in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, and although complete response rates were not high, reported adverse events were low. If administered to patients who are positive for estrogen receptors, hormone therapy may become a viable option for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:24303498

Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki

2013-09-16

404

Dipole radiation in a multilayer geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several kinds of experiments that can be done with multilayer stacks of dielectric media which require an understanding of light emission by sources within the stack for their analysis. These experiments may involve, for example, light-emitting tunnel junctions, Raman scattering in Kretschmann and other multilayered geometries, and Rayleigh scattering by small amounts of surface or interface roughness, either alone or in combination with other processes. A set of electromagnetic Green's functions for a multilayer stack of isotropic dielectric media [D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 2943 (1975)] gives the electric fields produced everywhere by a point source of current oscillating at a frequency f. These Green's functions can thus be used to solve this type of problem. In this paper we show how these Green's functions can be written in terms of 2 x 2 transfer matrices of the type commonly used to find the fields in a dielectric stack due to an incident plane wave. With this simplification we can easily evaluate the Green's functions for a stack with an arbitrary number of layers. We further show that, when the electric fields generated by a point source within the stack are evaluated far away, they can be written directly in terms of the electric fields that would be generated at the location of the current source by plane waves incident from the direction of the observation point. We show that this follows from the Lorentz reciprocity theoreollows from the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Thus, in this case the formalism of Green's functions is not needed

405

Effective theory of rotationally faulted multilayer graphene

The crystal structure of graphene multilayers with an interlayer twist is characterized by Moir'e patterns with various commensurabilities. Also the electronic structure of the material, which grows for instance epitaxially on SiC, is remarkably rich. In this talk an effective low-energy description of such multilayers will be discussed. In certain limits the theory reduces to a (single-layer) Dirac model with space-dependent potentials and mass term. The consequences of this theory will be explored and comparison with experiment will be made. The discussion of experimental consequences will focus on the Landau quantization in a magnetic field, where much experimental data is available. For instance, a spatially modulated splitting of the zeroth Landau level in the material has been observed through scanning tunneling spectroscopy [1]. That splitting finds a natural explanation in the space-dependent mass term of the presented theory [2]. Also a large low-field splitting of higher Landau levels recently observed in graphene multilayers [3] will be shown to follow from that theory. Finally, a theoretically expected [4] amplitude modulation of the Landau level wavefunctions on the top layer of the material will be discussed. [4pt] [1] D. L. Miller, K. D. Kubista, G. M. Rutter, M. Ruan, W. A. de Heer, M. Kindermann, P. N. First, and J. A. Stroscio, Nature Physics 6, 811 (2010). [0pt] [2] M. Kindermann and P. N. First, Phys. Rev. B 83, 045425 (2010). [0pt] [3] Y. J. Song, A. F. Otte, Y. Kuk, Y. Hu, D. B. Torrance, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, H. Min, S. Adam, M. D. Stiles, A. H. MacDonald, and J. A. Stroscio, Nature 467, 185 (2010). [0pt] [4] M. Kindermann and E. G. Mele, Phys. Rev. B 84, 161406(R) (2011).

Kindermann, Markus

2012-02-01

406

Plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated.

Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Ishii, Satoshi; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander V

2014-01-01

407

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

2008-03-21

408

Planar multilayer structure analysis: an educational approach

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper discusses how symbolic computation combined with a circuit model can be used for analyzing planar multilayer structures, in a manner suitable for educational approach. Working in the Fourier domain, expressions for the transversal spectral Green’s functions are evaluated in compact, close [...] d form using the symbolic computation capability of the Mathematica package. Printed antennas were analyzed through the method of moments. Further validation was achieved with the IE3D and HFSS packages.

D.B., Ferreira; A.F., Tinoco Salazar; I., Bianchi; J.C. da S., Lacava.

409

Microwave sintering of multilayer ceramic capacitors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on multilayer ceramic capacitors of several compositions (both Z5U and NPO types) which were sintered in air both conventional and microwave furnaces. Several casketing and insulation techniques were used to improve temperature uniformity and minimize dopant losses. Zirconia and yttria are suitable packing materials as either powders or fibers. After sintering, the packing material remains friable and can be recycled. The presence of metallization layers did not interfere with the microwave process and no arcing was observed at surfaces where the internal electrodes emerged. In some runs, however, local thermal runaway was observed, which could severely decrease process yields and must be eliminated in a commercial process

410

Improved multilayer insulation applications. [spacecraft thermal control

Multilayer insulation blankets used for the attenuation of radiant heat transfer in spacecraft are addressed. Typically, blanket effectiveness is degraded by heat leaks in the joints between adjacent blankets and by heat leaks caused by the blanket fastener system. An approach to blanket design based upon modular sub-blankets with distributed seams and upon an associated fastener system that practically eliminates the through-the-blanket conductive path is described. Test results are discussed providing confirmation of the approach. The specific case of the thermal control system for the optical assembly of the Space Telescope is examined.

Mikk, G.

1982-01-01

411

Magnetic properties of Dy/Zr multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[Dy(xA)/Zr(30A)]n superlattices (x ? 30), were evaporated under ultra-high vacuum on Si(100) substrates. Magnetization measurements indicate that the antiferromagnetic transition occurring at 178K in bulk Dy is suppressed in the multilayers. This phenomenon is attributed to magnetoelastic effects induced by strains at Zr/Dy interfaces. A perpendicular magnetic anisotropy takes place for x ? 15. However, the magnetic anisotropy is found to depend markedly on the technique used for Dy deposition. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs

412

Ceramic-Metal Interfaces in Multilayer Actuators

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multilayer actuators consist of a number of piezoelectric or electrostrictive ceramic layers, separated by thin metal electrodes. Thus, the ceramic-metal interface plays an even more important role than for bulk piezoceramics. The performance and durability of the actuator depends closely on the quality and strength of this interface. In the case of a weak ceramic-metal interface, delaminations will occur under severe working conditions.Work has been carried out on a commercial PZT type ceramic and various types of Pt electrode paste. The present study involves characterization of the interface by optical microscopy, SEM and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), as well as tensile strength measurements on model interfaces.

Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg

1996-01-01

413

Multilayer dielectric narrow band mangin mirror

The design of multilayer stack of dielectric films for narrow band mirror is developed using thin film coating software. The proposed design is materialized by employing thin film coating (PVD) method and reflectance in narrow band spectrum range is achieved. Thickness of high and low refractive index material is taken precisely up to nanometer level. The curved coated substrate is cemented with another K9 matching substrate that forms a Mangin mirror for wavelength 650nm. Narrow band mirrors with reflectivity more than 90% has been produced by properly stacking of 21 layers and advantage of the use of this type of mirror as an interference filter is discussed.

Ahmed, K.; Khan, A. N.; Rauf, A.; Gul, A.

2014-06-01

414

Multi-layer coated nuclear fuel particles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To obtain coated fuel particles with low breaking rate. Constitution: In a multi-layer coated nuclear fuel particles having a silicon carbide coating layer as the layer for confining solid fission products, a silicon carbide layer with a density lower than that of the above-mentioned silicon carbide layer is disposed to the inside and/or outside of the later layer. The density is set to less than 3.18 g/cm2. Disposition of the lower density silicon carbide layer can moderate the tensile stresses or compression forces exerted to the high density silicon carbide layer thereby enabling to decrease the possibility of failure. (Kamimura, M.)

415

Multilayer insulation thermal protection systems technology

A summary is presented of the work performed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and industry toward the development of flight-type multilayer insulation(MLI) systems. The MSFC MLI program is divided into three large categories: (1) the generation and compilation of MLI composite test data; (2) the analysis, design, and testing of heat flow through MLI applied to ducting, seams, electrical feedthroughs, structural supports, and the tank sidewall; and (3) the development, modification, and utilization of new testing procedures, tanks, and the test facilities. Numerous data have been generated, analyzed, and documented on different MLI composites.

Hyde, E. H.

1971-01-01

416

Microwave sintering of multilayer ceramic capacitors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multilayer ceramic capacitors of several compositions (both Z5U and NPO types) were sintered in air in both conventional and microwave furnaces. Several casketing and insulation techniques were used to improve temperature uniformity and minimize dopant losses. Zirconia and yttria are suitable packing materials as either powders or fibers. After sintering, the packing material remains friable and can be recycled. The presence of metallization layers did not interfere with the microwave process and no arcing was observed at surfaces where the internal electrodes emerged. In some runs, however, local thermal runaway was observed, which could severely decrease process yields and must be eliminated in a commercial process.

Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Hamby, C.

1992-09-01

417

Microwave sintering of multilayer ceramic capacitors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multilayer ceramic capacitors of several compositions (both Z5U and NPO types) were sintered in air in both conventional and microwave furnaces. Several casketing and insulation techniques were used to improve temperature uniformity and minimize dopant losses. Zirconia and yttria are suitable packing materials as either powders or fibers. After sintering, the packing material remains friable and can be recycled. The presence of metallization layers did not interfere with the microwave process and no arcing was observed at surfaces where the internal electrodes emerged. In some runs, however, local thermal runaway was observed, which could severely decrease process yields and must be eliminated in a commercial process.

Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Hamby, C.

1992-01-01

418

MULTI-LAYER GRID REFINEMENT METHOD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The uniform grid scheme has been widely used to solve a partial differential equation. Due to the extreme large linear systems generated by the uniform grid scheme, a lot of computation time is required. To improve the efficiency of the uniform grid scheme, a more economical method is desirable. In this paper, we propose a multi-layer grid refinement method for solving a partial different equation over a rectangular domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the efficiency has been improved significantly, and the accuracy is satisfactory.

TSUN-ZEE MAI

2012-07-01

419

Soldering of complex multilayer printed boards

The soldering limits of complex multilayer printed boards used for spaceborne electronic equipment are presented. 6400 configurations related to board design, component's lead characteristics and manual and wave soldering parameters, are tested. Choices and recommendations are suggested to overcome these limits. Quality and reliability aspects of the soldered joints are broached, and research topics are proposed. Soldering problems are found to develop beyond 8 to 10 layers of circuits in components with connection conductivities of less than 1 to 2 W per cm over temperature in degrees centigrade.

Garrigue, Jean-Marie; Braun, Jean-Francois

1990-09-01

420

Multimedia Traffic Routing in Multilayer WDM Networks

The advent of real-time multimedia services over the Internet has stimulated new technologies for expanding the information carrying capacity of optical network backbones. Multilayer wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) packet switching is an emerging technology for increasing the bandwidth of optical networks. Two algorithms for the routing of the multimedia traffic flows were applied: (i) Capacitated Shortest Path First (CSPF) routing, which minimizes the distance of each flow linking the given source and destination nodes and satisfying capacity constraints; and (ii) Flow Deviation Algorithm (FDA) routing, which minimizes the network?wide average packet delay.

Amphawan, Angela; Hasan, Hassanuddin

2012-01-01

421

Digital biomagnetism: Electrodeposited multilayer magnetic barcodes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel magnetic encoding technique for performing high-throughput biological assays is presented. Electrodeposited Ni/Cu and Co/Cu multilayer pillar structures with a diameter of 15 ?m and a thickness up to 10 ?m are presented as 'magnetic barcodes', where the number of unique codes possible increases exponentially with a linear increase in length. A gold cap facilitates the growth of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), while microdrop printing allows efficient generation of large libraries of tagged probes. Coercivity-tuning techniques are used to exploit a non-proximity encoding methodology compatible with microfluidic flow.

422

Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

2013-01-29

423

A refined model for characterizing x-ray multilayers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability to quickly and accurately characterize arbitrary multilayers is very valuable for not only can we use the characterizations to predict the reflectivity of a multilayer for any soft x-ray wavelength, we also can generalize the results to apply to other multilayers of the same type. In addition, we can use the characterizations as a means of evaluating various sputtering environments and refining sputtering techniques to obtain better multilayers. In this report we have obtained improved characterizations for sample molybdenum-silicon and vanadium-silicon multilayers. However, we only examined five crystals overall, so the conclusions that we could draw about the structure of general multilayers is limited. Research involving many multilayers manufactured under the same sputtering conditions is clearly in order. In order to best understand multilayer structures it may be necessary to further refine our model, e.g., adopting a Gaussian form for the interface regions. With such improvements we can expect even better agreement with experimental values and continued concurrence with other characterization techniques. 18 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs

424

Transverse optical phonon dispersion for multi-layer graphene

The Raman spectra were measured with different wavelength excitation lasers for multi-layer graphene samples obtained by mechanical and electrostatic exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite on a silicon substrate. Phonon frequencies depending on the laser energy value are constructed, and the average distance between defects in the resulting multi-layer graphene calculated using G and D lines intensity ratio.

Kurkina, I.; Smagulova, S.

2014-10-01

425

High-frequency sintering of multilayer ceramic capacitors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of sintering multilayer ceramic capacitors by a high-frequency field are presented. It is shown that half-finished multilayer ceramic capacitors subjected to a high-frequency field are sintered in 5-15 min instead of the several hours taken in the conventional method. Possibilities of using high-frequency fields for sintering ceramic materials and electronic products are discussed.

Bokhan, Yu. I.; Komar, V.G.; Misyuvyanets, V.Z. [Inst. of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Vitebsk (Belarus)] [and others

1995-08-01

426

Multilayer dispersion optics for X-ray radiation

We report the experimental results on production of multilayer soft X-ray and EUV mirrors and their application in X-ray spectroscopy of the high-temperature plasma and used as polarizers and polarimeters. The problem of the producing and investigation of the short-period X-ray multilayers is discussed.

Andreev, S S; Platonov, Y Y; Salashchenko, N N; Schäfers, F; Shamov, E A; Shmaenok, L A

2000-01-01

427

Spin-dependent Peltier effect in Co /Cu multilayer nanowires

Heat transport perpendicular to the plane of magnetic multilayers is monitored with ac temperature gradients in the presence of a direct charge current. A very strong dependence on the applied magnetic field of the voltage response to the ac gradient is observed using Co /Cu multilayered nanowires. The effect is interpreted as a Peltier effect for a one-dimensional heat flux.

Gravier, Laurent; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

2005-05-01

428

Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field. Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines. This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis. Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

2015-01-01

429

Familial recurrence of congenital heart diseases.

Familial recurrence of congenital heart disease (CHD), in particular, d-transposition of great arteries (d-TGA) is rare. However, there have been several reports in the literature of sibling recurrence of total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR). This is the first case report in the literature, describing mother to offspring recurrence of d-TGA. We describe two cases of non-syndromic CHD with mother to offspring and sibling recurrence. The first case is an antenatally diagnosed d-TGA on fetal echocardiogram at 25 weeks of gestational age in the offspring of a 30-year-old mother with d-TGA. The second case is a sibling reoccurrence of TAPVR diagnosed antenatally at 30 weeks of gestational age, with supradiaphragmatic TAPVR on fetal echocardiogram in a mother, whose first child was diagnosed with infradiaphragmatic TAPVR in infancy. PMID:22037157

Thammineni, K; Lohr, J; Trefz, M; Sivanandam, S

2011-11-01

430

Postoperative recurrence after VATS for spontaneous pneumothorax

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 88 cases of 81 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax treated at the hospital from March 1992 to August 2001 were subjected to a study of examining preoperative chest CT and thoracographic findings from the standpoint of postoperative recurrence. Preoperative chest CT and thoracography were conducted in 82 cases and 41 cases (including 25 cases with continuous air leakage), respectively. Eight (9.1%) patients developed recurrence of pneumothorax, and three patients of them underwent reoperation. Considering the intraoperative findings, newly formed bullae appeared to be a cause of recurrence. Resulting from these examinations, we conclude that it is difficult to predict the risk factor for postoperative recurrence at this time, in addition, it is important that the area of air leakage can be confirmed by thoracoscopic findings. (author)

431

Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

432

Treatment modalities in recurrent miscarriages without diagnosis.

Recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of three consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks' gestational age. Patients are referred to subspecialists such as reproductive endocrinology or maternal fetal medicine to exclude the most common causes of recurrent miscarriage including autoimmune disorders, structural uterine pathology, metabolic derangements, hematologic conditions, and chromosomal abnormalities. Unfortunately, this extensive list of conditions accounts for less than 50% of patients affected by recurrent miscarriage, leaving the remaining 50% without answers. Multiple treatment modalities, including supplementation with progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, aspirin with and without heparin, and immune modulators have been tested for this large percentage of patients with very few answers. In fact, the only successful intervention addressed in the literature consists of supportive care at a dedicated recurrent miscarriage clinic. Without large randomized clinical trials, there is no evidence to support the use of supplemental medications in this patient population. PMID:24919032

Whitley, Kari A; Ural, Serdar H

2014-07-01

433

What is an Earthquake?: Recurrence Interval

Since large fault ruptures require the build-up of a great deal of stress, many years pass between repeated surface ruptures on a single fault. The average time between such ruptures, known as the recurrence interval of that fault, is a useful measurement for assessing both the slip rate of the fault and the risk the fault presents. This activity contains three exercises. In the first, students study a hypothetical fault to determine slip rate, likely recurrence interval, and determine the degree of hazard presented to residents presently living near the fault. In the second, students examine data from the San Andreas Fault, determine recurrence interval, and graph the data to reveal patterns. In the third exercise, students examine the relationship between fault length and recurrence interval by analyzing data from two faults of different lengths. Links to a graphing template and an example graph are provided.

434

Recurrent Kawasaki Diseases: A Case Report

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Kawasaki disease is a vasculitis with unknown cause, which is most commonly seen in children younger than 5 years old. The incidence of the disease is between 0.8-3% and male/female ratio is 1.37. Kawasaki is diagnosed basd on prolonged fever at least five days with four of five clinical criteria. Recurrent diseases occur in 1-3% of cases. Multiple recurrences have been reported rarely. Case report: We report on a 4-year-old boy that experienced three attacks of Kawasaki disease. All three clinical features were complete diseases and he was treated with IVIG. He was healthy after 6 months of follow up after the third recurrence. Conclusion: We report a case of multiple recurrent Kawasaki disease with coronary aneurysm in different portion. There was no adverse sequelae, after he is treated with IVIG.

Y Aghighi

2007-05-01

435

Chondrosarcoma of the Maxilla-Recurrent

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An uncommon case of recurrent chondrosarcoma of the maxilla is presented. A brief discussion on theradiologic and histologic presentation of the tumor and the treatment modalities of this unusual tumor isdiscussed.

Aniece Chowdhary, Parmod Kalsotra, Des Raj Bhagat, Poonam Sharma*, Pervez Katoch**

2008-04-01

436

Recurrent trichobezoar in a case of trichotillomania.

A rare case of 13 years old female child with recurrent trichobezoar stomach which needed reoperation for its removal is reported. Patient also had trichotillomania and mental retardation. She showed satisfactory response to therapy with fluoxetine. PMID:21407883

Chaudhury, S; John, T R; Ghosh, S R; Mishra, G S

2001-10-01

437

Heterogeneous recurrence monitoring and control of nonlinear stochastic processes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recurrence is one of the most common phenomena in natural and engineering systems. Process monitoring of dynamic transitions in nonlinear and nonstationary systems is more concerned with aperiodic recurrences and recurrence variations. However, little has been done to investigate the heterogeneous recurrence variations and link with the objectives of process monitoring and anomaly detection. Notably, nonlinear recurrence methodologies are based on homogeneous recurrences, which treat all recurrence states in the same way as black dots, and non-recurrence is white in recurrence plots. Heterogeneous recurrences are more concerned about the variations of recurrence states in terms of state properties (e.g., values and relative locations) and the evolving dynamics (e.g., sequential state transitions). This paper presents a novel approach of heterogeneous recurrence analysis that utilizes a new fractal representation to delineate heterogeneous recurrence states in multiple scales, including the recurrences of both single states and multi-state sequences. Further, we developed a new set of heterogeneous recurrence quantifiers that are extracted from fractal representation in the transformed space. To that end, we integrated multivariate statistical control charts with heterogeneous recurrence analysis to simultaneously monitor two or more related quantifiers. Experimental results on nonlinear stochastic processes show that the proposed approach not only captu