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Sample records for reactive bone change

  1. Reactive endosteal bone formation

    Aoki, Jun; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Hino, Megumu; Kitamura, Nobuyasu; Sone, Teruki; Itoh, Harumi; Torizuka, Kanji

    1987-10-01

    The microstructure of reactive endosteal new bone was examined using undecalcified ground sections in five pathologic conditions (bone metastasis from prostate cancer in seven cases, intervertebral osteochondrosis in five, Paget disease in four, chronic suppurative osteomyelitis in two, and fracture healing in one). To determine a basic form of rapid intramembranous bone formation, fetal rat calvaria and primitive bones made in clonal osteogenic cell culture were also observed. In slow bone-forming conditions, lamellar new bone was deposited on pre-existing trabecular surface and caused trabecular thickening on radiographs. In contrast, in rapid bone-forming conditions, woven bone was deposited as spicules extending from trabecular surface so as to form new networks on intertrabecular space. This causes obscurity of trabecular margins radiographically. Reactive endosteal bone formation may be nonspecific and have a significance for assessing the virulence of underlying pathologic conditions like periosteal reactions.

  2. On the molecular and endocrine mechanisms of postradiation changes in reactivity of bone tissues

    The state of the production system of a specific hormone factor of controlling calciOm metabolism-calcitonin as well as metabolism and physicochemical, properties of collagenous matrix of bone tissue in irradiated rats of different ages, was studied. It is established that under 400 rad total X-ray irradiation there are the following considerable disturbances in albuminous matrix of bone tissue changes of the intensity of catabolic and anabolic processes as well as structural-molecular organization of collagen and its ripening. The degree and character of these disturbances depend on the age of irradiated animals and dynamics of radiation injury. Under ionizing radiation of a sublethal dose compensatory-adaptive reactions develop on the level of the hormonal control of bone metabolism for the conservation of the buffer homeostatic function of the bone system in maintaining calcium homeostasis. These mechanisms are disturbed at most at the preadolescent age

  3. Reactive changes of disc space and foreign body granuloma due to bone wax in lumbar spine

    Ozdemir Nail; Gelal Mustafa; Minoglu Mustafa; Celik Levent

    2009-01-01

    Bone wax is a well-known agent used to prevent bleeding from the bone that can be used in different surgical procedures. Bone wax is a safe agent, but it may rarely lead to significant foreign body reactions. In this report, we present a patient who developed bone wax-related disc space foreign body granuloma following L4 total laminectomy, extremely rare complication.

  4. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Bone changes in leprosy

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Chronic exposure to radiation induces transgeneration changes in reactive nitrogen spices production in rat bone marrow cells

    The features of oxidative metabolism of bone marrow cells were studied in rats repeatedly exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. It was found, that an increased RNS production persists in treated rats and their offspring and decays with the number of generations. (authors)

  8. Physiological and pathological bone change

    Any biologically active alteration of structure or both structure and form under the effect of external (concerning the organism) and internal factors should be considered as bone change. Roentgenological features of physiological and pathological bone change are presented

  9. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs

  11. Roentgenologic bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria

  12. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of reactive hematopoietic bone marrow in aplastic anemia using MR spectroscopy with variable echo times

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantitative and qualitative differences in water components between normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with variable echo times (TEs). Design: Water content, T2 value of the water component, and signal change in water related to TE were assessed in normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow by a stimulated echo acquisition mode with TEs of 30, 45, 60, and 90 ms. Patients: Six patients with aplastic anemia (13-84 years) and seven normal volunteers (25-38 years) were examined. Results and conclusion: Reactive hematopoietic marrow showed significantly higher water content than normal bone marrow. The T2 value of water components tended to be longer in reactive hematopoietic marrow. Water signal ratio related to TE was significantly higher in reactive hematopoietic marrow. These results suggest a quantitative and qualitative difference in water components between normal and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of reactive hematopoietic bone marrow in aplastic anemia using MR spectroscopy with variable echo times

    Objective: To assess quantitative and qualitative differences in water components between normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with variable echo times (TEs). Design: Water content, T2 value of the water component, and signal change in water related to TE were assessed in normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow by a stimulated echo acquisition mode with TEs of 30, 45, 60, and 90 ms. Patients: Six patients with aplastic anemia (13-84 years) and seven normal volunteers (25-38 years) were examined. Results and conclusion: Reactive hematopoietic marrow showed significantly higher water content than normal bone marrow. The T2 value of water components tended to be longer in reactive hematopoietic marrow. Water signal ratio related to TE was significantly higher in reactive hematopoietic marrow. These results suggest a quantitative and qualitative difference in water components between normal and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of Bone Microstructural Changes by NMR

    Ni, Qingwen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that age related increases in bone porosity without significant changes in bone mineral density (BMD) (without bone microstructural information) result in a decrease in bone strength. Bone fracture toughness is also significantly correlated to changes in porosity, microarchitecture, collagen integrity, microdamage, and water distribution, all of which are measures of bone quality. Unfortunately, current technology does not allow the non-destructive and non-invasive detection of bone water distribution or other measures of bone quality including microporosity. On the other hand, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) proton spin-spin (T2) relaxation time measurements and computational analytical method have been used to determine microstructural characteristics of various types of fluid filled porous materials. The study in here is to demonstrate that non-destructive and non-invasive NMR proton spin-spin (T2) relaxation techniques has been developed and applied to quantify the porosity, pore size distribution and water distribution in human cortical bone. This new bone microstructural information can then be used as descriptions of bone quality and, along or in combination with existing method (BMD) to more accurately assess bone fracture risk, and the results could help doctors and researchers to detect osteoporosis and other conditions related to weak bones in persons.

  15. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes

  16. Bone involvement in leprosy: Early changes

    Balachandra S Ankad; Rudresh S. Halawar

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy (Hansen disease) is a slowly progressive, infectious, chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Bone involvement is one of the principal prognostic factors in leprosy. Imaging in leprosy could aid in the diagnosis of bone disease. Here, authors present a case of leprosy with trophic ulcer and its radiological changes.

  17. Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen

    Pinder, Robert W.; Davidson, Eric A; Goodale, Christine L.; Greaver, Tara L.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Liu, Lingli

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the globa...

  18. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  19. Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds

    Andronache, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

  20. Reactivation of polyomavirus in bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Cotterill, H. A.; Macaulay, M. E.; Wong, V

    1992-01-01

    Polyomavirus was detected in the urine samples of 12 (48%) out of 25 patients within three months of receiving a bone marrow transplantation. The virus was first detected 11 to 46 days after the transplantation and excretion persisted for up to 42 days. Detection of the virus was not associated with symptoms and it seemed to be a marker of immunosuppression.

  1. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in osteoclastogenesis, skeletal aging and bone diseases.

    Callaway, Danielle A; Jiang, Jean X

    2015-07-01

    Osteoclasts are cells derived from bone marrow macrophages and are important in regulating bone resorption during bone homeostasis. Understanding what drives osteoclast differentiation and activity is important when studying diseases characterized by heightened bone resorption relative to formation, such as osteoporosis. In the last decade, studies have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are crucial components that regulate the differentiation process of osteoclasts. However, there are still many unanswered questions that remain. This review will examine the mechanisms by which ROS can be produced in osteoclasts as well as how it may affect osteoclast differentiation and activity through its actions on osteoclastogenesis signaling pathways. In addition, the contribution of ROS to the aging-associated disease of osteoporosis will be addressed and how targeting ROS may lead to the development of novel therapeutic treatment options. PMID:25804315

  2. Radiographic study of bone changes on TMJ arthrosis

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structures from 1256 radiographs of 314 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral projection and orthopantomography. The interrelations of the bone changes and clinical symptoms were examined. Also, the positional relationships of condylar head, articular fossa and articular eminence in the mouth open and closed state were observed in the patients with bone changes. The results were as follows; 1. The most frequent bone change in the TMJ arthrosis was eburnation of cortical bone (35.64%) of total cases. Then came bone surface erosion and localized radiolucency (26.18%), marginal proliferation (9.7%) and flattening of articular surface (9.58%) in that order. 2. The most frequent site of bone change was articular eminence (41.70%). The came condylar head (21.09%) and articular fossa (20.73%) in that order. 3. In the patients with bone changes, their clinical symptoms were pain (51.55%), clicking sound during mandibular movement (37.71%) and limited mandibular movement (10.73%). In the patients complaining pain, their radiographs showed eburnation of cortical bone (30.68%), bone surface erosion and localized radiolucency (27.45%) and flattening in the (30.68%), bone surface erosion and localized radiolucency (27.45%) and flattening of articular surface (10.68%). 4. The condylar positional changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes were as follows: in the mouth closed state, there were the widening of joint space in 624 cases (50.00%), the narrowing of joint space in 543 cases (43.47%) and bone on bone relationships in 82 cases (6.57%). In the mouth open state, there were forward positioning of the condyle in 332 cases (28.55%), limitation of movement in 332 cases (28.55%), bone on bone relationships in 248 cases (21.31%) and downward positioning of condyle in 217 cases (18.66%). Bone on bone relationships in 248 cases (21.32%) and downward positioning of condyle in 217 cases (18.66%). 5. In the TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 1249 cases of abnormal condylar position in the mouth closed state and 1163 cases of abnormal condylar position in the mouth open state could be interpreted. so, for the radiographic interpretation of TMJ arthrosis, the reading of condylar positional changes as well as that of bond changes should be preformed and their interrelations should be profoundly considered.

  3. Injectable reactive biocomposites for bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects

    Craniofacial injuries can result from trauma, tumor ablation, or infection and may require multiple surgical revisions. To address the challenges associated with treating craniofacial bone defects, an ideal material should have the ability to fit complex defects (i.e. be conformable), provide temporary protection to the brain until the bone heals, and enhance tissue regeneration with the delivery of biologics. In this study, we evaluated the ability of injectable lysine-derived polyurethane (PUR)/allograft biocomposites to promote bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects. The biocomposites exhibited favorable injectability, characterized by a low yield stress to initiate flow of the material and a high initial viscosity to minimize the adverse phenomena of extravasation and filter pressing. After injection, the materials cured within 10–12 min to form a tough, elastomeric solid that maintained mechanical integrity during the healing process. When injected into a critical-size calvarial defect in rabbits, the biocomposites supported ingrowth of new bone. The addition of 80 µg mL−1 recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) enhanced new bone formation in the interior of the defect, as well as bridging of the defect with new bone. These observations suggest that injectable reactive PUR/allograft biocomposites are a promising approach for healing calvarial defects by providing both mechanical stability as well as local delivery of rhBMP-2. (paper)

  4. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    Research highlights: → Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. → Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. → Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1-/- mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1-/- mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm2) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1-/- compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1-/- mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1-/- mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1-/- mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1-/- mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  5. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    Smietana, Michael J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Arruda, Ellen M. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Larkin, Lisa M., E-mail: llarkin@umich.edu [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1{sup -/-} mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  6. Bone marrow fibrosis and radiological changes of the long bones in children with acute megakaryocytic leukaemia.

    Abrahamsson, J; Swolin, B; Mellander, L

    1998-10-01

    The diagnosis of acute megakaryocytic leukaemia (AMkL) may be difficult to establish owing to difficulties in obtaining adequate bone marrow aspirates secondary to bone marrow fibrosis. We describe three children without Down's syndrome under 2 y of age with AMkL. Although none of the patients had the non-random t(1;22) (p13;q13) translocation, bone marrow cells from all patients exhibited chromosome abnormalities with complex karyotypes, including trisomy 21 in two cases. All patients had profound bone marrow fibrosis and characteristic lamellar diaphyseal radiological changes of the long bones. PMID:9825981

  7. Protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis via reducing reactive oxygen species and bone-resorbing cytokines

    Oxidative stress is a crucial pathogenic factor in the development of osteoporosis. Myricitrin, isolated from Myrica cerifera, is a potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that myricitrin possessed protective effects against osteoporosis by partially reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bone-resorbing cytokines in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). We investigated myricitrin on osteogenic differentiation under oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to establish an oxidative cell injury model. Our results revealed that myricitrin significantly improved some osteogenic markers in these cells. Myricitrin decreased lipid production and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARγ2) expression in hBMSCs. Moreover, myricitrin reduced the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 and partially suppressed ROS production. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Our results demonstrated that myricitrin supplementation reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and increased reduced glutathione (GSH) activity. Importantly, it ameliorated the micro-architecture of trabecular bones in the 4th lumbar vertebrae (L4) and distal femur. Taken together, these results indicated that the protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in ROS and bone-resorbing cytokines, suggesting that myricitrin may be useful in bone metabolism diseases, particularly osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Myricitrin protects MC3T3-E1 cells and hBMSCs from oxidative stress. • It is accompanied by a decrease in oxidative stress and bone-resorbing cytokines. • Myricitrin decreases serum reactive oxygen species to some degree. • Myricitrin partly reverses ovariectomy effects in vivo. • Myricitrin may represent a beneficial anti-osteoporosis treatment method

  8. Protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis via reducing reactive oxygen species and bone-resorbing cytokines

    Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Wang, Long; Hu, Ya-Qian; Lu, Wei-Guang; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian, E-mail: liujianhq@sina.com

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress is a crucial pathogenic factor in the development of osteoporosis. Myricitrin, isolated from Myrica cerifera, is a potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that myricitrin possessed protective effects against osteoporosis by partially reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bone-resorbing cytokines in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). We investigated myricitrin on osteogenic differentiation under oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was used to establish an oxidative cell injury model. Our results revealed that myricitrin significantly improved some osteogenic markers in these cells. Myricitrin decreased lipid production and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARγ2) expression in hBMSCs. Moreover, myricitrin reduced the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 and partially suppressed ROS production. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Our results demonstrated that myricitrin supplementation reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and increased reduced glutathione (GSH) activity. Importantly, it ameliorated the micro-architecture of trabecular bones in the 4th lumbar vertebrae (L4) and distal femur. Taken together, these results indicated that the protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in ROS and bone-resorbing cytokines, suggesting that myricitrin may be useful in bone metabolism diseases, particularly osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Myricitrin protects MC3T3-E1 cells and hBMSCs from oxidative stress. • It is accompanied by a decrease in oxidative stress and bone-resorbing cytokines. • Myricitrin decreases serum reactive oxygen species to some degree. • Myricitrin partly reverses ovariectomy effects in vivo. • Myricitrin may represent a beneficial anti-osteoporosis treatment method.

  9. [EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON AGE-RELATED DYNAMICS OF THE REACTIVE PROPERTIES OF BONE TISSUE].

    Levashov, M I; Chaka, E G; Yanko, R V; Zamorska, T M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of melatonin (MT) on the bone tissue (BT) reactive properties was investigated among 80 male Wistar rats at the age of 3, 9, 12 and 16 months. The reactive properties of BT were judged by its ability to polarization under the influence of the alternating electric current. The value of reactance at the frequency of maximum polarization was used as the indicator of BT reactivity. Experimental animals received daily melatonin (Unipharm Inc., USA) at the rate of 1 mg/kg of body mass for 28 days. Freshly isolated femurs of rats served as a material for investigation. Introduction of MT to rats resulted in a significant increase in bone mass and polarization properties of BT. However, the clear tendency to increase the reactance not more than 2.2 % (p reactance among 9 and 12-month old rats were 6.3% and 12.1% (p reactance increased by 21.8% (p < 0.05) among 15-month old animals. Thus the introduction of MT increased the reactivity of BT. This effect had a clear dependence on the age and appeared more among older animals. PMID:26827497

  10. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

  11. Bone marrow reconversion – imaging of physiological changes in bone marrow

    Reconversion of bone marrow is a reverse process of natural replacement of red marrow by yellow marrow. The occurrence of reconversion can be misleading and challenging in interpretation of musculoskeletal system imaging. Changes of signal intensity in bone marrow are frequently observed in radiological routine and its diversity can cause a suspicion of pathologic findings. Therefore, the knowledge about distribution of red and yellow bone marrow depending on age, concomitant diseases and presentation of the patient are essential for MR image interpretation

  12. San Onofre Unit 1 reactivity change due to extended shutdown

    Few nuclear reactors have been shut down for periods on the order of several years - and then restarted. Those that have experienced this type of history are sources of a great deal of information concerning reactivity changes and in-core power redistributions due to nuclide decay. This paper discusses the core reactivity changes due to this nuclide decay and presents actual data illustrating the net effect of these changes on the critical boron concentration (CBC) rundown curve and the in-core power distribution at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Unit 1 (SONGS-1)

  13. Bone and joint changes following electrical burn: plain radiographic findings

    Kim, Uk Jung; Lee, Eil Seong; Shim, Ya Seong; Kim, Seon Bok; Lee, Shin Ho; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic findings of bone and joint changes following electrical burn. This study involved 19 patients with 27 bone and joints regions which had suffered electrical injury. The most common input and output sites were, respectively, the hand(7/14) and foot (6/10). Three other sites were involved. Four cases involved osteomyelitis, and in four, amputation was performed. We observed bone and joint changes, changes following osteomyelitis and changes in the amputation stump. We analyzed the difference between input and output changes, and when this was interesting, the average time of onset was assessed. In bone and joint changes following electrical burn, the most frequent radiographic finding was joint contracture(n=3D16). Other findings included osteolysis(n=3D8), articular abnormalites (n=3D6), periostitis(n=3D5), fracture(n=3D5), acro-osteolysis(n=3D2), and heterotopic bone formation(n=3D2). In cases involving osteomyelitis(n=3D4), aggravation of underlying bone changes was noted. In electrical burn, various changes were noted in bone and joints, and input injury was more severe than that of output.=20.

  14. Change of reactor RA reactivity in accidental conditions

    An analysis of reactivity changes was performed for different cores of RA reactor. Changes if reactor power and heat generation in fuel were computed for the case when the safety system does not function and in the case of safety shutdown. Independence of the safety system was validated in respect to the core configuration. (author)

  15. Life cycle changes in bone mineralization and bone size traits of commercial broilers.

    Talaty, P N; Katanbaf, M N; Hester, P Y

    2009-05-01

    Life cycle changes in bone mineralization and bone size traits of the tibia and humerus were evaluated in commercial male and female broilers using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Experiment 1 evaluated weekly changes in bone traits from 2 to 7 wk of age, whereas experiment 2 compared the bone traits of 4 strains of commercial meat-type chickens from 4 to 8 wk of age. Birds were restrained without anesthesia, and the humerus and tibia were scanned in vivo. After each scan, individual BW was determined. From the DEXA scans, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), as well as bone length, width, and area were determined. Bone mineralization and size traits were analyzed as an analysis of covariance with BW as the covariate. If BW was NS as a covariate, then an ANOVA was used. The BMD reached its peak at 4 wk of age. The BMC of the humerus changed little from 2 to 8 wk of age, whereas tibial BMC increased as the birds aged, especially in males (P < 0.0001). In experiment 1, bone length, width, and area also increased with age (P < 0.0001), with the tibia growing in length at a faster rate than the humerus. In experiment 2, the BMD did not differ among the 4 strains of commercial broilers. Interactions with strain of chicken were also NS, indicating that all strains of chickens responded similarly with respect to age (4, 6, and 8 wk of age), sex, and type of bone (humerus vs. tibia). Coefficients of variation for BMD ranged from 15 to 16%, indicating a potential use of DEXA for selection to improve skeletal integrity. In conclusion, the tibia continued to grow, especially after the initiation of the growth spurt at 3 to 4 wk of age, as indicated by bone length, width, and BMC, but it did not become denser in mineral after 4 wk of age as its surface area increased. PMID:19359697

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Retinal Reactive Gliosis Following Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Tassoni, Alessia; Gutteridge, Alex; Barber, Amanda C; Osborne, Andrew; Martin, Keith R

    2015-10-01

    A variety of diseases lead to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons within the optic nerve resulting in loss of visual function. Although current therapies may delay RGC loss, they do not restore visual function or completely halt disease progression. Regenerative medicine has recently focused on stem cell therapy for both neuroprotective and regenerative purposes. However, significant problems remain to be addressed, such as the long-term impact of reactive gliosis occurring in the host retina in response to transplanted stem cells. The aim of this work was to investigate retinal glial responses to intravitreally transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to help identify factors able to modulate graft-induced reactive gliosis. We found in vivo that intravitreal BM-MSC transplantation is associated with gliosis-mediated retinal folding, upregulation of intermediate filaments, and recruitment of macrophages. These responses were accompanied by significant JAK/STAT3 and MAPK (ERK1/2 and JNK) cascade activation in retinal Muller glia. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2) was identified as a potential new indicator of graft-induced reactive gliosis. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 in BM-MSC cocultured retinal explants successfully reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in retinal Muller glia and increased BM-MSC retinal engraftment. Inhibition of stem cell-induced reactive gliosis is critical for successful transplantation-based strategies for neuroprotection, replacement, and regeneration of the optic nerve. PMID:26175331

  17. Reactivity change during samples oscillation at the RB reactor

    Among other applications the RB zero power reactor is meant for measuring the nuclear properties of reactor materials by danger coefficient method and by reactor oscillator. This paper analyzes the influence of weight functions shape on the changes of reactor power during oscillation. A method analog to the deformation analysis with some modifications was applied. Unit reactivity change curve was obtained by numerical analysis on the ZUSE-23 computer with relevant experimental input data for a number of oscillation amplitudes

  18. Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits

    Jos Ignacio Aguirre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum (Sm during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and also in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

  19. In-vitro studies of change in edge detection with changes in bone density

    Full text: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires edge detection software to identify the skeletal regions for quantitation of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). As bone mass decreases, the detection of bone edges becomes more difficult and this potentially could cause errors in DXA estimations of areal BMD or BMC. To address this issue, we have used an in-vitro model to study the effects of 'bone loss' on calculated bone area, BMD and BMC. Multiple vertebral phantoms, of equal cross-sectional area but incrementally decreased areal BMD, were constructed using calcium sulphate hemihydrate. The weight of each phantom vertebra, measured accurately using an electronic balance, was used as an index of its true 'bone mass equivalent' (BME). The phantoms were scanned and analysed in the lumbar spine mode using a Lunar DPX-L (L) and Hologic QDR-1000 (H). The changes in BME were compared to changes in measured area, BMC and areal BMD. The results demonstrate that, in an in-vitro model, as bone mass decreases, measured bone area and consequently BMC will decrease as the edge detection algorithms have greater difficulty in detecting the true edges. In conclusion, in an in-vitro model, the DXA edge detection algorithms will underestimate bone area as bone mass decreases. This has potential implications for monitoring changes in bone mass in vivo

  20. Florid reactive periostitis ossificans of long bones and digits associated with reaction in a patient with leprosy.

    Chakma, Joy Kumar; Malaviya, G N; Girdhar, Anita; Hussein, Sajid

    2012-03-01

    Florid reactive periostitis ossificans is a rare bone lesion usually occurring in the small, tubular bones of the hands and feet. This entity is a benign and aggressive periosteal reaction associated with soft tissue swelling that appears similar to a bone lesion that radiographically and clinically mimics an infectious or neoplastic process. Typically the lesions occurs in an adolescent or young adult and presents as a small area of painful swelling and erythema over the affected bone. The cause of florid reactive periostitis ossificans is not exactly known though many authors have postulated varied etiopathogenesis for the same condition. In this report, is a very rare and unusual example of this entity that has been observed in association with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) a type 2 lepra reaction in a Leprosy patient. PMID:22655475

  1. Importance of quantitative histology of bone changes in monoclonal gammopathy.

    Bataille, R.; Chappard, D.; Alexandre, C.; Dessauw, P; Sany, J

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative histology of bone changes, using undecalcified transiliac bone biopsies (UTBB), was performed blindly in 46 individuals with monoclonal gammopathy (MG), including 17 with MG of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 29 with overt multiple myeloma (MM). Three MGUS presented an excess of osteoclastic resorption (OR) in the vicinity of clusters of tumour cells and developed overt B cell malignancies, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, Waldenström's disease and MM respectively. On the othe...

  2. MRI spectrum of bone changes in the diabetic foot

    Purposes: (1) To assess the prevalence of bone marrow changes in the diabetic foot and (2) to discuss the clinical significance of these changes. Methods: 85 patients with radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) foot examinations were selected. Inclusion criteria were clinical diagnosis of diabetes and bone changes on radiographs and MRI. The material was selected from the image storage (PACS) system. We searched for vascular (infarct and necrosis), traumatic (bruise and occult fractures), destruction and debris, dislocation, osteochondritis, osteomyelitis. Five patients had bilateral examinations. A total of 90 feet were evaluated. Results: From 90 feet, 17 (18.9%) presented with vascular changes, from them, 11 feet had infarct and 6 feet had necrosis. Twenty (22.2%) feet had traumatic changes; of them, 10 (50%) had edema on MRI. Five (25%) cases had occult fracture on MRI; and 5 (25%) had visible fracture on both X-ray and MRI. Bone destruction was detected in 8 (8.9%) feet. Bony debris was visualized in three of them. Bone dislocation was visualized in 11 (12.2%) feet. There was evidence of osteochondritis in twenty-four (26.7%) feet. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in ten (11.1%) feet. Conclusion: Diabetic foot is a challenge for both clinicians and radiologists due to its complexity. The bone derangements inherent to the diabetic foot can be evaluated with high accuracy with MRI.

  3. STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE BONE REGENERATE DURING CELLULAR DEHYDRATION

    Slisarenko O. V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reparative bones regeneration peculiarities under cellular dehydration were researched on aged laboratory male rats. The shin bone was fractured under cellular dehydration modeling. From the commencement of the experiment the percentage composition of regenerate cells changed. Increasing dehydration caused more changes. Further dehydration conditions resulted in disregenerative changes and tissue structure inhibition, which is evident due to the remains of the granulation tissue on the 15th day under the medium and high dehydration levels and the remains of the fibroreticular tissue on the 24th day under the high dehydration level. The changes were not detected in the control set of animals. These changes were confirmed with the raster electron microscopy. One can also observe the reduction of the basic chemical elements, hardness disturbance, and general growth inhibition. The result of these changes is general inhibition of callus formation.

  4. A new concept of the pattern of structural changes with bone loss by histomorphometric analysis using bone slabs.

    Hoshino, K; Naguro, T; Iino, A

    1999-01-01

    We examined naked bone slabs (1.2 mm thick) from iliac bone biopsied cores obtained from 33 women aged 33-89 years. The number, size, and shape of the pores in the bone slabs were analyzed. The results revealed that the % bone area (the percentage area occupied by bone in the slab) was linearly correlated with age and other parameters, such as the size of pores, irregularity of pores, and pore distance, but was not correlated to the number of pores. We found a second-degree polynomial relationship between the % bone area and the number of pores. Based on three parameters--% bone area, number of pores, and size of pores--cluster analysis was performed and the specimens divided into three groups. The group with sufficient bone mass showed few small round pores, and the group with severe bone loss revealed a few large pores that were caved in. The characteristics of these groups represented the relationship between bone mass and structural change. The remaining group with moderate bone loss was divided into two subgroups, one with an increased number of pores without expansion and one with expanded pores without an increase in number. We presumed that the variations between the groups were caused by differences between fine and rough structures in the trabeculae caused during the process of bone loss. We concluded that this analysis of bone slabs allowed the pattern of trabecular structural change that occurred with bone loss to be determined easily and visually. PMID:10757677

  5. Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints

    ... the ankle, typically change very little with aging. Lean body mass decreases. This decrease is partly caused ... Management of osteoarthritis. In: Gorell AH, Mulley AG Jr., eds. Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management ...

  6. Development of Voltage Reactive Power Control Considering Load Change

    Shimone, Takaaki; Yatsubo, Osamu; Ishigame, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tsuguto

    Modern power system has become large and complex networks, which require more flexible system operation. Voltage and reactive power control (VQC) that transports more electric powers especially maintaining voltages within range of constraints is expected to become more important for a high-performance system operation. In this paper, we propose a new technique of VQC considering load change with a short-term load forecasting and an optimal control by a new Meta-heuristics technique with combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Tabu Search (TS).

  7. The early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation

    Osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis and compression fracture are commonly observed several years after radiation. Since lumbago usually occurs several months after radiation, the possibility that bone mineral metabolism is disturbed during and immediately after radiation cannot be ruled out. However, there have been no reports concerning early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density was measured by QCT (Quantitative Computed Tomography) in 30 normal non-radiated cases and 14 radiated cases to investigate the changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density (QCT-Value: QCT-V) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) of normal non-radiated subjects decreased linearly with age (Y=291.114447-3.01473X). The QCT-V of the 5th lumbar vertebra (L5) of normal cases also decreased linearly with age (Y=309.641397-3.03986X), resembling that of L3. The ratio of the QCT-V of L5 to L3 (L5/L3, expressed as a parcentage) definitely increased with age (Y=86.5657441+0.58885064X). In radiated cases, the QCT-V of L3 in the non-radiated field did not change appreciably. The QCT-V of L5 in the radiated field was decreased from 20 Gy and reached 53.08±17.37% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. The L5/L3 ratio was also decreased from 20 Gy and reached 55.47±15.32% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. It becomes apparent that the QCT-V of the radiated lumbar vertebra is decreased during radiation. It is suggested that bone mineral metabolism may be disturbed in the early phase of radiation. (author)

  8. Mycetoma bone changes as seen radiogicaly using conventional radiology

    The radiological features of mycetoma were prospectively described in this study which included two hundred patients with mycetoma. Middle age males were predominant affected group. Black mycetoma was commonest type in various age groups in both sexes followed by yellow, white and red mycetoma in this frequency. The foot was the commonly affected site in all patients. Radiological examinations of the effected sites revealed, soft tissue mass in most of the patients (80%), of them; 36 patients (19%) had obliteration of facial plans and 22 patients (11%) had scattered multiple granulations. No soft tissue calcification was seen in this study. Bone involvement was seen in 45 patients (22.5) and that included periosteal reaction (22,5), cortical erosion (15%), osteoporosis (12.5%), scalloping (11.5%), selerosis(4.5%) and tranlucence (7.5) osteolytic changes (1.5%) pseudocystic spaces without any new bone formation were seen. Intercommunication of the abscess cavities seen in the affected bone were shown as a net like or honey comb appearance. The most remarkable feature in all patients was the absence of sequestra and pathological feature even in patients with massive mycetoma. Few patients (24.5%) presented with sinuses without bone involvement. There was significant correlation between the bone changes and the type of mycetoma, duration of illness, sinus formation and recurrence rate. The painless nature of the disease most probably had contribute to the formation of the bone changes as most patients present late in the course of the disease. Radiological examination of the mycetoma patients is useful for both diagnosis of the disease and follow up of patients and it should be routinely performed. (Author)

  9. Radiodiagnosis of bone changes in diabetes mellitus

    The results of analysis of roentgenograms and scintigrams of hands and feet of 21 patients with diabetes mellitus are presented. Scintigraphy was carried out with 99mTc-pyrophosphate. The examination was conducted with ON-110 gamma chamber. Changes in scintigrams are detected for 19 of 21 patients examined; 37 foci of pathologic buildup of radiopharmaceuticals are determined. Increased buildup of radiopharmaceuticals in the region of the focus isn't marked in roentgeograms for 48.6% of patients. For 51.4% of patients the results of both methods coincide. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-pyrophosphates allows to refiny the degree of osteal changes propagation in diabetes mellitus as well as to detect them earlier than by the roentgenologic method

  10. Importance of quantitative histology of bone changes in monoclonal gammopathy.

    Bataille, R; Chappard, D; Alexandre, C; Dessauw, P; Sany, J

    1986-06-01

    Quantitative histology of bone changes, using undecalcified transiliac bone biopsies (UTBB), was performed blindly in 46 individuals with monoclonal gammopathy (MG), including 17 with MG of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 29 with overt multiple myeloma (MM). Three MGUS presented an excess of osteoclastic resorption (OR) in the vicinity of clusters of tumour cells and developed overt B cell malignancies, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, Waldenström's disease and MM respectively. On the other hand, MGUS with normal OR remained stable (median follow-up = 28 months), with one exception who developed a systemic amyloidosis. In MM, excessive OR was only observed in areas invaded by myeloma cells. OR was frequently normal in active MM lacking myeloma cells in UTBB. Active MM without lesions on radiography had excessive OR. IgA and pure Bence Jones MM appeared more osteoclastic than IgG cases (P less than 0.05). Of major interest was the finding that one third of MM presented histological bone changes similar to osteoporosis, osteosclerosis or osteoblastic metastasis. Two major findings must be emphasized from the current data: UTBB could be of major interest for the early detection of a B cell malignancy; heterogeneity of myeloma bone condition is unexpected. If some changes appear directly related to the tumour (i.e. excessive OR or osteoblastic dysfunction), some others are probably accidentally associated with it (i.e. osteoporosis), both needing treatment other than chemotherapy. PMID:3718833

  11. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  12. Reactive endplate marrow changes: a systematic morphologic and epidemiologic evaluation

    To evaluate the morphology and location of vertebral endplate changes, and to analyze their association with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). At 1.5 T (T1-weighted, T2-weighted/STIR) 100 lumbar spines were evaluated separately by three observers. The readers classified the endplate bone marrow abnormalities on sagittal MR images according to the definitions of Modic et al. Findings were localized by disc segment; whether in the upper and/or lower endplate; and within each endplate divided into 15 segments. Disc space narrowing, as well as disc desiccation, was also noted at each vertebral level. In addition, endplate changes were correlated with age, gender, and BMI (weight(kg)/height(m)2). A total of 15,000 data points were studied and 422 total changes recorded. A total of 99 vertebral levels were affected in 58 patients. Of these, 171 were of type I, 242 were of type II, and 9 were of type III. L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 vertebral levels were most commonly involved, having (142, 4.73%) and (116, 3.87%) changes respectively (P<0.0001). The upper and lower aspects of the endplate were affected similarly. Changes most frequently occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate (P<0.0001). Endplate marrow changes were associated with increasing age (P<0.0001) and, surprisingly, male gender (P<0.0001). Endplate changes were not associated with BMI. The fatty pattern was most common, with the sclerotic pattern being rare. Endplate marrow changes most often occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate, particularly at L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 levels. Modic changes occur more frequently with aging, evidence of their degenerative etiology. They were, however, not related to body habitus, but to weight and male gender. (orig.)

  13. Change of MRI images in bone metastasis caused by radiotherapy

    The effect of radiation therapy on bone metastasis was studied by MR imaging. The study comprised 32 patients with bone metastasis from lung cancer, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma and various other malignancies that were evaluated by MR imaging before and after radiation therapy (Group I); and 3 patients with preexisting bone metastasis of breast cancer who were free from recurrence for more than 5 years after radiation therapy (Group II). Signal intensities fell into 5 degrees: iso-intense to normal bone marrow within the radiation field (I); iso-intense to the muscles (L); hypointense to the muscles (LL); iso-intense to subcutaneous fat (H); and hyperintense to the fat (HH). Before radition therapy, most bone metastasis was (L) on T1-weighted images or (H) on T2-weighted images with enhancement by Gd-DTPA. MR images within or after 2 years in Group I showed the following T1-/T2-weighted images: LL/HH (31%, Type I), I/I (13%, Type II), LL/LL (9%, Type III), mixed changes (Type IV), and unchanged (NC). Gd-DTPA enhanced images before radiotherapy showed solid pattern in 23 of 27 patients. Among the 23 patients, the enhancement after radiation showed the decrease in 18 patients as follows: mottled (7), ring-shaped (4) and lacking (7). This seemed to have resulted from radiation. Tumor size reduction on MR imags was noted in a total of 12 patients. All 3 patients in Group II had Type III on non-enhanced MR images. Therefore, changes in T1- and T2-weighted images, Gd-DTPA enhancement, and tumor size are considered helpful in the evaluation of therapeutic results of bone metastasis. (N.K.)

  14. Change in surface morphology of polytetrafluoroethylene by reactive ion etching

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Hirano, Yuki; Takasawa, Yuya; Gowa, Tomoko; Fukutake, Naoyuki; Oshima, Akihiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Washio, Masakazu

    2011-02-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was exposed to Ar, CF 4, N 2 and O 2 plasmas using a reactive ion etching facility. After the exposure, the change in the surface morphology of PTFE was examined and characterization studies were performed for the etching rate, surface roughness, radical yields, chemical structures, water repellency and so on. The etching rates of Ar, CF 4, N 2 and O 2 plasmas were 0.58, 7.2, 4.4 and 17 μm/h, respectively. It was observed that needle-like nano-fiber structures on the surface were irregularly fabricated by the CF 4 plasma. In addition, when the water repellency of exposed samples was evaluated by contact angle, they showed super-hydrophobic properties: contact angle over 150°.

  15. Change in surface morphology of polytetrafluoroethylene by reactive ion etching

    Takahashi, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmhr_tkhs.d01@ruri.waseda.j [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yuki; Takasawa, Yuya; Gowa, Tomoko; Fukutake, Naoyuki [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Akihiro [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tagawa, Seiichi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was exposed to Ar, CF{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasmas using a reactive ion etching facility. After the exposure, the change in the surface morphology of PTFE was examined and characterization studies were performed for the etching rate, surface roughness, radical yields, chemical structures, water repellency and so on. The etching rates of Ar, CF{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasmas were 0.58, 7.2, 4.4 and 17 {mu}m/h, respectively. It was observed that needle-like nano-fiber structures on the surface were irregularly fabricated by the CF{sub 4} plasma. In addition, when the water repellency of exposed samples was evaluated by contact angle, they showed super-hydrophobic properties: contact angle over 150{sup o}.

  16. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.780.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images

  17. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Hyung Seop; Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.78{sub 0}.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images.

  18. Time course of changes in bone resorption markers during pamidronate therapy in breast cancer patients with bone metastases

    A. D. Petrova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of evaluating the time course of changes in the level of bone resorption markers (S-CTx and dPir in pami- dronate-treated patients with bone metastases from breast cancer. It shows the relationship of these markers to clinical and X-ray find- ings. The markers were not found to be of high clinical significance as a means for diagnosing bone metastases and estimating treat- ment trends.

  19. Generation of leukemia-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones from the HLA-identical bone marrow donor of a patient with leukemia

    1992-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been associated with a graft-vs.-leukemia (GVL) reactivity. Since T cell depletion of the bone marrow graft has decreased the risk of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), but has been associated with higher rates of leukemia relapse, GVL reactivity is probably caused by donor-derived T lymphocytes. Previously, we demonstrated that minor histocompatibility (mH) antigen- specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones, generated from patients after BMT, a...

  20. A Model for reactivity changes in coupled systems

    Difficulties in reactivity calculations in coupled reactors are consequences of different neutron spectra in the reactors and intensified local effects. A modified space-independent reactor kinetics model with space dependent feedback reactivities in accident analysis of 'HERBE' fast-thermal coupled system is proposed. A new kinetic model with local parameters for power and reactivity determination in the coupled systems is applied at 'HERBE' flooding accident calculation. Its advantage over model with core-averaged parameters is shown

  1. Analysis of changes in bone cement damping factor and its effect on bone load

    P. Postawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the results of simulations and material-related investigations for bone cement used for alloplasty of hip joint. Mechanical properties of bone cements are of key importance for a successful surgery and further use of the joint as well as its behaviour during complex load which appears during patient’s walk.Design/methodology/approach: One of the methods of thermal analysis for polymeric materials has been used for investigations. DMTA method is based on the analysis of the signal (reaction from the deformed material under particular conditions, at the changeable ambient temperature as well as frequency and amplitude of vibrations. DMTA thermograms give information on change in storage modulus E’ and the mechanical loss factor tgδ, which is responsible for dissipation of energy during deformation.Findings: During simulation investigations ADINA engineering environment has been used; it enabled, at the assumed boundary and initial conditions, to assess the stress which appears in individual cross-sections of the analysed bone and the implant fixed by means of bone cement. During the analysis the cross-sections have been presented and the values of the stress which appears in individual zones have been determined.Research limitations/implications: Due to high complexity, only the results of simulation software have been used, clinic trials will be possible not before thorough check and analysis of the obtained results.Practical implications: Practical application of the results of the investigations described in this paper will be possible after long and comprehensive clinical trials.Originality/value: Original value of this paper are the results of tests since such an analysis has never been conducted by scientific environment working on this subject.

  2. Infants' Responses to Frustrating Situations: Continuity and Change in Reactivity and Regulation.

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined continuity, stability, and change in behaviors reflecting infant reactivity and regulation. Subjects were 100 infants of 5 and 10 months old. Found that infant behaviors during frustrating situations showed both change and continuity, but the relationship between reactivity and regulation changed in that both factors became more…

  3. Simple bone cyst: radiologic changes after injection of steroid

    To evaluate radiographic changes and clinical effects after the injection of steroid injection into simple bone cyst. We analyzed plain radiographic and CT findings after the injection of steroid (methylprednisolone acetate, MPA) into simple bone cyst. Twelve patients were involved; eight were males and four were females, and their ages ranged from 6 to 41 years. They were treated from one to seven times with an intracystic injection of MPA, 80-200mgs per injection. All patients were evaluated by plain film, and four by CT, and the mean follow-up period was 20 months. Postinjection plain radiographic findings were as follows: increased internal radiodensity (n=3D10), smaller cyst (n=3D8), cortical thickening (n=3D7), and radiodensity of double ring pattern (n=3D4). CT findings were as follows: increased internal attenuation (n=3D4), smaller cyst (n=3D4) and radiodensity of double ring pattern along the cyst wall (n=3D4). All patients improved clinically and radiologically, especially those with radiodensity of double ring pattern. The injection of steroid into simple bone cyst is an effective treatment. A new radiographic finding after injetion is radiodensity of double ring pattern along the cyst wall, and we believe that this indicates progression of the healing process

  4. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Oncology, Tokyo (Japan); Nozawa, Kumiko [Saitama Children' s Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Kitoh, Hiroshi [Nagoya University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  5. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  6. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  7. Bone changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular prognathism

    Park, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Pusan National Univ. Collefe of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this research was to study bone changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy through fractal analysis and measurement of mandibular cortical thickness. This study included twenty-two prognathic patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Panoramic radiographs of these patients were taken immediately before operation and at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. The fractal dimension was measured by the box-counting method in the region of interest centered on both the basal and interdental bones between the first and second mandibular molars. Measurements of mandibular cortical thickness were taken both in the area between the first and second mandibular molars and at the osteotomy site. Changes of fractal dimension and cortical thickness over four stages were statistically analyzed. The fractal dimension of the mandibular basal bone before surgery and after 1 month, 6 months and 12 months were 1.4099{+-}0.0657, 1.382{+-}0.0595, 1.2995{+-}0.0949, and 1.4166{+-}0.0676. respectively (Repeated-measures ANOVA, P<0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were noted in interdental fractal dimensions among the four stages. Mandibular cortical thickness between the first and second mandibular molars before operation and after 1 month, 6 months and 12 months was 3.74{+-}0.48 mm. 3.63{+-}0.47 mm. 3.41{+-}0.61 mm and 3.55{+-}0.66 mm (P<0.01), respectively. Mandibular cortical thickness at the osteotomy site at each of the four stages was 3.22{+-}0.44 mm, 2.87{+-}0.59 mm, 2.37{+-}0.61 mm and 2.64{+-}0.62 mm, respectively (P<0.001). This study suggests that the mandibular tissue continued decreasing for 6 months postoperatively and then increased over the subsequent 6 months.

  8. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow: frequent medium change method

    Soleimani M, Nadri S, Izadpanah R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: MSCs have been isolated from a variety of mammals by the plastic adherence method. However, this method can be problematic due to the unwanted growth of hematopoietic cells and non-MSCs. The potential of MSCs to differentiate along multiple lineages is the key to the identification of stem cell populations in the absence of molecular markers. In the present study, we describe a homogeneous population of MSCs from mouse bone marrow isolated using an improved plastic adherence method that employs frequent medium change (FMC at the initial hours of harvested bone marrow cell culture."n"nMethods: Balb/c mice were sacrificed and whole bone marrow cells were aspirated from the femur and tibia and then cultivated in six-well plates. After 3-4 hours of culture, old medium was removed and fresh medium was added. FMC was performed every eight hours over a 72 hour period. When primary cultures became nearly confluent, the first passage was performed. These cells were then used for further examination. To investigate their mesenchymal nature, the cells were allowed to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages and examined at each passage up to the tenth passage for surface antigens by flow cytometry."n"nResults: We achieved purified populations of fibroblast-like cells in the two weeks after culture initiation. The cells were capable of differentiating into osteocytes and adipocytes. Isolated MSCs were reactive to the CD44, Sca-1, and CD90 cell surface markers. MSCs were negative for hematopoietic surface markers such as CD34, CD11b, CD45, CD31, CD106, CD117 and CD135."n"nConclusions: This protocol provides an efficient isolation of homogeneous populations of MSCs from mouse bone marrow.

  9. Changes in trabecular bone, hematopoiesis and bone marrow vessels in aplastic anemia, primary osteoporosis, and old age

    Burkhardt, R; Kettner, G; Böhm, W.; Schmidmeier, M.; Schlag, R.; Frisch, B; Mallmann, B.; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang; Gilg, T.

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective histologic analyses of bone biopsies and of post mortem samples from normal persons of different age groups, and of bone biopsies of age- and sex-matched groups of patients with primary osteoporosis and aplastic anemia show characteristic age dependent as well as pathologic changes including atrophy of osseous trabeculae and of hematopoiesis, and changes in the sinusoidal and arterial capillary compartments. These results indicate the possible role of a microvascular defect in t...

  10. Viscoelastic and biological performance of low-modulus, reactive calcium phosphate-filled, degradable, polymeric bone adhesives.

    Abou Neel, Ensanya A; Salih, Vehid; Revell, Peter A; Young, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate addition on the mechanical, surface free energy, degradation and cell compatibility properties of poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate (PPGLDMA) thin films. Dry composites containing up to 70 wt.% filler were in a flexible rubber state at body temperature. Filler addition increased the initial strength and Young's modulus and reduced the elastic and permanent deformation under load. The polymer had high polar surface free energy, which might enable greater spread upon bone. This was significantly reduced by filler addition but not by water immersion for 7 days. The samples exhibited reduced water sorption and associated bulk degradation when compared with previous work with thicker samples. Their cell compatibility was also improved. Filler raised water sorption and degradation but improved cell proliferation. The materials are promising bone adhesive candidates for low-load-bearing areas. PMID:21884829

  11. 3-D localization of non-radioactive strontium in osteoarthritic bone: Role in the dynamic labeling of bone pathological changes.

    Panahifar, Arash; Cooper, David M L; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    The study objective was to visualize regions of bone that undergo pathological mineralization and/or remodeling during pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, by employing non-radioactive strontium as a dynamic tracer of bone turnover. Post traumatic osteoarthritis was surgically induced in skeletally mature rats, followed by in vivo micro-CT imaging for 12 weeks to assess bone micro-structural changes. Rats either received strontium ranelate daily for the entire course of study or only last 10 days before euthanization. Distribution of strontium in bone was assessed in two and three dimensions, using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and synchrotron dual energy K-edge subtraction micro-CT (SR?CT), respectively. Considerable early formation of osteophytes around the collateral ligament attachments and margins of articulating surfaces were observed, followed by subchondral sclerosis at the later stages. Accordingly, strontium was heavily incorporated by mineralizing osteophytes at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-surgery, whereas subchondral bone only incorporated strontium between weeks 8-12.This study showed low dose stable strontium can effectively serve as a dynamic tracer of bone turnover to study pathological bone micro-structural changes, at resolution higher than nuclear medicine. Co-administration of strontium during therapeutic drug intervention may show enormous utility in assessing the efficacy of those compounds upon adaptive bone physiology. PMID:25939329

  12. Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide

    Blumsohn, A; Marin, F; Nickelsen, T; Brixen, K; Sigurdsson, G; González de la Vera, J; Boonen, S; Liu-Léage, S; Barker, C; Eastell, R

    2011-01-01

    We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone...... markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment. INTRODUCTION: The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women with...... osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD...

  13. Sequential changes in bone biochemical parameters and bone mineral density after renal transplant

    Manish Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sequential changes in biochemical bone parameters, parathyroid hormone (iPTH, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of 24 weeks after renal transplantation, we studied 75 patients (58 males, with a mean age of 35.4 years who underwent their first renal transplantation without a past history of parathyroid surgery or fractures. Serum calcium, phosphorus and albumin were measured before transplant, then weekly for four weeks and monthly for the following 20 weeks. Serum iPTH and vitamin D levels and BMD were measured at baseline and 24 weeks after transplantation. After transplantation, there was a significant fall in serum calcium in the first week, followed by a gradual rise. At 12 and 24 weeks, respectively, 17.5% and 8% patients had hypercalcemia. Serum phosphorus decreased after transplant and at 24 weeks; 25% patients had hypophosphatemia. The iPTH levels declined significantly from 251 ± 218.2 pg/mL before transplant to 97 ± 142.8 pg/mL at the end of the study period. At 12 and 24 weeks, 42.7% and 51.3% patients, respectively, had persistent hyperparathyroidism (HPT. Elevated baseline iPTH levels and graft dysfunction were the risk factors for HPT at 12 weeks, while low vitamin D levels were the risk factor at 24 weeks. The BMD showed a significant decline of 2.7% after transplant, and it negatively correlated with the pre-transplant iPTH levels; the patients who received tacrolimus immunosuppression had a lower decline in BMD than the rest of the patients. No fractures were reported during the study period. We conclude that, after renal transplantation, hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia are common, while a significant proportion of patients have persistent HPT and decline in bone mineral density.

  14. Microvessel reactivity changes in light-diode irradiation of blood (470 to 980 nm)

    Petrishchev, Nikolai N.; Yantareva, Ludmila I.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of distant light diode irradiation with various spectrums of the trunk vessels on reactivity of microvessels in the small intestine mesentery treated with threshold doses of norepinephrine (NoE) are compared. The character of changes in reactivity of microvessels to NoE was found to depend on the wave length and irradiation dose. Ultraviolet irradiation (470 nm, 0.03 J/sm2) was noticed to increase reactivity of the vessels to NoE (vasoconstriction increase). In green light irradiation (540 nm, 0.3 J/sm2 sm2) no changes in reactivity were observed. Red light irradiation (670 nm, 2.0 J/sm2), infrared particular (980 nm, 1.0 J/sm2), lowered reactivity to NoE. Thus, noninvasive light-diode irradiation of the blood results in different systemic changes of endothelial dependent reactivity of microcirculation due to specify of photochemical processes involved.

  15. Proliferative, reparative, and reactive benign bone lesions that may be confused diagnostically with true osseous neoplasms.

    Wick, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic problems attending intraosseous and parosteal pseudoneoplastic lesions can be radiographic, or histological, or both. Proliferations in this category may contain cellular fibro-osseous or chondro-osseous tissues that are difficult to separate microscopically from those seen in various true neoplasms of the bones. This review considers the clinicopathologic features of fibrous dysplasia, benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, osteofibrous dysplasia, metaphyseal fibrous defect, giant-cell reparative granuloma, "brown tumor" of hyperparathyroidism, synovial chondrometaplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, tumefactive chronic osteomyelitis, proliferative Paget disease, and polyvinylpyrrolidone storage disease of bone.

  16. Late bone and soft tissue changes of the terminal digit after mild trauma

    Fischer, E.

    1983-02-01

    Mechanical injuries to the terminal digit with or without bone involvement may lead to delayed changes involving a spongey hyperostosis of the tuberosities and hypertrophy of bone and soft tissues. In its most severe form it may lead to posttraumatic finger clubbing. These late results persist for many decades, despite juvenile growth and bone apposition in adult life.

  17. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  18. Prognostic Indicators of Changes in Bone Density Measures in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-II

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline predictors of temporal BMD changes (ΔBMD) in AN, including 1) gastrointestinal peptides regulating food intake and appetite that have been related to bone metabolism and 2) bone turnover markers, have not been well characterized. We hypothesized that baseline levels of nutritionally regulated hormones and of bone turnover markers would predict ΔBMD overall.

  19. Galloping exercise induces regional changes in bone density within the third and radial carpal bones of Thoroughbred horses

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that a localised bone hypertrophy could occur within the subchondral cancellous architecture of the third and radial carpal bones. Using 2 levels of controlled and defined exercise, it was observed that a high intensity treadmill exercise protocol resulted in functional adaptation of the carpal bones. The increase in trabecular thickening and density was seen to be localised to those regions underlying common sites of cartilage degradation, the interface of the thickened trabeculae with the normal architecture in the third carpal hone was coincident with a common site of clinical fractures. The bone changes were determined both qualitatively on examination of slab radiographs and quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The findings from this study are relevant to mechanical factors involved in the pathophysiology of joint degeneration. The potential clinical implications of this study are in relation to changes in the type and duration of exercise regimens used in training of equine athletes. The rapid response of bone to mechanical stimulation has implications in the longer term for localised cartilage degradation. Imaging techniques could be developed to monitor these early bone changes in the specific areas identified in this study and thus allow appropriate changes in training intensity to minimise subsequent damage to the articular surface

  20. Anthropometric, bone age, and bone mineral density changes after a family-based treatment for obese children.

    Bermudez de la Vega, J Antonio; Vázquez, M Angeles; Bernal, Susana; Gentil, F Javier; Gonzalez-Hachero, Jose; Montoya, M Jose; Pérez-Cano, Ramón

    2007-10-01

    Our objective was to identify anthropometric, bone age, and bone mineral density (BMD) changes after a family-based treatment program for obese children. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 50 obese children (body mass index percentage [BMI%] > or =120%) aged 9.12 +/- 1.72 years (range 6-13) at baseline. A family-based treatment program, based on inadequate feeding style with progressive modification, aerobic physical exercise increase, active parental involvement, and the use of behavioural strategies (contracting, self-monitoring, social reinforcement), was developed during a 12-month period. Anthropometric data, lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone age (BA), bone age to chronological age ratio (BA/CA), and predicted adult height (PAH) were determined at baseline and 12 months. The statistical method used was analysis of variance and the paired Student t-test. Mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS) loss was -0.61 +/- 0.76 and BMI% loss was -5.17 +/- 9.73%. Height SDS significantly decreased, BA/CA ratio also decreased significantly, and PAH change was not significant. Lumbar spine BMD SDS and BMD% did not significantly change. A family-based treatment program was effective in obese children by reducing by 5% the BMI in 1 year and increasing the activity level. Treatment reduced growth velocity and delayed bone maturation rate without affecting PAH, reflecting a situation of previous early maturation. The treatment did not modify gaining bone mass. PMID:17882344

  1. An experimental study on the change of bone mineral metabolism after irradiation

    Irradiation is widely used for the treatment of malignant diseases, and possibly cause the osteoporosis. The bone densitometry and bone scintigraphy and valuable when used to monitor the patients longitudinally to access the progression of osteoporosis and risk of osteoradionecrosis. To evaluate the osteoporosis after irradiation of cobalt-60 gamma ray on the lumbar spines of New Zealand white rabbits, bone densitometry by dual photon absorptiometry and bone scintigraphy were performed weekly. The decrease of bone density began at the first week after irradiation, and were in the nadir at 4-6th week. The osteoblastic activity measured by bone scintigraphy decreased in the first week, and was in the nadir at 4-6th week. The severity of these changes were related to the radiation dose. In conclusion, the osteoporosis before presentation of the osteoradionecrosis can be developed at low dose irradiation and confirmed by bone densitometry, bone scanning, and histopathology.

  2. Restoring and maintaining bone in osteopenic female rat skeleton: I. Changes in bone mass and structure

    Tang, L. Y.; Jee, W. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the lose, restore, and maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses anabolic agents to restore bone mass and architecture (+ phase) and then switches to an agent with the established ability to maintain bone mass, to keep the new bone (+/- phase). The purpose of this study was to learn whether switching to an agent known chiefly for its ability to maintain existing bone mass preserves new bone induced by PGE2 in osteopenic, estrogen-depleted rats. The current study had three phases, the bone loss (-), restore (+), and maintain (+/-) phases. We ovariectomized (OX) or sham ovariectomized (sham-OX) 5.5-month-old female rats (- phase). The OX rats were treated 5 months postovariectomy with 1-6 mg PGE2 per kg/day for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (+ phase), and then PGE2 treatment was stopped and treatment began with 1 or 5 micrograms/kg of risedronate, a bisphosphonate, twice a week for 60 days (+/- phase). During the loss (-) phase, the cancellous bone volume of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the OX rat fell to 19% of initial and 30% of age-matched control levels. During the restore (+) phase, the cancellous bone volume in OX rats doubled. When PGE2 treatment was stopped, however, and no special maintenance efforts were made during the maintain (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone persisted when the PGE2 treatment was followed by either a 1 or 5 micrograms treatment of risedronate per kg given twice a week for 60 days during the maintain (+/-) phase. The tibial shaft demonstrated very little cortical bone loss during the loss (-) phase in OX rats. The tibial shaft cortical bone fell some 8%. During the restore (+) phase, new cortical bone in OX rats increased by 22%. When PGE2 treatment was stopped and nothing was given during the maintain (+/-) phase, however, all but the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone disappeared. In contrast, when PGE2 treatment was stopped and 1 micron risedronate per kg twice a week for 60 days was administered during the maintenance (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone and some of the subendocortical bone and marrow trabeculae persisted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  3. Reactivity changes in driven fission/converter assemblies

    Breeder blanket neutronics are investigated as affected by isotopic variations due to the time of exposure to source neutrons. An analytical method of computation has been used to describe the neutron, flux characteristics and to calculate the blanket fuel composition, all rates of neutron induced reactions as well as the neutron multiplication factor, the overall blanket reactivity and several other neutronic features for any exposure time

  4. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    De Noirfontaine M.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs, especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP, have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  5. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    De Noirfontaine M.N.; Mounanga P.; Khelidj A.; Dunstetter F.; Cherkaoui K.; Courtial M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  6. Relationship between Coronary Risk Factors, C-Reactive Protein, Bone Mineral Density and Carotid Circulation Among Frail Elderly

    Moatassem S. Amer1, Tamer M. Farid1, Ekrami E. Abdel-rahman1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frailty may now be regarded as a geriatric syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors, resulting from cumulative declines across multiple physiologic systems, causing vulnerability to adverse health outcomes including falls, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and mortality. The inflammatory mediators as C-reactive protein have been associated with the development of the geriatric frailty. Several studies have pointed out increased level of homocystiene in frail elderly Increasing frailty was associated with lower bone mineral density, as both bone mass and muscle strength decrease during ageing and this has also been associated with higher risk of osteoporotic fractures in frail elderly. Objective: To compare frail and non-frail elderly regarding Bone mineral density, carotid circulation and serum levels of Homocysteine, coronary risk factors and CRP. Methods: 104 elderly patients, who were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (52 frail participants: diagnosed by Fried’s criteria as applied by Avila-Funes et al., 2008. Group B (52 non-frail participants.All participants were subjected to the following: through history, physical examination, ADL, IADL assessment, MMSE ,GDS, laboratory investigations including; CRP, homocystiene and total lipid profile, measurement of bone mineral density by DEXA and carotid intima-media thickness by carotid duplex. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, among both groups.Frail participants had higher ADL and IADL dependence, higher incidence of depression, cognitive impairment and osteoprosis.They also had higher levels of homocystiene , CRP , CIMT and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is more prevalent among frail elderly also frailty is associated with more ADL & IADL dependence, higher GDS scores & lower MMSE score in addition to higher mean level of homocystiene, CRP & triglycerides in addition to low serum HDL & higher CIMT

  7. The Role of Bone Marrow Cells in the Phenotypic Changes Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Yang, Guang; Cheng, Qingli; Liu, Sheng; Zhao, Jiahui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of bone marrow cells in the phenotypic changes that occur in diabetic nephropathy. Bone marrow cells were obtained from either streptozotocin-induced diabetic or untreated control C3H/He mice and transplanted into control C3H/He mice. Eight weeks after bone marrow cell transplantation, renal morphologic changes and clinical parameters of diabetic nephropathy, including the urine albumin/creatinine ratio and glucose tolerance, were measured in v...

  8. The surface of bones: methods of recording entheseal changes

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Entheses, which are macroscopically visible three-dimensional (3D) features on bones where muscles attach, have a complex etiology that includes muscle use in activities, age, and body size. Most studies of entheseal changes are based on scoring methods. Scoring methods often have high observer error rates and are often analyzed with low power statistics. Furthermore, scoring methods fail to capture the complexity of enthesis morphology, which includes proliferative and erosive traits that can be viewed as a 3D topography similar to landscapes. Recent studies have employed both two-dimensional metric data and 3D data from laser scans and CT-scans. Using a variety of software packages, anthropologists have displayed the scanned entheses in color coded topographical maps that can be moved and rotated to reveal entheses’ complex morphology. The quantitative nature of these data, which include 3D surface area and fractal dimensions, is less subjective and statistical tests are easier to apply, but error rates are still problematic for some measures. Additionally, these studies reveal that entheseal changes correlate with age and body size; these correlations are sometimes considered problematic since the correlations hinder activity reconstructions, which is often the goal when examining entheses.

  9. Cardiovascular changes during vertebroplasty do not due to bone cement leakage

    The rather serious complication of vertebroplasty is caused by bone cement leakage into adjacent structure but recent research suggests that even without cement leakage during vertebroplasty, patients could also experience with cardiovascular changes sometimes. Cytotoxicity of bone cement, nervous reflex, fat embolism and alteration of intravertebral pressure may be responsible for these changes. (authors)

  10. Calculations of Changes in Reactivity during some regular periods of operation of JEN-1 MOD Reactor

    By a Point-Reactor model and Perturbation Theory, changes in reactivity during some regular operating periods of JEN-1 MOD Reactor have been calculated and compared with available measured values. they were in good agreement. Also changes in reactivity have been calculated during operations at higher power levels than the present one, concluding some practical consequences for the case of increasing the present power of this reactor. (Author)

  11. Prognostic Indicators of Changes in Bone Density Measures in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-II

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline predictors of temporal BMD changes (ΔBMD) in AN, including 1) gastrointestinal peptides regulating food intake and appetite that have been related to bone metabolism and 2) bone turnover markers, have not been well characterized. We hypothesized that baseline levels of nutritionally regulated hormones and of bone turnover markers would predict ΔBMD overall. Methods: In a prospective observational study, lumbar and whole-body BMD was measured at 0, 6, and 12 months in 34 AN girls aged 12–18 yr and 33 controls. Baseline body mass index, lean mass, nutritionally regulated hormones [IGF-I, cortisol, ghrelin, leptin, and peptide YY (PYY)], bone formation, and resorption markers were examined to determine nutritional and hormonal predictors of bone density changes. Results: In a regression model, baseline ghrelin and PYY predicted changes in spine bone measures; and baseline ghrelin, cortisol, and PYY predicted changes in whole-body bone measures independent of baseline nutritional status. Conclusions: Neuroendocrine gastrointestinal-derived peptides regulating food intake are independent predictors of changes in bone mass in AN. PMID:18089697

  12. Changing indications for bone scintigraphy in patients with osteosarcoma

    Fifty-six patients with osteosarcoma were studied to determine the onset of pulmonary and bone metastases. While pulmonary metastases were always detected prior to bone metastases in the era before adjuvant chemotherapy, in this study of patients on adjuvant therapy 16% of patients with metastases showed osseous metastases prior to or without pulmonary metastases

  13. Study of changes in antioxidant protective system activity in animal tissues in a bone defect model

    In the present work changes of the activity of antioxidant protective system in a bone defect model were studied by evaluation of endogenous tocopherols, antiradical activity, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. It has been shown that 1*0.5 sm shaft of femur defect model causes significant decrease of tissue antiradical activity values, the level of endogenous tocopherols, SOD and GPx in periosteum, bone marrow, liver and blood. This process occurs more drastically on the background of autoplastic substitution of the defect. In a bone defect the largest changes were observed in antiradical activity and GPx activity in periosteum and bone marrow. Analysis of obtained data unambiguously suggests the necessity of correction of tissue antioxidant activity disorders in bone defect for thye prevention of the lipid peroxidation that causes possible complications and reparative bone regeneration suppression

  14. Changing bone patterns with progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Dreke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly held that osteitis fibrosa and mixed uremic osteodystrophy are the predominant forms of renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Osteitis fibrosa is a high-turnover bone disease resulting mainly from secondary hyperparathyroidism, and mixed uremic osteodystrophy is in addition characterized by a mineralization defect most often attributed to vitamin D deficiency. However, there is ancient and more recent evidence that in early chronic kidney disease stages adynamic bone disease characterized by low bone turnover occurs first, at least in a significant proportion of patients. This could be due to the initial predominance of bone turnover-inhibitory conditions such as resistance to the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), reduced calcitriol levels, sex hormone deficiency, diabetes, and, last but not least, uremic toxins leading to repression of osteocyte Wnt/?-catenin signaling and increased expression of Wnt antagonists such as sclerostin, Dickkopf-1, and sFRP4. The development of high-turnover bone disease would occur only later on, when serum PTH levels are able to overcome peripheral PTH resistance and the other inhibitory factors of bone formation. Whether FGF23 and Klotho play a direct role in the transition from low- to high-turnover bone disease or participate only indirectly via regulating PTH secretion remains to be seen. PMID:26806832

  15. Bone And Soft Tissue Changes In Patients With Spinal Cord Injury And Multiple Sclerosis

    Dionyssiotis Yannis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis, deterioration of body composition (changes in bone, fat and muscle mass is associated with increased risk for diseases such as coronary artery heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, lipid metabolism abnormalities, and osteoporotic fractures in these patients. Immobility leads to a changing pattern of loading in the paralyzed areas, and secondary alteration in structure. However, bone and soft tissue changes in these patients are usually neglected. The purpose of this article is to update on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bone and soft tissue changes, and to increase the awareness of the treating physicians with respect to bone, muscle and fat loss and their consequences aiming to obtain measures to prevent bone and soft tissue loss in these patients.

  16. Urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), serum bone glia protein (BGP) and bone metabolism change in hyperthyroidism

    Objective: To study the effect of thyroid function on bone metabolism. Methods: Urinary DPD, Serum FT3, FT4 and BGP levels were determined with chemiluminescence assay and RIA in 41 patients with hyperthyroidism and 47 healthy controls. Results: Urinary DPD and serum FT3, FT4, BGP levels were significantly higher in patients with hyperthyroidism than those in healthy controls (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The data showed that hyperthyroidism was correlated with bone metabolism

  17. Impacts of reactive nitrogen on climate change in China.

    Shi, Yalan; Cui, Shenghui; Ju, Xiaotang; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    China is mobilizing the largest anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the world due to agricultural, industrial and urban development. However, the climate effects related to Nr in China remain largely unclear. Here we comprehensively estimate that the net climate effects of Nr are -100 414 and 322 163?Tg CO?e on a GTP?? and a GTP??? basis, respectively. Agriculture contributes to warming at 187 108 and 186 56?Tg CO?e on a 20-y and 100-y basis, respectively, dominated by long-lived nitrous oxide (N2O) from fertilized soils. On a 20-y basis, industry contributes to cooling at -287 306?Tg CO?e, largely owing to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) altering tropospheric ozone, methane and aerosol concentrations. However, these effects are short-lived. The effect of industry converts to warming at 136 107?Tg CO?e on a 100-y basis, mainly as a result of the reduced carbon (C) sink from the NOx-induced ozone effect on plant damage. On balance, the warming effects of gaseous Nr are partly offset by the cooling effects of N-induced carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The large mitigation potentials through reductions in agricultural N?O and industrial NOx will accompany by a certain mitigation pressure from limited N-induced C sequestration in the future. PMID:25631557

  18. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  19. Effects of adrenalectomy and glucocorticosteroid therapy on bone marrow T cells. Effect on T cell traffic and graft-versus-host (GVH) reactivity

    The effects of bilateral adrenalectomy (Ax) and glucocorticosteroid (GCS) treatment on the migratory behavior of circulating T cells in mice were evaluated by a 51Cr lymphocyte migration assay and two graft-versus-host (GVH) assays. The major new findings were that bilaterally adrenalectomizing a mouse effects it in two interrelated ways: 1) It decreases the accumulation of adoptively transferred 51Cr-labeled T cells to the bone marrow; and 2) it reduces the GVH reactivity of bone marrow cells. We also confirmed previous studies showing increases in the accumulation of T cells and increases in T cell-mediated GVH reactivity in the marrow of GCS-treated mice. We conclude that Ax has an opposite effect to that of GCS treatment on the intramarrow traffic of T cells and on T cell-mediated GVH reactivity of marrow cells

  20. Age- and gender-related changes in the distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of normal male and female bone. Possible involvement of osteocalcin in bone remodeling.

    Ingram, R T; Park, Y. K.; Clarke, B L; Fitzpatrick, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    With increasing age, bone undergoes changes in remodeling that ultimately compromise the structural integrity of the skeleton. The presence of osteocalcin in bone matrix may alter bone remodeling by promoting osteoclast activity. Whether age- and/or gender-related differences exist in the distribution of osteocalcin within individual bone remodeling units is not known. In this study, we determined the immunohistochemical distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of iliac crest b...

  1. Changes in vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mass after gastric bypass surgery: A pilot study.

    Schafer, A L; Li, X; Schwartz, A V; Tufts, L S; Wheeler, A L; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, S J; Carter, J T; Posselt, A M; Black, D M; Shoback, D M

    2015-05-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6 months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean ± SD decline 19.1 ± 6.1 kg or 36.5% ± 10.9%, pbone mineral density (BMD) decreased by 5.2% ± 3.5% and 4.1% ± 2.6% at the femoral neck and total hip, respectively, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine by 7.4% ± 2.8% (p<0.001 for all). Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (-7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=-0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  2. Bone malformations in Proteus syndrome: an analysis of bone structural changes and their evolution during growth

    The radiographic follow-up of a patient with Proteus syndrome is presented. Review of radiographs obtained at 3 years 10 months, 10 years, and 17 years 8 months indicated that the rate of growth in length of the oversized tubular bones of the hands was similar to that of the normal bones of the same hand. This observation supports the view that the primary lesion occurs in the early embryonic period, when the limb bud mesenchyme cells condense and cartilage differentiates producing oversized cartilage anlages, rather than being a defect of bone cell-mediated apposition and modelling processes of bone. Additional radiographs of the pelvis and spine were obtained at age 4 years 10 months and head CT at 8 years 10 months. This pathogenetic mechanism fits well with the hypothesis of somatic mosaicism, which is at present the most credible explanation for the aetiology of Proteus syndrome. Other skeletal malformations recognized as typical of the syndrome can be interpreted as secondary adaptations to the altered mechanical conditions induced by overgrowth of bones. (orig.)

  3. Changes in bone marrow lesions in response to weight-loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Patients are susceptible for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with increasing age and obesity and KOA is expected to become a major disabling disease in the future. An important feature of KOA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is changes in the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are...

  4. Founders lecture 2007. Metabolic bone disease: what has changed in 30 years?

    Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Diagnostic Radiology, MSK, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-09-15

    To provide an update on imaging of metabolic bone disease based on new developments, findings, and changing practices over the past 30 years. Literature review of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's disease, bisphosphonates, with an emphasis on imaging. Cited references and pertinent findings. Significant developments have occurred in the imaging of metabolic bone disease over the past 30 years. (orig.)

  5. Education and Social Change: A Proactive or Reactive Role?

    Burns, Robin Joan

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviews the ways in which contributors to the International Review of Education have discussed the role of education in social change. It asserts that education is seen as a major vector in society, but that it is largely allocated a conservative role, since its main function is in the socialisation of the young and the maintenance of the social order. During times of rapid social change, such as the second half of the 20th century, the role of education in the service of the nation is emphasised. When things are going well, especially economically, more experimentation with education is supported, and more idealistic goals are pursued, such as equity of educational opportunity. It is in the ideological and moral spheres, however, that education is most clearly expected to play a leading role. The author traces the relationship between education and social change as reflected in the journal since the 1930s.

  6. Physical bone changes in carragheenin-induced arthritis evaluated by quantitative computed tomography

    Repeated non-invasive measurements were performed in dogs to trabecular bone density (TBD), low density bone area (LDBA), and high density bone area (HDBA) in chronic arthritis using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Unilateral chronic arthritis of the knee had been induced by weekly instillation of 2 ml carragheenin into the right knee joint for 12 weeks with the left knee serving as a control. CT scanning of the distal femoral condyles was performed in 12 mature dogs with chronic arthritis. Another 6 dogs underwent a longitudinal CT study starting immediately prior to induction of arthritis. Indentation test and histomorphometric analyses confirmed the bone density changes as measured by CT. (orig./GDG)

  7. Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats

    Foong Kiew Ooi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To date,little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats.Methods:A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S or 32 weeks (32S, or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP consisting of 200 jumps per week (200J/w, given at 40 jumps per day (40J/d for 5 days per week (5d/w (8STP24E, followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 10J/d or 20J/d or 40J/d, for either 5d/w, or 3d/w, or 1d/w. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal telopeptideof type 1 collagen (1CTP concentrations, and tibial fat free dry weight were measured.Results: Tibial mass was significantly higher in 8STP than 8S. No changes were evident in serum markers of bone turnover parameters after 8STP. Significant increases in tibial mass were observed in rats that continued to exercise at workloads of 30J/w and above after 8STP. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations increase whereas serum 1CTP concentrations decrease in rats given workloads of 40J/w and above.Conclusions: It appears, an exercise load of 30J/w, i.e. 10J/d for 3d/w,was the minimum level of continuous exercise load that was required to maintain the 8STP-induced bone gains. In addition, significant increases in bone mass in young rats following 8STP might not always be reflected by changes in serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and 1CTP.

  8. An Experimental Study on the Change of Bone Mineral Metabolism After Irradiation

    Irradiation is widely used for the treatment of malignant diseases, and possibly cause the osteoporosis. The densitometry and bone scintigraphy are valuable when used to monitor the patients longitudinally to access the progression of osteoporosis and risk of osteoradionecrosis. To evaluate the osteoporosis after irradiation of Cobalt-60 gamma ray on the lumbar spines of New Zealand white rabbits, bone densitometry by dual photon absorptiometry and bone scintigraphy were performed weekly. The decrease of bone density began at the first week after irradiation, and were in the nadir at 4-6th week. The osteoblastic activity measured by bone scintigraphy decreased in the first week, and was in the nadir at 4-6th week. The severity of these changes were related to the radiation dose. In conclusion, the osteoporosis before the presentation of the osteoradionecrosis can be diagnosed early with the dual photon absorptiometry and bone scintigraphy.

  9. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    Dapilmoto Monika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1 improve nutrition, (2 increase health literacy and, (3 increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood test panel and a quality of life inventory (AlgaeCal 1. Two weeks after the last subject completed, a second group of 58 was enrolled and followed the identical plan, but with a different bone-health supplement (AlgaeCal 2. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline bone mineral density (BMD or in variables related to BMD (age, sex, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, or fat-free mass. In both groups, no significant differences in BMD or related variables were found between volunteers and non-volunteers or between those who completed per protocol and those who were lost to attrition. Both groups experienced a significant positive mean annualized percent change (MAPC in BMD compared to expectation [AlgaeCal 1: 1.15%, p = 0.001; AlgaeCal 2: 2.79%, p = 0.001]. Both groups experienced a positive MAPC compared to baseline, but only AlgaeCal 2 experienced a significant change [AlgaeCal 1: 0.48%, p = 0.14; AlgaeCal 2: 2.18%, p p = 0.005. The MAPC contrast between compliant and partially compliant subjects was significant for both plans (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively. No clinically significant changes in a 43-panel blood chemistry test were found nor were there any changes in self-reported quality of life in either group. Conclusions Following The Plan for six months with either version of the bone health supplement was associated with significant increases in BMD as compared to expected and, in AlgaeCal 2, the increase from baseline was significantly greater than the increase from baseline in AlgaeCal 1. Increased compliance was associated with greater increases in BMD in both groups. No adverse effects were reported in either group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01114685

  10. Immobilisation-induced changes in forearm bone quantity and quality: radiographic fourier image analysis vs bone densitometry

    Full text: Determinants of bone fracture risk include indices of bone 'quantity' such as bone mineral content (BMC, mineral mass per unit scanned bone length), plus 'environmental' (eg impact force) and 'quality' factors (Melton L.J. III et al, Bone and Min 2: 321, 1987). Bone 'quality' refers largely to the micro-geometry of bone (∼ 10-200μ), but has been less well studied because of the need for bone slices from (invasive) bone biopsies. Such studies often compare the geometry of trabecular networks (eg trabecular bone volume, trabecular number) with clinical outcomes such as fracture rates. Another (invasive) approach is to examine the two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier transform (FT) of a high-resolution radiographic image of the bone slice, since structural information is in theory encoded in the 2-D spatial-frequency (ν) spectrum. Additionally, the FT method can be applied to bone images obtained in-vivo, though superposition of information from the third dimension is a major confounding factor in their interpretation. Quantitative radiography of the ultradistal (UD) forearm permits determination of BMC (Price R et al; ACPSEM 6: 128- 137, 1983 and ACPSEM 11: 36-43, 1988), and (as a bonus) reveals a pattern (suitable for FT analysis) of the radiographic shadows of the 3-D trabecular network projected onto the image plane. Hemiplegia is associated with excessive bone loss in the paralysed (hemi) forearm, and is a model for the study of immobilisation osteoporosis. Thus, by comparing hemiplegia-induced changes in BMC and trabecular structure, derived from the same in vivo radiographic image, it is possible to compare directly the effects of disease on both bone quantity and quality, using the image of the non-paralysed (non-hemi) arm as a control. Seventy-four patients with hemiplegia of duration 3.6±3.6 (Mean±SD) years were studied cross-sectionally for radiographic BMC of their normal and paralysed UD forearms in AP view, each arm in duplicate. Methods (including water-immersion of the forearm, plus image calibration) and results of the bone densitometry study have been published (Prince RL et al, J Bone and Min Res, 3: 305-310, 1988). In the present study, the original radiographs from a subset of 30 patients (16M and 14F) were re-analysed by specifically-designed software (IMS). Radiographs were digitised and a square (128 x 128 pixels, 256 grey levels) was extracted centrally from the image of the UD radius, with its distal side perpendicular to the forearm long axis and lined up with the base of the ulnar styloid process, representing an area of 16x16 mm2 on the unmagnified image. Following thresholding using a value derived from sampling of the bone-free image, a 2-D FT was derived. It is reasonable to expect that there is (at least) a qualitative relationship between the sizes and orientations of the image elements identified by the FT and those of the trabeculae generating them by superposition. The general orientations (or sizes) of these periodic elements were analysed by dividing up the Fourier plane (described by polar coordinates ν, θ) into contiguous sectors (or annuli) and summing the normalised intensities within each sector (or annulus) (eg Lendaris GG et al, Proc IEEE 58: 198-216, 1970). Principal Components Analysis using all 8 annuli produced a complete separation of male and female non-hemi forearms, marked separation of male hemi and male non-hemi, and no separation in women. We conclude from this preliminary study that FT analysis of in-vivo forearm radiographs reveals gender dimorphism and detects immobilisation-induced changes in bone structure (ie 'quality') in males but not females. Thus the pattern of trabecular bone loss in males may differ from that of women, in a manner not discernible by conventional bone densitometry, which addresses bone 'quantity' only

  11. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  12. Quantifying changes in the bone microarchitecture using Minkowski-functionals and scaling vectors: a comparative study

    Raeth, Christoph W.; Mueller, Dirk; Link, Thomas M.; Boehm, Holger; Monetti, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease leading to de-mineralization and increased risk of fracture. The two major factors that determine the biomechanical competence of bone are the degree of mineralization and the micro-architectural integrity. Today, modern imaging modalities exist that allow to depict structural details of trabecular bone tissue. Recently, non-linear techniques in 2D and 3D based on the scaling vector method (SVM) and the Minkowski functionals (MF) have been introduced, which show excellent performance in predicting bone strength and fracture risk. However, little is known about the performance of the various parameters with respect to monitoring structural changes due to progression of osteoporosis or as a result of medical treatment. We test and compare the two methodologies using realistic two-dimensional simulations of bone structures, which model the effect of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the local change of relative bone density. Different realizations with slightly varying control parameters are considered. Our results show that even small changes in the trabecular structures, which are induced by variation of a control parameter of the system, become discernible by applying both the MF and the locally adapted scaling vector method. The results obtained with SVM are superior to those obtained with the Minkowski functionals. An additive combination of both measures drastically increases the sensitivity to slight changes in bone structures. These findings may be especially important for monitoring the treatment of patients, where the early recognition of (drug-induced) changes in the trabecular structure is crucial.

  13. Radiation-induced changes in bone perfusion and angiogenesis

    Purpose: To determine whether blood flow of bone is altered by limb irradiation and whether bFGF, an angiogenic cytokine, might alleviate any flow or growth abnormality resulting from 30 Gy single fraction irradiation. Methods and Materials: C3H mice received whole right hind limb radiation at doses of 0 to 30 Gy. Additional groups received 30 Gy, and then beginning 1 or 5 weeks later received intravenous bFGF at a dose of 6 μg/mouse, twice a week for 4 weeks. Serial X-ray films were taken to measure the tibias. At 33 weeks, laser Doppler flow (LDF) measurements were made of both limbs. Cytokine measurements were made using ELISA and RNase protection. Results: Bone growth was reduced following radiation in a dose dependent manner. bFGF improved bone growth after radiation even when begun 5 weeks after radiation, however, we detected no significant improvement in LDF of the irradiated bone or periosteum. Muscle tissue surrounding bone of the irradiated leg showed no increase in isoforms of TGFβ, TNF, or IFN. There was also no difference in the circulating plasma TGFβ1 in irradiated mice. In contrast, LDF increased significantly as a function of radiation dose in the nonirradiated tibia. Systemic delivery of bFGF appears to further enhance the increase in flow seen in the nonirradiated limb. Conclusion: Radiation induces a chronic antiangiogenic effect contributing to reduced limb growth. At 33 weeks the antiangiogenesis was not associated with local soft tissue elevations of TNF, IFN, or TGFβ. Radiation toxicity to bone is alleviated by bFGF therapy suggesting that powerful locally-acting antiangiogenic mechanisms are involved. We postulate that the increased LDF of the contralateral tibia is due to circulating angiogenesis factors that are elevated to compensate for the radiation-induced antiangiogenesis

  14. Prognostic significance of primary bone changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    In a period of 6.5 years, acute leukaemia was diagnosed in 140 children at our hospital: 137 children had long bone radiographs and 45 patients had bone lesions. Eleven of the 115 patients who had skull radiographs had osteolytic lesions and another four had wide sutures. No patients had bone changes at relapse or at cessation of 3 years' successful therapy. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the frequence of osseous lesions tended to be higher in patients in sub-groups with a more favourable prognosis. The duration of remission and survival times were higher in patients with ''leukemic'' long bones than in those without them (p<0.10 and <0.05, respectively). Changes in the skull could not be related to the outcome. We found no abnormalities in the bones of the eight patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. (orig.)

  15. Bone marrow changes on STIR MR images of asymptomatic feet and ankles

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, pattern and size of bone marrow changes on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images of asymptomatic feet and ankles. In 78 asymptomatic volunteers (41 women, 37 men; median age 47 years; range 23-83 years) sagittal STIR MR images of hindfoot and midfoot were reviewed for various patterns of high signal changes in bone marrow. The size of these bone marrow changes was measured, and signal intensity was rated semi-quantitatively using a scale from 0 (=normal) to 10 (=fluid-like). Fifty percent (39/78) of all volunteers had at least one bone marrow change. Thirty-six percent (28/78) of all volunteers had edema-like changes, 26% (20/78) had necrosis-like changes, and 5% (4/78) had cyst-like changes. The long diameters of all changes varied between 4 mm and 16 mm (median 7.5 mm). The median signal intensity for all changes was 5.0 (range 1-10). Bone marrow changes on STIR MR images are commonly detected in asymptomatic feet and ankles. However, such changes tend to be small (<1 cm) or subtle. (orig.)

  16. Association between alveolar bone loss and serum C-reactive protein levels in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients

    Rahul Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP is an acute phase reactant that is produced in response to diverse inflammatory stimuli, and is known predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Aggressive and chronic periodontitis are two main forms of periodontal disease, which differ mainly in the method of disease progression. This study aims at determining and comparing the relative levels of serum CRP and alveolar bone loss in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 subjects, which were divided into 3 groups diagnosed as having generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP and non-periodontitis controls (NP, were selected for the study. Venous blood samples were collected for quantitative CRP analysis using Turbidimetric immunoassay. Alveolar bone loss (ABL was measured at proximal sites of posterior teeth on a panoramic radiograph. The relationship between the mean ratio of ABL to root length and serum CRP levels was statistically analyzed using Student unpaired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson?s correlation coefficient. Results: Mean CRP levels were significantly greater in both GAP (7.492.31 mg/l and CGP (4.881.80 mg/l groups as compared to NP (0.680.23 mg/l with P value <0.0001. The mean value of ABL (% was 31.58 in CGP group and 36.77 in the GAP group, the difference being statistically significant (P=0.0079. Correlation coefficient between CRP and ABL is 0.9310 in CGP, and 0.9252 in GAP, which indicates a positive correlation between both variables. Conclusion: Both forms of periodontitis are associated with increased systemic inflammatory response with aggressiveness of disease progression determining the degree of response.

  17. Changes in Mechanical Properties of Rat Bones under Simulated Effects of Microgravity and Radiation†

    Walker, Azida H.; Perkins, Otis; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Dobretsov, Maxim; Chowdhury, Parimal

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in elasticity and lattice structure in leg bone of rats which were: 1) under Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for 2 weeks and 2) exposed to a total radiation of 10 Grays in 10 days. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 2 weeks and the leg bones were surgically removed, cleaned and fixed with a buffered solution. The mechanical strength of the bone (elastic modulus) was determined from measurement of bending of a bone when under an applied force. Two methodologies were used: i) a 3-point bending technique and ii) classical bending where bending is accomplished keeping one end fixed. Three point bending method used a captive actuator controlled by a programmable IDEA drive. This allowed incremental steps of 0.047 mm for which the force is measured. The data is used to calculate the stress and the strain. In the second method a mirror attached to the free end of the bone allowed a reflected laser beam spot to be tracked. This provided the displacement measurement as stress levels changed. Analysis of stress vs. strain graph together with solution of Euler-Bernoulli equation for a cantilever beam allowed determination of the elastic modulus of the leg bone for (i) control samples, (ii) HLS samples and (iii) HLS samples with radiation effects. To ascertain changes in the bone lattice structure, the bones were cross-sectioned and imaged with a 20 keV beam of electrons in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). A backscattered detector and a secondary electron detector in the SEM provided the images from well-defined parts of the leg bones. Elemental compositions in combination with mechanical properties (elastic modulus and lattice structure) changes indicated weakening of the bones under space-like conditions of microgravity and radiation.

  18. Radiographic bone changes in multibacillary leprosy patients in Aburof mission clinic

    Leprosy is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease, caused by M. leprae. It is one of the most seriously disabling and economically important disease. In Sudan it affects about 20 thousands people. In this study 60 patients of MB leprosy were included. Historry and physical examination were carried out for each patient. BI was done for all patients and were subjected to x-ray investigations of the paranasal sinuses, hands and feet. 85%(51) of these patients were found to have radiographic changes in paranasal sinuses, 35 patients with mucosal thickening and 16 with diffuse opacified sinuses. 86.7% (52) of those patients were found to have radiographic bone changes in their hand and feet. 23.6% and 75.4% were found with specific and non-specific bone changes in their hands and feet respectively. A spectrum of radiographic bone changes was found in the hands and feet including; destruction, fractures, phalangeal resoption, distal phalangeal tapering, flexion deformities, osteoarthritic changes, charcot's joints, osteoporosis cystic bone changes and enlarged nutrient bone foramina. The majority of patients with radiographic changes in the paranasal sinsuses, hands and feet, were found to have long duration of the disease and more bacterial load. The disability in hands and feet is the major risk factor in bone affection in MB leprosy. (Author)

  19. Osseous changes in the foot bones in patients with arterial occlusion and simultaneous polyneuropathy

    The present article evaluates 26 cases with arterial occlusion and additional polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus or chronic alcohol addiction. For comparison, a group of 30 patients with arterial occlusion without neutrologically detectable polyneuropathy were also evaluated. It is pointed out that the osseous changes in the foot bone region are due to the additionally existing polyneuropathy and cannot be explained alone by an avascular bone necrosis in arterial vascular occlusion. Changes in the sense of an arthropathy occur in our group of patients even in case of unilateral arterial occlusion, these changes occurring bilaterally in the foot bones; after reconstruction measures in the arterial vascular system, these arthropathic changes in the foot bones continue to advance in case of persisting polyneuropathy. (orig.)

  20. Bacteria-reactive immune response may induce RANKL-expressing T-cells in the mouse periapical bone loss lesion

    Silva, Marcelo J.B.; Kajiya, Mikihito; AlShwaimi, Emad; Sasaki, Hajime; Hong, Jennifer; Ok, Peter; Rezende, Taia M.B.; Pagonis, Tom C.; White, Robert R.; Paster, Bruce J; Stashenko, Philip; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study investigated if T-cells infiltrating the periapical lesion produce RANKL and whether bacteria infecting the root canal can activate T-cells to produce RANKL. Methods Using a mouse model of periapical lesion induced by artificial dental pulp exposure, the presence of RANKL-positive T-cells and osteoclasts in the periapical lesion was examined by an immuno-histochemical approach. The bacteria colonizing the exposed root canal were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. The isolated endodontic bacteria were further immunized to normal mice, and sRANKL production by the T-cells isolated from the immunized mice was evaluated by ex vivo culture system. Results RANKL-positive T-cells, along with TARP+ osteoclasts, were identified in periapical bone resorption lesions. The Gram-negative bacterium Pasterurella pnumotropica (P. pnumotropica), which was most frequently detected from root canal of exposed pulp, showed remarkably elevated serum IgG antibody response in pulp-exposed mice compared to control non-treated mice. Immunization of mice with P. pneumotropica induced not only serum IgG antibody but also primed bacteria reactive T-cells that produced sRANKL in response to ex vivo exposure to P. pneumotropica. Conclusion T-cells infiltrating the periapical region express RANKL, and the endodontic bacteria colonizing the root canal appear to induce RANKL expression from bacteria-reactive T-cells, suggesting the possible pathogenic engagement of immune response to endodontic bacteria in the context of developing boneresorptive periapical lesions. PMID:22341072

  1. Bone Structural Changes and Estimated Strength After Gastric Bypass Surgery Evaluated by HR-pQCT

    Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hanson, Stine; Hansen, Stinus; Brixen, Kim; Gram, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Støving, René Klinkby

    2016-01-01

    (BMD) and bone architecture assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), 6 and 12 months after RYGB, and correlate them to changes in selected biochemical markers. A prospective cohort study included 25 morbidly obese......Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is an effective treatment of morbid obesity, with positive effects on obesity-related complications. The treatment is associated with bone loss, which in turn might increase fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density...

  2. Glucocorticoid-Induced Changes in the Geometry of Osteoclast Resorption Cavities Affect Trabecular Bone Stiffness

    Vanderoost, Jef; Søe, Kent; Merrild, Ditte Marie Horslev; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2012-01-01

    /BV, which is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures......Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities...... during GC treatment increases more than hip, forearm and other nonvertebral fractures....

  3. Bone changes occurring spontaneously and caused by estrogen in early postmenopausal women: a local generalized phenomenon?

    Regional values of bone mineral content and bone mineral density were calculated from total body dual photon absorptiometry scans of 52 early postmenopausal women treated with estrogen for one year and of 52 similar women treated with placebo. The six regions were head, arms, chest, spine, pelvis, and legs. In addition, bone mineral density of the spine was calculated by dual photon absorptiometry and bone mineral content of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry, using separate special purpose scanners. All regions were unchanged after one year of treatment with estrogen, excluding the lumbar spine, for which values rose. Values for all regions except the lumbar spine fell significantly in the placebo group. The rates of loss ranged from 2 to 8%, with no significant differences between the regions. It is concluded that loss of bone in the early menopause is a generalized phenomenon, affecting all parts of the skeleton. Furthermore, estrogen prophylaxis for loss of bone is effective in all parts of the skeleton. Finally, it is suggested that the measurement of bone mineral content in the forearm be used for clinical follow up of bone changes, as this method is superior to others in the ratio of change to precision

  4. Changing reactivity of receptor carboxyl groups during bacterial sensing.

    Stock, J B; Koshland, D E

    1981-11-10

    A microdistillation procedure has been developed to analyze carboxylmethylation of the Mr = 60,000 chemoreceptor proteins involved in chemotaxis of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Methylation levels obtained by this method are substantially higher than those reported in the literature. In highly motile strains under optimal conditions there are approximately 100,000 methylated receptor residues per cell which are entirely composed of gamma-methylglutamyl esters. Whereas with previously used methods only groups which turn over could be detected, the microdistillation assay provides absolute values. Under steady state conditions, approximately one-half the total number of methyl ester residues are continuously hydrolyzed and resynthesized, while the remainder are sequestered. A mechanism has been devised to explain the observed patterns of methyl ester synthesis and hydrolysis. According to this hypothesis, substrate glutamyl residues on the receptor are located in a restricted region near the active sites of transferase and esterase which are bound to the receptor protein. Small, stimuli-induced changes in receptor conformation effect perturbations in receptor methylation by shifting the focus of activity of the modifying enzymes from one pair of closely spaced groups to another. PMID:7026562

  5. The change of fast reactivity effects in the operation of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor

    The investigation of the dependence of main fast reactivity effects of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor, i.e. isothermal effect, flow effect and effect of fast power feedback, on the energy production has been carried out. It has been shown that the main fluctuations of reactivity are correlated with the random change of the temperature of sodium. The absolute isothermal coefficient of reactivity weakly increases with the power production (by 20% during the whole operation time of the reactor). The fast power reactivity coefficient has decreased practically by a factor of 6 from -12?p/MW (in 1982, the start-up of the reactor) to -2 ?p/MW (in 2006, the stop of operation) and has a complicated dependence on the energy production. It has been shown that the flow fluctuation of coolant sodium through the core is small and influences weakly the random change of reactivity. The total sodium flow effect does not practically change with the power production

  6. Three-dimentional computed tomographic changes of patella tendon after harvesting bone-tendon-bone

    Patella tendon donor site healing after patella tendon autograft evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography is reported. However, there are only a few reports on patella tendon donor site healing evaluated by 3D-CT. In this study, we performed 3D-CT on 23 patients (11 males and 12 females) who received reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament with bone-tendon-bone autograft in our hospital. The average age at the time of operation was 30.3 years, and the average duration of follow-up was 47 months. In 13 of these patients, 3D-CT was performed on both knees for comparative analysis. 3D-CT examination revealed that patella tendon healing after harvested autograft occurred within three years after operation, and healing continued. There were not any length or width differences between operated and non-operated knees. (author)

  7. Age and disease-related changes in the mineral of bone.

    Grynpas, M

    1993-01-01

    Bone mineralization changes with age and disease. The distribution of mineral particles in a given bone (mineralization profile) has been studied using density fractionation as well as microradiography and electron backscattering imaging. The biological determinant of mineralization is the rate of turnover. During rapid growth and periods of high remodeling, mineralization is shifted towards lower mineral density (hypomineralization). During aging and periods of low remodeling, mineralization is shifted towards higher mineral densities (hypermineralization). Chemicals can also influence the mineralization profile of bone. Fluoride induces hypermineralization by stabilizing the apatite lattice and reducing bone mineral solubility, whereas strontium induces hypomineralization by loosening the apatite lattice and increasing bone mineral solubility. Drugs such as bisphosphonates induce hypermineralization by inhibiting resorption and acting as crystal poison. Finally, mineralization can be impaired by defects as in rickets and osteomalacia or made excessive by continuous accretion of mineral without resorption as in osteopetrosis. PMID:8275381

  8. Structural changes in sheep tibia bone undergoing biomaterial scaffold implant

    Maxwell, Craig, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Bone fracture is a common occurrence with most people having, or knowing someone who has experienced it. This thesis displays quantitative results on the growth and strength of new material formed in a fracture gap by analysing the density and volume of the implanted biomaterial scaffold and the new material formed alongside gait and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of external factors which can have an effect on the remodeling process. The main goal of this thesis is to present methods to provi...

  9. Bone Structural Changes and Estimated Strength After Gastric Bypass Surgery Evaluated by HR-pQCT.

    Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hanson, Stine; Hansen, Stinus; Brixen, Kim; Gram, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Støving, René Klinkby

    2016-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is an effective treatment of morbid obesity, with positive effects on obesity-related complications. The treatment is associated with bone loss, which in turn might increase fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone architecture assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), 6 and 12 months after RYGB, and correlate them to changes in selected biochemical markers. A prospective cohort study included 25 morbidly obese patients (10 males, 15 females). Patients were examined with DXA of the hip and spine, HR-pQCT of radius and tibia, and blood sampling before and 6 and 12 months after RYGB. Patients lost in average 33.5 ± 12.1 kg (25.8 ± 8.5 %) in 12 months. In tibia, we found significant loss of total, cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD after 12 months (all p < 0.001). Microarchitectural changes involved lower trabecular number, increased trabecular separation, and network inhomogeneity along with thinning of the cortex. Estimated bone failure load was decreased after 12 months (p = 0.005). We found only minor changes in radius. Results demonstrate significant alterations of bone microarchitecture suggesting an accelerated endosteal resorption along with disintegration of the trabecular structure which resulted in a loss of estimated bone strength in tibia. Such changes may underlie the recently reported increased risk of fracture in bariatric patients after surgery. We only observed bone structural changes in the weight-bearing bone, which indicates that mechanical un-loading is the primary mediator. PMID:26661530

  10. The development of bone changes induced in rats by recombinant human granulocyte colonystimulating factor is suppressed by bisphosphonate

    Suzuki, M.; Adachi, K.; Sugimoto, T; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that high doses of recombinant human granulocyte colonystimulating factor (rhG-CSF) induce bone changes characterized by osteoclastic bone resorption and osteogenesis due to intramembranous ossification in rats. In this communication we examined the effects of a pretreatment with 3-amino-l-hydroxypropylidene-1,lbisphosphonate (AHPrBP), which is a powerful inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption, on bone changes induced by r...

  11. An approach to assess reactivity changes due to core thermal expansion

    The presented method shows a way to approach estimation of reactivity effects due to the thermal expansion of the core structures in the case when actual pin, subassembly and core mechanical behaviour is not known. The set of reactivity coefficients obtained above was not complete due to difficulties to represent some basis changes within our MCNP model. However, in future work one can build a MCNP model taking into account from the beginning the necessity to represent certain geometrical changes, and in this case a more complete set of basis changes can be modeled. The example use of obtained coefficients has shown a formal statistical agreement with the exact result. However, the cumulative reactivity change of about 25 pcm for considered scenario is quite small with respect to the statistical error of the exact result, therefore this example does not provide any confidence on the method's precision. This exercise, however, can be considered as an illustration of the use of obtained reactivity coefficients. (orig.)

  12. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  13. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  14. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E2 (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author)

  15. Post-Irradiation Changes in the Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood

    The sensitivity of bone-marrow elements, and in particular of cells in the early stages of their development, remains an attractive subject for radiosensitivity studies as well as for its diagnostic value in practice. We studied the changes in the bone marrow in experimental animals and in humans following external irradiation and after the application.of radioisotopes with different physical and metabolic properties. In the evaluation of groups of all species there is a constant type of the response characteristic for individual cells of the bone marrow

  16. On the estimation of a small reactivity change in critical reactors by Kalman filtering technique

    In the present paper we critically review the bank of Kalman filters method for reactivity estimation originally suggested by D'Attellis and Cortina. It is pointed out that the procedure cannot be applied reliably in the form proposed by the authors, because of the invalid interpretation of the decision rule as well as the presence of the filter divergence. An improved method based on D'Attellis' and Cortina's idea, free from divergence problems, is presented. The procedure is applied to the estimation of small reactivity changes occurring after a long critical operation of the reactor. (Author)

  17. Bone Marrow Changes in Adolescent Girls With Anorexia Nervosa

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Feldman, Henry A.; Buzney, Catherine D.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Rosen, Clifford J; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Early osteoporosis is common among adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may result from premature conversion of red (RM) to yellow bone marrow. We performed right knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.0 T extremity scanner in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls, aged 16.2 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD). Coronal T1-weighted (T1W) images and T1 maps were generated from T1 relaxometry images. Blinded radiologists visually assessed RM in the distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphyse...

  18. Pathological changes in the navicular bone and associated structures of the horse.

    Doige, C.E.; Hoffer, M A

    1983-01-01

    Navicular bones from 74 horses were examined at necropsy. Animals ranged in age from eight months to 30 years. Eight horses had a clinical history of navicular disease. Degenerative lesions in the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone and of the surface of the deep flexor tendons were age related changes not necessarily related to lameness. These lesions were more extensive in horses with a history of navicular disease, and were often accompanied by adhesions and subchondral cavita...

  19. Changes in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum

    Gollan JK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jackie K Gollan, Laina Rosebrock, Denada Hoxha, Katherine L Wisner Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum to inform future research. Numerous changes occur in attentional processing and affective reactivity across the childbearing period. This review focuses on the definition and methods of measuring attentional processing and affective reactivity. We discuss research studies that have examined the changes in these two processes during the perinatal phases of pregnancy and postpartum, with and without depression and anxiety. We evaluate the importance of using multiple levels of measurement, including physiological and neuroimaging techniques, to study these processes via implicit and explicit tasks. Research that has identified regions of brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as other physiological assessments is integrated into the discussion. The importance of using sophisticated methodological techniques in future studies, such as multiple mediation models, for the purpose of elucidating mechanisms of change during these processes in pregnancy and postpartum is emphasized. We conclude with a discussion of the effect of these processes on maternal psychological functioning and infant outcomes. These processes support a strategy for individualizing treatment for pregnant and postpartum women suffering from depression and anxiety. Keywords: attentional processing, emotion, affective reactivity, depression, pregnancy, postpartum

  20. The role of nano-sized manganese coatings on bone char in removing arsenic(V) from solution: Implications for permeable reactive barrier technologies.

    Liu, Jing; He, Lile; Dong, Faqin; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A

    2016-06-01

    Although the removal of arsenic(V) (As(V)) from solution can be improved by forming metal-bearing coatings on solid media, there has been no research to date examining the relationship between the coating and As(V) sorption performance. Manganese-coated bone char samples with varying concentrations of Mn were created to investigate the adsorption and desorption of As(V) using batch and column experiments. Breakthrough curves were obtained by fitting the Convection-Diffusion Equation (CDE), and retardation factors were used to quantify the effects of the Mn coatings on the retention of As(V). Uncoated bone char has a higher retention factor (44.7) than bone char with 0.465 mg/g of Mn (22.0), but bone char samples with between 5.02 mg/g and 14.5 mg/g Mn have significantly higher retention factors (56.8-246). The relationship between retardation factor (Y) and Mn concentration (X) is Y = 15.1 X + 19.8. Between 0.2% and 0.6% of the sorbed As is desorbed from the Mn-coated bone char at an initial pH value of 4, compared to 30% from the uncoated bone char. The ability of the Mn-coated bone char to neutralize solutions increases with increased amounts of Mn on the char. The results suggest that using Mn-coated bone char in Permeable Reactive Barriers would be an effective method for remediating As(V)-bearing solutions such as acid mine drainage. PMID:27016809

  1. Comparative study of longitudinal changes in peri-implant bone microstructure

    The load applied to an implant is directly transmitted to the jaw and is considered to be one of the causes of remodeling of internal trabecular bones. However, the longitudinal changes during loading and the rearrangement of the trabecular bone structure are mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in internal jaw bone structure longitudinally during natural tooth eruption as well as tooth extraction and post-implantation periods in a dog model by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). Maxillae of 16 male beagle dogs were used in this study. First, 4 dogs with all maxillary molar teeth erupted were euthanized as a control group. Next, 6 teeth consisting of the bilateral maxillary fourth premolars, and first and second molars were extracted from each of the 12 dogs. Then, 4 dogs of the tooth-extracted group were euthanized 3 months after extraction of the teeth. At this time, three implants were inserted in the left side of the maxilla of the remaining 8 dogs, and the superstructures were placed after 3 months. Four of these 8 dogs with implants were euthanized at 3 months and the other 4 at 1 year after placement of the superstructure. Then, the maxillary bone was removed from each dog as a specimen and sequential micro-CT images were taken. After reconstruction of three-dimensional images, morphological and metrical observation of the jaw trabecular bone structure was performed. A decrease of the trabecular bone in the tooth-extracted group was morphologically and morphometrically observed, whereas the implanted group showed thick, rich trabecular bone. Although a longitudinal decrease in the bone tissue volume was recognized both in the tooth-extracted and the implanted groups, the amount was smaller in the implanted group than in the tooth-extracted group. The results suggested that the application of load by implants in the case of tooth loss inhibits resorption of the alveolar bone and prevents thinning of the jaw. (author)

  2. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories

    Amnon Yacoby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK. We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or one day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information one day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories.

  3. Changes in bone marrow lesions in response to weight-loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius; Danneskiold-Samse, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Patients are susceptible for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with increasing age and obesity and KOA is expected to become a major disabling disease in the future. An important feature of KOA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is changes in the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are...... related to the future degeneration of the knee joint as well as prevalent clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in BMLs after a 16-week weight-loss period in obese subjects with KOA and relate changes in BMLs to the effects of weight-loss on clinical symptoms....

  4. Detection of chemical changes in bone after irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Benetti, Carolina; Santos, Moises O.; Rabelo, Jose S.; Ana, Patrcia A.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    The use of laser for bone cutting can be more advantageous than the use of drill. However, for a safe clinical application, it is necessary to know the effects of laser irradiation on bone tissues. In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the molecular and compositional changes promoted by laser irradiation on bone tissue. Bone slabs were obtained from rabbit's tibia and analyzed using ATR-FTIR. After the initial analysis, the samples were irradiated using a pulsed Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780nm), and analyzed one more time. In order to verify changes due to laser irradiation, the area under phosphate (1300-900cm-1), amides (1680-1200cm-1), water (3600-2400cm-1), and carbonate (around 870cm-1 and between 1600-1300cm-1) bands were calculated, and normalized by phosphate band area (1300-900cm-1). It was observed that Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation promoted a significant decrease in the content of water and amides I and III at irradiated bone, evidencing that laser procedure caused an evaporation of the organic content and changed the collagen structure, suggesting that these changes may interfere with the healing process. In this way, these changes should be considered in a clinical application of laser irradiation in surgeries.

  5. Paleopathological analysis of changes on animal bones originating from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery

    Marković Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the estimation of incidence and analysis of paleopathological changes on skeletal remains of the animals from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery. Moreover, there has been carried out the assessment of the skeletal elements, as well as taxonomic and age determination. The total of 2595 bones or bone fragments were examined. In 22 specimens there were noticed various abnormal skeletal changes in following animal species: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys and camels. Pathological changes were noticed on the teeth, mandibles, joints of long bones and phalanxes. By macroscopic analysis of these acquired pathological changes on bones of the animals, there was determined that the observed lesions had had proliferative, hypertrophic and chronic character. Proliferative changes on the bones of the cattle, horses, donkeys and camels point out to the fact that these animals were used for towing and/or load carrying. Identified diseases of oral cavity in small ruminants point out to improper and inadequate nutrition of these animals in the past.

  6. Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth

    AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

  7. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year

  8. Changes in Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Procollagen Type-1 C-Peptide after Static and Dynamic Exercises

    Kubo, Keitaro; Yuki, Kazuhito; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two types of nonweight-bearing exercise on changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and pro-collagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P). BAP is a specific marker of bone synthesis, whereas P1P reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen in other organs as well as bone. Eight participants performed static and dynamic…

  9. Bone Marrow Changes in Adolescent Girls With Anorexia Nervosa

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Feldman, Henry A; Buzney, Catherine D; Mulkern, Robert V; Kleinman, Paul K; Rosen, Clifford J; Gordon, Catherine M

    2010-01-01

    Early osteoporosis is common among adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may result from premature conversion of red (RM) to yellow bone marrow. We performed right knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.0 T extremity scanner in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls, aged 16.2 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD). Coronal T1-weighted (T1W) images and T1 maps were generated from T1 relaxometry images. Blinded radiologists visually assessed RM in the distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphyses in T1W images using a scale of signal intensity from 0 (homogeneous hyperintensity, no RM) to 4 (all dark, complete RM). Subjects with AN exhibited nearly twofold lower metaphyseal RM scores in both the femur (0.64 versus 1.22, p = .03) and tibia (0.54 versus 0.96, p = .08). In relaxometric measurements of four selected regions (femur and tibia amd epiphysis and metaphysis), subjects with AN showed higher mean epiphyseal but lower metaphyseal T1. The net AN-control difference between epiphysis and metaphysis was 70 ms in the femur (+31 versus −35 ms, p = .02) and of smaller magnitude in the tibia. In relaxometry data from the full width of the femur adjacent to the growth plate, AN subjects showed mean T1 consistently lower than in controls by 30 to 50 ms in virtually every part of the sampling region. These findings suggest that adolescents with AN exhibit premature conversion of hematopoietic to fat cells in the marrow of the peripheral skeleton potentially owing to adipocyte over osteoblast differentiation in the mesenchymal stem cell pool. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:19653811

  10. Clinical study of bone changes after parathyroidectomy among patients maintained by hemodialysis

    Thirteen patients maintained by hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism were mainly studied using Tc 99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and lamina dura index (LDI) which was judged by dental films. After parathyroidectomy (PTX), the most prominent change appeared on the calvaria, maxilla, and mandible in scintigrams. Intensity of Tc 99m-MDP accumulation was represented by using a quantitative method of bone-to-soft tissue uptake ratio (4 hr-B/St ratio). 4 hr-B/St ratio gradually decreased and became normal within one and a half years after PTX. The accumulation of Tc 99m-MDP on the calvaria may reveal the status of bone metabolism in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Also, LDIes gradually decreased during 4 through 6 months after PTX. However it was considered that these indexes might need a long term to return to normal range. We couldn't differenciate which method was superior in the diagnostic value for detecting early skeletal changes between roentogenograms and bone scintigraphy as a indicator of post-PTX bone improvement. However, bone scintigraphy should be added to conventional examinations for following the courses of patients that underwent PTX because this procedure has many other advantages. (author)

  11. Age-related changes in bone in the dog: calcium homeostasis

    To explore the changes in the relationship between skeletal and Ca2+ homeostasis with age, a study was made of 50 dogs divided into four age groups. The skeletal uptake of 85Sr decreased markedly with age, and the immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level increased. There was a significant correlation between iPTH value and the calculated short-term exchange of Ca in bone. Bone formation and bone resorption decreased with age except that in the oldest group of dogs the resorption increased. The authors suggest that in aging dogs the skeletal exchange of Ca falls to a very low level that decreases the immediate effect of PTH and thus leads to a chronic net increase in circulating PTH. Concomitant with this is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and, over a long time, loss of skeletal mass

  12. The biochemical changes of bone collagen after high-dose irradiation

    In our clinic, patients with malignant bone tumors have been treated by high-dose irradiation therapy, 10,000-20,000 rads, for primary lesions. In order to study the biochemical changes of normal bone around tumor tissue, especially bone collagen, after high-dose irradiation, the author performed the following experiments. The right knee joint of rabbits was irradiated with either 6,000, 10,000, or 15,000 rads by 60Co-? ray. The cortical bone of the right tibial metaphysis was used for analyses and compared with the left tibia of the same rabbit. These studies were followed for one year after the final irradiation. The calcium, phosphorous and collagen contents of irradiated bone were remarkably changed. These data indicate that collagen biosynthesis of irradiated bone was decreased and the calcification was disturbed. An increase in the amount of total soluble collagen and a decrease in the amount of hydroxylysine bound sugar were observed. The ratio of ? to ? chains of the collagen molecule was also changed by the irradiation. The amount of reducible cross-links per hydroxyproline residue was strikingly increased three months after the final irradiation. These changes were remarkable especially in the 10,000 and 15,000 rads irradiated group and found to be recovered approximately six months to one year after the final irradiation. These findings indicate that high-dose irradiation reduces the stability of bone collagen both with the destruction of sugar bonds of hydroxylysine residues and the replacement of matured collagen matrix to immatured one which contain mostly labile reducible cross-links. (author)

  13. Age-related changes in the fracture resistance of male Fischer F344 rat bone.

    Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Granke, Mathilde; Makowski, Alexander J; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2016-02-01

    In addition to the loss in bone volume that occurs with age, there is a decline in material properties. To test new therapies or diagnostic tools that target such properties as material strength and toughness, a pre-clinical model of aging would be useful in which changes in bone are similar to those that occur with aging in humans. Toward that end, we hypothesized that similar to human bone, the estimated toughness and material strength of cortical bone at the apparent-level decreases with age in the male Fischer F344 rat. In addition, we tested whether the known decline in trabecular architecture in rats translated to an age-related decrease in vertebra (VB) strength and whether non-X-ray techniques could quantify tissue changes at micron and sub-micron length scales. Bones were harvested from 6-, 12-, and 24-month (mo.) old rats (n=12 per age). Despite a loss in trabecular bone with age, VB compressive strength was similar among the age groups. Similarly, whole-bone strength (peak force) in bending was maintained (femur) or increased (radius) with aging. There was though an age-related decrease in post-yield toughness (radius) and bending strength (femur). The ability to resist crack initiation was actually higher for the 12-mo. and 24-mo. than for 6-mo. rats (notch femur), but the estimated work to propagate the crack was less for the aged bone. For the femur diaphysis region, porosity increased while bound water decreased with age. For the radius diaphysis, there was an age-related increase in non-enzymatic and mature enzymatic collagen crosslinks. Raman spectroscopy analysis of embedded cross-sections of the tibia mid-shaft detected an increase in carbonate subsitution with advanced aging for both inner and outer tissue. PMID:26610688

  14. Time-course of exercise and its association with 12-month bone changes

    Vainionpää Aki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on bone density and strength. However, knowledge of the time-course of exercise and bone changes is scarce due to lack of methods to quantify and qualify daily physical activity in long-term. The aim was to evaluate the association between exercise intensity at 3, 6 and 12 month intervals and 12-month changes in upper femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD and mid-femur geometry in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer in 35 healthy women (35-40 years participating in progressive high-impact training. To describe exercise intensity, individual average daily numbers of impacts were calculated at five acceleration levels (range 0.3-9.2 g during time intervals of 0-3, 0-6, and 0-12 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry and mid-femur geometry was evaluated with quantitative computed tomography at the baseline and after 12 months. Physical activity data were correlated with yearly changes in bone density and geometry, and adjusted for confounding factors and impacts at later months of the trial using multivariate analysis. Results Femoral neck aBMD changes were significantly correlated with 6 and 12 months' impact activity at high intensity levels (> 3.9 g, r being up to 0.42. Trochanteric aBMD changes were associated even with first three months of exercise exceeding 1.1 g (r = 0.39-0.59, p r = 0.38-0.52, p Conclusion The number of high acceleration impacts during 6 months of training was positively associated with 12-month bone changes at the femoral neck, trochanter and mid-femur. These results can be utilized when designing feasible training programs to prevent bone loss in premenopausal women. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00697957

  15. Retrospective study on change in pharyngeal airway space and hyoid bone position after mandibular setback surgery

    On, Sung Woon; Han, Min Woo; Hwang, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the pharyngeal airway space and hyoid bone position after mandibular setback surgery with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) and to analyze the correlation between the amount of mandibular setback and the amount of change in pharyngeal airway space or hyoid bone position. Materials and Methods From January 2010 to February 2013, a total of 30 patients who were diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion and underwent the same surgery (BSSRO) and fixation method in the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry at the Ajou University School of Medicine (Suwon, Korea) were included in this study. Lateral cephalograms of the 30 patients were assessed preoperatively (T1), immediately postoperatively (T2), and 6 months postoperatively (T3) to investigate the significance of changes by time and the correlation between the amount of mandibular setback and the amount of change in the airway space and hyoid bone position. Results Three regions of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were measured and only the oropharynx showed a statistically significant decrease (P<0.01). A significant posterior and inferior displacement of the hyoid bone was found 6 months after surgery (P<0.01). Analysis of the correlation between the amount of mandibular setback and the amount of final change in the airway space and hyoid bone position with Pearson's correlation showed no significant correlation. Conclusion In this study, the oropharynx significantly decreased after mandibular setback surgery, and changes in the surrounding structures were identified through posteroinferior movement of the hyoid bone during long-term follow-up. Therefore, postoperative obstructive sleep apnea should be considered in patients who plan to undergo mandibular setback surgery, and necessary modifications to the treatment plan should also be considered. PMID:26568923

  16. Retrospective long-term analysis of bone level changes after horizontal alveolar crest reconstruction with autologous bone grafts harvested from the posterior region of the mandible

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term success of horizontal alveolar crest augmentation of the retromolar region of the mandible with particulated bone, as well as factors affecting subsequent peri-implant bone loss. Methods A total of 109 patients (68 female, 41 male) suffering from alveolar ridge deficiencies of the maxilla and mandible were included in this study. All patients were treated with particulated retromolar bone grafts from the mandible prior to the insertion of endosseous dental implants. Mesial and distal peri-implant crestal bone changes were assessed at six time points. Several parameters, including implant survival and the influence of age, gender, localisation of the implant, diameter, covering procedures, and time points of implant placement, were analysed to identify associations with bone level changes using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient. Results A total of 164 dental implants were placed in the maxilla (n=97) and in the mandible (n=67). The mean observation period was 105.26±21.58 months after implantation. The overall survival rate was 97.6% after 10 years. Overall, peri-implant bone loss was highest during the first year, but decreased over time. The mean amount of bone loss after 10 years was 2.47 mm mesially and 2.50 mm distally. Bone loss was significantly influenced by implant type and primary stability. Conclusions The use of particulated autologous retromolar bone grafts is a reliable technique for the horizontal reconstruction of local alveolar ridge deficiencies. Our results demonstrate that implants placed in augmented bone demonstrated similar bone level changes compared to implants inserted in non-augmented regions. PMID:27127688

  17. Changes in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum

    Gollan JK; Rosebrock L; Hoxha D; Wisner KL

    2014-01-01

    Jackie K Gollan, Laina Rosebrock, Denada Hoxha, Katherine L Wisner Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum to inform future research. Numerous changes occur in attentional processing and affective...

  18. Nitric oxide-mediated changes in vascular reactivity in pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L J

    1993-01-01

    1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arteria...

  19. Probing Conformational Changes of Prestin with Thiol-Reactive Optical Switches

    fang, Jie; Sakata, Tomoyo; Marriott, Gerard; Iwasa, Kuni H

    2008-01-01

    Thiol-reactive optical switch probes were used to examine conformational changes of prestin-based membrane motor. Because this motor is based on mechanoelectric coupling similar to piezoelectricity, the motile activity can be monitored by charge movements across the plasma membrane, which appears as nonlinear capacitance. When the plasma membrane is conjugated with the probes, optically induced spiro-merocyanine transition positively shifted nonlinear capacitance of outer hair cells and prest...

  20. Bone marrow changes adjacent to the sacroiliac joints after pelvic radiotherapy mimicking metastases on MRI

    Radiation-induced changes in the sacroiliac joints mimicking metastases on MR images were evaluated. Twelve patients who received radiotherapy to the pelvic region due to pelvic malignancy were included in the study. All patients had undergone external beam radiation therapy to the pelvic region, and 2 patients received supplementary internal radiation. The changes in the sacroiliac joints were evaluated. Computed-tomography-guided core bone biopsy from the bone marrow was taken from their corresponding MR sections in 5 of the patients. T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas with ill-defined margins in the bone marrow adjacent to the sacroiliac joints were observed in all patients. On bone scintigraphy all the lesions demonstrated increased activity. Other radiological modalities excluded fracture, soft tissue mass, and osseous destruction. Bone biopsies demonstrated peritrabecular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Patients receiving radiotherapy to the pelvis may demonstrate T1 hypointense/T2 hyperintense, ill-defined postradiotherapeutic benign changes in the sacroiliac joints. In the absence of any other signs of disease progression and when the imaging pattern is typical, close radiological follow-up should be sufficient to rule out metastases. (orig.)

  1. Bone marrow changes adjacent to the sacroiliac joints after pelvic radiotherapy mimicking metastases on MRI

    Kanberoglu, K.; Mihmanli, I.; Kurugoglu, S.; Ogut, G.; Kantarci, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    2001-09-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the sacroiliac joints mimicking metastases on MR images were evaluated. Twelve patients who received radiotherapy to the pelvic region due to pelvic malignancy were included in the study. All patients had undergone external beam radiation therapy to the pelvic region, and 2 patients received supplementary internal radiation. The changes in the sacroiliac joints were evaluated. Computed-tomography-guided core bone biopsy from the bone marrow was taken from their corresponding MR sections in 5 of the patients. T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas with ill-defined margins in the bone marrow adjacent to the sacroiliac joints were observed in all patients. On bone scintigraphy all the lesions demonstrated increased activity. Other radiological modalities excluded fracture, soft tissue mass, and osseous destruction. Bone biopsies demonstrated peritrabecular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Patients receiving radiotherapy to the pelvis may demonstrate T1 hypointense/T2 hyperintense, ill-defined postradiotherapeutic benign changes in the sacroiliac joints. In the absence of any other signs of disease progression and when the imaging pattern is typical, close radiological follow-up should be sufficient to rule out metastases. (orig.)

  2. Effects of dehydration-induced structural and material changes on the apparent modulus of cancellous bone.

    Lievers, W B; Poljsak, A S; Waldman, S D; Pilkey, A K

    2010-10-01

    Dehydration is known to cause an increase in the elastic modulus of bone tissue. However, it also causes structural changes (i.e. shrinkage) which can themselves significantly alter the mechanical properties, particularly in cancellous bone. The current study attempts to estimate the contribution of these two competing factors to the net change of dehydration on the apparent modulus of bovine cancellous bone. Cylindrical cores from the lumbar vertebrae were tested in tension, while hydrated and again after dehydration. The bone volume fractions (BV/TV) were measured in both conditions. The results indicate that the average overall increase in the apparent modulus after dehydration is 14±14% (mean±SD), which represents the net effect of a 27% increase in modulus due to increased tissue modulus offset by a modulus decrease of 13% due to reductions in bone volume fraction. These observations underscore the need to consider both structural and material changes when comparing hydrated and dehydrated mechanical behaviour. PMID:20638319

  3. Femoroacetabular impingement: bone marrow oedema associated with fibrocystic change of the femoral head and neck junction

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom) and Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jamesslj@email.com; Connell, D.A. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, RNOH Stanmore, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Aim: To describe the association of bone marrow oedema adjacent to areas of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. Materials and methods: The clinical and imaging findings in six patients with bone marrow oedema adjacent to an area of fibrocystic change at the femoral head and neck junction are presented. There were five males and one female (age range 19-42 years, mean age 34.5 years). Three patients were referred with a clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement, two with suspected osteoid osteoma and one with a clinical diagnosis of sciatica. The volume of bone marrow oedema (grade 1: 0-25%, grade 2: 26-50%, grade 3: 51-75% and grade 4: 76-100% of the femoral neck width), presence of labral and articular cartilage abnormality, joint effusion, and femoral head and neck morphology were recorded. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified fibrocystic change in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head and neck junction in all cases (mean size 9 mm, range 5-14 mm, three multilocular and three unilocular cysts). The volume of oedema was variable (one grade 1, two grade 2, one grade 3 and two grade 4). All patients had abnormality of the anterosuperior labrum with five patients demonstrating chondral loss. An abnormal femoral head and neck junction was identified in five patients. Conclusion: The radiological finding of fibrocystic change at the anterosuperior femoral neck with or without bone marrow oedema should prompt the search for femoroacetabular impingement. Bone marrow oedema may rarely be identified adjacent to these areas of cystic change and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow oedema in the femoral neck.

  4. Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study

    Zuki, Mervet El [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Benghazi University College of Dentistry, Benghazi (Libya); Omami, Galal [Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Horner, Keith [Dept. of Oral Radiology, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

  5. Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study

    The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

  6. Bone marrow changes in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Feldman, Henry A; Buzney, Catherine D; Mulkern, Robert V; Kleinman, Paul K; Rosen, Clifford J; Gordon, Catherine M

    2010-02-01

    Early osteoporosis is common among adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may result from premature conversion of red (RM) to yellow bone marrow. We performed right knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.0 T extremity scanner in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls, aged 16.2 +/- 1.6 years (mean +/- SD). Coronal T(1)-weighted (T(1)W) images and T(1) maps were generated from T(1) relaxometry images. Blinded radiologists visually assessed RM in the distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphyses in T(1)W images using a scale of signal intensity from 0 (homogeneous hyperintensity, no RM) to 4 (all dark, complete RM). Subjects with AN exhibited nearly twofold lower metaphyseal RM scores in both the femur (0.64 versus 1.22, p = .03) and tibia (0.54 versus 0.96, p = .08). In relaxometric measurements of four selected regions (femur and tibia amd epiphysis and metaphysis), subjects with AN showed higher mean epiphyseal but lower metaphyseal T(1). The net AN-control difference between epiphysis and metaphysis was 70 ms in the femur (+31 versus -35 ms, p = .02) and of smaller magnitude in the tibia. In relaxometry data from the full width of the femur adjacent to the growth plate, AN subjects showed mean T(1) consistently lower than in controls by 30 to 50 ms in virtually every part of the sampling region. These findings suggest that adolescents with AN exhibit premature conversion of hematopoietic to fat cells in the marrow of the peripheral skeleton potentially owing to adipocyte over osteoblast differentiation in the mesenchymal stem cell pool. PMID:19653811

  7. Study on changes of trace elements in bone of rabbits during fracture healing by PIXE

    The radii of 48 rabbits were fractured by operation and contents of many elements in bone during fracture healing were determined by PIXE. Irregular changes of the contents of 10 trace elements were observed, whereas regular changes of trace elements Sr and Fe in bone were found with a concave shape and convex one respectively, during the fracture healing period, suggesting that the contents of trace elements Fe and Sr in bone could be considered as an indicator of fracture healing. Although the results do not support the therapy of fracture by administering element Ca according to the Western medicine, the present work is in favor of the treatment of fracture healing by taking some traditional Chinese medicines which contain many kinds of trace elements

  8. Detailed Analysis of the Structural Changes of Bone Matrix During the Demineralization Process Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Timchenko, E. V.; Zherdeva, L. A.; Timchenko, P. E.; Volova, L. T.; Ponomareva, U. V.

    The results of experimental research of human cortical bone tissue depending on demineralization time were represented using Raman spectroscopy. Depending on demineralization time the ratio of the mineral (РO43- and CO32-) and organic components (amide I) of bone tissue, as well as changes in the spectral regions responsible for the structural integrity of the collagen fibers in bone tissue (1200-1460 cm-1 and 2880-3000 cm-1) were investigated. The observed changes show a decrease in mineral components: thus, the value of Raman band intensity at 956 and 1069 cm-1 for 5 minutes demineralization is 68.5 and 77.3%, for 20 minutes - 55.1 and 61.1%, for 120 minutes - 32.8 and 37% from Raman intensity values of not demineralized tissue objects respectively.

  9. Pathologic changes in the maxillary sinus wall after conservative therapy in odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Examination using bone scintigraphy

    Single photon emission computed tomographic bone scintigraphy (bone SPECT) was performed in 16 patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis to compare inflammatory changes in the maxillary sinus wall including the alveolar process (bony lesions) before and after conservative therapy. Morphologic changes in bony lesions as evaluated by bone SPECT images correlated with those of the maxillary sinus mucosa (mucosal lesions) as evaluated by CT images. Morphologic changes in the bony lesions also correlated with changes in inflammatory activity in the maxillary alveolar process as functionally evaluated by bone SPECT before and after conservative therapy. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is considered a disease in which maxillary alveolitis causes mucosal lesions as well as bony lesions. Changes in alveolitis are associated with morphologic changes in bony lesions after conservative therapy, and these changes affect the pathophysiologic nature of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Bone SPECT is valuable for predicting outcome and treatment planning in patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. (author)

  10. Changes in bone mineral density of lumbar spine after pelvic radiotherapy

    Bone mineral densities (BMDs) of L2 to L5 were measured on 40 cervical cancer patients with radiotherapy and 40 matched controls. We found no significant difference in the BMDs between the two groups and no significant change in BMDs 1-7 years after the therapy in the patient group

  11. Age-related molecular genetic changes of murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Webster Keith A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are pluripotent cells, present in the bone marrow and other tissues that can differentiate into cells of all germ layers and may be involved in tissue maintenance and repair in adult organisms. Because of their plasticity and accessibility these cells are also prime candidates for regenerative medicine. The contribution of stem cell aging to organismal aging is under debate and one theory is that reparative processes deteriorate as a consequence of stem cell aging and/or decrease in number. Age has been linked with changes in osteogenic and adipogenic potential of MSCs. Results Here we report on changes in global gene expression of cultured MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of mice at ages 2, 8, and 26-months. Microarray analyses revealed significant changes in the expression of more than 8000 genes with stage-specific changes of multiple differentiation, cell cycle and growth factor genes. Key markers of adipogenesis including lipoprotein lipase, FABP4, and Itm2a displayed age-dependent declines. Expression of the master cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 and growth factors HGF and VEGF also declined significantly at 26 months. These changes were evident despite multiple cell divisions in vitro after bone marrow isolation. Conclusions The results suggest that MSCs are subject to molecular genetic changes during aging that are conserved during passage in culture. These changes may affect the physiological functions and the potential of autologous MSCs for stem cell therapy.

  12. Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O; Helledie, N; Iversen, P O; Ralfkiaer, E; Larsen, J K; Madsen, M T

    1998-01-01

    bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to identify DNA replicating cells. The leukaemia progressed slowly until day 27 after which a rapid deterioration could be observed leading to severe changes over the following 5 d. In whole blood there was evidence of progressing metabolic acidosis. In bone marrow the fraction of......The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats...

  13. Evolving New Skeletal Traits by cis-Regulatory Changes in Bone Morphogenetic Proteins.

    Indjeian, Vahan B; Kingman, Garrett A; Jones, Felicity C; Guenther, Catherine A; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Myers, Richard M; Kingsley, David M

    2016-01-14

    Changes in bone size and shape are defining features of many vertebrates. Here we use genetic crosses and comparative genomics to identify specific regulatory DNA alterations controlling skeletal evolution. Armor bone-size differences in sticklebacks map to a major effect locus overlapping BMP family member GDF6. Freshwater fish express more GDF6 due in part to a transposon insertion, and transgenic overexpression of GDF6 phenocopies evolutionary changes in armor-plate size. The human GDF6 locus also has undergone distinctive regulatory evolution, including complete loss of an enhancer that is otherwise highly conserved between chimps and other mammals. Functional tests show that the ancestral enhancer drives expression in hindlimbs but not forelimbs, in locations that have been specifically modified during the human transition to bipedalism. Both gain and loss of regulatory elements can localize BMP changes to specific anatomical locations, providing a flexible regulatory basis for evolving species-specific changes in skeletal form. PMID:26774823

  14. Changes in cortical bone channels network and osteocyte organization after the use of zoledronic acid.

    Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Travenolo, Bruno Augusto Nassif; Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; Beletti, Marcelo Emlio; Gallottini, Marina; Silveira, Fernando Ricardo Xavier da

    2015-12-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the cortical bone channels network (CBCN) and osteocyte organization in relation to the bone channels. Materials and methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and test groups (TG). Twelve animals from TG received 3 ZA doses (7.5 g/kg), and 6 animals from CG did not receive any medication. TG animals were euthanized at 14 (n = 6) and 75 (n = 6) dadys after drug injection. CBCN was analyzed in mandibles and tibias using computational routines. The osteocyte organization was qualitatively evaluated in tibias using a three-dimensional reconstruction of images from serial histological sections. Results Significant differences in CBCN of tibia were found between the treated and untreated rats, with a wider range of sizes and shapes of the channels after the use of ZA (channels area p = 0.0063, channels area SD p = 0.0276) and less bone matrix (bone volume p = 0.0388). The alterations in the channels' morphology were more evident at 75 days after the drug injection (channels perimeter p = 0.0286). No differences were found in mandibles CBCN. The osteocyte distribution revealed more variable patterns of cell distribution in ZA groups, with non-homogeneous distribution of cells in relation to the bone channels. Conclusion Zoledronic acid induces structural changes in CBCN and modifies the osteocyte arrangement in cortical bone in the tibia; also, the variability in the morphology of bone channels became more evident after a certain time of the use of the drug. PMID:26331228

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Clivus and Its Age-Related Changes in the Bone Marrow

    The clivus is a bone region between dorsum cella and foramen magnum. It can be evaluated very clearly in routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dueto its central location. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the clivus and its changes according to age in a group of healthy people. The transition of clival bone marrow to fatty marrow by the increasein age is examined by MRI in 105 men and 105 women who had no clival and bone marrow pathology on MRI. The clivus/pons, clivus/CSF intensity values and clival bone marrow imaging patterns according to age groups were prospectively evaluated using a 1.5 Tesla MR device. When age groups were individually compared, there were meaningful statistical differences both in men and women in terms of clivus/CSF and clivus/pons intensity ratios (both Ps < 0.05). Clivus/pons and clivus/CSF intensity ratios were found to be increased with age in all cases. The distribution of age groups according to stages in all individuals was statistically meaningful (P < 0.05). When the appearance patterns of both genders in every ten-fold age were examined, stage III bone marrow was observed more in elder ages. As a result, besides the fact that standard ranges determined for clivus/CSF, clivus/pons intensity ratios according to age may be used in the assessment of potential pathological cases involving bone marrow; they can also be leading in the diagnosis of bone marrow diseases when taken into consideration together with clinical and laboratory data

  16. Neutrophil transcriptional profile changes during transit from bone marrow to sites of inflammation

    Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Visser, Michelle B; Sun, ChunXiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been established that neutrophils, the most abundant leukocytes, are capable of changes in gene expression during inflammatory responses. However, changes in the transcriptome as the neutrophil leaves the bone marrow have yet to be described. We hypothesized that neutrophils are transcriptionally active cells that alter their gene expression profiles as they migrate into the vasculature and then into inflamed tissues. Our goal was to provide an overview of how the neutrophil's...

  17. Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O; Helledie, N; Iversen, P O; Ralfkiaer, E; Larsen, J K; Madsen, M T

    1998-01-01

    The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats....... Here we have investigated how the development and progression of this leukaemia affect oxygenation, pH and proliferation of normal and leukaemic cells in vivo. Bone marrow pH was measured by a needle electrode. Nitroimidazol-theophylline (NITP) was used to identify hypoxic cells, and we applied...... bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to identify DNA replicating cells. The leukaemia progressed slowly until day 27 after which a rapid deterioration could be observed leading to severe changes over the following 5 d. In whole blood there was evidence of progressing metabolic acidosis. In bone marrow the fraction of...

  18. Assessing land-use change using the trace element chemistry of human bones (Invited)

    Hannigan, R. E.; Darrah, T. H.; Prutsman-Pfeiffer, J.

    2009-12-01

    Reconstruction of environmental life histories using the elemental chemistry of biominerals is becoming common in ecological research. Less common is the application of these approaches to reconstruct environmental records from human bones. Here we present trace element data from human long bone of various ages and environments. Specifically samples from poorhouse burials in Rochester, NY (1750’s) and Buffalo, NY (1855) and a pioneer burial site in Mt. Morris, NY (1810) and associated soil samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Based on differences in soil type, geology, groundwater chemistry, diet, bone pathology, life style at time of death (diet etc.) we reconstructed environmental life histories of the three populations as well as identified differences between individuals attributable to life style. These data reveal the potential of human bone trace element chemistry to provide retrospective information regarding land-use. Using human bone chemistry of populations within a single area is it possible to assess long-term changes in land-use as reflective of diet, occupation, etc.

  19. Histopathological change of the metastatic bone marrow. Response for radio- and combination chemotherapy at autopsy cases

    The purpose of this study was to determine the histopathologic therapeutic effects in metastatic bone marrow for various therapy in cancer patients. Autopsy cases at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, mainly cancer of breast, stomach, lung and prostate examined radiotherapy (28-60 Gy) and chemotherapy and/or endocrine chemotherapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate, tamoxifen). Histological evaluation of effects for radio-and chemotherapy have been criteria of UICC and criteria for the evaluation of the clinical and pathological effects by Japan Society for Cancer Therapy. The precise effects for various therapy is difficult to measure objectively in metastatic bone. Histopathologic changes of metastatic bone marrow for radiotherapy revealed decrease and degeneration of tumor cells - swelling, vacuoles of cytoplasm and nuclei, bizarre and giant multinucleated giant cells etc. Stromal reaction was found postnecrotic fresh and/or old granulation-fibrosis and hyalinization, woven bone formation and fatty marrow. Systemic therapy of breast cancer revealed stromal fibrosis and chondroid ossification more than other tumors and therapy. Morphological features of metastatic bone marrow at autopsy cases may be necessary from viewpoint of therapeutic effects. (author)

  20. Changes in proximal femoral bone mineral density around a hydroxyapatite-coated hip joint arthroplasty.

    Theis JC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the results of a prospective analysis of proximal femoral bone mineral density changes around a hydroxyapatite-coated total hip joint replacement. METHODS: 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were enrolled in the study and treated with an uncemented ABG prosthesis. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed in 9 patients preoperatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. An orthopaedic software program was used to determine the bone mineral density in the proximal femur, expressed as a percentage of the preoperative value. RESULTS: The values of Gruen zones 1 to 6 averaged between 96.0% and 113.8% of the preoperative value by 24 months (overall average, 104.1%. In zone 7, however, there was a gradual decline in bone mineral density to an average of 72.1% of the preoperative value by 24 months. This represented ongoing loss of bone from the calcar; although this may not pose a problem to the prosthetic's short-term stability, it may render potential revision surgery more difficult. CONCLUSION: The initial outcome of uncemented total hip replacement appears to be promising. There was excellent maintenance of bone around the femoral component in all regions other than the calcar and lesser trochanter. Further scans are required to see if these trends continue in the long term.

  1. The impact of degenerative spinal changes on the correlation of peripheral and axial bone density

    Results of bone density measurements by quantitative computed tomography of the peripheral skeleton (pQCT) were compared with those of measurements at the axial skeleton with a view to study the effects of degenerative spinal changes on the validity of bone densitometry of the lumbar spine. 556 consecutive patients were examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal radius. There were significant differences between the bone mineral values at the distal radius and those at the spine, depending on the degree of spinal degeneration. As expected, spinal degenerations showed a highly significant age dependence. With increasing degeneration the correlations between the radius total bone mineral concentration and the bone density of the lumbar spine decreased from r=0.45 to 0.23 in women and from r=0.64 to 0.28 in men. We conclude that the value of spinal DXA is reduced in patients with degenerative spinal disease, compared to the pQCT at the peripheral skeleton. (orig.)

  2. Bone metabolic changes during pregnancy: a period of vulnerability to osteoporosis and fracture.

    Sanz-Salvador, Luca; Garca-Prez, Miguel ngel; Tarn, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Changes in bone density and bone markers suggest that pregnancy is associated with deterioration of bone mass in the mother. The metabolism of calcium resets to allow for the needs imposed by the building of the fetal skeleton. The fetus contributes to the process through the output of regulators from the placenta. Understanding of the whole process is limited, but some changes are unambiguous. There is an increase in the circulating levels of vitamin D, but its functional impact is unclear. Fetal parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrp) play an indirect role through support of a calcium gradient that creates hypercalcemia in the fetus. Placental GH, which increases up to the end of pregnancy, may exert some anabolic effects, either directly or through the regulation of the IGF1 production. Other key regulators of bone metabolism, such as estrogens or prolactin, are elevated during pregnancy, but their role is uncertain. An increase in the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as an additional pro-resorbing factor in bone. The increase in bone resorption may lead to osteoporosis and fragility fracture, which have been diagnosed, although rarely. However, the condition is transitory as long-term studies do not link the number of pregnancies with osteoporosis. Prevention is limited by the lack of identifiable risk factors. When fractures are diagnosed, rest, analgesics, or, when indicated, orthopedic intervention have demonstrated efficacy. Systemic treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs is effective, but the potential harm to the fetus imposes caution in their use. PMID:25209679

  3. Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo

    Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

    2009-01-01

    The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

  4. Labeling the human skeleton with 41Ca to assess changes in bone calcium metabolism

    Bone research is limited by the methods available for detecting changes in bone metabolism. While dual X-ray absorptiometry is rather insensitive, biochemical markers are subject to significant intra-individual variation. In the study presented here, we evaluated the isotopic labeling of bone using 41Ca, a long-lived radiotracer, as an alternative approach. After successful labeling of the skeleton, changes in the systematics of urinary 41Ca excretion are expected to directly reflect changes in bone Ca metabolism. A minute amount of 41Ca (100 nCi) was administered orally to 22 postmenopausal women. Kinetics of tracer excretion were assessed by monitoring changes in urinary 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios up to 700 days post-dosing using accelerator mass spectrometry and resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Isotopic labeling of the skeleton was evaluated by two different approaches: (i) urinary 41Ca data were fitted to an established function consisting of an exponential term and a power law term for each individual; (ii) 41Ca data were analyzed by population pharmacokinetic (NONMEM) analysis to identify a compartmental model that describes urinary 41Ca tracer kinetics. A linear three-compartment model with a central compartment and two sequential peripheral compartments was found to best fit the 41Ca data. Fits based on the use of the combined exponential/power law function describing urinary tracer excretion showed substantially higher deviations between predicted and measured values than fits based on the compartmental modeling approach. By establishing the urinary 41Ca excretion pattern using data points up to day 500 and extrapolating these curves up to day 700, it was found that the calculated 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios in urine were significantly lower than the observed 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios for both techniques. Compartmental analysis can overcome this limitation. By identifying relative changes in transfer rates between compartments in response to an intervention, inaccuracies in the underlying model cancel out. Changes in tracer distribution between compartments were modeled based on identified kinetic parameters. While changes in bone formation and resorption can, in principle, be assessed by monitoring urinary 41Ca excretion over the first few weeks post-dosing, assessment of an intervention effect is more reliable ∝150 days post-dosing when excreted tracer originates mainly from bone. (orig.)

  5. Changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum in syphilis patients after treatment.

    Kim, D K; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    The changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum after treatment of syphilis were observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Until 9 to 12 months after treatment, it was seen that there was a loss of several antibodies and some diminution in their reactivity in primary, secondary and early latent syphilis, but no changes occurred in late latent and reinfected syphilis. In primary syphilis, there w...

  6. The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and reparative fibroses.

    Bellini, Alberto; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2007-09-01

    Human fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitors that exhibit mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes and fibroblasts. They likely represent the obligate intermediate stage of differentiation into mature mesenchymal cells of a bone marrow-derived precursor of the monocyte lineage under permissive conditions. On in vitro stimulation with pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors, human fibrocytes produce large quantities of extracellular matrix components and further differentiate into cells identical to the contractile myofibroblasts that emerge at the tissue sites during repair processes and in some fibrotic lesions. Studies in various animal models of wound healing or fibrotic diseases have confirmed the ability of fibrocytes to differentiate into mature mesenchymal cells in vivo and have suggested a causal link between fibrocyte accumulation and ongoing tissue fibrogenesis or vascular remodeling in response to tissue damage or hypoxia. Fibrocytes synthesizing new collagen or acquiring myofibroblast markers have been detected in human hypertrophic scars, in the skin of patients affected by nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, in human atherosclerotic lesions, and in pulmonary diseases characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and repair, like asthma. The presence of fibrocyte-like cells has been reported in human chronic pancreatitis and chronic cystitis. Similar cells also populate the stroma surrounding human benign tumors. The available data indicate that human fibrocytes serve as a source of mature mesenchymal cells during reparative processes and in fibrotic disorders or stromal reactions predominantly associated with a persistent inflammatory infiltrate or with the selective recruitment of monocytes induced by ischemic changes and tumor development. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in fibrocyte differentiation in these pathological conditions may lead to the development of novel therapies for preventing detrimental tissue or vascular remodeling and metastatic progression of invasive tumors. PMID:17607298

  7. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it's helpful to walk or run regularly and have a balanced meal.

  8. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it's helpful to walk or run regularly and have a balanced meal

  9. Chemical changes in DMP1-null murine bone & silica based pecvd coatings for titanium implant osseoapplications

    Maginot, Megen

    In order to improve clinical outcomes in bone-implant systems, a thorough understanding of both local bone chemistry and implant surface chemistry is necessary. This study consists, therefore, of two main parts: one focused on determining the nature of the changes in bone chemistry in a DMP1-null transgenic disease model and the other on the development of amorphous silica-based coatings for potential use as titanium bone implant coatings. For the study of bone mineral in the DMP1 transgenic model, which is known to have low serum phosphate levels, transgenic DMP1-null and wild type mice were fed a high phosphate diet, sacrificed, and had their long bone harvested. This bone was characterized using SEM, FTIR, microCT and XANES and compared to DMP1-null and wild type control groups to assess the therapeutic effect of high Pi levels on the phenotype and the role of DMP1 in mineralization in vivo. Findings suggest that though the high phosphate diet results in restoring serum phosphate levels, it does not completely rescue the bone mineral phenotype at an ultrastructural level and implicates DMP1 in phosphate nucleation. Since plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silica like coatings have not previously been fabricated for use in oessoapplications, the second part of this study initially focused on the characterization of novel SiOx chemistries fabricated via a chemical vapor deposition process that were designed specifically to act as bioactive coatings with a loose, hydrogenated structure. These coatings were then investigated for their potential initial stage response to bone tissue through immersion in a simulated body fluid and through the culture of MC3T3 cells on the coating surfaces. Coating surfaces were characterized by SEM, FTIR, contact angle measurements, and XANES. Coating dissolution and ionic release were also investigated by ICP-OES. Findings suggest that some SiOx chemistries may form a bioactive coating while more highly substituted chemistries may form a bioresorbable coating, similar to commercially available bioactive glasses.

  10. Evaluation of Bone Change by Digital Subtraction Radiography After Implantation of Tooth ash-plaster Mixture

    To assess the methods for the clinical evaluation of the longitudinal bone changes after implantation of tooth ash-plaster mixture into the defect area of human jaws. Tooth ash-plaster mixtures were implanted into the defects of 8 human jaws. 48 intraoral radiograms taken with copper step wedge as reference at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture were used. X-ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner were digitized and analyzed by NIH image program. Cu-equivalent values were measured at the implanted sites from the periodic digital images. Analysis was performed by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of resliced contiguous image. The obtained results by the two methods were compared with Cu-equivalent value changes. The average determination coefficient of Cu-equivalent equations was 0.9988 and the coefficient of variation of measured Cu values ranged from 0.08-0.10. The coefficient of variation of Cu-equivalent values measured at the areas of the mixture and the bone by the conversion equation ranged from 0.06-0.09. The analyzed results by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement were coincident with the changes of Cu-equivalent values. The surface plot of the resliced contiguous image showed the three dimensional view of the longitudinal bone changes on one image and also coincident with Cu-equivalent value changes after implantation. The bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of the resliced contiguous image was very effective and reasonable to analyze clinically and qualitatively the longitudinal bone change. These methods are expected to be applicable to the non-destructive test in other fields.

  11. Evaluation of Bone Change by Digital Subtraction Radiography After Implantation of Tooth ash-plaster Mixture

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Kwang Won; Cho, Young Gon; Kim, Dong Kie; Choi, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University and Oral Biology Research Center, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    To assess the methods for the clinical evaluation of the longitudinal bone changes after implantation of tooth ash-plaster mixture into the defect area of human jaws. Tooth ash-plaster mixtures were implanted into the defects of 8 human jaws. 48 intraoral radiograms taken with copper step wedge as reference at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture were used. X-ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner were digitized and analyzed by NIH image program. Cu-equivalent values were measured at the implanted sites from the periodic digital images. Analysis was performed by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of resliced contiguous image. The obtained results by the two methods were compared with Cu-equivalent value changes. The average determination coefficient of Cu-equivalent equations was 0.9988 and the coefficient of variation of measured Cu values ranged from 0.08-0.10. The coefficient of variation of Cu-equivalent values measured at the areas of the mixture and the bone by the conversion equation ranged from 0.06-0.09. The analyzed results by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement were coincident with the changes of Cu-equivalent values. The surface plot of the resliced contiguous image showed the three dimensional view of the longitudinal bone changes on one image and also coincident with Cu-equivalent value changes after implantation. The bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of the resliced contiguous image was very effective and reasonable to analyze clinically and qualitatively the longitudinal bone change. These methods are expected to be applicable to the non-destructive test in other fields.

  12. Character of distracted bone in irradiated canine mandibles and electrophysiological changes in the inferior alveolar nerve.

    Liu, Yuxiao; Liu, Guicai; Liu, Yanpu; Lin, Xianjun

    2010-03-01

    Our aim was to explore the character of distracted bone in irradiated canine mandibles and the electrophysiological changes in the irradiated inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). Twelve Chinese dogs were studied, 10 of which were given unilateral irradiation of (60)Co in the mandible with a total dose of 22.8Gy in four 5.7Gy fractions (biologically equivalent to 50Gy/25 fractions) (experimental group). The other two dogs were not irradiated and served as controls. All had a bilateral corticotomy 3 months after irradiation. After a 1-week latency period distraction of the mandible was activated at a rate of 0.5mm twice daily for 10 days, followed by a consolidation phase of 8 weeks. New bone was assessed by radiographic, histological, and single-photon electron computed tomographic (SPECT) analysis. The IAN was analysed electrophysiologically. One dog in the experimental group was excluded from the study with anaesthetic problems. After 8 weeks of consolidation there was no difference between the percentage area of new bone in the two groups. New bone was more mature and organised in the control group than in the experimental group. SPECT analysis showed that there was active osteogenic activity in dogs in the experimental group. The action potential of the IAN showed corresponding changes during the irradiation and distraction processes. We conclude that distraction osteogenesis is feasible in previously irradiated canine mandibles and IAN. PMID:19406538

  13. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  14. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  15. Differential diagnosis between chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma by temporal bone CT: focus on bone change and mass effect

    In order to determine specific differences, we compared the temporal bone CT findings of chronic otitis media (COM) with and without cholesteatoma, focusing on bone change. Between 1997 and 1998, 82 patients (84 cases) underwent temporal bone CT and were shown to have COM, with or without cholesteatoma after mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. There were 36 cases of COM with cholesteatoma (26 patients, M:F =3D 11:15; age range, 16-61 (mean, 36,2) years), and 58 cases without chlesteatoma (56 patients, M:F =3D 25:31, age range, 15-61 (mean, 36.2) years). The findings of temporal bone CT were analysed at the point of bony changes including erosion and medial displacement of ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), erosion or destruction of the scutum, tegmen, facial canal, and lateral semicircular canal, and ballooning of the tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum. In addition, the soft tissue changes seen on temporal bone CT were analyzed at the site of lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space, perforation of the pars flaccida, tympanic membrane retraction, and tympanosclerosis. We retrospectively compared the findings of temporal bone CT with the surgical findings, and to assess statistical significance, the Chi-square test was used. Bone erosion or destruction was seen in 36.2% of COM cases without cholesteatoma, and in 96.2% of cases with cholesteatoma. Comparing COM with and without cholesteatoma, the erosion of ossicles including the malleus (81%, 24%), incus (88%, 14%), stapes (58%, 10%), scutum (88%, 10%), facial canal (8%, 0%), and lateral semicircular canal (8%, 0%), was more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05), with the exception of erosion of the tegmen (8%, 3%). Other bony changes including medial displacement of ossicles (27%, 3%), ballooning of tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum (96%, 16%), and the soft tissue changes including lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 14%) and perforation of the pars flaccida (35%, 9%) were more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05). Soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 72%), retraction of the tympanic membrane (19%, 9%), and tympanosclerosis (8%, 10%) were not however, important findings (p-value greater than 0.05). Bone erosion or destruction was seen in COM without cholesteatoma, but expansile bone erosion or destruction with mass effect suggested COM with cholesteatoma. These findings of temporal bone CT in COM demonstrate the existence and extent of combined cholesteatoma, and are therefore valuable. (author)

  16. Progression and association with lameness and racing performance of radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones of young Standardbred trotters

    Radiographic examination of the metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal joints was performed on 753 Standardbred trotters (6-21 months of age): 21 showed obvious changes in 26 proximal sesamoid bones on lateromedial projection. The radiographic changes were divided into 6 different types: (1) irregular abaxial margin (8 horses); (2) enlargement of the sesamoid bone (6 horses); (3) 'fracture' or separate centre of ossification of the apex (4 horses); (4) vertical, non-articular fracture of the plantar part of the sesamoid bone (1 horse); (5) a small bony fragment located in a defect in the apical part of the bone (2 horses); and (6) multiple areas of decreased radiodensity (1 horse). Each horse displayed only one type of radiographic change except for one which possessed those of types 3 and 5. Follow-up radiographic examination of 21 of the 26 affected proximal sesamoid bones at approximately 6-month intervals revealed a reduction in the changes in 13 bones and an unaltered condition in 8. Lameness examination was performed on 16 of the 21 horses at 3 years of age and 14 (87.5%) were observed to be lame, but detected lameness did not seem to be referrable to the sesamoid changes. Earnings after the racing season as 3- and 4-year-old horses showed no differences (P > 0.05) between horses with radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones and those without such changes

  17. Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness

    Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

  18. Roentgenogrammetry in diagnosis of age-dependent changes of the bone tissue

    Roentgenogrammetry was used to analyze 120 x-ray films of the right clavicle obtained at autopsy of female and male corpses aged 20-80. It was determined that the indices of the x-ray film correlated with the age-dependent changes in the bone tissue which occurred due to involution osteoporosis and could be of practical value for personality identification in forensics medical expertise

  19. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    Li, Bei; WANG, YAO

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test to...

  20. Effects of endocrine and inflammatory changes on markers of bone turnover following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    Bariatric surgery is associated with increased bone turnover. The mechanisms involved are unclear but may involve nutrition, mechanical unloading, altered secretion of gastrointestinal and adipose hormones and changes in inflammatory status leading to weight loss induced bone loss. We assessed marke...

  1. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P; Breum, L; Transbøl, I

    1993-01-01

    very-low-calorie diet. Before treatment the bone mineral content of the distal forearm was increased compared to normals (51.9 U vs. 43.7 U, p < 0.001). Bone formation was evaluated by serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin. Serum alkaline phosphatase was increased (187.8 U/l vs 147.4 U/l, p...... < 0.001) while serum osteocalcin was lower than in the controls (0.67 nmol/l vs 0.98 nmol/l, p < 0.01). Bone resorption, as measured by the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio, was not increased in the obese patients (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 16.7 molar ratio x 10(-3), NS). After 2 months, the...... bone mineral content had declined by 3.3%. Serum alkaline phosphatase remained unchanged (187.8 U/l vs 186.9 U/l, NS) but serum osteocalcin demonstrated a significant rise (3.94 nmol/l vs 10.53 nmol/l, p < 0.001), parallel to changes in the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs...

  2. TU-A-12A-08: Computing Longitudinal Material Changes in Bone Metastases Using Dual Energy Computed Tomography

    Purpose: This study demonstrates a methodology for tracking changes in metastatic bone disease using trajectories in material basis space in serial dual energy computed tomography (DECT) studies. Methods: This study includes patients with bone metastases from breast cancer that had clinical surveillance CT scans using a General Electric CT750HD in dual energy mode. A radiologist defined regions-of-interested (ROI) for bone metastasis, normal bone, and marrow across the serial DECT scans. Our approach employs a Radon transform to forward-projection the basis images, namely, water and iodine, into sinogram space. This data is then repartitioned into fat/bone and effective density/Z image pairs using assumed energy spectrums for the x-ray energies. This approach both helps remove negative material densities and avoids adding spectrum-hardening artifacts. These new basis data sets were then reconstructed via filtered back-projection to create new material basis pair images. The trajectories of these pairs were then plotted in the new basis space providing a means to both visualize and quantitatively measure changes in the material properties of the tumors. Results: ROI containing radiologist defined metastatic bone disease showed well-defined trajectories in both fat/bone and effective density/Z space. ROI that contained radiologist defined normal bone and marrow did not exhibit any discernible trajectories and were stable from scan to scan. Conclusions: The preliminary results show that changes in material composition and effective density/Z image pairs were seen primarily in metastasis and not in normal tissue. This study indicates that by using routine clinical DECT it may be possible to monitor therapy response of bone metastases because healing or worsening bone metastases change material composition of bone. Additional studies are needed to further validate these results and to test for their correlation with outcome

  3. TU-A-12A-08: Computing Longitudinal Material Changes in Bone Metastases Using Dual Energy Computed Tomography

    Schmidtlein, CR; Hwang, S; Veeraraghavan, H; Fehr, D; Humm, J; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This study demonstrates a methodology for tracking changes in metastatic bone disease using trajectories in material basis space in serial dual energy computed tomography (DECT) studies. Methods: This study includes patients with bone metastases from breast cancer that had clinical surveillance CT scans using a General Electric CT750HD in dual energy mode. A radiologist defined regions-of-interested (ROI) for bone metastasis, normal bone, and marrow across the serial DECT scans. Our approach employs a Radon transform to forward-projection the basis images, namely, water and iodine, into sinogram space. This data is then repartitioned into fat/bone and effective density/Z image pairs using assumed energy spectrums for the x-ray energies. This approach both helps remove negative material densities and avoids adding spectrum-hardening artifacts. These new basis data sets were then reconstructed via filtered back-projection to create new material basis pair images. The trajectories of these pairs were then plotted in the new basis space providing a means to both visualize and quantitatively measure changes in the material properties of the tumors. Results: ROI containing radiologist defined metastatic bone disease showed well-defined trajectories in both fat/bone and effective density/Z space. ROI that contained radiologist defined normal bone and marrow did not exhibit any discernible trajectories and were stable from scan to scan. Conclusions: The preliminary results show that changes in material composition and effective density/Z image pairs were seen primarily in metastasis and not in normal tissue. This study indicates that by using routine clinical DECT it may be possible to monitor therapy response of bone metastases because healing or worsening bone metastases change material composition of bone. Additional studies are needed to further validate these results and to test for their correlation with outcome.

  4. Restoring and Maintaining Bone in Osteopenic Female Rat Skeleton. Part 1; Changes in Bone Mass and Structure

    Tang, Li Ya; Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the lose, restore, and maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses anabolic agents to restore bone mass and architecture (+ phase) and then switches to an agent with the established ability to maintain bone mass, to keep the new bone (+/- phase). The purpose of this study was to learn whether switching to an agent known chiefly for its ability to maintain existing bone mass preserves new bone induced by PGE2, in osteopenic,estrogen-depleted rats. The current study had three phases, the bone loss (-), restore (+), and maintain (+/-) phases. We ovariectomized (OX) or sham ovariectomized (sham-OX) 5.5 month-old female rats (- phase). The OX rats were treated 5 months postovariectomy with 1-6 mg PGE2, per kg/day for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (+ phase), and then PGE2, treatment was stopped and treatment began with 1 or 5 micro-g/kg of risedronate, a bisphosphonate, twice a week for 60 days (+/- phase). During the loss (-) phase, the cancellous bone volume of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the OX rat fell to 19% of initial and 30% of age-matched control levels. During the restore (+) phase, the cancellous bone volume in OX rats doubled. When PGE2 treatment was stopped, however, and no special maintenance efforts were made during the maintain (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone persisted when the PGE2 treatment was followed by either a 1 or 5 micro-g treatment of risedronate per kg given twice a week for 60 days during the maintain (+/-) phase. The tibial shaft demonstrated very little cortical bone loss during the loss (-) phase in OX rats. The tibial shaft cortical bone fell some 8%. During the restore (+) phase, new cortical bone in OX rats increased by 22%. When PGE2 treatment was stopped and nothing was given during the maintain (+/-) phase, however, all but the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone disappeared. In contrast, when PGE2 treatment was stopped and 1 micro-g risedronate per kg twice a week for 60 days was administered during the maintenance (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone and some of the subendocortical bone and marrow trabeculae persisted. When 5 micro-g risedronate per kg was given twice a week, all the PGE2-induced bone persisted. The study shows that most of the new cancellous and cortical bone induced by PGE2, can be maintained for at least 60 days after discontinuing PGE2 by administering enough of the resorption inhibitor, risedronate. The lower dose of risedronate was not adequate to save most of the PGE2-induced endocortical bone.

  5. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    Rohner, H.G.; Bartl, R.; Koischwitz, D.; Rodermund, O.E.

    1982-12-01

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatory granulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequently occurring bone lesions (half of all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy.

  6. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatorygranulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequenctly occurring bone lesions (half on all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of the Association Between Motor and Anthropometric Variables with Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Performance

    Sattler Tine; Sekulić Damir; Spasić Miodrag; Perić Mia; Krolo Ante; Uljević Ognjen; Kondrič Miran

    2015-01-01

    There is an evident lack of studies examining the factors associated with reactive agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anthropometrics, body composition, jumping capacity, reactive strength, and balance with a stop-and-go change of direction speed (CODS) and reactive agility. The total sample comprised 39 male (body height: 182.95 ± 5.19 cm; body mass: 80.66 ± 7.69 kg) and 34 female (body height: 171.45 ± 6.81 cm; body mass: 61.95 ± 6.70 kg) col...

  8. On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application

    This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as ''the code''). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed

  9. Nitric oxide-mediated changes in vascular reactivity in pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Chu, Z M; Beilin, L J

    1993-11-01

    1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arterial mean blood pressures (MBP) were similar in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR. Basal perfusion pressures (BPP) were decreased in pregnant compared with nonpregnant SHR. Pregnant WKY had lower MBP and BPP than either pregnant or nonpregnant SHR. 3. Vasoconstrictor responses to electrical stimulation (ES) and intra-arterial noradrenaline (NA) were decreased in pregnant compared with nonpregnant SHR. These responses were still greater in pregnant SHR when compared with pregnant WKY. Vascular reactivity to angiotensin II (AII) in pregnant SHR was reduced to a similar level to that in pregnant WKY. 4. L-NOARG (5 mg kg-1, i.v.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, increased MBP and BPP in all groups. After L-NOARG, BPP were equalized between pregnant and nonpregnant SHR. Pregnant WKY still showed lower MBP and BPP than SHR groups. 5. L-NOARG potentiated vascular responses to ES, NA and AII in all groups. The blunted vascular responses to NA and ES were normalized and the reactivity to AII was only partially reversed in pregnant SHR compared with nonpregnant SHR. Pregnant WKY still had much lower vascular responses to ES and NA than either pregnant or nonpregnant SHR. L-NOARG enhanced vascular responses to All to a greater extent in pregnant SHR than in pregnant WKY.6. These results demonstrate that blunted responses to NA and ES were NO-dependent, while diminished reactivity to AII was only partially dependent on NO in the in situ blood perfused mesenteric resistance vessels of pregnant SHR.7. The present results in pregnant SHR differ from our previous finding with pregnant normotensive WKY, in which blunted responses to NA, but not to ES, were equalized by L-NOARG. Pregnancy induced vasodilatation in hypertensive rats appears to be more dependent on endothelial NO than in normotensive WKY. A defect of the endothelial NO generating pathway which promotes vasodilatation in pregnancy may contribute to the predisposition of women with essential hypertension to develop pre-eclampsia. PMID:8298807

  10. Initial changes in the ultrastructure of bone marrow cells under γ- and neutron-irradiation

    An electron-microscopy study of initial γ- and neutron-induced changes in ultrastructures of bone marrow cells has been carried out. These changes were shown to be qualitatively identical at both types of radiation and touch mainly the lipoproteid membranes of the nuclear membrane, mitochondrion cristae membrane and plasmatic membrane of the cell as well as the nucleoproteid structures of the nucleus. Their forms and dynamics in the interphase are described. The degree of manifesting and stability of cell damages vary with the radiation type and dose, and the type and developmental stage of the cell

  11. Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats

    Foong Kiew Ooi; Rabindarjeet Singh; Harbindar Jeet Singh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats. Methods A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 ju...

  12. Preleukemic change in the bone marrow of whole-body irradiated RFM/Up mice

    In the whole-body irradiated mouse, various late effects of radiation are observed after the recovery from acute radiation injury. Some of these account for the familiar proneness of certain mouse strains to develop leukemias. The two experiments described below were designed to identify such preleukemic changes in blood-forming tissues and to find ways to manipulate them experimentally with the purpose of preventing leukemia. Preleukemic change of the bone marrow appears to be a mere quantitative departure from normal in a qualitatively non-malignant tissue. It entails increased proneness of immature cells to react with latent virus. The data, received are consistent with the assumption that this prononess is enhanced (or brought about) by removal of a controlling influence exerted by the mature cells over their precursors. Re-irradiation combined with intravenous bone marrow substitution offsets the leukemogenic influence of an earlier radiation exposure. The effect of re-irradiation on bone marrow displaying preleukemic lesions corroborates conclusions from earlier experiments on the nature of these lesions. (orig./MG)

  13. Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors.

    Tallman, Tyler N.; Radel, Tracy E.; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Villa, Daniel L.; Smith, Brandon M. (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Radel, Ross F.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

  14. Probing conformational changes of prestin with thiol-reactive optical switches.

    Fang, Jie; Sakata, Tomoyo; Marriott, Gerard; Iwasa, Kuni H

    2008-09-15

    Thiol-reactive optical switch probes were used to examine conformational changes of prestin-based membrane motor. Because this motor is based on mechanoelectric coupling similar to piezoelectricity, the motile activity can be monitored by charge movements across the plasma membrane, which appears as nonlinear capacitance. When the plasma membrane is conjugated with the probes, optically induced spiro-merocyanine transition positively shifted nonlinear capacitance of outer hair cells and prestin-transfected cells by approximately 10 mV. These shifts were reversible and were eliminated by pretreatment with iodoacetamide. However, they were little affected by pretreatment with biotin maleimide, which cannot reach the cytoplasmic surface. Our results showed that merocyanine states, with a larger dipole moment, interact with the motor's extended conformation stronger than with the compact conformation by 1.6 x 10(-21) J/molecule. The interaction sites are near the cytoplasmic side of the motor protein. PMID:18556757

  15. Ion implantation induced structural changes in reactively sputtered Cr-N layers on Si substrates

    This paper presents a study of the structure and composition of reactively sputtered Cr-N layers as a function of deposition parameters, and the effects of ion implantation on these structures. The layers were deposited on (1 0 0) Si substrates to a thickness of 240-280 nm, at different nitrogen partial pressure, and subsequently irradiated with 120 keV Ar ions. Structural characterisation of the samples was performed with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. We also measured their electrical resistivity with a four point probe. It was found that the layers grow in form of columnar structures, and their composition, Cr2N or CrN, strongly depends on the nitrogen partial pressure during deposition. Ion irradiation induces local micro-structural changes, formation of nano-particles and defects, which can be nicely correlated to the measured electrical resistivity

  16. Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors

    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

  17. Post chemotherapy blood and bone marrow regenerative changes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia a prospective study

    Rashmi Kushwaha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study was done to assess the Serial peripheral blood and bone marrow changes in patients of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on chemotherapy. Aims: To assess the therapy related serial bone marrow changes in patients of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Settings and Design: Prospective study, carried out in Lymphoma- Leukemia Lab, Department of Pathology, K.G.M.U from March 2011 to March 2012. A total of 60 cases were studied Materials and Methods: History, complete hemogram, bone marrow examination at pretherapy (Day-0, intratherapy (Day-14, and end of induction chemotherapy (Day-28 were done. Peripheral blood smears were evaluated at regular interval to assess clearance of blast cells. Statistical analysis used: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 statistical Analysis Software. The values were represented in Number (% and Mean ± SD. The following Statistical formulas were used: Mean, standard deviation, Chi square test, Paired "t" test, Student ′t′ test, Level of significance P Results: Incidence of ALL-L1 (46.7% and ALL-L2 (53.3% was equal. ALL-L2 patients had poor survival.Day 0 (D-0 bone marrow was hypercellular with flooding of marrow by leukemic cells. High levels of tumor load at D′0′ were associated with poor survival. 14 th day of Induction phase showed significant decrease in hemoglobin and TLC as compared to D ′0′ parameters. D28 showed marrow regeneration. Cellularity, Blast%, and Leukemic Index showed significant drop from day ′0′ to day 14 due to myelosupression, whereas regeneration reflected by increased cellularity as per day 28 marrow. Lymphocytosis (>20% at end of induction chemotherapy had better survival and longer remission.Risk of mortality was directly proportional to blast clearance and was a major independent prognostic factor for achievement of complete remission. Conclusions: A bone marrow examination at the end of induction chemotherapy provides information whether patient has achieved remission with regeneration of cells or still has residual leukemia. If the patient is in remission, maintenance treatment is started and if not more intensive chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation may be embarked upon.

  18. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Kiely, M.; Cashman, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently...... healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p <0.001) values...... during late summer than late winter. Both urinary pyridinoline (Ur-Pyr) (p <0.01) and deoxypyridinoline (Ur-Dpyr) (p <0.001), but not serum parathyroid hormone or osteocalcin, showed a marked seasonal variation with lowest values during late-summer. Stratifying women into those with S-25(OH)D levels...

  19. Change of Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients on Suppressive Levothyroxine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Kim, Chei Won; Hong, Seokbo; Oh, Se Hwan; Lee, Jung Jin; Han, Joo Young; Kim, So Hun; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hyperthyroidism and high-dose thyroid hormone are associated with osteoporosis, and increased bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in postmenopausal females with hypoparathyroidism. Studies on the effect of suppressive levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on BMD and bone metabolism after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma have presented conflicting results, and few studies in relation to the status of hypoparathyroidism have been studied. One hundred postmenopausal women and 24 premenopausal women on LT4 suppression therapy were included in this study. BMD of lumbar spine and femur and bone turnover markers were measured at the baseline and during the follow-up period up to 18 months using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical marker of bone resorption was measured by urine deoxypyridinoline and bone formation by serum osteocalcin. The age ranged from 36 to 64 years old. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was suppressed during the study. The results showed that BMD of femur and lumbar spine were not significantly changed in both pre- and postmenopausal women except femur neck in postmenopausal women without hypoparathyroidism. Patients with hypoparathyroidism had higher BMD gain than those without hypoparathyroidism in total hip (1.25 vs. -1.18%, P=0.015). Biochemical markers of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin, and urine deoxypyridinoline did not show significant change. In conclusion, patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma are not at a great risk of bone loss after LT4 suppressive therapy. The state of hypoparathyroidism is associated with increased BMD, particularly in postmenopausal women. PMID:26389089

  20. Bone microstructural defects and osteopenia in hemizygous ?IVSII-654 knockin thalassemic mice: sex-dependent changes in bone density and osteoclast function.

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2015-12-01

    ?-Thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disorder, is often associated with skeletal complications that can be found in both males and females. The present study aimed to investigate the age- and sex-dependent changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in ?(IVSII-654) knockin thalassemic mice. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computer-assisted bone histomorphometry were employed to investigate temporal changes in BMD and histomorphometric parameters in male and female mice of a ?(IVSII-654) knockin mouse model of human ?-thalassemia, in which impaired splicing of ?-globin transcript was caused by hemizygous C?T mutation at nucleotide 654 of intron 2. Young, growing ?(IVSII-654) mice (1 mo old) manifested shorter bone length and lower BMD than their wild-type littermates, indicating possible growth retardation and osteopenia, the latter of which persisted until 8 mo of age (adult mice). Interestingly, two-way analysis of variance suggested an interaction between sex and ?(IVSII-654) genotype, i.e., more severe osteopenia in adult female mice. Bone histomorphometry further suggested that low trabecular bone volume in male ?(IVSII-654) mice, particularly during a growing period (1-2 mo), was primarily due to suppression of bone formation, whereas both a low bone formation rate and a marked increase in osteoclast surface were observed in female ?(IVSII-654) mice. In conclusion, osteopenia and trabecular microstructural defects were present in both male and female ?(IVSII-654) knockin thalassemic mice, but the severity, disease progression, and cellular mechanism differed between the sexes. PMID:26487004

  1. MR tomography of bone marrow changes after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation

    Purpose: Evaluation of MR standard imaging and short time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to assess changes in red bone marrow cellularity after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSCT). Results: STIR sequences demonstrated marked changes in signal intensity not only until the aplasia occurred but also during bone marrow repopulation. An increased signal intensity was observed after HDC in 13/15 patients (87%), followed by a decrease in signal intensity immediately after aplasia in 14/15 patients (93%). Signal intensity further changed parallel to marrow engraftment in 11/15 patients (73%). T2-TSE only showed clear changes during repopulation in 8/15 patients (53%). The individual course of the signal in T1-TSE was markedly inhomogeneous. Conclusions: STIR sequences show bone marrow edema during aplasia and marrow cellularity during reconstitution and are suitable for characterisation of red bone marrow after HDC and autologous PBSCT. (orig.)

  2. Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery (Pro K)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Shackelford, L.; Heer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone loss is not only a well-documented effect of spaceflight on astronauts, but also a condition that affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures aimed at preventing bone loss during spaceflight have been proposed, and many have been evaluated to some degree. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have targeted dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during spaceflight. The "Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery" investigation ("Pro K") is one of the first inflight evaluations of a dietary countermeasure to lessen bone loss of astronauts. This protocol will test the hypothesis that the ratio of acid precursors to base precursors (specifically animal protein to potassium) in the diet can predict directional changes in bone mineral during spaceflight and recovery. The ratio of animal protein to potassium in the diet will be controlled for multiple short (4-day) periods before and during flight. Based on multiple sets of bed rest data, we hypothesize that a higher ratio of the intake of animal protein to the intake of potassium will yield higher concentrations of markers of bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during flight and during recovery from bone mineral loss after long-duration spaceflight.

  3. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow of the foot and ankle in children: red marrow or traumatic changes?

    Shabshin, Nogah [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [NYU/Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Carrino, John A. [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Keller, Marc S.; Grissom, Leslie E. [DuPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2006-07-15

    High-signal T2-weighted bone marrow changes can be found in both bone marrow edema and hematopoietic marrow and are often seen on pediatric MR images of the feet and ankle. To evaluate whether high-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow seen on pediatric MRI of feet and ankles represent residual hematopoietic marrow. A total of 402 bones in 41 pediatric MRI studies of feet and ankles (34 children, 1-18 years) were reviewed by two observers who were blinded to the patients' ages. The studies were reviewed for the presence of high-signal changes of the bone marrow on sagittal fluid-sensitive images. The frequency and location of these foci were correlated with the patients' ages. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow were seen in 45/402 bones (11%) and in 24/41 patients younger than 16 years (59%). The changes were most commonly located in the calcaneus (54%), followed by the talus (35%) and navicular bone (35%), invariably at the endosteal surface. In 16 ankles, such foci were seen in the feet but not in the distal tibia/fibula. Symmetric presence (two ankles) or absence (four ankles) of high-signal marrow were seen in six of seven patients with bilateral ankles. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow in pediatric feet and ankle MRIs have a symmetric, fairly consistent pattern and disappear after the age of 15 years. We believe that these high-signal areas are normal and represent residual hematopoietic marrow. (orig.)

  4. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow of the foot and ankle in children: red marrow or traumatic changes?

    High-signal T2-weighted bone marrow changes can be found in both bone marrow edema and hematopoietic marrow and are often seen on pediatric MR images of the feet and ankle. To evaluate whether high-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow seen on pediatric MRI of feet and ankles represent residual hematopoietic marrow. A total of 402 bones in 41 pediatric MRI studies of feet and ankles (34 children, 1-18 years) were reviewed by two observers who were blinded to the patients' ages. The studies were reviewed for the presence of high-signal changes of the bone marrow on sagittal fluid-sensitive images. The frequency and location of these foci were correlated with the patients' ages. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow were seen in 45/402 bones (11%) and in 24/41 patients younger than 16 years (59%). The changes were most commonly located in the calcaneus (54%), followed by the talus (35%) and navicular bone (35%), invariably at the endosteal surface. In 16 ankles, such foci were seen in the feet but not in the distal tibia/fibula. Symmetric presence (two ankles) or absence (four ankles) of high-signal marrow were seen in six of seven patients with bilateral ankles. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow in pediatric feet and ankle MRIs have a symmetric, fairly consistent pattern and disappear after the age of 15 years. We believe that these high-signal areas are normal and represent residual hematopoietic marrow. (orig.)

  5. Factors Predicting Bone Mineral Density (BMD Changes in Young Women over A One-year Study:Changes in Body Weight and Bone Metabolic Markers during the Menstrual Cycle and Their Effects on BMD

    Iida,Tadayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 26% of Japanese women in their twenties are under weight, and therefore at risk of developing various metabolic abnormalities due to an inadequate nutrient intake, which in turn affects the acquisition of a peak bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of menstrual cycle-related changes in body weight and bone metabolic marker levels on the BMD changes. The subjects were 42 women (19.6±0.8 years. The levels of osteocalcin (OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD, and E2 in the menstrual and ovulatory phases were measured. The associations between dependent variables (BMD changes/year in the lumbar spine, femur, femoral neck and explanatory variables (body weight changes/year, the levels of OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the correlations between the changes in bone metabolic markers and changes in BMD showed a correlation between the OC level in the menstrual phase and changes in the BMD of the entire femur, suggesting that a high OC level protects against BMD reduction, probably by promoting osteoblast activity, and that bone formation activity suppresses the decrease in BMD. These results suggest that, to predict BMD changes from bone metabolic markers in young women, it is necessary to measure OC levels in the menstrual phase.

  6. The early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation; Measurement of bone mineral density in lumbar vertebra by quantitative computed tomography

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Hori, Reiko; Shigekawa, Koji; Matsubara, Keiichi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Shunpei; Kataoka, Masaaki; Kawamura, Masashi (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis and compression fracture are commonly observed several years after radiation. Since lumbago usually occurs several months after radiation, the possibility that bone mineral metabolism is disturbed during and immediately after radiation cannot be ruled out. However, there have been no reports concerning early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density was measured by QCT (Quantitative Computed Tomography) in 30 normal non-radiated cases and 14 radiated cases to investigate the changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density (QCT-Value: QCT-V) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) of normal non-radiated subjects decreased linearly with age (Y=291.114447-3.01473X). The QCT-V of the 5th lumbar vertebra (L5) of normal cases also decreased linearly with age (Y=309.641397-3.03986X), resembling that of L3. The ratio of the QCT-V of L5 to L3 (L5/L3, expressed as a parcentage) definitely increased with age (Y=86.5657441+0.58885064X). In radiated cases, the QCT-V of L3 in the non-radiated field did not change appreciably. The QCT-V of L5 in the radiated field was decreased from 20 Gy and reached 53.08+-17.37% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. The L5/L3 ratio was also decreased from 20 Gy and reached 55.47+-15.32% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. It becomes apparent that the QCT-V of the radiated lumbar vertebra is decreased during radiation. It is suggested that bone mineral metabolism may be disturbed in the early phase of radiation. (author).

  7. Analysis of the Association Between Motor and Anthropometric Variables with Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Performance.

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulić, Damir; Spasić, Miodrag; Perić, Mia; Krolo, Ante; Uljević, Ognjen; Kondrič, Miran

    2015-09-29

    There is an evident lack of studies examining the factors associated with reactive agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anthropometrics, body composition, jumping capacity, reactive strength, and balance with a stop-and-go change of direction speed (CODS) and reactive agility. The total sample comprised 39 male (body height: 182.95 ± 5.19 cm; body mass: 80.66 ± 7.69 kg) and 34 female (body height: 171.45 ± 6.81 cm; body mass: 61.95 ± 6.70 kg) college-level athletes (21.9 ± 1.9 years of age). The variables included body height, body mass, the percentage of body fat (BF%), balance as measured by an overall-stability index, the countermovement jump (CMJ), a reactive-strength index (RSI), stop-and-go reactive agility, and stop-and-go CODS. To define the associations between motor and anthropometric variables with CODS and reactive agility, the participants were clustered into three achievement groups based on their CODS and reactive agility performances. The ANOVA showed a significant difference between the CODS-based achievement groups for the CMJ (F test = 3.45 and 3.60 for males and females, respectively; p balance (F test = 3.47; p < 0.05 for males). In females, the reactive agility achievement groups differed significantly in the RSI (F test = 6.46; p < 0.05), the CMJ (F test = 4.35; p < 0.05) and BF% (F test = 4.07; p < 0.05), which is further confirmed by discriminant canonical analysis (Can R = 0.74; p < 0.05). The results confirm the need for independent evaluation and training for both CODS and reactive agility performance in sports. PMID:26557198

  8. Changes in Cytokines of the Bone Microenvironment during Breast Cancer Metastasis

    It is commonly accepted that cancer cells interact with host cells to create a microenvironment favoring malignant colonization. The complex bone microenvironment produces an ever changing array of cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we examined levels of MCP-1, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, VEGF, MIG, and eotaxin in femurs of athymic nude mice inoculated via intracardiac injection with MDA-MB-231GFP human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 BRMS1GFP, a metastasis suppressed variant, or PBS. Animals were euthanized (day 3, 11, 19, 27 after injection) to examine femoral cytokine levels at various stages of cancer cell colonization. The epiphysis contained significantly more cytokines than the diaphysis except for MIG which was similar throughout the bone. Variation among femurs was evident within all groups. By day 27, MCP-1, MIG, VEGF and eotaxin levels were significantly greater in femurs of cancer cell-inoculated mice. These pro-osteoclastic and angiogenic cytokines may manipulate the bone microenvironment to enhance cancer cell colonization

  9. Hematopoetic progenitor cell changes in the blood as indicators of radiation damage to the bone marrow

    The results obtained from the canine experiments learly show that in the case of whole body irradiation in the dose range of 0.4 Gy, if given acutely, and in the dose range of 0.6 Gy if given in fractions or chronically, CFC-GM changes in the blood can be shown that are indicative of damage to the bone marrow CFC-GM compartment. However, in contrast to the in vitro situation no exact dose response relationship can be defined due to the large inter- and intra-individual variations in the blood CFC-GM concentration. The data obtained from the follow-up studies, on the other hand, point to a very important aspect, namely that on the basis of blood CFC-GM alterations some residual damage to the bone marrow can be demonstrated even 160 days after a radiation dose of approx. 0.8 Gy. From the results obtained from patients in the course of radiotherapy, though quite limited, it becomes evident that the method of blood CFC-GM determinations as an assay of bone marrow function after irradiation in principle is transferable to man. However, up to now it is quite unclear in which way the pattern of blood CFC-GM alterations will differ for different exposure conditions. (orig.)

  10. Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources

    Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland emissions add to this value. 7. If current patterns of N and water resource management continue, nitrogen loading to inland waters is expected to increase while the nitrogen retention efficiency within aquatic ecosystems will decline as a function of nitrogen saturation of biological demand. 8. Management that reduces N loss to the nation's water will reduce environmental and economic damage, reduce the risk to human health, and prevent the production of some N2O. Preventing the loss of N to aquatic systems is likely to be most effective at its point of origin. Reducing reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere, increasing N uptake efficiency of crops and greater N retention in soils, better animal management, and improved sewage treatment to remove N from urban waste waters will be increasingly important approaches for the provision of water resources and services in a warmer and highly populated world.

  11. Changes in bone geometry and microarchitecture caused by intermittent administration of PTH. Comparison with those by exercise load

    There have been several studies showing that periodical intermittent medication with parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increases in cancellous bone mass. However, there have been almost no reports comparing the effects of periodical intermittent PTH medication on bone microarchitecture with changes caused by physiological stimulation such as exercise load. In this study, we compared the effects of these two interventions on the microarchitecturural deterioration of femoral cancellous bone associated with unloading, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and the effects of PTH administration and motion loading on improvement of the deteriorated structure. In the study, 32 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group without tail suspension (CON), a control recovery group after suspension (S+C), a suspension/PTH group (S+P), and a suspension/jumping exercise group (S+J). Periodical intermittent human PTH (1-34) was given periodically to the S+P group rats at a dose of 75 μg/kg/day five times a week for five weeks, after two weeks of exercise with suspension of the tail. The rats in the S+J group performed 40 cm-high jumping 10 times/day five times a week for five weeks. After this conditioning, upon examination, bilateral femurs were removed and the right distal metaphysis was scanned using micro-CT to obtain images of the cancellous bone region of the femur. Based on the tomographic data, indices of cancellous bone microarchitecture was the index of trabecular bone structure were determined by using three-dimensional image analysis system. In addition, to examine the geometric properties of the diaphysis, mid-portion images of the bone shaft of the left femur were obtained by micro-CT, and then the mechanical bone strength of the left femur was determined by performing a three-point bending test. Compared to the S+C group, the S+P and S+J groups showed significantly higher bone volume, bone surface mass values, superficial bone area, bone volume fraction rates, fractal dimensions, connectivity density, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone number and degrees of anisotropy. They conversely showed significantly lower bone volume ratio values, trabecular bone separation, trabecular bone pattern factors, and structural model indices. However, the area values, thickness, and strength of femoral diaphysis cortical bone in the S+J group were significantly higher than those in the S+C group. The S+P group showed no significant difference other than cortical bone thickness. These data suggest that periodical intermittent medication with PTH could cause changes in the fine structure of the femoral metaphysic cancellous bone microarchitecture that are similar to changes caused by jumping exercise, but the effects of PTH seem to be small on the geometric properties and bone strength of the cortical bone. (author)

  12. Secondary aneurysmal bone cystic change of the chondroblastoma, mistaken for a primary aneurysmal bone cyst in the patella.

    Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2014-03-01

    A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. Curettage and autogenous bone graft was done. Microscopically, sheets of tumor cells were intermingled with some areas of eosinophilic chondroid matrix. The tumor cells showed oval-shaped nuclei with moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm. Several multinucleated giant cells and blood filled cystic cavities were observed. The final diagnosis was a chondroblastoma with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. At the post-operative 1.5-year follow-up, grafted bones were well incorporated radiographically and there were no recurrent evidence or any other abnormal symptoms. PMID:24639947

  13. The effect of sea level changes on fault reactivation potential in Portugal

    Neves, M. C.; Cabral, J.; Luttrell, K.; Figueiredo, P.; Rockwell, T.; Sandwell, D.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of sea level changes on both the stress field and the potential of fault reactivation in west Iberia. The analysis is applied to a set of five active faults distributed across Portugal, selected for representing predominant fault directions and for being seismically active. The results show that the rise of sea level since the Last Glacial Maximum has produced flexural effects with distinct impacts on different faults. The Coulomb stress changes induced by the sea level rise along the S. Marcos-Quarteira (south Portugal) and the Horseshoe (offshore SW Iberia) faults are found to be extremely small, independently of the elastic plate thickness. These faults are thus unaffected by flexural effects related to ocean loading, and are unlikely to possess any paleoseismic record of this phenomenon. In contrast, the eustatic sea level rise during the late Pleistocene could have raised the Coulomb stress by 0.5-1 MPa along the Manteigas-Vilariça-Bragança (north Portugal) and Lower Tagus Valley (Lisbon area) fault systems. Such stress perturbations are probably sufficient to impact the seismic cycle of the Manteigas-Vilariça-Bragança fault, bringing it closer to failure and possibly triggering the earthquake clusters that have been observed in previous paleoseismologic studies.

  14. Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling

    Sun-Jong Kim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm, which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.. Baseline temperature was 311C. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Mean values (n=10 drill sequences for maximum recorded temperature (Max TC, change in temperature (?TC from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (?TC were 1.57C and 2.46C for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05. No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47C, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation.

  15. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis. PMID:26940276

  16. Bone mineral density changes during pregnancy in actively exercising women as measured by quantitative ultrasound

    To, William W K; Wong, Margaret W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether bone mineral density (BMD) changes in women engaged in active exercises during pregnancy would be different from non-exercising women. Methods Consecutive patients with singleton pregnancies who were engaged in active exercise training during pregnancy were prospectively recruited over a period of 6 months. Quantitative USG measurements of the os calcis BMD were performed at 14–20 weeks and at 36–38 weeks. These patients were compared to a control cohort of non-e...

  17. Changes of the radiological image of tuberculose of bones and joints

    Tuberculosis of bones and joints still occurs in the Netherlands, although with a low incidence. Most patients in this country are natives of Mediterranean countries and of Surinam. The classical radiological image appears to be changing in that multiple lesions occur more often, lesions occur in localizations rare for tuberculosis in patients of Dutch origin, very large abscesses are formed and in case of vertebral tuberculosis, extensive sclerosis develops with early osseous bridging and complete or partial preservation of disc spaces. The findings in 12 personal patients are described. (Auth.)

  18. Generalised morphoea with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and unusual bone changes.

    Prasad, P V; Padmavathy, L; Sethurajan, S; Kumar, P; Rao, L

    1995-01-01

    A 26-year-old male patient presented with multiple plaques on the limbs and trunk suggestive of morphoea. He also exhibited multiple, small, atrophic, hypopigmented macules on the left side of the trunk, the histopathology of which was consistent with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA). The patient developed large ulcers on the left leg and foot, and contractures with flexion deformity of the left ring and little fingers. This combination of generalised morphoea with LSA and unusual osteolytic bone changes is uncommon. PMID:20952909

  19. Generalised morphoea with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and unusual bone changes

    Prasad P

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male patient presented with multiple plaques on the limbs and trunk suggestive of morphoea. He also exhibited multiple, small, atrophic, hypopigmented macules on the left side of the trunk, the histopathology of which was consistent with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA. The patient developed large ulcers on the left leg and foot, and contractures with flexion deformity of the left ring and little fingers. This combination of generalised morphoea with LSA and unusual osteolytic bone changes is uncommon.

  20. Secondary Aneurysmal Bone Cystic Change of the Chondroblastoma, Mistaken for a Primary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in the Patella

    Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. C...

  1. Age-related changes in vertebral and iliac crest 3D bone microstructure-differences and similarities

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Jensen, Michael Vinkel; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, A

    2015-01-01

    between the bone microstructure at these skeletal sites.Methods Matched sets of transiliac crest bone biopsies and lumbar vertebral body (L2) specimens from 41 women (19–96 years) and 39 men (23–95 years) were micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanned, and the 3D microstructure was quantified.Results For......Summary Age-related changes of vertebra and iliac crest 3D microstructure were investigated, and we showed that they were in general similar. The 95th percentile of vertebral trabecular thickness distribution increased with age for women. Surprisingly, vertebral and iliac crest bone microstructure...

  2. Changes in spleen dihydrofolate reductase activity during regeneration of the hemopoietic tissue in irradiated mice following bone marrow transplantation

    Changes in the mouse spleen dihydrofolate reductase activity due to engraftment of the organ with the syngeneic bone marrow, after 650 R irradiation, have been investigated. Two days after irradiation, the activity of the enzyme dropped to about 10% of the normal level in mice only irradiated as well as in those irradiated and infused with a bone marrow suspension. In the latter group, spleen dihydrofolate reductase activity recovered starting from the fourth day, and reached about 200% of the control level on the ninth day after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation, while in the irradiated controls, no recovery has been noted of the enzyme activity. (author)

  3. Regional and hormone-dependent effects of apolipoprotein E genotype on changes in bone mineral in perimenopausal women

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Mosekilde, L

    2001-01-01

    hip region); (2) serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and urine hydroxyproline/creatinine excretion ratio; and (3) changes in bone mineral during 5 years of follow-up. Baseline BMDs were identical......, whereas serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and its bone isoenzyme were higher in women with APOE 2-2 and APOE 2-3 than in women with APOE 3-3 and APOE 3-4 and lower in women with APOE 4-4. Among women not receiving hormonal-replacement therapy (HRT; n = 262), those with APOE 2-2 and APOE 2-3 had 30...

  4. Oscillator measurements of the reactivity changes resulting from the irradiation of low enrichment particulate fuel in the Dragon reactor

    This Report describes a series of experiments carried out as a joint UKAEA/CEA/DRAGON project to determine the reactivity changes of low-enrichment particulate fuel samples following their irradiation in the DRAGON reactor to various levels up to approximately 60,000 MWD/Te. The samples are described, together with the method of measurement of reactivity in the Winfrith reactor HECTOR, which was an extension of the well-known Oscillator Technique to yield simultaneously overall reactivity changes and changes in macroscopic absorption cross-sections. Measurements were carried out at room temperature in two reactor spectra; a thermal spectrum and one typical of an HTR type reactor. The resultant reactivity changes are presented together with the relevant sample burn-ups as determined by #betta#-scanning methods and, in some cases, by rigorous chemical analysis. The results of supporting measurements are also reported, carried out to characterise the neutron spectra in which the oscillator measurements were made and to determine the neutron flux distributions in the HECTOR reactor. (author)

  5. Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Metabolic Changes in Barley Seed Embryo during Germination

    Ma, Zhenguo; Marsolais, Frdric; Bykova, Natalia V.; Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2016-01-01

    The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP/ADP ratios, reduction levels of ascorbate and glutathione, expression of the genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism of NO and activities of the enzymes involved in fermentation and in metabolism of NO and ROS were studied in the embryos of germinating seeds of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars differing in dormancy level. The level of NO production continuously increased after imbibition while the level of nitrosylated SH-groups in proteins increased. This corresponded to the decrease of free SH-groups in proteins. At early stage of germination (048 h post imbibition) the genes encoding class 1 phytoglobin (the protein scavenging NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (scavenging S-nitrosoglutathione) were markedly expressed. More dormant cultivar exhibited lower ATP/ADP and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratios and lower lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase activities, while the production of NO and nitrosylation of proteins was higher as compared to the non-dormant cultivar. The obtained data indicate that at the onset of germination NO is actively generated causing nitrosylation of SH-groups and a switch from respiration to fermentation. After radicle protrusion the metabolism changes in a more reducing type as recorded by ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and ascorbate. The turnover of NO by the scavenging systems (phytoglobin, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase and interaction with ROS) might contribute to the maintenance of redox and energy balance of germinating seeds and lead to alleviation of dormancy.

  6. Analysis of the results of reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements

    Reactivity change measurements have been carried out in the graphite-moderated reactor HECTOR on plutonium-uranium fuel elements with a low Pu240 content. The aim of the work was to develop a method in which measurements on small fuel samples (typically 18 in. long) could be used to check the validity of proposed methods of calculation for plutonium-bearing lattices. The experiments were carried out in a variety of lattices and demonstrated that, at a lattice pitch of 8.5 in. which was used for the majority of the measurements, the results were not significantly affected by the lattice environment. In particular, the results showed that it is not necessary to use plutonium-uranium fuel in the lattice surrounding the sample but that uranium fuel with similar properties is adequate. The accuracy obtained corresponded to an error of 0.5% in k? for a lattice containing the plutonium-uranium fuel. The results of the measurements were compared with the predictions of the TRACER method of lattice calculation. It was found that, at room temperature, there was no significant difference between the measured and calculated values of k? but that, at temperatures in the range 400-450 deg. C, the calculated value of k? was about 1 1/2% lower than the measured value. (author)

  7. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The overall sensitivity in the detection of interval changes, including both hot and cold lesions evaluated by use of the resubstitution and the leave-one-case-out methods, were 95.3%, with 5.97 false positives per view, and 83.2% with 6.02, respectively. The temporal subtraction image for successive whole-body bone scans has the potential to enhance the interval changes between two images, which also can be quantified. Furthermore, the CAD scheme for the detection of interval changes by use of temporal subtraction images would be useful in assisting radiologists' interpretation on successive bone scan images

  8. Changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in obese women after short -term weight loss therapy during a 5-year follow-up

    Jerzy Chudek

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The protective effect of adipocity on bone metabolism has not been confirmed during long-term follow-up. It is not known whether the rate of bone turnover and changes in mineral metabolism in obese people result from endocrine properties of the adipose tissue or merely the mechanical load. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate bone and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in obese women during a 5-year follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved 47 obese women who underwent a 3-month weight loss therapy. We evaluated changes in the serum levels of parathormone (PTH, calcidiol (25(OHD3, collagen type I crosslinked C-telopeptide (CTx-I, osteocalcin, total calcium, inorganic phosphates, and in bone mineral density. The control group consisted of 17 healthy women with proper body weight. RESULTS: We observed a similar decrease in bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and a comparable decrease in the serum levels of CTx-I and osteocalcin in both groups during the 5-year follow-up. Changes in serum PTH levels were not statistically significant. In obese women, a nonsignificant increase in the serum level of 25(OHD3 was observed as early as after a 3-month weight loss therapy and during follow-up. In controls, serum 25(OHD3 levels tended to decrease. During follow-up, the number of obese patients with disturbances in vitamin D metabolism decreased from 78.7% to 53.2% (P = 0.01. Such disturbances were observed in 35.3% of the control group. In obese patients, there was a positive correlation between the change in body mass and BMD in the proximal femur (r = 0.279, P = 0.04. In controls, there was a positive correlation between the change in body mass and BMD in the lumbar spine (r = 0.477, P = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In obese women who underwent weight loss therapy, the levels of bone turnover markers decreased and abnormal vitamin D metabolism was still observed during the 5-year follow-up.

  9. Zone-dependent changes in human vertebral trabecular bone: clinical implications

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that there are pronounced age-related changes in human vertebral cancellous bone density and microarchitecture. However, the magnitude of these changes seemed to be dependent on zone location in the vertebral body-the central third vs. the areas adjacent to the endplates....... The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate whether such zone-specific differences could be identified by static histomorphometric measures. The material comprised 48 individuals (24 women aged 19-97 years, and 24 men aged 23-95 years). Three of the women had a known fracture of the L......, although this was significant only for trabecular separation. The described differences might have significant clinical implications concerning quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scanning, X-ray analyses, and assessment of fracture liability in the human spine, but the underlying pathogenesis is still...

  10. Comparative reproducibility of dermal microvascular blood flow changes in response to acetylcholine iontophoresis, hyperthermia and reactive hyperaemia

    Laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) can non-invasively measure skin microvascular changes in response to acetylcholine (ACh), local heating of the skin and reactive hyperaemia following arterial occlusion. Various studies have used microvascular changes in response to these stimuli, especially ACh iontophoresis and local heating, as a surrogate marker of endothelial function. There are few data in the literature regarding the comparative reproducibility of microvascular perfusion changes induced by the three stimuli. The aim of this study was to systematically assess and compare the reproducibility of skin microcirculatory function in response to each of these challenges. Ten healthy non-smoking subjects (seven males) median age 36 years (range 23–46), with no history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease or any connective tissue disorder, were studied. Changes in skin microcirculation in response to ACh iontophoresis, local heating of the skin and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia, on two separate days (median 31, range 11–42 days), were assessed in all subjects. We measured three parameters: the change in perfusion from baseline perfusion (peak minus baseline perfusion), the relative percentage change in perfusion from baseline (peak − baseline)/baseline × 100 (%) and also the time-to-peak perfusion. The reproducibility of the change in perfusion had coefficients of variation (CV) of 9.3% for local skin heating, 19.4% for reactive hyperaemia and 25.5% for ACh iontophoresis. The relative percentage change in perfusion from baseline was more variable with CVs ranging from 23% to 39%. The coefficient of variation of time-to-peak perfusion was 7.0% for heating, 15.1% for reactive hyperaemia and 10.4% for ACh iontophoresis. We have shown that microcirculatory changes measured by the change in perfusion from baseline and time-to-peak perfusion in response to ACh, post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia and local skin heating had good reproducibility when carried out in a controlled environment with a standardized protocol. Relative change in perfusion had relatively poor reproducibility. The change in perfusion and time-to-peak perfusion for local skin heating were the most reproducible overall

  11. Predicting Developmental Changes in Internalizing Symptoms: Examining the Interplay Between Parenting and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity

    Kuhlman, Kate R.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Nestor L. Lopez-Duran

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child’s HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Intern...

  12. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Changes in Electrical Conductivity Associated with Bacterial Growth and Respiration

    Regberg, A. B.; Singha, K.; Picardal, F.; Brantley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked measured changes in the bulk electrical conductivity (σb) of water-saturated sediments to the respiration and growth of anaerobic bacteria. If the mechanism causing this signal is understood and characterized it could be used to identify and monitor zones of bacterial activity in the subsurface. The 1-D reactive transport model PHREEQC was used to understand σb signals by modeling chemical gradients within two column reactors and corresponding changes in effluent chemistry. The flow-through column reactors were packed with Fe(III)-bearing sediment from Oyster, VA and inoculated with an environmental consortia of microorganisms. Influent in the first reactor was amended with 1mM Na-acetate to encourage the growth of iron-reducing bacteria. Influent in the second reactor was amended with 0.1mM Na-Acetate and 2mM NaNO3 to encourage the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria. While effluent concentrations of acetate, Fe(II), NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ remained at steady state, we measured a 3-fold increase (0.055 S/m - 0.2 S/m) in σb in the iron-reducing column and a 10-fold increase in σb (0.07 S/m - 0.8 S/m) in the nitrate-reducing column over 198 days. The ionic strength in both reactors remained constant through time indicating that the measured increases in σb were not caused by changing effluent concentrations. PHREEQC successfully matched the measured changes in effluent concentrations for both columns when the reaction database was modified in the following manner. For the iron-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing the rate of iron reduction, the rate of bacterial growth, and the production of methane were added to the reaction database. Additionally, surface adsorption and cation exchange reactions were added so that the model was consistent with measured effluent chemistry. For the nitrate-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing nitrate reduction and bacterial growth were added to the reaction database. Additionally, immobile porosity was added along with adsorption and cation exchange reactions. Although the model revealed the existence of chemical and biological gradients within the columns that were not discernable as changes in effluent concentrations, none of the chemical reactions or gradients could explain the measured σb increases in either column. This result is not consistent with chemical gradients within the column reactor causing the measured changes in σb. To test the alternate hypothesis that microbial biofilms are electrically conductive, we used the output from PHREEQC to calculate the amount of biomass produced within the column reactors. If biofilm causes the σb changes, our model is consistent with an electrical conductivity for biomass in the iron-reducing column between 2.75 and 220 S/m. The model is also consistent with an electrical conductivity for biomass in the nitrate-reducing column between 350 and 35,000 S/m. These estimates of biomass electrical conductivity are poorly constrained but represent a first step towards understanding the electrical properties associated with respiring biofilms.

  13. Reactivity changes in hybrid thermal-fast reactor systems during fast core flooding

    A new space-dependent kinetic model in adiabatic approximation with local feedback reactivity parameters for reactivity determination in the coupled systems is proposed in this thesis. It is applied in the accident calculation of the 'HERBE' fast-thermal reactor system and compared to usual point kinetics model with core-averaged parameters. Advantages of the new model - more realistic picture of the reactor kinetics and dynamics during local large reactivity perturbation, under the same heat transfer conditions, are underlined. Calculated reactivity parameters of the new model are verified in the experiments performed at the 'HERBE' coupled core. The model has shown that the 'HERBE' safety system can shutdown reactor safely and fast even in the case of highly set power trip and even under conditions of big partial failure of the reactor safety system (author)

  14. Changes in coal char reactivity and texture during combustion in an entrained flow reactor

    Arias Rozada, Borja; Pevida García, Covadonga; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    2007-01-01

    Char particle combustion is the slowest step in the combustion of coal, therefore char reactivity and texture have an important influence on this process. In this work, two coals were devolatilised in an entrained flow reactor and the chars obtained were burned under different experimental conditions in order to achieve various degrees of burnoff. Char reactivity was determined by means of non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, and the conversion-time data were evaluated by the random por...

  15. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  16. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  17. Age-related changes of vertebral bone mineral density in Russian population

    Vertebral trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in 1061 subjects (610 females and 451 males aged from 7 to 91 and from 12 to 89, respectively). Peak BMD values in patients were observed at the age of 20-29 years with further gradual decrement in men and more steep in women. Negative relationship between BMD and age was r = -0.991 for men and r = -0.968 for women. Analyzing BMD changes by decades we observed the largest decrement in men after 60 (13.1 % for 60-69 and 14.1 % for 70-79 years of age) and in women after 50 (22.5 % for 50-59, 22.1 % for 60-69 and 20.8 % for 70-79 years) which was most probably due to decline in sex hormones production that is known to significantly influence bone metabolism. Annual calcium loss in postmenopause was 2.22 mg/cm3

  18. Changes of serum bone metabolic biochemical markers in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum bone metabolic biochemical markers levels in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum S-BGP (with RIA), TSH, FT4 (with ECLIA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL, LDL, ApoA1, ApoB and Ca2+ (with biochemical methods) were measured in 30 elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of S-BGP and calcium in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (2.78 ± 0.96 μg/L and 2.16 ± 0.17 mmol/L respectively) were significantly lower than those in controls (3.9 ± 1.48 μg/L and 2.31 ± 0.21 mmol/L respectively, both P<0.01). TC and LDL levels in the subclinical hypothyroid subjects (5.58 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 3.67 ± 0.36 mmol/L) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: The lowering of calcium levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism would lead to loss of bone mass. Decreased S-BGP contents might be the chief cause of osteoporosis in these subjects. (authors)

  19. Are alveolar bone changes a determinant factor for "cara inchada" in cattle?

    Döbereiner Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study possible alterations of the skeleton which might play a role in the pathogenesis of the periodontitis of "cara inchada" in young cattle, ribs from 20 affected calves, 2 to 10 months old, were examined. Electrolytically decalcified longitudinal sections of the costochondral junction and cross sections through the corpus costae, stained with Haematoxylin-Eosin, were studied. In five calves, longitudinal sections of the proximal humerus were examined as well. The status of mineralization was checked by microradiograms. Systemic alteration of the skeleton due to disturbances of mineral metabolism could not be shown in any of the animals. In seven 2 to 4 months old calves, no bone changes were found. The reduced osteogenesis in six 3 to 5 months old calves and the reduced osteogenesis and diminished chondral growth in seven 5 to 10 months old calves are therefore a consequence of the disease. The results show that the development of the alveolar bone was not defective, so this cannot be a determinant factor for the development of the periodontitis of "cara inchada" in cattle.

  20. Changes in bone structure and metabolism during simulated weightlessness: Endocrine and dietary factors

    Halloran, B. P.; Wronski, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of vitamin D, PTH and corticosterone in the skeletal alterations induced by simulated weightlessness was examined. The first objective was to determine if changes in the serum concentrations of Ca, P sub i, osteocalcin, 25-OH-D, 24,25(OH)2D or 1,25(OH)2D also occur following acute skeletal unloading. Animals were either suspended or pair fed for 2, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 days and the serum concentrations of Ca, P sub i, osteocalcin and the vitamin D metabolites measured. Bone histology was examined at day 5 after suspension. Acute skeletal unloading produced a transient hypercalcemia, a significant fall in serum osteocalcin and serum 1,25(OH)2D, a slight rise in serum 24,25(OH)2D, but did not affect the serum concentrations of P sub i or 25-OH-D. At the nadir in serum 1,25(OH)2D serum osteocalcin was reduced by 22%, osteoblast surface by 32% and longitudinal bone growth by 21%.

  1. Bone marrow-derived osteoclast-like cells from a patient with craniometaphyseal dysplasia lack expression of osteoclast-reactive vacuolar proton pump.

    Yamamoto, T.; Kurihara, N; Yamaoka, K.; Ozono, K; Okada, M; Yamamoto, K.; Matsumoto, S; Michigami, T.(Yamagata University, Yamagata, 992-8510, Japan); Ono, J.; Okada, S

    1993-01-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare craniotubular bone dysplasia transmitted in autosomal dominant or recessive form. This disease is characterized by cranial bone hyperostosis and deformity of the metaphyses of the long bones. Using osteoclast-like cells formed from patient bone marrow cells, we investigated the pathophysiology of CMD in a 3-yr-old patient. Untreated bone marrow cells from the patient differentiated into osteoclast-like cells in vitro. These cells were shown to have ...

  2. Greater change in bone turnover markers for efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy-naive adults over 144 weeks

    Tebas, Pablo; Kumar, Princy; Hicks, Charles,; Granier, Catherine; Wynne, Brian; Min, Sherene; Pappa, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Antiretroviral therapy initiation has been linked to bone mineral density and bone biomarker changes. We assessed long-term bone turnover biomarker effects over 144 weeks in patients initiating dolutegravir (DTG) + abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). Methods: Patients randomized in SINGLE received DTG (50 mg once daily) + ABC/3TC or fixed-dose combination EFV/FTC/TDF. We evaluated vitamin D serum levels and bone ...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    Poll, L.W.; Koch, J.A.; Scherer, A.; Boerner, D.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom; Niederau, C.; Haeussinger, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rechenzentrum

    2001-09-01

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  4. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  6. Early changes in vascular reactivity in response to 56Fe irradiation in ApoE-/- mice

    White, C. Roger; Yu, Tao; Gupta, Kiran; Babitz, Stephen K.; Black, Leland L.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.; Kucik, Dennis F.

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have established that radiation from a number of terrestrial sources increases the risk of atherosclerosis. The accelerated heavy ions in the galacto-cosmic radiation (GCR) that astronauts will encounter on in space, however, interact very differently with tissues than most types of terrestrial radiation, so the health consequences of exposure on deep-space missions are not clear. We demonstrated earlier that 56Fe, an important component of cosmic radiation, accelerates atherosclerotic plaque development. In the present study, we examined an earlier, pro-atherogenic event that might be predictive of later atherosclerotic disease. Decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a prominent manifestation of vascular dysfunction that is thought to predispose humans to the development of structural vascular changes that precede the development of atherosclerotic plaques. To test the effect of heavy-ion radiation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we used the same ApoE-/- mouse model in which we previously demonstrated the pro-atherogenic effect of 56Fe on plaque development. Ten week old male ApoE mice (an age at which there is little atherosclerotic plaque in the descending aorta) were exposed to 2.6 Gy 56Fe. The mice were then fed a normal diet and housed under standard conditions. At 4-5 weeks post-irradiation, aortic rings were isolated and endothelial-dependent relaxation was measured. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly impaired in irradiated mice compared to age-matched, un-irradiated mice. This decrease in vascular reactivity following 56Fe irradiation occurred eight weeks prior to the development of statistically significant exacerbation of aortic plaque formation and may contribute to the formation of later atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation

    In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)

  8. Studies of the hemopoietic microenvironments. V. Changes in murine splenic and bone marrow glycosaminoglycans during post irradiation hemopoietic regeneration.

    Noordegraaf, E M; Erkens-Versluis, E A; Ploemacher, R E

    1981-04-01

    Changes in the amount of sulphated and unsulphated glycosaminoglycans in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice were followed up to 11 days after irradiation. One day after irradiation, a sharp decrease in the amount of glycosaminoglycans was observed. In the absence of hemopoietic cells, the remaining stromal elements of spleen and bone marrow underwent subsequently marked changes in the amount of the sulphated and unsulphated components of the glycosaminoglycans in both organs. Reconstitution of irradiated mice with bone marrow cells affected the pattern of changes in the amount of glycosaminoglycans. Although no linear correlation could be observed between the amount of glycosaminoglycans and the number of hemopoietic cells present in the hemopoietic organs, these results suggest an interaction between hemopoietic cells and stromal cells in the hemopoietic organs with regard to the glycosaminoglycan metabolism. PMID:7238653

  9. Studies of the hemopoietic microenvironments. V. Changes in murine splenic and bone marrow glycosaminoglycans during post irradiation hemopoietic regeneration

    Noordegraaf, E.M.; Erkens-Versluis, E.A.; Ploemacher, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    Changes in the amount of sulphated and unsulphated glycosaminoglycans in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice were followed up to 11 days after irradiation. One day after irradiation, a sharp decrease in the amount of glycosaminoglycans was observed. In the absence of hemopoietic cells, the remaining stromal elements of spleen and bone marrow underwent subsequently marked changes in the amount of the sulphated and unsulphated components of the glycosaminoglycans in both organs. Reconstitution of irradiated mice with bone marrow cells affected the pattern of changes in the amount of glycosaminoglycans. Although no linear correlation could be observed between the amount of glycosaminoglycans and the number of hemopoietic cells present in the hemopoietic organs, these results suggest an interaction between hemopoietic cells and stromal cells in the hemopoietic organs with regard to the glycosaminoglycan metabolism.

  10. MRI manifestations of bone marrow changes after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor was subcutaneous for healthy adults

    Objective: To investigate MRI manifestations of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changes before and after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was subcutaneous injected for healthy adults. Methods: Twenty healthy blood stem cell donors without hematologic disease were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent lumbar sagittal and proximal femur coronal MRI examination with spin echo T1WI and fat-suppressed T2WI. The first examination were performed before subcutaneous injection of rhG-CSF for comparison. In 4-7 days and 30-60 days after injection, the other two examinations were performed. The signal changes of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow were investigated by reading pictures and calculating the contrasted noise ratio (CNR). Results: Before rhG-CSF injection, all patients presented normal signal intensity of bone marrow. In 4- 7 days after injection, all the 20 cases presented homogeneous signal decrease in lumbar vertebral bodies on T1WI, accompanied by reduced fatty signal. In proximal femur, patchy or stripped hypointensity areas were found in intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas on T1WI. On fat-suppressed T2WI images, the signal of' lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changed to equal or slightly-high signal intensity. In all cases, abnormal signal areas presented in lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow occurred simultaneously in the same case. In the 10 cases received the third MRI during 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection, signal intensity of lumbar bone marrow turned to normal in all sequence, but abnormal signal intensity areas were still existed and extended to distal part in femoral bone marrow, which appeared as symmetric stripped or patchy equal or slightly-low signal intensity on T1WI and equal or slightly-high signal intensity on T2WI. The CNR of lumbar bone marrow to subcutaneous fat before rhG-CSF injection, in 4-7 days and 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection were 114.11±15.11, 71.04±12.25 and 91.64±11.68, respectively. Significant difference was found between before rhG-CSF injection and 4-7 days after injection (P0.05). Conclusion: After injection of rhG-CSF, the short- term changes of hematopoietic cells and fat content in bone marrow can be displayed on MRI, which provided non-invasive information for bone marrow transplantation. (authors)

  11. Analysis of the Association Between Motor and Anthropometric Variables with Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Performance

    Sattler Tine

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an evident lack of studies examining the factors associated with reactive agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anthropometrics, body composition, jumping capacity, reactive strength, and balance with a stop-and-go change of direction speed (CODS and reactive agility. The total sample comprised 39 male (body height: 182.95 ± 5.19 cm; body mass: 80.66 ± 7.69 kg and 34 female (body height: 171.45 ± 6.81 cm; body mass: 61.95 ± 6.70 kg college-level athletes (21.9 ± 1.9 years of age. The variables included body height, body mass, the percentage of body fat (BF%, balance as measured by an overall-stability index, the countermovement jump (CMJ, a reactive-strength index (RSI, stop-and-go reactive agility, and stop-and-go CODS. To define the associations between motor and anthropometric variables with CODS and reactive agility, the participants were clustered into three achievement groups based on their CODS and reactive agility performances. The ANOVA showed a significant difference between the CODS-based achievement groups for the CMJ (F test = 3.45 and 3.60 for males and females, respectively; p < 0.05, the RSI (F test = 6.94 and 5.29 for males and females, respectively; p < 0.05, and balance (F test = 3.47; p < 0.05 for males. In females, the reactive agility achievement groups differed significantly in the RSI (F test = 6.46; p < 0.05, the CMJ (F test = 4.35; p < 0.05 and BF% (F test = 4.07; p < 0.05, which is further confirmed by discriminant canonical analysis (Can R = 0.74; p < 0.05. The results confirm the need for independent evaluation and training for both CODS and reactive agility performance in sports.

  12. Fat Composition Changes in Bone Marrow During Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To quantify changes in bone marrow fat fraction and determine associations with peripheral blood cell counts. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, 19 patients received either highly myelotoxic treatment (radiation therapy plus cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil mitomycin C [FU/MMC], or cisplatin/5-FU/cetuximab) or less myelotoxic treatment (capecitabine-radiation therapy or no concurrent chemotherapy). Patients underwent MR imaging and venipuncture at baseline, midtreatment, and posttreatment visits. We performed mixed effects modeling of the mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF[%]) by linear time, treatment, and vertebral column region (lumbar [L]4-sacral [S]2 vs thoracic [T]10-L3 vs cervical[C]3-T9), while controlling for cumulative mean dose and other confounders. Spearman rank correlations were performed by white blood cell (WBC) counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) before and after treatment. Results: Cumulative mean dose was associated with a 0.43% per Gy (P=.004) increase in PDFF(%). In the highly myelotoxic group, we observed significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit within L4-S2 (10.1%, P<.001) and within T10-L3 (3.93%, P=.01), relative to the reference C3-T9. In the less myelotoxic group, we did not observe significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit according to region. Within L4-S2, we observed a significant difference between treatment groups in the change in PDFF(%) per visit (5.36%, P=.04). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in WBC versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within T10-S2 ranged from 0.69 to 0.78 (P<.05). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in absolute neutrophil counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within L4-S2 ranged from 0.79 to 0.81 (P<.05). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging fat quantification is sensitive to marrow composition changes that result from chemoradiation therapy. These changes are associated with peripheral blood cell counts. This study supports a rationale for bone marrow-sparing treatment planning to reduce the risk of hematologic toxicity

  13. Fat Composition Changes in Bone Marrow During Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Carmona, Ruben; Pritz, Jakub [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Bydder, Mark [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Gulaya, Sachin; Zhu, He; Williamson, Casey W. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Welch, Christian S. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Vaida, Florin [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Bydder, Graeme [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: lmell@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To quantify changes in bone marrow fat fraction and determine associations with peripheral blood cell counts. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, 19 patients received either highly myelotoxic treatment (radiation therapy plus cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil mitomycin C [FU/MMC], or cisplatin/5-FU/cetuximab) or less myelotoxic treatment (capecitabine-radiation therapy or no concurrent chemotherapy). Patients underwent MR imaging and venipuncture at baseline, midtreatment, and posttreatment visits. We performed mixed effects modeling of the mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF[%]) by linear time, treatment, and vertebral column region (lumbar [L]4-sacral [S]2 vs thoracic [T]10-L3 vs cervical[C]3-T9), while controlling for cumulative mean dose and other confounders. Spearman rank correlations were performed by white blood cell (WBC) counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) before and after treatment. Results: Cumulative mean dose was associated with a 0.43% per Gy (P=.004) increase in PDFF(%). In the highly myelotoxic group, we observed significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit within L4-S2 (10.1%, P<.001) and within T10-L3 (3.93%, P=.01), relative to the reference C3-T9. In the less myelotoxic group, we did not observe significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit according to region. Within L4-S2, we observed a significant difference between treatment groups in the change in PDFF(%) per visit (5.36%, P=.04). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in WBC versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within T10-S2 ranged from 0.69 to 0.78 (P<.05). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in absolute neutrophil counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within L4-S2 ranged from 0.79 to 0.81 (P<.05). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging fat quantification is sensitive to marrow composition changes that result from chemoradiation therapy. These changes are associated with peripheral blood cell counts. This study supports a rationale for bone marrow-sparing treatment planning to reduce the risk of hematologic toxicity.

  14. Relationship between bone mineral density changes and fracture risk reduction in patients treated with strontium ranelate

    Bruyere, Olivier; Roux, Christian; Detilleux, Johann; Slosman, Daniel O; Spector, Tim D; Fardellone, Patrice; Brixen, Kim; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Diaz-Curiel, Manuel; Albanese, Carlina; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Pors-Nielsen, Stig; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to analyze the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) changes and fracture incidence during 3-yr treatment with strontium ranelate. PATIENTS: Women from the strontium ranelate arm of the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study and the TReatment Of...... Peripheral OSteoporosis study were evaluated. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures included BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total proximal femur assessed at baseline and after a follow-up of 1 and 3 yr; semiquantitative visual assessment of vertebral fractures; and nonvertebral fractures based...... on written documentation. RESULTS: After 3 yr of strontium ranelate treatment, each percentage point increase in femoral neck and total proximal femur BMD was associated with a 3% (95% adjusted confidence interval, 1-5%) and 2% (1-4%) reduction in risk of a new vertebral fracture, respectively. The 3...

  15. Significance of changes of serum osteocalcin levels in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Objective: To study the significance of serum osteocalcin changes in healthy subjects and pathological conditions. Methods: The levels of S-BGP were measured with RIA in 270 normal subjects of different age groups (every 10 yrs as an age group), 60 patients with carebrovascular disease (CVD) and 85 patients with metabolic bone disease. Results: (1) The mean value of S-BGP in umbilical blood was 19.3 +- 16.8 μg/L (n = 89), in 3 day sold newborn infant was 7.4 +- 2.3 μg/L (n = 22), in healthy subjects (from 11 to 60 yrs, average age 39 yrs) was 5.2 +- 1.35 μg/L (n = 100), 5.3 +- 1.4 μg/L (n = 47) in males and 5.1 +- 1.34 μg/L (n = 53) in females. In old healthy subjects the mean value was 3.9 +- 1.48 μg/L (n = 30). The level of S-BGP was negatively correlated with the age significantly (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). (2) The mean levels of S-BGP in 85 patients with metabolic bone disease were: 21.7 +- 20.46 μg/L in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 55, age from 21 to 60 yrs, average 37 yrs), being significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01); 2.6 +- 0.99 μg/L in patients with NIDDM (n 30, from 60 to 79 yrs, average age 69 yrs), being significantly higher than in the old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). (3) In 60 patients with CVD (from 60 to 80 yrs, average age 66 yrs) the mean valve was 2.2 +- 1.1 μg/L in cerebral infarction (n = 30) and 2.5 +- 1.2 μg/L in cerebral hemorrhage (n = 30), both significantly higher than in old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: RIA of S-BGP is an important means for detecting changes of bone metabolism in normal and pathological condition

  16. Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.

    Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. PMID:24009085

  17. Early bone changes after incorporation of low quantities of alpha emitters in male rats

    This work shows the early effects of cancergenic doses of alpha emitters in long bones of rats. The investigations were based on radiographic, morphologic, angiographic, histologic and electronmicroscopic methods. A special method for bone angiography in the rat was elaborated and a new method was developed for measurement of the femur neck-head angle. Numerous disturbances in bone growth and bone structure, in the blood supply of bone and also of the bone building cells were observed. There was a correlation between the severity of the damage and the radiation dose, the spacial distribution of the nuclide and partially the age of the rats. The bone injury due to plutonium was markedly reduced by administration of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.)

  18. Changes of bone density and serum osteocalcin levels in mid and late pregnancy

    Single photon bone densitometer has been used to determine the bone mineral contents in 1521 cases of mid and late pregnant women. The results showed that the contents are significantly lower than the normal group (P<0.001). Varying degrees of bone mineral loss took place in 488 cases (32.1%) of pregnant women. Serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in 40 cases of normal nonpregnant women and 41 cases of the bone mineral loss group of pregnant women have been measured simultaneously. The results showed that the contents of the bone mineral loss group of pregnant women are obviously lower than the normal group (P<0.001). This fact implies that the determinations of single photon bone densitometer and serum BGP RIA can be used as the indices for assessing the bone mineral loss in pregnant women

  19. Study of irradiated bone: Part III. /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate autoradiographic changes

    The macroautoradiographic and microautoradiographic localization of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/TcPPi) was studied in x-irradiated bone of rabbits up to one year post-irradiation. In cortical bone, /sup 99m/TcPPi was concentrated on bone surfaces near vasculature. Both forming and resorbing bone surfaces were comparably labeled at 2 hrs post-injection. Uptake on the surface of sites of haversian bone remodeling was observed to be at least part of the increased /sup 99m/TcPPi observed in irradiated bone in camera images. In irradiated trabecular bone 12 months following irradiation, a patchy decrease in /sup 99m/TcPPi uptake was correlated with localized decreases in vasculature

  20. Relationship between C-reactive protein concentration, bone mineral density and cardiovascular disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    T. N. Gavva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study relationship between serum level of hs-CRP, bone mineral density (BMD and cardiovascular disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 132 pts with RA with mean age 50 years (45-53 years and mean disease duration 132 months (48-216 months were examined. BMD was evaluated by dichroic X-ray densitometry in femur neck with Gologic apparatus. CRP concentration was assessed by high sensitivity nephelometric immunoassay with latex amplification with BN 100 analyzer (Dade Behring, Germany. Results. Mean BMD value in pts with RA was lower than in control group 1,4 SD and -0,45 SD respectively (p=0,00001. Normal BMD, osteoporosis and osteopenia were revealed in 38%, 47% and 15% of pts respectively. Clinical and subclinical signs of atherosclerosis in RA were more frequent than in control: coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke (ST in 25% and in 6% respectively (p=0,004, plaques (P and intima-media complex (IMC thickening in 65% and 35% respectively (p=0,003. In groups with osteopenia and osteoporosis ST and CHD revealed after RA development were more frequent, (p<0,05, RA duration was longer (p=0,02, hs CRP concentration was higher (p=0.001. Frequency of subclinical signs of atherosclerosis (P and IMC thickening in groups with normal and decreased BMD was similar. Pts with combination of osteopenia and osteoporosis (n=81 had higher frequency of CHD and high hs-CRP than pts with normal BMD (p<0,05. Mean hs-CRP level in RA was significantly higher than in control. Mean hs-CRP values in normal BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis were 7,02 (2,4-14,5 mg/1, 9,3 (4,4-22 mg/1, 15,3 (8,6-36,2 mg/l respectively (p=0,001. 65 pts with mean hs- CRP level 3,9 (1,8-7,02 mg/l had higher BMD value than 67 pts with mean hs-CRP level 22 (12,6-34 mg/l (-1,75 SD and -1,0 SD respectively, p=0,016. Frequency of clinical, subclinical signs of atherosclerosis and traditional risk factors did not differ in different groups. The pts were divided into 4 groups depending on hs-CRP level: 33 ptswith hs- CRP<3,9 mg/l, 33 pts with hs-CRP 3,9-9,01 mg/l, 34 pts with hs-CRP 9,01-22,1 mg/l, 33 pts with hs-CRP>22,l mg/l. Age, duration of disease, frequency of clinical and subclinical signs of atherosclerosis did not differ in these groups. Increase of hs-CRP concentration was associated with decrease of BMD and IMC (p<0,05 Conclusion. Decrease of BMD in RA pts is accompanied by increase of clinical signs of atherosclerosis and hs-CRP level. Increase of CRP may reflect inflammatory activity of the disease and may be a marker of atherosclerosis.

  1. Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging.

    Tuljapurkar, Sonal R; McGuire, Timothy R; Brusnahan, Susan K; Jackson, John D; Garvin, Kevin L; Kessinger, Margaret A; Lane, Judy T; O' Kane, Barbara J; Sharp, John G

    2011-11-01

    Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age. The numbers of SP stem cells in BM as well as plasma IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels decreased in correlation with increased BM fat. IL-6 had no relationship to changes in marrow fat. These data suggest that increased BM fat may be associated with a decreased number of SP stem cells and IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels with aging. These data further raise a more general question as to the role of adipose cells in the regulation of tissue stem cells. PMID:21923862

  2. Increased platelet reactivity and significant changes in coagulation markers after cavopulmonary connection

    Ravn, H; Hjortdal, V; Stenbog, E; Emmertsen, K.; Kromann, O; Pedersen, J.; Sorensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate platelet reactivity and coagulation markers after surgical palliation of univentricular hearts.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS—Cross sectional survey of 24 patients, median age 11 (range 4-22) years, at 2 (range 0.5-6) years after a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC; n = 14) or a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis (Glenn; n = 10).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Platelet reactivity and/or coagulation markers were measured in 20 patients (four excluded because of anticoagulant treatment) and ...

  3. Changes in reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels in missed abortion

    Zhu, Li-Jun; Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Bing-Jin; Mei, Xiao-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate changes in the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the trophoblasts of patients who had experienced missed abortions. The missed abortion group included 28 patients with missed abortions. The control group was comprised of 35 women who had elected to undergo surgically induced abortion in their first trimester, and whose embryos were confirmed to be alive before surgery. No ...

  4. Changes in C-reactive protein levels before type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular death: the Whitehall II study.

    Tabák, Adam ,; Kivimäki, Mika; Brunner, Eric; Lowe, Gordon,; Jokela, Markus; Akbaraly, Tasnime ,; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane; Witte, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies show that high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels predict diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but changes in this marker preceding disease onset are not well characterized. This study describes CRP trajectories prior to type 2 diabetes onset and fatal CVD. In a prospective cohort of 7350 British civil servants (70% male, mean age 51 years), 558 incident type 2 diabetes cases (75-g oral glucose tolerance test, doctor's diagnosis, or self-report) and 125 certified fatal ...

  5. Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation

    Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplastic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders (Seed et al., 1977). In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modification of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. The more prominent of these changes include the following. (i) In developing aplastic anemia: severe vascular sinus and parenchymal cord compression, and focally degenerate endosteal surfaces. (ii) In developing myelofibrosis: hyperplasia of endosteal and reticular stomal elements. (iii) In developing leukemia: hypertrophy of reticular and endothelial elements in the initial restructuring of the stromal matrix and the subsequent aberrant hemopoietic repopulation of the initially depleted stromal matrix. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points

  6. A radiographic evaluation of progressive loading on crestal and bone density changes around single osseointegrated implants in the posterior maxilla

    Ommati Shabestari Gh.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effectiveness of progressive loading procedures on preserving crestal bone height and improving peri-implant bone density around maxillary implants restored with single crowns by an accurate longitudinal radiographic assessment technique. "n "n "nMaterials and Methods: Eleven Micro-Thread Osseo Speed dental implants were placed in 11 subjects and permitted to heal for 6 weeks before surgical uncovering. Following an 8-week healing period, implants underwent a progressive loading protocol by increasing the height of the occlusal table in increments from adding acrylic resin to an acrylic crown. The progressively loaded crowns were placed in 2 mm infraocclusion for the first 2 months, light occlusion for the second 2 months, and full occlusion for the third 2 months. At forth 2 months, a metal ceramic crown replaced the acrylic crown. Digital radiographs of each implant were made at the time of restoration, then after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months of function. Digital image analysis was done to measure changes in crestal bone height and peri-implant bone density. "n "n "nResults: The mean values of crestal bone loss at 12 months were 0.11 ± 0.19 mm, and when tested with Friedman across the time periods, the differences were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. The mean values of bone density in the crestal, middle, and apical area were tested with Repeated Measure ANOVA across the time periods, the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. "n "n "nConclusion: Progressive loading doesn’t cause crestal bone loss. The peri-implant density measurements of the progressively loaded implants show continuous increase in crestal, middle and apical peri-implant bone density by time. "n 

  7. Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal® Consta®-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats

    RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as “osteodystrophy” were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.

  8. Changes in bone marrow populations after whole-body exposure to different forms of radiation

    Full text: Radiation exposure can occur in occupational settings or as the result of nuclear accidents. More recently, terrorist threats of 'dirty bombs' have raised public concern over environmental exposure. The consequences include increased risk for cancer and infectious diseases. However, genetic background can be a major factor in the outcome. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of radiations of differing quality [gamma-rays, protons, protons with aluminum shield, and iron (Fe)], up to a maximum dose of 3 gray (Gy), on two mouse strains (CBA/Ca and C57BL/6) that differ greatly in genetic makeup. Overall bone marrow cellularity, lymphoid cells, and stem cells expressing markers associated with hematopoietic regeneration were quantified at 24 hr and 30 days post-irradiation. At 24 hr, radiation dose-dependent decreases in bone marrow cellularity were evident in both strains of mice under all radiation conditions. However, lymphoid cell susceptibility tended to be greater in C57BL/6 than in CBA/Ca mice. In both strains, the greatest reductions were observed with Fe ions. At this early time, the percentages of stem cells expressing CD34, Ly-6A/E, or both markers increased with increasing dose in all irradiated groups, the only exception being CBA mice exposed to gamma-rays. By 30 days post-exposure, lymphoid cell numbers in all irradiated CBA/Ca, but not C57BL/6, mice were 11% to 160% above normal. In addition, irradiated CBA/Ca animals had high percentages of CD34+ cells, while proportions of Ly-6A/E+ cells were low; in the C57BL/6 strain, these measurements were similar to normal. Overall, these findings indicate that the susceptibility of bone marrow cells is dependent not only on radiation dose, but also on radiation quality and genetic background. In progress studies suggest that cytokines may play a role in the observed cell population changes, and perhaps also in radiation-induced genomic instability, a condition associated with cancer

  9. Changes in hyperfrontality of cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity with age

    We evaluated the topographic distributions of regional cerebral blood flow in 51 normal subjects (mean age 41 years) by the xenon-133 inhalation technique. Forty-five of these subjects were divided by age into young normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years), middle-aged normals 30-50 years old (mean age 40 years), and elderly normals greater than 50 years old (mean age 62 years); there were 15 subjects in each group. The distributions of vascular CO2 reactivity to hypocapnia were also evaluated in 20 of the normal subjects (mean age 34 years), including 11 younger normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years) and nine older (middle-aged or elderly) normals greater than or equal to 30 years old (mean age 45 years). The hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow observed in the young and middle-aged normals was not observed in the elderly normals. The hyperfrontal distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was absent in the older normals. In addition, the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was disturbed in the older normals. The data show a hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow in normal subjects that diminishes during the fifth and sixth decades, along with a distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity in younger normal subjects that is not homogeneous throughout the frontoparietal regions

  10. A Qualitative Evaluation of Social-Cognitive Changes in Children with Reactively Aggressive Behaviors

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The parent-child parallel group Anger Coping Training (ACT) program aimed to help reactively aggressive children in restructuring cognitive characteristics, so as to reduce childhood aggression. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and postcomparison. Qualitative data were collected through 367 individual…

  11. A study of cortisol reactivity and recovery among young adolescents: Heterogeneity and longitudinal stability and change.

    Ji, Juye; Negriff, Sonya; Kim, Hansung; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    The dominance of reactivity-based theories of the cortisol response and lack of attention to cortisol recovery makes it difficult to compile an integrated theory of the stress response. This report examined a reactivity and recovery model of the cortisol response using variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Age and sex differences and heterogeneity in the pattern of cortisol response were examined. Participants were 135 healthy young adolescents participating in a three-wave longitudinal study of puberty and psychological development. At each wave, five saliva-cortisol samples were collected prior to and following a modified Trier Social Stressor Test for Children. Linear, quadratic, and piece-wise models of latent growth curve analyses and latent class analyses were conducted. Age differences in cortisol reactivity and recovery were found at wave 1 and sex differences in cortisol reactivity emerged at wave 3. Meaningful heterogeneity in the pattern of cortisol response was found cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The implications of heterogeneity in the cortisol response during early adolescence for developmental science are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 283-302, 2016. PMID:26517401

  12. Signal changes of bone marrow in MRI under long-term treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors

    Purpose: Recurrent infections in patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type lb resulting from an associated neutropenia are frequently treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in bone marrow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients. Material and Methods: The distal femoral and tibial bones of six patients with GSD lb were evaluated by MRI. Four of these patients were treated with G-CSF for at least 3.9 to a maximum of 8.2 years (mean 5.8 years). The imaging sequences encompassed spin-echo as well as short-time inversion recovery sequences. 4 of the 6 patients had bone marrow aspirations. Results: The patients who had undergone therapy with G-CSF showed a marked increase in signal strength in STIR sequences which encompassed the entire medullar cavity. In T1-weighted images these areas were hypointense. Biopsies obtained from these patients showed a bone marrow hypercellularity. The patients without G-CSF therapy showed the same signal intensity changes but with a more discrete and localized pattern in the metaphyseal cavities. Conclusion: In subjects with GSD lb, an increased myelopoetic activity of the bone marrow which is intensified under long-term treatment with G-CSF can be demonstrated by MRI. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric correction and density compensation could abbreviate the standardized intraoral radiographic technique prepared for subtraction. (author)

  14. Characterization of knee osteoarthritis-related changes in trabecular bone using texture parameters at various levels of spatial resolutiona simulation study

    Lowitz, Torsten; Museyko, Oleg; Bousson, Valerie; Kalender, Willi A.; Laredo, Jean Denis; ENGELKE, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage and subchondral bone are the key tissues in osteoarthritis (OA). The role of the cancellous bone increasingly attracts attention in OA research. Because of its fast adaptation to changes in the loading distribution across joints, its quantification is expected to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of OA. In this study, we simulated OA progression-related changes of trabecular structure in a series of digital bone models and then characterized the potential of texture par...

  15. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

    A. Shirani; h Shamoradi; I Shahabi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR ) has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity wort...

  16. MR imaging of normal bone marrow: evaluation of changes over time

    The bone marrow is a complex organ that contains fat and nonfat cells, the proportion of which varies greatly with age and in the different bones of the skeleton. Magnetic resonance imaging provides information on the composition of the medullary cavity of any given bone and on the distribution of red and yellow marrow in the skeleton. The wide spectrum of appearances of the normal bone marrow at MR imaging will be reviewed. The purpose of this paper is to determine the MR appearance of the bone marrow, to illustrate the phenomenon of marrow conversion and to familiarize the readers with the complex parameters that interfere with the MR appearance of normal bone marrow. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT

    Gunalp Bengul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT and determine their roles on the evaluation of therapy response.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the detection of bone change using panoramic TMJ projection. Comparative study with limited cone-beam CT

    Panoramic temporoman joint (TMJ) projection is one of the alternative methods of conventional radiography, such as transcranial projection, for diagnosing temporomandibular joint disorder. There have been a few reports describing the diagnostic ability of this method. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting bone change with panoramic TMJ projection. Fifty TMJs in 25 patients were examined. All TMJs were examined by panoramic TMJ projection (Hyper XF) and limited cone-beam CT (3D Accuitomo FPD; 3DX). Two observers evaluated the presence of bone change in the TMJ region using panoramic TMJ projection. One other observer evaluated the limited cone-beam CT for the presence and the pattern of bone changes in the TMJ region as the gold standard. Panoramic TMJ findings were evaluated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the panoramic TMJ projection were 0.86, 0.76, and 0.82, respectively. These results and those of previous reports on other radiographic methods for TMJ suggest that panoramic TMJ projection is a useful method of screening for bone change due to TMJ disorder. (author)

  19. Bone Density Changes After Radiation for Extremity Sarcomas: Exploring the Etiology of Pathologic Fractures

    Purpose: The incidental irradiation (RT) of adjacent bone that takes place during treatment of soft tissue extremity sarcomas is generally presumed to 'weaken' the bone by decreasing its density, which subsequently increases the risk for pathologic fracture. This investigation intended to assess the relative effects on bone density of both RT and diminished mechanical loading secondary to tumor-induced and therapy-induced functional extremity impairment. Methods and Materials: 19 patients treated with surgical excision and RT for soft tissue extremity sarcomas had bone density measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at four sites: the irradiated (A) and contralateral (B) bone, and an uninvolved bone (C) in the treated extremity and its contralateral counterpart (D). Analysis included (1) [A-B], (2) [C-D], (3) [(A-B), - (C-D)], and (4) [(A-B)/B - (C-D)/D]. Results: The mean bone density for all irradiated sites was increased 0.08 ± 0.22 g/cm2 (variance) compared to the contralateral unirradiated side when corrected for weight-bearing effects (3). An average increase in bone density of 9 ± 22% (p = 0.08) was also seen when the differences were divided by individual control densities to normalize variation in density of different anatomic sites (4). Conclusions: RT does not routinely decrease bone density when corrected for weight bearing or mechanical effects. The pathogenesis for the known increased risk of pathologic fracture in irradiated bones is likely multifactorial, including possible alterations in bone remodeling that can result in stable, or even increased, bone density. Further clinical and basic studies are needed to confirm our unexpected findings.

  20. Plain film and CT observations in prostaglandin-induced bone changes

    Prostaglandin E1 intravenous infusion is used in infants with ductal-dependent cogenital heart disease to maintain ductal patency and prolong life until palliative or corrective surgery is feasible. Complications of prostaglandin administration include fever, diarrhoea, hypotension, apnoea, bradycardia, pseudowidening of the cranial sutures, underossification of the calvarial bones, periostitis, and skin edema. This paper presents dramatic plain radiographic features of prostaglandin-induced bone disease, inlcuding periosteal proliferation and the unusual bone-within-bone apperance, and provides the previously unpublished CT correlation. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of bone marrow lesions by MR imaging in knee osteoarthritis: The sensitivity to change assessed by two quantitative methods

    Nielsen, Flemming Kromann; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Peters, David Alberg; Egund, Niels

    2014-01-01

    values and standard deviations (STD) of the signal intensity (SI) of the normal marrow of the lateral femoral and tibial condyles were obtained by both methods. In three slices of the medial femoral condyle the volume of bone marrow with SIs exceeding the threshold values (BML) were measured. Threshold...... values were defined by mean value of normal bone marrow SI plus one or two STDs. STC was calculated by comparing the relative BML-involvement at baseline between the two readers using a Bland-Altman analysis. Any change in BML-volume exceeding the 95 % limits of agreement was considered significant...

  2. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone densi...

  3. Mark 22 Reactivity

    Calculations for reactivity held in control rods have underpredicted the observed Mark 22 reactivity. Reactivity predictions by charge designers have accounted for this by including large biases which change with exposure and reactor region. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the methods and data used in the reactivity calculations. The goal was to identify errors and improvements and make necessary corrections

  4. [Interconnection of morpho-functional changes at various levels of the cortical bone hierarchic organization in aging].

    Avrunin, A S; Parshin, L K; Abolin, A B

    2006-01-01

    The authors define two groups of levels of cortical bone hierarchic organization. The first three levels (molecular, supra-molecular and tissue) are characterized by age-dependent changes in connections and geometry of collagen fibers, deviations in orientation and interaction between collagen and minerals, increase in crystallinity and size of the latter, resulting in matrix hypermineralization. It causes water and organic fraction displacement, as well as intermolecular space reduction, which provides for lesser amount of matrix deformations under the influence of mechanical forces. At the next three levels (structural-functional, organ-forming structures, organ) adaptation processes contribute to deformation increase due to a greater volume of cavities (Haversian canals and medullar cavity of the diaphysis of long tubular bones). These are due to the fact that osseous tissue cells possess superior and inferior thresholds of deformation perception, and through modeling/remodeling provide for extracellular matrix migration in the direction limited by these thresholds. Bone geometry changes leading to bone mass loss are also caused by age-dependent rise of the inferior threshold of sensitivity to mechanical impulses and decrease of muscle functional activity. Prevention of the described changes may be possible through elaboration of new, pathogenesis-based ways of drug therapy, including 1) osseous tissue mineralization reduction with the help of osteocyte pump regulators for predominant washing out of Ca2+, 2) lowering the threshold of electric impulses initiation arising in the osteocyte network under mechanical deformations. PMID:17111654

  5. Bone marrow transplantation controlling hormonal and structural changes in radiation exposed pregnant mice and their developing embryos

    Ascending doses of whole body gamma irradiation delivered at different gestational stages of mouse exposed to 1 and 2 Gy gamma rays fractionated at 1 Gy installments and possible curative role of bone marrow transplantation has been studied. The results confirmed the impairment of the levels of the two maternal hormones 17 estradiol and progesterone besides histopathological changes in the skin, heart and skeleton at different embryonic stages. 17 Beta estradiol level was not changed significantly in mice treated with 1 Gy and fractionated 2 Gy. Bone marrow treatment remarkably restored its level. Animals subjected to the dose level 1 Gy exhibited a slight decrease in the progesterone level while a significant drop in the hormone level was noticed upon irradiation at 2 Gy. Bone marrow transplantation provided little repair for the hormone. Treatment with bone marrow transplantation, was effective in alleviating the histopathological changes due to the lower dose (One Gy), yet it had less pronounced recovery of defects produced by the higher irradiation dose

  6. Changes in SH reactivity of the protein in porcine intestinal brush-border membranes associated with lipid peroxidation.

    Ohyashiki, T; Sakata, N; Matsui, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of lipid peroxidation on the SH reactivity of the proteins in porcine intestinal brush-border membranes were examined using a fluorogenic thiol reagent, N-[7-dimethyl-amino-4-methylcoumarinyl]maleimide (DACM) in relation to lipid organization. Changes in the lipid organization were assessed by measurement of the rate of incorporation of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) into the membrane lipids and the fluorescence anisotropy of DPH-labeled membranes. Treatment of the membranes with an oxygen-radical-generating system, i.e., ascorbic acid/Fe2+/tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), resulted in decrease in the rate of DACM incorporation into the SH groups of the membrane proteins (DACM-labeling) and the amount of DACM labeled to the SH groups with a decrease in the lipid fluidity, depending on the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated diene. Pretreatment of the membranes with diphenylamine effectively prevented the ascorbic acid/Fe2+/t-BuOOH-induced decreases in the DACM-labeling and DPH incorporation rates, whereas neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, sodium benzoate, nor mannitol showed a protective effect. The contribution of the lipid fluidity to the SH reactivity to DACM of the proteins in the membranes with different levels of lipid peroxidation was further examined using a lipid fluidizer, benzyl alcohol. The results showed that the DPH incorporation rate increased in proportion to increasing concentrations of the alcohol regardless of the peroxidation level of the membranes, whereas the susceptibility of the SH reactivity of the membrane proteins as to benzyl alcohol transitionally changed as the membranes were peroxidized to levels greater than 400 nmol conjugated diene/mg protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206871

  7. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

    A Shirani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

  8. Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury

    Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy γ-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

  9. The changes of bone mineral density in patients with multiple myeloma

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of change of the bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with multiple myeloma ( MM), and evaluate the use of Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure BMD in MM patients. Methods: Using a dual energy osteo-densitometer Hologic QDR-2000, the BMD was examined on the whole body, vertebrate L2 to L4 in the antero-posterior and lateral position and the proximal left femur in both 34 MM patients and 24 normal individuals. The BMD of type IgG and unclassified patients were dynamically studied before and after chemotherapy, and the study also included serum immunoprotein, protein electrophoresis, blood calcium and phosphorus. Results: (1) Decrease of BMD of the whole body, vertebrate L2 to L4 in the antero-posterior and lateral position and the proximal left femur was significantly lower in MM patients compared with normal individuals (P < 0.05); (2) The BMD of stage III patients of type IgG was less than that of stage II patients' (P < 0.05); (3) Lumbar BMD of IgG type had negative correlation with IgG change but without any association with the whole body and the proximal left femur BMD (P < 0.05); (4) After regular chemotherapy, the lumbar BMD increased rapidly, but the BMD of whole body and the proximal left femur decreased. Conclusion: DXA is a sensitive way to quantitatively study the BMD changes of MM patients and evaluate therapeutic effect. The BMD fall in MM patients can be reversed by effective therapy, but the osteal damage and restoration are not equivalent in the lumbar and proximal femur

  10. Evaluation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Aim: To prospectively investigate the role of MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in assessing vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 ± 3.5 years; range 55-81 years), who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the spine, were divided into three bone density groups (24 with normal, 25 with osteopaenic, and 29 with osteoporotic) based on T score. Both MRS and DWI of the L3 vertebral body were performed to calculate the marrow fat content and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The results were compared between three groups and correlated with BMD. Results: Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group (59.97 ± 5.78%), when compared with that of the osteopaenic group (53.04 ± 7.66%, p = 0.001) and the normal bone density group (48.79 ± 7.1%, p -3 mm2/s, 0.41 ± 0.02 x 10-3 mm2/s, and 0.47 ± 0.03 x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation between T scores and ADC existed (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). The vertebral marrow fat content was negatively correlated to the bone density (r = -0.639, p < 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.554, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibited a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreased. Marrow fat content and ADC were related to the bone density. MRS and DWI are helpful in evaluating the bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  11. Assessment of global morphological and topological changes in trabecular structure under the bone resorption process

    Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Baum, Thomas; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmueller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent skeletal disease characterised both by loss of bone mineral mass and deterioration of cancellous bone micro-architecture. It can be caused by mechanical disuse, estrogen deficiency or natural age-related resorption process. Numerical analysis of high-resolution images of the trabecular network is recognised as a powerful tool for assessment of structural characteristics. Using ?CT images of 73 thoracic and 78 lumbar human vertebral specimens in vitro with isotropic resolution of 26?m we simulate bone atrophy as random resorption of bone surface voxels. Global morphological and topological characteristics provided by four Minkowski Functionals (MF) are calculated for two numerical resorption models with and without conservation of global topological connectivity of the trabecular network, which simulates different types of bone loss in osteoporosis, as it has been described in males and females. Diagnostic performance of morphological and topological characteristics as a function of relative bone loss is evaluated by a correlation analysis with respect to experimentally measured Maximum Compressive Strength (MCS). In both resorption models the second MF, which coincides with bone surface fraction BS/TV, demonstrates almost constant value of Pearson's correlation coefficient with respect to the relative bone loss ?BV/TV. This morphological characteristic does not vary considerably under age-related random resorption and can be used for predicting bone strength in the elderly. The third and fourth MF demonstrate an increasing correlation coefficients with MCS after applying random bone surface thinning without preserving topological connectivity, what can be used for improvement of evaluation of the current state of the structure.

  12. Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (2 before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm2 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P2 before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm2 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD

  13. Age-related changes in rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell plasticity

    Chase P Bryant

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of adult stem cells is known to be compromised as a function of age. This therefore raises questions about the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy in elderly patients. Results We demonstrated that the expression profile of stemness markers was altered in BM-MSCs derived from old rats. BM-MSCs from young rats (4 months expressed Oct-4, Sox-2 and NANOG, but we failed to detect Sox-2 and NANOG in BM-MSCs from older animals (15 months. Chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic potential is compromised in old BM-MSCs. Stimulation with a cocktail mixture of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 induced cardiomyogenesis in young BM-MSCs but not old BM-MSCs. Significant differences in the expression of gap junction protein connexin-43 were observed between young and old BM-MSCs. Young and old BM-MSCs fused with neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes in co-culture and expressed key cardiac transcription factors and structural proteins. Cells from old animals expressed significantly lower levels of VEGF, IGF, EGF, and G-CSF. Significantly higher levels of DNA double strand break marker γ-H2AX and diminished levels of telomerase activity were observed in old BM-MSCs. Conclusion The results suggest age related differences in the differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs. These changes may affect the efficacy of BM-MSCs for use in stem cell therapy.

  14. Late bone marrow changes in Hodgkin's disease patients: a characterization with proton chemical shift imaging

    Our aim was to measure, by quantitative chemical shift imaging (CSI), the late therapy-induced changes in bone marrow (BM) of Hodgkin's disease (HD) patients. Fifteen HD patients treated with radiotherapy alone and radiochemotherapy (age at treatment between 11 and 50 years; post-treatment interval between 15 and 127 months; applied dose 25.5 to 50 Gy), were studied with a 1.5 T MR imager. For the fat-water separation in-phase and opposed-phase (SE 1200/22) images were generated according to the Dixon method, with a modified post-processing. Long-term fatty replacement was seen in the irradiated BM only. The radiation fields were visualized as areas of high signal intensity in the T1-weighted images. There was a marked increase of the relative fat signal fraction in quantitative CSI without time, dose and age dependent recovery within the investigated ranges. Fatty replacement of the irradiated BM is a long-term effect in HD patients, probably induced by an obliteration of the microvasculature with consecutive fatty metaplasia. (orig.)

  15. Simulation of chemically reactive solute transport under conditions of changing temperature

    A numerical code, THCC, has been developed for simulation of multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media with aqueous complexation and precipitation/dissolution of stable solid phases in the presence of variable temperature. THCC evolved from the isothermal code CHEMTRN and is capable of simulating the diffusion of solutes along a steady gradient of temperature and the mixing of fluids having different initial compositions and temperatures. Example calculations demonstrate the close coupling that can exist between temperature variations and the transport of chemically reactive solutes. This coupling can be an important consideration in the assessment of performance of nuclear waste repositories

  16. Changes in jaw dimensions and bone density in patients with osteoporosis

    Poštić Srđan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Osteopenia and osteoporosis reduce the density and mass of jaw bones. Aim The aim of this study was to present the methods of radiographic analysis in patients with osteoporosis prior to restorative treatment. Method 127 panoramic radiographs (Kodak, USA and 39 retroalveolar radiographs (KD 58-R 30×40 mm, USA were used for the analysis of density (DT II 05 densitometer, England and dimensions of jaw bones with respect to segments corresponding to bone layers. Results The results of this study indicated statistically significant differences in bone density (p<0.05 and p<0.01 in patients with osteopenia. Bone density was significantly reduced (p<0.01 and p<0.001 in osteoporotic patients, when compared to controls. Significant reductions of edentulous ridges in osteoporotic patients women X=23.05 mm (kV=30.72% and X=22.85 mm (kV=28.81%, and men X=28.83 (kV=8.55% as well as X=25.36 (kV=11.43%, were observed. Conclusion Bone density of the upper and lower jaw is reduced in osteoporotic patients. At the very beginning of restorative prosthodontic therapy of osteoporotic patients, retroalveolar radiographs and panoramic radiographs should be obtained. Reference lines should be assigned, contours of the alveolar and edentulous ridges on radiographs should be analysed and bone density assessed.

  17. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  18. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  19. Pulmonary function changes in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term pulmonary function changes in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), to assess their clinical significance, and to identify factors influencing these changes. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were evaluated before and after BMT in 111 adult patients undergoing BMT between 1985 and 1991. Forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity (DLCO), and total lung capacity (TLC) were evaluated. One hundred and three patients (92.8%) received total body irradiation (TBI) to a total dose of 14 Gy in nine equal fractions. The lung dose was restricted to 1, FVC, and TLC were lower than pre transplant values (p 1 did not fall significantly in patients without acute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier than in patients without post transplant pulmonary infection. Recovery of FVC, TLC, and DLCO was also delayed in patients with acute and chronic GVHD and post transplant pulmonary infection. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between a higher radiation dose to the lungs, and decreased FVC at 2 years (p = 0.01). Progressive obstructive pulmonary disease was not observed. Conclusions: An initial decline in PFTs with subsequent recovery was observed. Factors associated with delayed recovery and incomplete recovery of PFTs were GVHD, post transplant pulmonary infection, and higher radiation dose to the lungs. The conditioning regimen used at Medical College of Wisconsin, including relatively high TBI doses with partial transmission pulmonary shielding, appears to be well tolerated by the lungs in long-term survivors. No progressive decline in PFTs or symptomatic decline in pulmonary function was observed during the time interval studied

  20. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 ± 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis

  1. Multidetector Computed Tomography-Based Microstructural Analysis Reveals Reduced Bone Mineral Content and Trabecular Bone Changes in the Lumbar Spine after Transarterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Takasu, Miyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuko; Komoto, Daisuke; Kaichi, Yoko; Tani, Chihiro; Date, Shuji; Kiguchi, Masao; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is well recognized that therapeutic irradiation can result in bone damage. However, long-term bone toxicity associated with computed tomography (CT) performed during interventional angiography has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and trabecular microstructural changes in patients after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy using an interventional-CT system. Materials and Methods Spinal microarchitecture was examined by 64-detector CT in 81 patients who underwent TACE, 35 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 79 controls. For each patient, the volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv) during TACE (CTDIv (TACE)), the dose-length product (DLP) during TACE (DLP (TACE)), and CTDIv and DLP of routine dynamic CT scans (CTDIv (CT) and DLP (CT), respectively), were calculated as the sum since 2008. Using a three dimensional (3D) image analysis system, the tissue bone mineral density (tBMD) and trabecular parameters of the 12th thoracic vertebra were calculated. Using tBMD at a reported cutoff value of 68 mg/cm3, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly greater in the TACE vs. the control group (39.6% vs. 18.2% for males, P<0.05 and 60.6% vs. 34.8% for females, P<0.01). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sex, age, and CTDIv (CT) significantly affected the risk of osteoporosis. Of these indices, CTDIv (CT) had the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.735). Correlation analyses of tBMD with cumulative radiation dose revealed weak correlations between tBMD and CTDIv (CT) (r2 = 0.194, P<0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in post TACE patients than in control subjects. The cumulative radiation dose related to routine dynamic CT studies was a significant contributor to the prevalence of osteoporosis. PMID:25329933

  2. Reactivity measurements

    Digital reactivity meter, realized as an off-line Fortran program, the input to which is a record of 500 consecutive values of n(tsub(i)) obtained by on-line program on CDC 1700 from the linear power channel of the TRIGA reactor, has been tested at low powers at which the reactor fuel temperature feedback reactivity is negligible. Calibration of the meter by the regulating rod, the reactivity of which has been determined by the assymptotic reactor period, shows that the absolute error is below 1,6% for reactivities up to 1 $. The accuracy of the reactivity meter is proportional to the square of the product of the sampling interval and the period at which the neutron density changes. So the relative error of the reactivity remains at all operational states below 0.2% at 1 second sampling intervals and even at 3 seconds sampling it does not rises above 2.0%. The meter is useful for measurements of control rod drops into the reactor at sampling intervals of 0.1 sec. The meter sensitivity is 0.5 c/s at 1 sec sampling

  3. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid against bone changes in salt-loaded rats: possible role of kidney.

    Ahmed, Mona A; Abd El Samad, Abeer A

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that dietary fats are important components contributing in bone health and that bone mineral density is inversely related to sodium intake. Salt loading is also known to impose negative effects on renal function. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 on bone changes imposed by salt loading, highlighting the role of kidney as a potential mechanism involved in this effect. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group, salt-loaded group consuming 2% NaCl solution as drinking water for 8 weeks, and omega-3-treated salt-loaded group receiving 1 g/kg/day omega-3 by gavage with consumption of 2% NaCl solution for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Plasma levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphorus (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3], and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) were measured. The right tibia and kidney were removed for histologic examination and renal immunohistochemical analysis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was performed. The results revealed that omega-3 reduced SBP, DBP, and MAP and plasma levels of sodium, potassium, Pi, creatinine, urea, and TGF-?1, but increased plasma levels of calcium, ALP, and 1,25(OH)2D3 as well as renal eNOS. Omega-3 increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, decreased osteoclast number, and increased newly formed osteoid bone. Renal morphology was found preserved. In conclusion, omega-3 prevents the disturbed bone status imposed by salt loading. This osteoprotective effect is possibly mediated by attenuation of alterations in Ca(2+), Pi, and ALP, and improvement of renal function and arterial blood pressure. PMID:24303178

  4. MRI signal changes of the bone marrow in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy: correlation with clinical parameters

    Garcia, Ana I.; Tomas, Xavier; Pomes, Jaume; Amo, Montserrat del [Hospital Clinic, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Milinkovic, Ana; Perez, Inaki; Mallolas, Josep [IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Department of Infectious Diseases, Barcelona (Spain); Rios, Jose [Hospital Clinic, Department of Biostatistics, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi [Hospital Clinic, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To assess the prevalence, imaging appearance, and clinical significance, of bone marrow MR signal changes in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome. Twenty-eight HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 12 HIV-negative controls underwent MRI of the legs. Whole-body MRI, SPECT/CT, and a complete radiographic skeletal survey were obtained in subjects with signal changes in bone marrow. MRI and clinical evaluations were reviewed 6 months after baseline to determine changes after switching from thymidine analogs (TA) to tenofovir-DF (TDF). MRI results correlated with clinical parameters. We observed foci of a serous-like pattern (low signal and no enhancement on T1-weighted, high signal on T2-weighted images) in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%) and an intermediate signal on T1-weighted images in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%). Serous-like lesions were located in the lower limbs and scattered in the talus, calcaneus, femurs, and humeral bones; they showed slight uptake on SPECT bone scans and were normal on CT and radiographs. Patients with serous-like lesions had significantly lower peripheral and total fat at baseline than other groups (P < 0.05). No changes at 6 months were observed on MRI, and the serous-like lesion group showed good peripheral fat recovery after changing drug treatment. A serous-like MRI pattern is observed in the peripheral skeletons of HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, which correlates with peripheral lipoatrophy, and should not be misdiagnosed as malignant or infectious diseases. Although the MR lesions did not improve after switching the treatment, there was evidence of lipoatrophy recovery. (orig.)

  5. MRI signal changes of the bone marrow in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy: correlation with clinical parameters

    To assess the prevalence, imaging appearance, and clinical significance, of bone marrow MR signal changes in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome. Twenty-eight HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 12 HIV-negative controls underwent MRI of the legs. Whole-body MRI, SPECT/CT, and a complete radiographic skeletal survey were obtained in subjects with signal changes in bone marrow. MRI and clinical evaluations were reviewed 6 months after baseline to determine changes after switching from thymidine analogs (TA) to tenofovir-DF (TDF). MRI results correlated with clinical parameters. We observed foci of a serous-like pattern (low signal and no enhancement on T1-weighted, high signal on T2-weighted images) in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%) and an intermediate signal on T1-weighted images in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%). Serous-like lesions were located in the lower limbs and scattered in the talus, calcaneus, femurs, and humeral bones; they showed slight uptake on SPECT bone scans and were normal on CT and radiographs. Patients with serous-like lesions had significantly lower peripheral and total fat at baseline than other groups (P < 0.05). No changes at 6 months were observed on MRI, and the serous-like lesion group showed good peripheral fat recovery after changing drug treatment. A serous-like MRI pattern is observed in the peripheral skeletons of HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, which correlates with peripheral lipoatrophy, and should not be misdiagnosed as malignant or infectious diseases. Although the MR lesions did not improve after switching the treatment, there was evidence of lipoatrophy recovery. (orig.)

  6. Late-onset persistent retinal microvascular changes after bone marrow transplantation: 3-year follow-up

    Muccioli Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of persistent retinopathy after bone marrow transplantation in the absence of radiation therapy. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 42 year-old man developed bilateral visual loss 15 months after receiving a bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia. The patient was treated with a high dose of cyclosporin A and oral corticosteroids. No radiation therapy was given. Late-onset, multiple, bilateral cotton-wool spots developed 15 months after the bone marrow transplantation and still persist. After three years other cotton-wool spots arose in the absence of any immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusions: Bone marrow transplantation microvasculopathy of the retina may be related to certain combinations of chemotherapy drugs or immunosuppression itself and may persist in the absence of these immunosuppressive drugs.

  7. Experimental stroke-induced changes in the bone marrow reveal complex regulation of leukocyte responses

    Denes, Adam; McColl, Barry W; Leow-Dyke, Sophie F.; Chapman, Katie Z.; Humphreys, Neil E.; Grencis, Richard K; Allan, Stuart M; Rothwell, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    Stroke induces a systemic response that involves rapid activation of inflammatory cascades, followed later by immunodepression. Experimental stroke-induced responses in the bone marrow, which is the primary source of circulating monocytes and granulocytes, have not been investigated previously. We show that cerebral ischaemia induced early (4 hours) release of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow, which was associated with rapid systemic upregulation of CXCL1 (a ligand for CXCR2) ...

  8. CHANGING OF THE BIOCHEMICAL INDICES ON REGENERATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DEFECT OF THE MANDIBLE BONE

    A. Borysenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of an experimental biochemical investigation on the influence of the proposed drug composition for the experimental mandible bone defect regeneration in rats were presented. The high efficiency and osteoregenerative properties of this paste were shown. The experimental investigations showed that the proposed drug composition exerts a considerable normalization influence upon the biochemical indicators of bone mineral metabolism, comparable to Collapan influence.

  9. Does surface anodisation of titanium implants change osseointegration and make their extraction from bone any easier?

    Langhoff, J; Mayer, J.; Faber, L.; Kästner, S B; Guibert, G.; Zlinszky, K; Auer, J. A.; von Rechenberg, B

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Titanium implants have a tendency for high bone-implant bonding, and, in comparison to stainless steel implants are more difficult to remove. The current study was carried out to evaluate, i) the release strength of three selected anodized titanium surfaces with increased nanohardness and low roughness, and ii) bone-implant bonding in vivo. These modified surfaces were intended to give improved anchorage while facilitating easier removal of temporary implants. Material and methods...

  10. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    Albert, HB; Manniche, C; Srensen, JS; Deleuran, Bent

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low-back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic...... changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes...

  11. Changes in hemopoiesis of dying and surviving mice after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation

    Mice received doses of 3 Gy of 60Co-gamma rays total body irradiation at four-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy. After each dose per fraction half of the animals were injected with 106 bone marrow cells. At four- and nine-day intervals evaluations were made of the blood count, bone marrow and spleen cellularities, and spleen mass. In animals subjected only to irradiation the damage of hemopoietic organs was becoming deeper until the end of observation; the majority of these mice died by nine days after the irradiation with the last dose per fraction (by 37 days of the experiment). The authors consider anemia as the main cause of their death. All of the mice that were given bone marrow injections survived; nine days after the last dose of irradiation the mean cellularities of their bone marrows and spleens were 76.8% and 112.3% of the unirradiated controls respectively. In general, regeneration of erythropoiesis was quite successful, the number of thrombocytes was positively influenced, and the number of leukocytes nearly unchanged in bone marrow recipients when compared with the only irradiated mice. We observed two periods of maximum and one of minimum bone marrow and spleen regeneration, which were not synchronized. These results deny an unrepairable damage to the hemopoietic microenvironment in conditions of our experiment. This paper follows up with our preceding work describing results of an experiment which ended on day 24. (orig.)

  12. Reactive nitrogen in the environment and its effect on climate change

    Humans have doubled levels of reactive nitrogen in circulation, largely as a result of fertilizer application and fossil fuel burning. This massive alteration of the nitrogen cycle affects climate, food security, energy security, human health and ecosystem services. Our estimates show that nitrogen currently leads to a net-cooling effect on climate with very high uncertainty. The many complex warming and cooling interactions between nitrogen and climate need to be better assessed, taking also into account the other effects of nitrogen on human health, environment and ecosystem services. Through improved nitrogen management substantial reductions in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations could be generated, also allowing for other co-benefits, including improving human health and improved provision of ecosystem services, for example clean air and water, and biodiversity.

  13. Evaluating changes of transport properties of chemically degrading concrete using a coupled reactive transport model

    This paper presents a model to simulate chemical degradation of concrete due to leaching. The model considers simultaneously the multi-scale nature of concrete, a thermodynamic description of cement phases, and time-variable transport properties. It is implemented in the generic simulator HP1, which simulates the reactive transport in variably-saturated porous media. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, we simulate diffusive transport through concrete in contact with waters of different solution compositions (i.e., concentrations of major cations and anions and inorganic carbon contents) and use a homogenization scheme for up-scaling tortuosity. The simulations show the coupled effects between geochemical state variables, transport properties, and durability criteria for cementitious materials used in near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities. (authors)

  14. An extreme change in structural and optical properties of indium oxynitride deposited by reactive gas-timing RF magnetron sputtering

    The indium oxynitride (InON) films were achieved by reactive RF magnetron sputtering indium target which has the purity of 99.999% with a novel reactive gas-timing technique. The structural, optical and electrical properties in a series of polycrystalline InON films affected by gas-timing of reactive N2 and O2 gases introduced to the chamber were observed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the oxygen content in thin films that compounded to indium and nitrogen, which increased from 10% in indium nitride (InN) to 66% in indium oxide (In2O3) films. The X-ray diffraction peaks show that the phase of deposited films changes from InN to InON and to In2O3 with an increasing oxygen timing. The hexagonal structure of InN films with predominant (0 0 2) and (0 0 4) orientation was observed when pure nitrogen is only used as sputtering gas, while InON and In2O3 seem to demonstrate body-center cubic polycrystalline structures depending on gas-timing. The surface morphologies investigated from atomic force microscope of deposited films with varying gas-timing of O2:N2 show indifferent. The numerical algorithm method was used to define the optical bandgap of films from transmittance results. The increasing oxygen gas-timing affects extremely to the change of crystallinity phase from InN to InON and to In2O3, the increase of optical bandgap from 1.4 to 3.4 eV and the rise of sheet resistance from 15 Ω/□ to insulator

  15. The changes of CD34+ cells in C57 mouse bone marrow after irradiation and their roles in dysfunction of hematopoiesis

    Full text: To observe the changes of CD34+ cells in C57 mouse bone marrow after irradiation and investigate the role of apoptosis in radiation-induced dysfunction of hematopoiesis. Flow cytometric enumeration of CD34+ hematopietic stem and progenitor cells by double fluorescent Labeling apoptosis detection by Annexin V-FITC kit, and cycle detection by PI labeling were carried out. Compared with the normal group, the percentage of CD34+ cells in bone marrow nucleated cells decreased at least for 14 days after irradiation, and the changes were related with irradiation doses. At 6 h after irradiation, the largest amount of apoptopic cells could be detected. Bone marrow cell cycle was perturbed after 5.5Gy irradiation. The percentage of CD34+ hematopietic stem and progenitor cells in C57 mouse bone marrow decreased after irradiation, and apoptosis might be responsible for the changes of the bone marrow cells

  16. The changes of CD34+ cells in C57 mouse bone marrow after irradiation and their roles in dysfunction of hematopoiesis

    Objective: To observe the changes of CD34+ cells in C57 mouse bone marrow after irradiation and investigate the role of apoptosis in radiation-induced dysfunction of hematopoiesis. Methods: Flow cytometric enumeration of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by double fluorescent labelling apoptosis detection by Annexin V-FITC kit, and cell cycle detection by PI labelling were carried out. Results: 1) compared with the normal group, the percentage of CD34+ cells in bone marrow nucleated cells decreased at least for 14 days after irradiation, and the changes were related with irradiation doses, 2) At 6 h after irradiation, the largest amount of apoptosis cells could be detected. 3) Bone marrow cell cycle was perturbed after 5.5 Gy irradiation. Conclusion: The percentage of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in C57 mouse bone marrow decreased after irradiation, and apoptosis might be responsible for the changes of the bone marrow cells

  17. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage

    Benneker, Lorin M.; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F.; Gisep, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited b...

  18. Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: syoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Oike, Takahiro; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (<40 pg/mL) and premenopausal (≥40 pg/mL). Results: The mean BMDs within the irradiation field (lumbar vertebra 5) in the postmenopausal and the premenopausal groups were 0.825 and 0.910 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). In addition, in the premenopausal group the mean BMDs of the nonirradiated regions at thoracic vertebrae 9-12 and lumbar vertebrae 2-4 were 0.753 and 0.958 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD.

  19. Bone mineral density changes of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty. A randomised study with the use of porous tantalum metaphyseal cones

    Jensen, Claus L; Petersen, Michael M; Schrøder, Henrik M; Lund, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomised study using conventional method or "Trabecular Metal Cone" (TM Cone) (Zimmer inc., Warsaw, USA) for reconstruction of bone loss of the proximal tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim was to evaluate changes in bone mi...

  20. Bone mineral density changes of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty. A randomised study with the use of porous tantalum metaphyseal cones

    Jensen, Claus L; Petersen, Michael M; Schrder, Henrik M; Lund, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomised study using conventional method or "Trabecular Metal Cone" (TM Cone) (Zimmer inc., Warsaw, USA) for reconstruction of bone loss of the proximal tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim was to evaluate changes in bone...

  1. Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants

    Abrams Steven A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OHD and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. Methods We measured cord serum 25(OHD levels, bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and their changes over 3 months of life with 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplementation. Results Cord serum 25(OHD was significantly lower in Hispanic than non-Hispanic Caucasian infants (16.4 ± 6.5 ng/mL, n = 27, vs 22.3 ± 9.4 n = 22, p = 0.013. Among 38 infants who completed a 3 month vitamin D supplementation intervention, provision of 400 IU/day of vitamin D increased final 25(OHD to a higher level in non-Hispanic Caucasian compared to Hispanic infants. There was no significant relationship between cord serum 25(OHD and BMC or BMD in the first week of life (n = 49 or after 3 months of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion Low cord 25(OHD levels are seen in Hispanic infants, but their functional significance is uncertain related to bone health in a southern US setting. Daily vitamin D intake of 400 IU during the first months of life appears adequate to increase serum 25(OHD and support BMC increases despite low initial 25(OHD levels in some infants. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00697294

  2. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    Ashwin Swaminathan; Robyn M Lucas; David Harley; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response,...

  3. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-α and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-α-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-β-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-β-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-α-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-β represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  4. Characterization of knee osteoarthritis-related changes in trabecular bone using texture parameters at various levels of spatial resolutiona simulation study

    Lowitz, Torsten; Museyko, Oleg; Bousson, Valerie; Kalender, Willi A; Laredo, Jean Denis; Engelke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage and subchondral bone are the key tissues in osteoarthritis (OA). The role of the cancellous bone increasingly attracts attention in OA research. Because of its fast adaptation to changes in the loading distribution across joints, its quantification is expected to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of OA. In this study, we simulated OA progression-related changes of trabecular structure in a series of digital bone models and then characterized the potential of texture parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) as surrogate measures to quantify trabecular bone structure. Five texture parameters were studied: entropy, global and local inhomogeneity, anisotropy and variogram slope. Their dependence on OA relevant structural changes was investigated for three spatial resolutions typically used in micro computed tomography (CT; 10??m), high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) (90??m) and clinical whole-body CT equipment (250??m). At all resolutions, OA-related changes in trabecular bone architecture can be quantified using a specific (resolution dependent) combination of three texture parameters. BMD alone is inadequate for this purpose but if available reduces the required texture parameter combination to anisotropy and global inhomogeneity. The results are summarized in a comprehensive analysis guide for the detection of structural changes in OA knees. In conclusion, texture parameters can be used to characterize trabecular bone architecture even at spatial resolutions below the dimensions of a single trabecula and are essential for a detailed classification of relevant OA changes that cannot be achieved with a measurement of BMD alone. PMID:25512855

  5. Characterization of knee osteoarthritis-related changes in trabecular bone using texture parameters at various levels of spatial resolution-a simulation study.

    Lowitz, Torsten; Museyko, Oleg; Bousson, Valerie; Kalender, Willi A; Laredo, Jean Denis; Engelke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage and subchondral bone are the key tissues in osteoarthritis (OA). The role of the cancellous bone increasingly attracts attention in OA research. Because of its fast adaptation to changes in the loading distribution across joints, its quantification is expected to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of OA. In this study, we simulated OA progression-related changes of trabecular structure in a series of digital bone models and then characterized the potential of texture parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) as surrogate measures to quantify trabecular bone structure. Five texture parameters were studied: entropy, global and local inhomogeneity, anisotropy and variogram slope. Their dependence on OA relevant structural changes was investigated for three spatial resolutions typically used in micro computed tomography (CT; 10??m), high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) (90??m) and clinical whole-body CT equipment (250??m). At all resolutions, OA-related changes in trabecular bone architecture can be quantified using a specific (resolution dependent) combination of three texture parameters. BMD alone is inadequate for this purpose but if available reduces the required texture parameter combination to anisotropy and global inhomogeneity. The results are summarized in a comprehensive analysis guide for the detection of structural changes in OA knees. In conclusion, texture parameters can be used to characterize trabecular bone architecture even at spatial resolutions below the dimensions of a single trabecula and are essential for a detailed classification of relevant OA changes that cannot be achieved with a measurement of BMD alone. PMID:25512855

  6. Mastocytosis: reactive or neoplastic?

    Kröber, S M; Horny, H.P.; Ruck, P; Kämmerer, U.; Geiselhart, A; Handgretinger, R; Griesser, H; Menke, D M; Kaiserling, E

    1997-01-01

    Mast cells are now known to derive from CD34+ haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. However, it has not yet been established whether the various types of mastocytosis, which involve tumour-like proliferation of mast cells, are true neoplastic disorders or reactive/hyperplastic conditions. In this study, tissue specimens (five bone marrow, two spleen, one skin) from female patients with histologically confirmed mastocytosis were investigated with a recently developed polymerase chain rea...

  7. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress.

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Johansson, Gerd; Karlson, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor in exhaustion disorder (ED). We examined whether a DSR is present during the early stages of ED, and still is present after recovery. Three groups were studied: 1. Former ED patients (n=14); 2. persons who during the past 6 month had experienced stress at work and had a Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) score over 3.75, considered to indicate a pre-stage of ED (n=17); 3. persons who had not experienced stress at work during the past 6 months and had a SMBQ score below 2.75 (n=20). The participants were exposed twice to a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test (V-TSST), during which salivary cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both groups' cortisol response habituated to the second V-TSST session. The ANS responses did not differ between the two groups. Thus, persons in a pre-stage of ED and unrecovered former ED patients showed signs of DSR, in contrast to healthy controls and recovered former ED patients. The results may be interpreted as indicating that DSR in the HPA axis is present early on in the stress process, but subsides after successful recovery. PMID:26210042

  8. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    Ashwin Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations—particularly for children—to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

  9. Changes in some parameters on immunological reactivity of irradiated and vaccinated pigs against Aujeszky's disease

    The study was performed on ten two-month-old pigs irradiated with a dose rate of 2.2 Gy. The vaccination with a standard Aujeszky MK 35 vaccine was done on days 3 and 10, and re-vaccination - on day 17 after irradiation. The following parameters, reflecting the status of the immuno-biological reactivity, were estimated: total leucocyte count (Lc), differential WBC count (NTR, Lm), E-RFC and AEC-RFC, total T- and B-cell count, bacterial activity; phagocytic activity (PhA), antibody titer with RPHA. All parameters were measured before irradiation and on days 3, 7, 10, 17, 24 and 31 after vaccination. The analysis of the results showed that all parameters were influenced by irradiation and the values of most of them remained lower than initial values during the entire experimental period. Lc decreased in both groups, especially because the count of NTR and Lm decreased. That was supported by the E-, EAC-RFC, T- and B-cell count. The phagocyte count, phagocyte index and BA were negatively influenced at a greater extent in animals vaccinated on tenth day. The specific immune response was stronger and earlier manifested in animals vaccinated on the third day. The effect of vaccination, performed on the third day after irradiation, was an earlier activation of compensatory mechanisms in the experimental animals and resulted in a better specific immune response. (author)

  10. A study of bone density change in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    do Carmo, Isabel; Mascarenhas, Mário; Macedo, Ana; Silva, Armanda; Santos, Inês; Bouça, Dulce; Myatt, John; Sampaio, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) several factors combine to cause osteoporosis, and the risk of osteoporosis increases with chronicity of illness. The authors carried out a follow-up study in patients who attended the Eating Disorders department of the Hospital de Santa Maria. The average follow-up period was of 7.6 years. Fifteen patients were included. Patients answered clinical history questions and underwent neck of femur and spine densitometry. The most important variable with negative correlations to bone recovery was disease duration. A positive correlation between bone recovery and time since the first menstrual cycle post-amenorrhea was also found. However, AN is a condition in which once weight improves and menstrual cycles become regular, severe damage to bone structure is still likely to be maintained. PMID:17680590

  11. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    Albert, Hanne B.; Manniche, Claus; Srensen, Joan S.; Deleuran, Bent

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic...... changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n=166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes and...... effect of antibiotic treatment was large in a group of patients with Modic changes suffering from persistent LBP following a disc herniation. These results provide tentative support for a hypothesis that bacterial infection may play a role in LBP with Modic changes and indicate the need for randomised...

  12. Changes in the computed tomography (pixel) value of mandibular ramus bone and fixation screws after sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    Ueki, K; Moroi, A; Iguchi, R; Kosaka, A; Ikawa, H; Yoshizawa, K

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the changes in computed tomography (CT) values of ramus bone and screws after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) setback surgery. The subjects were 64 patients (128 sides) who underwent bilateral SSRO setback surgery. They were divided into six groups according to the fixation plate type used and the use or not of self-setting α-tricalcium phosphate (Biopex): group 1: titanium plate and screws; group 2: titanium plate and screws with Biopex; group 3: poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) plate and screws; group 4: PLLA plate and screws with Biopex; group 5: uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite particles and poly-l-lactic acid (uHA/PLLA) plate and screws; group 6: PLLA/uHA plate and screws with Biopex. CT values (pixel values) of the lateral cortex, medial cortex, osteotomy site, and screws were measured preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 1 year postoperatively using horizontal CT images at the mandibular foramen taken parallel to the Frankfort horizontal plane. There were significant differences in the time-course change of pixel values for the lateral cortex (Pmaterial may affect bone quality during the process of bone healing after SSRO. PMID:26139563

  13. Changes in the plasma levels of several bone markers in newborn calves during the first two days of life.

    Hatate, Kaoru; Shinya, Kazuhiko; Matsuo-Sato, Asako; Sasaki, Shuichi; Devkota, Bhuminand; Takahashi, Masahiro; Hirata, Toichi; Yamagishi, Norio

    2016-03-01

    The fluctuations in the plasma levels of several bone markers were investigated in newborn calves. Experiment 1 monitored the postnatal changes in the plasma levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in four calves. These markers increased significantly from 9-20 hr after the first colostrum-suckling compared with the values immediately after birth. Experiment 2 evaluated changes in the plasma TRAP5b, t-ALP, BAP and type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) levels within 2 days post-birth in five calves with successful passive immunization via colostrum (non-deficient group) and five others with poor colostrum intake (deficient group). The non-deficient group had significantly higher plasma levels of the four parameters around 12 hr of life compared with the deficient group. The results suggest that the increase in plasma bone markers in calves in the first day of life is related to the colostrum intake. PMID:26460313

  14. Evaluation of spinal bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure by CT and MR imaging with pathologic correlation

    To investigate bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), bone mineral density (BMD) and T1 relaxation times were measured with CT and MR imaging and the results were correlated to histology. Excised lumbar vertebrae from 25 autopsy cases of CRF (18 males and 7 females), including 12 cases in which the patients had been receiving hemodialysis were examined. BMD and T1 relaxation times values were associated with specific histologic findings for cellularity, trabeculae, and peritrabecular fibrosis. Three vertebrae with low BMD showed incresed hematopoietic marrow content, a finding not observed in primary osteoporosis. The vertebrae with osteosclerosis showed prolonged T1 relaxation time, which was due to increased amount of hematopoietic marrow, and the presence of thickened or many small irregular trabeculae or perirabecular fibrosis. (orig.)

  15. Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method

    Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420 degrees C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs

  16. Evidence for Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder Associated With Metabolic Pathway Changes.

    Wu, Qiong; Lai, Xueli; Zhu, Zhenyu; Hong, Zhanying; Dong, Xin; Wang, Tieyun; Wang, Haiyan; Lou, Ziyang; Lin, Qishan; Guo, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng

    2015-08-01

    Abnormalities in the levels of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in serum are typical for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). They are used routinely to predict the onset of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). However, CKD-MBD associated with metabolic pathway imbalance is not well understood.The objective of the study was to identify endogenous metabolic signatures in patients with intact PTH using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. This study was a cross-sectional study. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight/mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was employed to analyze serum samples from 19 disease controls (DCs) (intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] 150-300?pg/mL) and 19 secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) patients (iPTH >300?pg/mL) (the training data set) to identify metabolic biomarkers for CKD-MBD. Then, another set of samples including 19 DCs (iPTH 150-300?pg/mL) and 19 SHPT patients (iPTH >300?pg/mL) (the test data set) were used to validate the potential biomarkers identified.Metabolic profiling analyses revealed different patterns of endogenous metabolites between the SHPT and the DC groups. A total of 32 unique metabolites were identified and 30 metabolites were elevated in the iPTH compared with control serum pools. Cytidine and L-phenylalanine were downregulated in the SHPT patients. The metabolic signatures identified were assessed respectively by an internal 10-fold cross validation with an accuracy of 91.4% and an external validation with an accuracy of 71.1%, a sensitivity of 73.7%, and a specificity of 68.4%.Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analyses for SHPT patients promises immense potential for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Our results indicated that the onset of CKD-MBD is associated with pathway changes of protein synthesis and metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and steroid hormone metabolism, with obvious promise for better understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Several metabolic biomarkers were identified, which warrant further development. PMID:26266360

  17. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine

  18. Assessment of Corticotomy Facilitated Tooth Movement and Changes in Alveolar Bone Thickness - A CT Scan Study

    Bhattacharya, Preeti; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Anjum, Arbab; Bhandari, Ravi; Agarwal, D. K.; Gupta, Ankur; Ansar, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Corticotomy is an effective method of accelerating the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment time for the extraction space closure, between corticotomy assisted and conventional orthodontic tooth movement and to check the alveolar bone thickness before and after corticotomy procedure in the corticotomy group.

  19. Changes of the proliferation kinetics of human bone marrow in vivo through hydroxyurea

    A 10-hour oral continuous infusion with hydroxyurea (HU) at a non-toxic concentration was performed in 20 malignoma patients with undisturbed bone marrow. Bone marrow taken before, during and after HU-administration was examined for 3H-TdR incorporation by means of autoradiography and liquid scintimetry, for cell phase distribution by means of flow cytophotometry, morphologically and by means of CFUc. 3H-TdR incorporation into bone marrow cells dropped to 16% of the initial value under HU and rose to 156% 10 h after HU-effect terminated. Cytophotometry did not furnish any proof of a decrease of S-phase cells or increase of cells in G1-to-S-transition during HU. S-cells rise to 129% of the initial value 10 h after having fallen below minimum inhibition concentration. Under HU, there is an equal number of cells in S which incorporate much less 3H-thymidine; after HU more S-cells incorporate more 3H-thymidine than before HU. During HU action, DNA synthesis activity is reduced to 17% and reaches the initial value with 105% afterwards. In human bone marrow, hydroxyurea in non-toxic concentration causes a temporary DNA synthesis inhibition in terms of activity reduction and partial arrest in S. A stop-and-go of the cell cycle effected by HU does not occur; the effect is rather a slow-down of DNA synthesis. (orig./MG)

  20. RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF OSTEOPOROSIS THROUGH DETECTION OF JAW BONE CHANGES: A SIMPLIFIED EARLY OSTEOPOROSIS DETECTION EFFORT

    Menik Priminiarti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis has become a worldwide problem and has been known as a silence disease. Nowadays, there are a lot of diagnostic tools for detecting osteoporosis. Eighty eight postmenopausal were included and underwent digital panoramic, digital periapical, and conventional radiography. Ultrasound bone densitometry of os calcis used as gold standard. Correlation between stiffness index (SI with a digital dental, digital panoramic and conventional dental radiography are 0.170 (p = 0.11, -0382 (p = 0.001 and 0.246 (p = 0.021 respectively. Significant relationship was found between the SI only with digital panoramic and conventional dental. The highest correlation was found between SI values with mandibular Inferior Cortex on digital panoramic (-0.382, Pearson Correlation Tests. Correlation between digital panoramic radiographs and the SI values was the highest of the three radiographic modalities in this study. This indicates that evaluation of cortical bone is more accurate than cancellous bone. Bone quality evaluation in patients at high risk for osteoporosis using panoramic and dental conventional radiograph by dentist, contributes in preventing further occurrence of osteoporosis which in turn could reduce mortality and morbidity of osteoporosis in Indonesia.

  1. Dynamics of bone marrow changes in patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    Thiele, J; Kvasnicka, H M; Dietrich, H.; Stein, G; Hann, M.; Kaminski, A.; Rathjen, N.; Metz, K.A.; Beelen, D.W.; Ditschkowski, M.; Zander, A.; Kroeger, N.

    2005-01-01

    Scant knowledge exists about the dynamics of fibro-osteosclerotic bone marrow (BM) lesions and regeneration of hematopoiesis following allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation (SCT) in chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. Therefore, an immunohistochemical and morphometric study was performed on BM biopsies in 20 patients before and at standardized intervals (days 30 through 384) following SCT. In responding patients, a total regression of the pretranspl...

  2. Changes in biochemical markers and bone mass after withdrawal of ibandronate treatment

    Ravn, Pernille; Christensen, J O; Baumann, M; Clemmesen, B

    1998-01-01

    quartiles with less reduced concentrations (p < 0.01). During the withdrawal period, uCL and alkaline phosphatase (AP) returned to baseline values 12 months after discontinuation of treatment in all groups, whereas OC(N-MID) and bone-specific AP were still reduced 10%-25% in the groups previously treated...

  3. Bone development

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.; Krupski, W.; Majcher, P.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P<0.01) and improved the mechanical endurance of ribs in terms of the moments of maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength by 10% and 8%, respectively (P<0.05). It could be concluded that AKG...

  4. Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses

    Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, [B10----AKR], against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of [B10----AKR] chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype

  5. Bone mineral density changes in protease inhibitor-sparing vs. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from a randomized trial

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Obel, N; Nielsen, H; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).......The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)....

  6. Change of urinary fluoride and bone metabolism indicators in the endemic fluorosis areas of southern china after supplying low fluoride public water

    Chen, Shaoxian; Li, Boling; Lin, Shao; HUANG, YIXIANG; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhang, Min; Xia, Yuan; Fang, Xiaoheng; Wang, Junyi; Hwang, Syni-An; Yu, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated health impacts, especially biomarker changes, following implementation of a new environmental policy. This study examined changes in water fluoride, urinary fluoride (UF), and bone metabolism indicators in children after supplying low fluoride public water in endemic fluorosis areas of Southern China. We also assessed the relationship between UF and serum osteocalcin (BGP), calcitonin (CT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bone mineral density to identify ...

  7. Changes in reactive stratospheric gases due to a change in Brewer–Dobson circulation: results from a simple model

    Cook, Peter A.; Roscoe, Howard K.

    2011-01-01

    Amounts of source gases with stratospheric sinks (CFCs, N2O, CH4) are affected by changes in Brewer–Dobson circulation. Source gases and their degradation products are important for atmospheric chemistry and climate. With a simple model, we examine how amounts and lifetimes of source gases and products depend on speed of the circulation. Transient results differ from steady-state and stratospheric results differ from those for stratosphere plus troposphere. Increases in speed increase the str...

  8. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  9. Platelet reactivity changes significantly throughout all trimesters of pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state: a prospective study.

    Burke, N

    2013-12-01

    Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of uteroplacental disease and platelet reactivity may be an important marker of uteroplacental disease activity. However, platelet reactivity has not been evaluated comprehensively in normal pregnancy. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity using a number of agonists at defined time points in pregnancy using a novel platelet assay and compare these with a nonpregnant cohort.

  10. Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax Alteraes histolgicas e radiolgicas no osso craniano na presena de cera de osso

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz Albino de Almeida; Gustavo Paschoal; Daniela Franco Bueno; Luiz Carlos Vulcano; Maria Rita Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo Alonso

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm) was performed in eight animals. The right side of the cranium remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. The...

  11. Electron Microscopy and Analytical X-ray Characterization of Compositional and Nanoscale Structural Changes in Fossil Bone

    Boatman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale structure of compact bone contains several features that are direct indicators of bulk tissue mechanical properties. Fossil bone tissues represent unique opportunities to understand the compact bone structure/property relationships from a deep time perspective, offering a possible array of new insights into bone diseases, biomimicry of composite materials, and basic knowledge of bioapatite composition and nanoscale bone structure. To date, most work with fossil bone has employed...

  12. Scintigraphic changes of osteoarthritis: An analysis of findings during routine bone scans to evaluate the incidence in an Indian population

    The reported prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) varies according to the method that is used to detect it. X-rays are commonly used in the diagnosis of OA. However, marked osteoarthritic damage must be present to detect characteristic changes with radiologic imaging. Our intention was to evaluate bone scans (1) he occurrence of such changes, (2) he incidence of OA (single or multiple joints) in the general population (a mixture of urban and rural) who were asymptomatic. Data on OA incidence in India is sketchy and sparse as against more detailed information obtained from USA and European nations. Also, clinical rheumatologists are not well-versed with the potential application of bone scans in the management of arthritides. Two hundred and eighty nine planar images of routine bone scans were randomly evaluated by two trained nuclear medicine physicians. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to over 80 years. It is observed that as the age increases, the incidence of joint involvement increases. However, it is worth noting that even in the age group of 20-40 years, as many as 34% of asymptomatic persons have involvement of the joints. In this age group, as the manifestation is probably in the inception stage, there is a tendency for single joint involvement as against multiple joints seen in the older age groups. Another point to note is that the incidence of joint involvement was not affected by weight. In our patient population, gross obesity was not seen. The predominant joints involved are the knees and hips, followed by the shoulders and ankles. Females show a higher incidence than males. Some patients would be having only a single site or multiple site involvement. This observation is important as in a single, simple test whole body survey gives more information with low radiation burden. Scintigraphic prevalence of OA is higher than reported in US, Europe, and Asia as this test is more sensitive in detecting early changes as compared to radiological changes. These findings on scintigraphy in asymptomatic cases have not been described to the best of our knowledge. Epidemiological demography in published reports is based on clinical or radiological changes observed in single joints which are predominantly symptomatic and multiple joint involvement is rarely recorded. The sensitivity of scintigraphy to show early changes in bone homeostasis and remodeling needs to be exploited

  13. Reactive Kripke semantics

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  14. Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging.

    Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2015-04-14

    Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom bodies change their activity and reactivity to stimuli during sleep, wake, and after short or long sleep deprivation. As before, sleep was defined as a period of immobility of >5 min associated with a reduced behavioral response to a stimulus. We found that calcium levels in Kenyon cells decline when flies fall asleep and increase when they wake up. Moreover, calcium transients in response to two different stimuli are larger in awake flies than in sleeping flies. The activity of Kenyon cells is also affected by sleep/wake history: in awake flies, more cells are spontaneously active and responding to stimuli if the last several hours (5-8 h) before imaging were spent awake rather than asleep. By contrast, long wake (?29 h) reduces both baseline and evoked neural activity and decreases the ability of neurons to respond consistently to the same repeated stimulus. The latter finding may underlie some of the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and is consistent with the occurrence of local sleep during wake as described in behaving rats. Thus, calcium imaging uncovers new similarities between fly and mammalian sleep: fly neurons are more active and reactive in wake than in sleep, and their activity tracks sleep/wake history. PMID:25825756

  15. Pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases

    Background and purpose: To examine the incidence of pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and to determine what constitutes a meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases. Patients and methods: Patients with bone metastases treated with external beam radiotherapy were asked to score their pain on a scale of 0-10 before the treatment (baseline), daily during the treatment and for 10 days after completion of external beam radiation. Pain flare was defined as a two-point increase from baseline pain in the pain scale of 0-10 with no decrease in analgesic intake or a 25% increase in analgesic intake employing daily oral morphine equivalent with no decrease in pain score. To distinguish pain flare from progression of pain, we required the pain score and analgesic intake to return back to baseline levels after the increase/flare. They were also asked to indicate if their pain changed during that time compared to pre-treatment level. The change in pain score was compared with patient perception. Results: Eighty-eight patients were evaluated in this study. There were 49 male and 39 female patients with the median age of 70 years. Twelve of 88 patients (14%) had pain flare on day 1. The overall incidence of pain flare during the study period ranged from 2 to 16%. A total of 797 pain scorings were obtained. Patients perceived an improvement in pain when their self-reported pain score decreased by at least two points. Conclusions: Our study confirms the occurrence of pain flare following the external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of bone metastases. Further studies are required to predict who are at risk for flare. Appropriate measures can be taken to alleviate the pain flare. The finding in the meaningful change in pain scores supports the investigator-defined partial response used in some clinical trials

  16. MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor

  17. MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance

    Pierre-Jerome, Claude, E-mail: cpierr3@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Reyes, Emmanuel J.; Moncayo, Valeria; Chen, Zhengjia Nelson; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor.

  18. Efficient integration of stiff kinetics with phase change detection for reactive reservoir processes

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, Margot G.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2007-01-01

    implemented for in situ combustion, a thermal oil recovery process. Through benchmark studies using the 14 component reaction model the new ESDIRK solvers are shown to improve computational speed when compared to the widely used multi-step BDF methods DASSL and LSODE. Phase changes are known to cause...... convergence problems for the integration method. We propose an algorithm for detection and location of phase changes based on discrete event system theory. Experiments show that the algorithm improves the robustness of the integration process near phase boundaries by lowering the number convergence and error...... construct a virtual kinetic cell model. The model serves both as a tool for the development and testing of tailored solvers as well as a testbed for studying the interactions between chemical kinetics and phase behavior. As case study, two chemical kinetics models with 6 and 14 components, respectively, are...

  19. Heavy-metal-induced reactive oxygen species: phytotoxicity and physicochemical changes in plants.

    Shahid, Muhammad; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dumat, Camille; Nadeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities have enhanced there distribution of many toxic heavy metals from the earth's crust to different environmental compartments. Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metals is increasing worldwide, and poses a rising threat to both the environment and to human health.Plants are exposed to heavy metals from various sources: mining and refining of ores, fertilizer and pesticide applications, battery chemicals, disposal of solid wastes(including sewage sludge), irrigation with wastewater, vehicular exhaust emissions and adjacent industrial activity.Heavy metals induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants, either directly or indirectly, and cause various damaging effects. The most frequently documented and earliest consequence of heavy metal toxicity in plants cells is the overproduction of ROS. Unlike redox-active metals such as iron and copper, heavy metals (e.g, Pb, Cd, Ni, AI, Mn and Zn) cannot generate ROS directly by participating in biological redox reactions such as Haber Weiss/Fenton reactions. However, these metals induce ROS generation via different indirect mechanisms, such as stimulating the activity of NADPH oxidases, displacing essential cations from specific binding sites of enzymes and inhibiting enzymatic activities from their affinity for -SH groups on the enzyme.Under normal conditions, ROS play several essential roles in regulating the expression of different genes. Reactive oxygen species control numerous processes like the cell cycle, plant growth, abiotic stress responses, systemic signalling, programmed cell death, pathogen defence and development. Enhanced generation of these species from heavy metal toxicity deteriorates the intrinsic antioxidant defense system of cells, and causes oxidative stress. Cells with oxidative stress display various chemical,biological and physiological toxic symptoms as a result of the interaction between ROS and biomolecules. Heavy-metal-induced ROS cause lipid peroxidation, membrane dismantling and damage to DNA, protein and carbohydrates. Plants have very well-organized defense systems, consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidation processes. The primary defense mechanism for heavy metal detoxification is the reduced absorption of these metals into plants or their sequestration in root cells.Secondary heavy metal tolerance mechanisms include activation of antioxidant enzymes and the binding of heavy metals by phytochelatins, glutathione and amino acids. These defense systems work in combination to manage the cascades of oxidative stress and to defend plant cells from the toxic effects of ROS.In this review, we summarized the biochemiCal processes involved in the over production of ROS as an aftermath to heavy metal exposure. We also described the ROS scavenging process that is associated with the antioxidant defense machinery.Despite considerable progress in understanding the biochemistry of ROS overproduction and scavenging, we still lack in-depth studies on the parameters associated with heavy metal exclusion and tolerance capacity of plants. For example, data about the role of glutathione-glutaredoxin-thioredoxin system in ROS detoxification in plant cells are scarce. Moreover, how ROS mediate glutathionylation (redox signalling)is still not completely understood. Similarly, induction of glutathione and phytochelatins under oxidative stress is very well reported, but it is still unexplained that some studied compounds are not involved in the detoxification mechanisms. Moreover,although the role of metal transporters and gene expression is well established for a few metals and plants, much more research is needed. Eventually, when results for more metals and plants are available, the mechanism of the biochemical and genetic basis of heavy metal detoxification in plants will be better understood. Moreover, by using recently developed genetic and biotechnological tools it may be possible to produce plants that have traits desirable for imparting heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24984833

  20. Arsenic induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by reactive oxygen species generation rather than glutathione depletion in Chang human hepatocytes

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huihui; Xue, Peng; Li, Xin; Li, Bing; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the possible involvement of mitochondrial pathway in NaAsO{sub 2}-induced apoptosis and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the apoptotic effect in Chang human hepatocytes. The MTT assay demonstrated that sodium arsenite (NaAsO{sub 2}) treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. NaAsO{sub 2} treatment (0-30{mu}M) was also found to induce phosphatidylserine externalization, a hallmark of apoptosis; to disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}); to cause the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and to trigger cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a dose-dependent manner. All these changes were accompanied with the enhanced generation of intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA). Increase of intracellular GSH also coincided unexpectedly. Moreover, the extracellular addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) effectively reduced the generation of ROS and MDA, and rescued the cells from NaAsO{sub 2} induced apoptosis and related alteration of mitochondria. These data suggest that the arsenic-induced cell apoptosis occurs though the mitochondrial pathway, and is mostly dependent on generation of ROS rather than GSH depletion in Chang human hepatocytes. (orig.)

  1. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  2. Changes in the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage to bone marrow cells in mice injected with 90Sr

    Male CCBA mice used in the experiment were given intraperitoneal injections of 592 kBq/animal 90Sr. Animals were examined at 1, 3, 6, 13, 21, 30, 100, 400 days after injection. Bone marrow cells were studied using alkaline Single Cell Gel technique (Comet assay). For DNA repair evaluation, animals were exposed to additional external ?-irradiation (3 Gy) each time they were examined, and DNA migration was measured immediately following additional irradiation, 15 and 120 minutes later. Changes in DNA migration damage level and repair character is manifested in following way: a marked increase in DNA migration length was observed at the peak of cell death (at day 13) and less pronounced at days 30 and 100 after 90Sr injection. A decrease in DNA damage induction by additional ?-irradiation was noted to occur parallel to bone marrow cell devastation. At the time of cell death peak this value was the lowest; the dynamic of fast reduction of DNA migration length was accelerated at 1 day of 90Sr exposure and at day 100 after the isotope injection; the dynamic of slow reduction in DNA migration was significantly delayed beginning from the 1 day of exposure to 90Sr with lowest value being registered at peak of cell death; at day 400 of exposure to 90Sr bone marrow cells displayed only a reduction in DNA damage due to additional ?-irradiation. (authors)

  3. Morphological Changes of Limestone Sorbent Particles during Carbonation/Calcination Looping Cycles in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Reactivation with Steam

    Wu, Y.

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation and calcination looping cycles were carried out on four limestones in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The CO2 carrying capacity of a limestone particle decays very quickly in the first 10 cycles, reducing to about 20% of its original uptake capacity after 10 cycles for the four limestones studied in this work, and it decreases further to 6-12% after 50 cycles. A new steam reactivation method was applied on the spent sorbent to recover the loss of reactivity. The steam reactivation of multi-cycled samples was conducted at atmospheric pressure. Steam reactivation for 5 min at 130 °C of particles that had undergone 10 cycles resulted in an immediate increase (by 45-60% points) in carrying capacity. The morphological changes of limestone particles during the cycling and steam reactivation were studied using both an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diameters of limestone particles shrank by about 2-7% after 10 carbonation/calcination cycles, and the particle diameters swelled significantly (12-22% increase) after steam reactivation. These size changes are important for studies of attrition and mathematical modeling of carbonation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Myeloma impairs mature osteoblast function but causes early expansion of osteo-progenitors: temporal changes in bone physiology and gene expression in the KMS12BM model.

    Kassen, Deepika; Lath, Darren; Lach, Anna; Evans, Holly; Chantry, Andy; Rabin, Neil; Croucher, Peter; Yong, Kwee L

    2016-01-01

    Myeloma bone disease results from an uncoupling of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, but early changes in osteogenic function remain poorly defined. We used the KMS12BM xenograft model to investigate cellular and molecular events at early and late stages of disease. Lytic lesions and changes in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers occur late (8weeks), however, micro-computed tomography of femora revealed significant reduction in bone volume at earlier disease stages (3weeks) when tumour burden is low. Calcein labelling demonstrated reduced mineralization and bone formation at 3weeks, suggesting functional impairment despite preserved osteoblast numbers. Osteo-progenitors from compact bone increased early (1week), but fell at 3weeks and were profoundly suppressed by 8weeks. Exposure of osteoblast progenitors to multiple myeloma (MM) cells invitro induced cell cycling, suggesting a mechanistic basis for early expansion of osteo-progenitors. We observed temporal changes in chemokine, osteogenic and osteoclastogenic genes in the stromal compartment. Notably, an early rise in CCL3 may underlie functional changes in mature osteoblasts at 3weeks. Our data indicate that MM has distinct effects on mature osteoblasts and immature osteo-progenitors. Our findings argue for early clinical intervention to prevent bone changes that ultimately lead to the development of osteolytic disease. PMID:26767468

  5. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T; McNair, P; Breum, L; Transbl, I

    1993-01-01

    < 0.001) while serum osteocalcin was lower than in the controls (0.67 nmol/l vs 0.98 nmol/l, p < 0.01). Bone resorption, as measured by the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio, was not increased in the obese patients (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 16.7 molar ratio x 10(-3), NS). After 2 months, the...

  6. Dietary and Urinary Sulfur can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort. Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest. In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. The final three subjects' inflight samples are awaiting return from the International Space Station via Space-X. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses show that urinary excretion of sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is a significant predictor of urinary n-telopeptide (NTX). Dietary sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is also a significant predictor of urinary NTX. The results from this study, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

  7. Curcumin Protects against Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Changes in Rat Model

    Farida Hussan; Nawwar Ghassan Ibraheem; Taty Anna Kamarudin; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid; Ima Nirwana Soelaiman; Faizah Othman

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease affecting both men and women especially in postmenopausal women. Curcumin possesses many medicinal properties. In this study, thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to determine the potential effect of curcumin in prevention of bone loss following ovariectomy. The animals were divided into Sham group, ovariectomised control, ovariectomised treated with curcumin 110?mg/kg and ovariectomised treated with Premarin 100??g/kg. The treatments were given ...

  8. Comparison of radiographic subchondral bone changes with arthroscopic findings in the equine femoropatellar and femorotibial joints: a retrospective study of 72 joints (50 horses)

    Radiographs of 72 femoropatellar and femorotibial joints from 50 horses were evaluated. Ninety four arthroscopically evaluated areas were graded according to a predetermined system. The radiographic grade was then compared to arthroscopic findings in the same location. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between the radiographic subchondral bone changes and arthroscopic findings. Radiographically normal areas in the femoropatellar joint were arthroscopically positive for cartilaginous changes in 40% of the femoropatellar joints. Areas of mild subchondral bone flattening (grade I) in the lateral trochlear ridge were arthroscopically positive for cartilage changes 78% of the time. Ninety six percent of moderate to severe subchondral bone changes (grades II-V) were arthroscopically positive for cartilage damage. This research demonstrates that (1) a significant number of radiographically normal joints will have cartilage changes, (2) areas of mild subchondral bone flattening have cartilage changes present in the majority of cases and (3) areas of moderate to severe subchondral bone changes have arthroscopically detectable cartilage changes present

  9. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  10. TGF-β1 induces apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production

    Zhang, Fenxi; REN, TONGMING; Wu, Junfang

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the most promising seed cells in regenerative medicine. Our previous study demonstrated that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced BMSC senescence in vitro. Whether TGF-β1 affects the apoptosis of BMSCs has not been examined; therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate this effect. BMSCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow, and the third-passage cells were exposed to 0, 10 and 20 ng/ml TGF-β1 for 24 h. Cell proliferat...

  11. Investigate methods for measuring muscle and bone mass changes in astronauts and animals which occur during space flight

    Palmer, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium-22 is being used as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism studies. Dogs are being grown from puppies to adulthood on a diet containing a constant level of sodium-22 in order to uniformly tag the entire skeleton with a long lived radionuclide. This study is still in progress and the dogs are still growing. Potassium-40 measurements were made on people, who are replacing muscle mass lost due to leg injuries, in a second study. It appears that potassium-40 measurements provide an accurate and convenient method for determining relative changes in the muscle content of the leg.

  12. Type 2 diabetes and bone fractures

    Moseley, Kendall F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss current literature and hypotheses pertaining to the pathophysiology of increased bone fragility and fracture in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent findings Despite high bone mineral density, studies have shown that men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for fracture. Complications of T2DM including retinopathy and autonomic dysfunction may contribute to bone fracture by increasing fall risk. Nephropathy may lead to renal osteodystrophy. Lean mass and potentially fat mass, may additionally contribute to skeletal health in diabetes. There is increasing acknowledgement that the marrow microenvironment is critical to efficient bone remodeling. Medications including thiazolidinediones and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may also impair bone remodeling by acting on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and osteoblastogenesis. T2DM is associated with significant alterations in systemic inflammation, advanced glycation end-product accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation. These systemic changes may also directly and adversely impact the remodeling cycle and lead to bone fragility in T2DM, though more research is needed. Summary Fracture is a devastating event with dismal health consequences. Identifying the extrinsic and intrinsic biochemical causes of bone fracture in T2DM will speed the discovery of effective strategies for fracture prevention and treatment in this at-risk population. PMID:22262002

  13. Changes in functional activity of bone tissue cells under space flight conditions.

    Rodionova, Natalia; Nesterenko, Olga; Kabitskaya, Olga

    The space flight conditions affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bon?s metaphyses of rats flown on board the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) during 2 weeks and samples from tibial bones of mice C57 Black ( Bion ?-1). It was established, that under microgravity conditions there occur remodelling processes in a spongy bone related with a deficit of support load. In this work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure of osteogenetic cells and osteoclasts. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a synchronous control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction of a specific volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cytoplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity conditions. The population of osteogenetic cells shows a decrease in the number of differentiating osteoblasts and an increase in the number of little-differentiated stromal cells. In the population of osteoblasts, degrading and apoptotic cells are sometimes encountered. Such zones show a numerical increase of monocytic cells and osteoclasts. Among them are typical osteoclasts with 3 to 4 nuclei on a section, as well as the "giant" cells with 5 to 6 nuclei and a highly developed zone 2, in which organelles and structures are concentrated, providing for specific functions (primary and secondary lysosomes, heterophagous vacuoles, fibrous layer and "brush border"). The availability of these functionally active osteoclasts testify to the intensification of resorptive processes in remodelling zones. To confirm the obtained electronmicroscopic findings, the experiments were conducted on albino rats under model microgravity conditions ("tail suspension" method) with the use of radionuclides. The experiments with 3H-glycine demonstrated a lower isotope uptake in the osteogenetic cells compared with the control. The autoradiographic studies employing 3H-thymidine, showed that hind limbs unloading leads to a significant acceleration of osteoclast formation in zones of spongy bone reconstruction. Considering the obtained results, the cell mechanisms of osteoclast - osteoblast remodelling and bone tissue loss under the action of space flight factors are discussed.

  14. Acid-induced change in ozone-reactive site in indole ring of tryptophan

    It is well established that ozone as well as oxygen activated by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase cleave the 2,3-C=C bond of the indole ring of tryptophan to produce N-formylkynurenine. In the present study, however, we found that exposure of tryptophan to aqueous ozone at and below pH 4.5 generated a different compound. The compound was identified as kynurenine by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Exposure of N-formylkynurenine to acidic ozone did not generate a significant amount of kynurenine, indicating that the kynurenine was not produced via N-formylkynurenine. Acidic ozone thus appears to cleave the 1, 2-N-C bond in place of the 2,3-C=C bond of the indole ring, followed by liberation of the 2-C atom. The 1,2-N-C bond and 2,3-C=C bond are likely to undergo changes in their nature of bonding on acidification, enabling ozone to react with the former bond but not with the latter bond.

  15. Power distribution and control element reactivity changes in Advanced Test Reactor due to beryllium reflector redesign

    A redesigned beryllium reflector has been installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The main feature of the redesigned reflector was the introduction of horizontal sawcuts at 13 different elevations immediately adjacent to the fuel region of the core. Two other significant core design changes were made at the same time: (1) the hafnium plates on the outer shim control cylinders were reduced in arc length from 1340 to 1220, and (2) the inside diameter of the center flux trap baffle was reduced from 85.725 mm (3.375 in.) to 82.2325 mm (3.2375 in.) to increase the metal-to-water ratio in the center flux trap baffle region. Following installation of the redesigned components, zero power physics tests were made with a core of new fuel elements prior to resuming full power operation. The power distribution measurements were obtained in both the ATR and ATRC by irradiating U--Al flux wires in each of the forty fuel elements. The irradiated wires are counted for beta activity which is then converted to specific fission rate. The specific fission rate data are used to calculate point power densities and fuel element powers

  16. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of muscle mass and the improved quality of the muscle tissue was observed and measured on whole muscle volume. The 3-dimensional approach proposed in this work allows the geometrical changes in denervated muscle to be measured. Central lines in rectus femoris are calculated during the treatment and the relative curvature indexes are used to quantify differences between data sets. The result shows a correlation between degeneration status and changes in shape; the differences in curvature between control and denervated muscle diminish with the growth. Furthermore, bone mineral density is measured on the femur to monitor the structural changes induced by the current flow and to evaluate the effect on the patella bone density due to the quadriceps contraction. Though the evidences aren’t yet statistically relevant a kind of structural change in the femur is measured as secondary effect from the muscle stimulation. Beside, the force applied on the patella through the elicited contraction seems also to have a beneficial effect on bone density. Indeed the mineral loss in the patella is remarkably slowed down.

  17. Changes in reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels in missed abortion.

    Zhu, Li-Jun; Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Bing-Jin; Mei, Xiao-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate changes in the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the trophoblasts of patients who had experienced missed abortions. The missed abortion group included 28 patients with missed abortions. The control group was comprised of 35 women who had elected to undergo surgically induced abortion in their first trimester, and whose embryos were confirmed to be alive before surgery. No woman in either group had any known causative factor for missed or spontaneous abortion. As soon as the diagnosis of "missed abortion" was definitively made, the chorionic trophoblast was obtained by induced abortion operation. The same method was used for individuals in the control group, who were at 7-10 weeks of pregnancy. Levels of ROS, SOD, and HIF-1α in the chorionic trophoblasts from women in both groups were examined within 1 hour by fluorescent staining, chemiluminometry, and enzyme immunoassay methods. The SOD and HIF-1α levels were lower and the ROS level was higher in the trophoblasts from women in the missed abortion group compared to levels in the control group (P missed abortion are altered compared to levels in control patients. Changes in these factors should be evaluated further for their potential role in missed abortion. PMID:25232404

  18. [Interdependent changes of the axon and Schwann cell in the process of reactive remodeling of a myelinated nerve fiber].

    Kokurina, T N; Sotnikov, O S; Novakovskaia, S A; Egorov, A S; Kozhevets, R V; Solnushkin, S D; Chikhman, V N

    2013-01-01

    Using the inverted phase-contrast microscope, the living undamaged frog sciatic nerve fibers and the fibers mechanically injured to varying degrees, were studied. It was found that the swelling of myelin incisures (MI) (of Schmidt-Lanterman) occured according to the principles similar to those controlling the changes of the myelin gap (node of Ranvier) and depended on the swelling of a Schwann cell (SC) perikaryon. It was detected that this was a single process, which which could be united in a complex of nonspecific changes of a myelinated nerve fiber. It was also demonstrated that under the action of mechanical injury and hypotonic solution, swelling of MI, nodes of Ranvier and SC perikaryon occurred without modifications of outer fiber diameter, due to the pronounced local axon thinning. Electron microscopic study of the cytoskeletal axonal structures showed that there was not a simple local contraction of an axon, but a significant local increase in the density of cytoskeletal components of the axoplasm (by 200-275%). Reactive reversible remodeling of a myelinated fiber suggests a new type of interaction between the axon and SC, the mechanism of reversible translocation of liquid axoplasmic fraction to the glial cell cytoplasm. PMID:23898720

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP Bone Scintigraphy Finding of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Bone Lesion Changed from Hot to Cold Lesion: Comparing with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Seo, Young Duk; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Kun Ho [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    A 26-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy for detecting bony metastasis after left total nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy showed small hot lesion in the first lumbar spine. About 12 months later, he underwent spinal MRI for lower back pain. A large mass was seen around spinous process of the first lumbar spine (L1) on spinal MRI and confirmed as metastatic renal cell carcinoma by bone biopsy. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were underwent for further evaluation. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy showed cold lesion in the first lumbar spine which was initially hot and newly developed hot lesion in the twelfth thoracic spine, and which were shown as hypermetabolic lesions in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. We report a case of bony metastasis from renal cell carcinoma which is changed from hot lesion to cold lesion in {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy and compare with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  20. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) of bone and cartilage transplants in the knee. Transplant morphology and an attempt at a quantitative evaluation of cartilage changes

    Koenig, H.; Skalej, M.; Hoentzsch, D.; Aicher, K.

    1988-02-01

    MRT control examinations were carried out on 15 patients with allogenic bone-cartilage transplants in the knee. Spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences were obtained by using a flat surface coil. The results were compared with arthroscopic and operative findings. In 8 symptom-free patients, there was inclusion of the bone implant with narrow, but smooth, cartilage. 7 patients with recurrence of symptoms showed various complications such as oedema of the marrow, exudative synovitis, cartilage oedema, degenerative cartilagenous changes with regeneration of fibro-cartilage and localised cartilage defects. Spin-echo sequences were useful for showing bone, whereas gradient-echo sequences proved better for showing changes in the cartilage. MRT can be recommended as the method of choice for the non-invasive control of bone-cartilage transplants.

  1. Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?

    Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT imaging using 3D reformations (3DR with shaded surface display (SSD and maximum intensity projection (MIP in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ. Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374 was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

  2. Radiological changes of bones and soft tissues after irradiation therapy in patients with Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma

    Late effects of tele cobalt 60 therapy on bones and soft tissues were studied radiologically in 24 patients with neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor. The degree of changes in spinal bodies was influenced by the dose of irradiation as well as the age of patients at the time of irradiation. In patients who had 15 to 19 Gy of irradiation at the ages under one year old, a moderate to severe degree of changes was observed. Many patients showed atrophies of iliac bone, ribs, and erector spinae and psoas muscles on the side of the irradiation. In patients who were equal to or over 12 y.o. at the time of the examination, the degree of atrophy of erector spinae muscles on the side of the irradiation was greater than that of the patients who were less than 12 y.o.. Scoliosis was observed in 71% of patients and it had a tendency to aggravate at puberty. Because there was a significant correlation between the degree of scoliosis and the severity of the atrophic erector spinae muscle, the latter was thought to contribute much to the development of the former. At present, all patients are living with no limitation of their daily activities and no one needs medical care. (author)

  3. Radiological changes of bones and soft tissues after irradiation therapy in patients with Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma

    Hirose, Hiroaki; Okabe, Ikuo

    1989-04-01

    Late effects of tele cobalt 60 therapy on bones and soft tissues were studied radiologically in 24 patients with neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor. The degree of changes in spinal bodies was influenced by the dose of irradiation as well as the age of patients at the time of irradiation. In patients who had 15 to 19 Gy of irradiation at the ages under one year old, a moderate to severe degree of changes was observed. Many patients showed atrophies of iliac bone, ribs, and erector spinae and psoas muscles on the side of the irradiation. In patients who were equal to or over 12 y.o. at the time of the examination, the degree of atrophy of erector spinae muscles on the side of the irradiation was greater than that of the patients who were less than 12 y.o.. Scoliosis was observed in 71% of patients and it had a tendency to aggravate at puberty. Because there was a significant correlation between the degree of scoliosis and the severity of the atrophic erector spinae muscle, the latter was thought to contribute much to the development of the former. At present, all patients are living with no limitation of their daily activities and no one needs medical care. (author).

  4. Time-dependent changes in dynamic mechanical properties of irradiated bone.

    Mardas, Marcin; Kubisz, Leszek; Biskupski, Piotr; Mielcarek, S?awomir

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of allograft tissue for musculoskeletal repair has brought more focus to the safety of allogenic tissue and the efficacy of various sterilization techniques. The currently available literature contains few examples of studies on long-lasting strains of bones but no example for irradiated bones. In this study the bovine femurs from a 2-year-old animal were machine cut and irradiated with the doses of 10, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 50kGy. The dynamic mechanical analysis was performed at 1Hz at the room temperature in a 3-point bending configuration for 2880minutes. The final values of E' and E? were dose independent but they were reached at different periods. For this reason, so called "critical point" was introduced for the further analysis. All the examined sample groups were characterized by statistically significant lower values of the critical point in comparison with the control samples (p<0.05) but the biggest differences were observed between the control samples and the samples irradiated with the doses of 10, 15 and 25kGy. Current results and literature review suggest that the dose of 35kGy is the optimal dose for ionizing radiation sterilization. PMID:26407201

  5. Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax Alteraes histolgicas e radiolgicas no osso craniano na presena de cera de osso

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm was performed in eight animals. The right side of the cranium remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. The areas of the bone defects were measured in three-dimensional images using Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD. RESULTS: The average amount of bone formation on the left and right side respectively was 4.85 mm and 8.16 mm. Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation on the left and right sides were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Bone wax significantly diminishes the rate of bone formation in calvarial defects in a rat model.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a formao ssea da regio da calvaria de ratos Wistar submetidos craniotomia com a utilizao de cera de osso como agente hemosttico. MTODOS: Cirurgia para realizar um defeito sseo craniano bilateral, simtrico (rea: 18 mm e com espessura total foi realizado em oito animais. O lado direito do crnio permaneceu aberto e as extremidades do defeito sseo do lado esquerdo foram recobertas com cera de osso. O crnio foi submetido avaliao radiolgica imediatamente aps a cirurgia e 12 semanas aps a cirurgia com a utilizao de tomografia computadorizada. As reas dos defeitos sseos foram medidas atravs de imagens tridimensionais e utilizando o programa de computador Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD. RESULTADOS: A quantidade mdia de formao ssea no lado esquerdo e direito foi respectivamente de 4.85 mm e 8.16 mm. Diferena estatisticamente significante foi observada entre o lado direito e esquerdo. CONCLUSES: A cera de osso diminuiu significativamente a formao ssea nos defeitos sseos em modelo animal.

  6. Changes in chemical composition of bone matrix in ovariectomized (OVX) rats detected by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Oshima, Yusuke; Iimura, Tadahiro; Saitou, Takashi; Imamura, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a major bone disease that connotes the risk of fragility fractures resulting from alterations to bone quantity and/or quality to mechanical competence. Bone strength arises from both bone quantity and quality. Assessment of bone quality and bone quantity is important for prediction of fracture risk. In spite of the two factors contribute to maintain the bone strength, only one factor, bone mineral density is used to determine the bone strength in the current diagnosis of osteoporosis. On the other hand, there is no practical method to measure chemical composition of bone tissue including hydroxyapatite and collagen non-invasively. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to analyze chemical composition and material properties of bone matrix non-invasively. Here we demonstrated Raman spectroscopic analysis of the bone matrix in osteoporosis model rat. Ovariectomized (OVX) rat was made and the decalcified sections of tibias were analyzed by a Raman microscope. In the results, Raman bands of typical collagen appeared in the obtained spectra. Although the typical mineral bands at 960 cm-1 (Phosphate) was absent due to decalcified processing, we found that Raman peak intensities of amide I and C-C stretching bands were significantly different between OVX and sham-operated specimens. These differences on the Raman spectra were statistically compared by multivariate analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and liner discrimination analysis (LDA). Our analyses suggest that amide I and C-C stretching bands can be related to stability of bone matrix which reflects bone quality.

  7. Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord

    Uta Daisuke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic bone cancer pain is thought to be partly due to central sensitization. Although murine models of bone cancer pain revealed significant neurochemical changes in the spinal cord, it is not known whether this produces functional alterations in spinal sensory synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined excitatory synaptic responses evoked in substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices of adult mice bearing bone cancer, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques. Results Mice at 14 to 21 days after sarcoma implantation into the femur exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of the ipsilateral hind paw, as well as showing spontaneous and movement evoked pain-related behaviors. SG neurons exhibited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The amplitudes of spontaneous EPSCs were significantly larger in cancer-bearing than control mice without any changes in passive membrane properties of SG neurons. In the presence of TTX, the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in SG neurons was increased in cancer-bearing mice and this was observed for cells sampled across a wide range of lumbar segmental levels. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by focal stimulation were also enhanced in cancer-bearing mice. Dorsal root stimulation elicited mono- and/or polysynaptic EPSCs that were caused by the activation of Aδ and/or C afferent fibers in SG neurons from both groups of animals. The number of cells receiving monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C fibers was not different between the two groups. However, the amplitude of the monosynaptic C fiber-evoked EPSCs and the number of SG neurons receiving polysynaptic inputs from Aδ and C fibers were increased in cancer-bearing mice. Conclusions These results show that spinal synaptic transmission mediated through Aδ and C fibers is enhanced in the SG across a wide area of lumbar levels following sarcoma implantation in the femur. This widespread spinal sensitization may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the development of chronic bone cancer pain.

  8. Changes in human bone marrow colony-forming cells following chemotherapy using an agar diffusion-chamber technique

    Studies have been made of the effects of cyclophosphamide on the early granulocytic precursor cells in the marrow of patients receiving intermittent high doses (5 g) of the drug. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a single cytotoxic agent on normal granulocytic precursor cells; measurements have been made of the initial cytotoxicity, recovery, and changes in proliferation rate. The growth of granulocytic colonies was assayed in agar diffusion chambers. For this, bone marrow cells were suspended in semisolid agar medium, introduced into diffusion chambers for intraperitoneal incubation in radiated (900 rad 60Co γ) mice. The colonies present in the agar were scored 8-9 days later. In addition to measuring the effect of treatment on the colony-forming capacity of the patients' marrow, full dose-response curves were obtained by injecting graded doses of cyclophosphamide into chamber-bearing mice--the method allows some account to be taken of the continuous changes in drug activity, which occurs during its degradation in vivo. Comparison of these results with measurements of the sensitivity of mouse femoral cells under the same conditions or exposed to cyclophosphamide in situ in the donor mouse has been used to detect any effect of the culture environment or the response of the cells. Following treatment with cyclophosphamide, the incidence of colony precursor cells in the patients' marrow has been monitored. Changes in the proliferation rate of these cells during the recovery period have also been estimated by measuring their sensitivity to the S-phase specific drug, cytosine arabinoside. Information on the timing of changes in the incidence and proliferation rate of granulocytic precursor cells may provide guidelines for improving schedules of treatment in an attempt to reduce the attendant bone marrow toxicity

  9. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  10. Bone Biopsy

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  11. Intracranial meningioma with abnormal localization of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical: Correlation with gross and microscopic pathology

    Meningioma is one of the neoplasms in which there may be extraosseous localization of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor calcification, calvarial erosion, and the formation of reactive bone have been proposed as the cause of this abnormal tracer localization. We present a patient with a frontal meningioma that was evaluated using sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy, head computed tomography, and skull radiography; the homogeneous density seen in the radiographic studies corresponding to the area of bone-seeking-agent localization shown in the scintigram. At autopsy, bony tissue and a few psammoma bodies were found in the meningioma, and apparently accounted for the bone-tracer localization. There was no calvarial erosion and no formation of reactive bone. If skull-radiographic studies show a homogeneous, radio-opaque lesion with no reactive changes in the adjacent skull, a meningioma showing a localization of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical may be predicted to have bone-tissue formation with or without psammoma bodies. (orig.)

  12. Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders

    Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1994-12-01

    Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author).

  13. Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders

    Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author)

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  15. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  16. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers

    Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Schultz, Adrian B.; McGann, Tye S.; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Robert G. Lockie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms) with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condi...

  17. Evaluation of sequential FDG-PET/CT for monitoring bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Correlation between morphological and metabolic changes with tumor markers

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings for evaluating the bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Forty-seven patients with bone metastases from breast cancer who underwent sequential 18F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT studies during therapy were enrolled. A total of 771 lesions were identified. The changes in the PET and CT findings were compared with the tumor marker levels in each patient by calculating the weighted kappa value. The correlation between the PET and CT findings was examined for each lesion by an adjusted Chi-square test. The change in the tumor marker levels was substantially correlated with the PET findings and moderately correlated with the CT findings (weighted kappa=0.780 and 0.585 for quadratic weighting, respectively). An increase in FDG uptake was correlated with lytic changes on the CT images (62/65, 95.4%, p<0.05). Sclerotic changes suggested improvement, but sclerosis and progression occurred at the same time in some lesions. Changes of FDG uptake are useful for evaluating individual bone metastases in cases of breast cancer during therapy. Lytic change on CT images suggests progression of bone metastasis. The lysis-progression/sclerosis-improvement pattern was observed in the majority of subjects, but a sclerosis-progression pattern was also observed. The hybrid pattern of increase of FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is most accurate to show progression of bone metastases. Assessments of these processes during therapy are necessary for the precise evaluation of bone metastases. (author)

  18. Antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and vertebral bone edema (Modic type 1 changes): a double-blind randomized clinical controlled trial of efficacy

    Albert, H. B.; Sørensen, Joan S.; Berit Schiott, Christensen; Manniche, C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Modic type 1 changes/bone edema in the vertebrae are present in 6 % of the general population and 35-40 % of the low back pain population. It is strongly associated with low back pain. The aim was to test the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain (>6...... months) and Modic type 1 changes (bone edema). METHODS: The study was a double-blind RCT with 162 patients whose only known illness was chronic LBP of greater than 6 months duration occurring after a previous disc herniation and who also had bone edema demonstrated as Modic type 1 changes in the...... vertebrae adjacent to the previous herniation. Patients were randomized to either 100 days of antibiotic treatment (Bioclavid) or placebo and were blindly evaluated at baseline, end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome, disease-specific disability, lumbar pain. Secondary...

  19. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers

    Matthew D. Jeffriess, Adrian B. Schultz, Tye S. McGann, Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 3.97 years; height = 1.84 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 11.88 kilograms with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL, peroneus brevis (PB, and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG. Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01. Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02. There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers.

  20. Variation of excess of reactivity due to the change of an irradiation box with a graphitized irradiation box in H4 position of RP-10 reactor core

    First, there was a proposal for a core configuration for the RP-10 reactor core 39, but because of an excess of reactivity with a value equal to 2407 pcm, it did not achieve one of the conditions of operation. Although optimization works for fuel management were made, the value with the current condition of some fuel assemblies cannot raise more. Thus, we choose the possibility of making changes outside the active region of the fuel area and replacing the H4 position irradiation box by a graphitized irradiation box, taking advantage that graphite is a better reflector than water. With that aim, a geometric model of the new core was designed and neutronic calculations with CITVAP were made. As a result, a value of excess of reactivity equal to 2935.5 pcm was obtained in the H4 position, achieving an increase of the excess of reactivity for core 39, covering all the conditions of operation. (author).

  1. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  2. Eating disorders and bone.

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  3. Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features

    It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43-76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR images were made at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. BME lesions in 2 years were associated with clinical features assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scores. A total of 327 BME lesions were recorded. Total size of BME lesions changed in 90 patients (66%). Size of individual lesions changed in 147 foci (45%): new lesions appeared in 69 (21%), existing lesions disappeared in 32 (10%), increased in size in 26 (8%) and decreased in size in 20 (6%) lesions. Increase or decrease of BME lesions, over a 2-year time period, was not associated with severity of WOMAC scores. BME lesions fluctuated in the majority of patients with OA over a 2-year time period. These changes were not associated with severity of WOMAC scores at the study end point. (orig.)

  4. The role of sleep in changing our minds: A psychologist's discussion of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation in sleep

    Cartwright, Rosalind D.

    2004-01-01

    The group of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep included in this volume represents cutting edge work in both animals and humans. They support that the two types of sleep serve different necessary functions. The role of slow wave sleep (SWS) is reactivation of the hippocampal-neocortical circuits activated during a waking learning period, while REM sleep is responsible for the consolidation of this new learning into long-term memory. These studies provide further insi...

  5. Evaluation of radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT and determine their roles on the evaluation of therapy response. We retrospectively evaluated radiographic and metabolic characteristics of bone metastases in 30 patients who were referred for the evaluation of response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT. All patients underwent integrated 18FDG-PET/CT before and after treatment. The baseline radiographic patterns of the target lesions in responders group were lytic, sclerotic, mixed and CT negative; after treatment the radiographic patterns of all target lesions changed to a sclerotic pattern and attenuation increased (p = 0.012) and metabolic activity decreased (p = 0.012). A correlation was found between decreasing metabolic activity and increasing attenuation of the target lesions (r = −0.55) (p = 0.026). However, in nonresponders group, the baseline radiologic patterns of the target lesions were lytic, blastic, mixed and CT negative; after treatment all lytic target lesions remained the same and one CT negative lesion turned to lytic pattern and the attenuation of the target lesions decreased (p ± 0.12) and metabolic activity increased (p = 0.012). A correlation was found between increasing metabolic activity and decreasing attenuation (r = −0.65) (p = 0.032). An exception of this rule was seen in baseline blastic metastases which progressed with increasing in size, metabolic activity and attenuation. This study shows that the metabolic activity of lesions is a more reliable parameter than the radiographic patterns for the evaluation of therapy response

  6. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Peter J. Rogers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

  7. Changes in the gene expression of collagens, fibronectin, integrin and proteoglycans during matrix-induced bone morphogenesis.

    Yu, Y M; Becvar, R; Yamada, Y; Reddi, A H

    1991-05-31

    Subcutaneous implantation of demineralized bone matrix in rat results in the local cartilage and bone development. This in vivo model of bone formation was used to examine the expression patterns of cartilage and bone specific extracellular matrix genes. The steady state levels of mRNA in implants for cartilage specific type II collagen, type IX collagen, proteoglycan link protein and cartilage proteoglycan core protein (aggrecan) were increased during chondrogenesis and cartilage hypertrophy. Fibronectin mRNA levels were high during mesenchymal cell migration, attachment and chondrogenesis. Integrin (beta 1 chain) mRNA was expressed throughout the endochondral bone development. Type I collagen mRNA levels in implants increased as early as day 3, reached its peak during osteogenesis. These gene markers will be useful in the study of the mechanism of action of bone morphogenetic proteins present in the demineralized bone matrix. PMID:2043127

  8. Greater change in bone turnover markers for efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy-naive adults over 144 weeks

    Tebas, Pablo; Kumar, Princy; Hicks, Charles; Granier, Catherine; Wynne, Brian; Min, Sherene; Pappa, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Antiretroviral therapy initiation has been linked to bone mineral density and bone biomarker changes. We assessed long-term bone turnover biomarker effects over 144 weeks in patients initiating dolutegravir (DTG) + abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). Methods: Patients randomized in SINGLE received DTG (50 mg once daily) + ABC/3TC or fixed-dose combination EFV/FTC/TDF. We evaluated vitamin D serum levels and bone turnover markers (BTMs), including type 1 collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx), osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), at baseline and weeks 48, 96, and 144. Results: Among the 833 enrolled patients (68% white, 85% men), baseline median age was 35 years (range 18–85), median CD4+ was 338 cells/μl, and median BMI was 24 kg/m2. Fifty-three percent of patients smoked, and 6% reported baseline vitamin D use, with no meaningful differences between groups. Relative to baseline, CTx, osteocalcin, BSAP, and P1NP increased; vitamin D decreased in both groups at weeks 48, 96, and 144. Changes from baseline typically peaked at weeks 48 or 96 and for the four analytes, excluding vitamin D, with the EFV/FTC/TDF group having significantly greater changes from baseline at all time points. Conclusion: DTG + ABC/3TC in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients resulted in significantly lower increases in BTMs (CTx, osteocalcin, BSAP, P1NP) compared with EFV/FTC/TDF over 144 weeks. The observed changes are consistent with results from other smaller, randomized trials. These differences in BTMs likely correlate with changes in bone mineral density over time. PMID:26355674

  9. Using the Enhanced Daily Load Stimulus Model to Quantify the Mechanical Load and Bone Mineral Density Changes Experienced by Crew Members on the International Space Station

    Genc, K. O.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Maender, C. C.; Rice, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the use of exercise countermeasures during long-duration space missions, bone mineral density (BMD) and predicted bone strength of astronauts continue to show decreases in the lower extremities and spine. This site-specific bone adaptation is most likely caused by the effects of microgravity on the mechanical loading environment of the crew member. There is, therefore, a need to quantify the mechanical loading experienced on Earth and on-orbit to define the effect of a given "dose" of loading on bone homeostasis. Gene et al. recently proposed an enhanced DLS (EDLS) model that, when used with entire days of in-shoe forces, takes into account recently developed theories on the importance of factors such as saturation, recovery, and standing and their effects on the osteogenic response of bone to daily physical activity. This algorithm can also quantify the tinting and type of activity (sit/unload, stand, walk, run or other loaded activity) performed throughout the day. The purpose of the current study was to use in-shoe force measurements from entire typical work days on Earth and on-orbit in order to quantify the type and amount of loading experienced by crew members. The specific aim was to use these measurements as inputs into the EDLS model to determine activity timing/type and the mechanical "dose" imparted on the musculoskeletal system of crew members and relate this dose to changes in bone homeostasis.

  10. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers.

    Jeffriess, Matthew D; Schultz, Adrian B; McGann, Tye S; Callaghan, Samuel J; Lockie, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 3.97 years; height = 1.84 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 11.88 kilograms) with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition) of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB), and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG). Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01). Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02). There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers. Key pointsAnkle taping using the modified subtalar sling will not affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance as measured by the Y-shaped agility test in healthy male basketball players.Ankle taping using the modified subtalar sling will also generally not affect the activity of the muscles about the ankle. There was some indication for reductions in the activity of the PL in the inside leg of certain cuts.The tape used for the modified subtalar sling may have supported the line of action of the PL, which could reduce the kinetic demand placed on this muscle, and provide a potential fatigue-reducing component for cutting actions.The subtalar sling taping of the ankle in healthy basketball players did not have any adverse effects on the muscle activity of the ankle-foot complex during planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance tasks. PMID:26664285

  11. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density / Enfermedad heptica alcohlica y alteraciones de la densidad mineral sea

    Germn, Lpez-Larramona; Alfredo J., Lucendo; Laura, Gonzlez-Delgado.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La osteoporosis y la osteopenia son alteraciones de la densidad mineral sea (DMO) que se desarrollan frecuentemente en la enfermedad heptica crnica (EHC). Dichas alteraciones han sido estudiadas predominantemente en la enfermedad colestsica crnica y en la cirrosis heptica. El consumo de alcoho [...] l es un factor de riesgo independiente para la aparicin de osteoporosis, cuya prevalencia estimada en pacientes con enfermedad heptica por alcohol (EHA) vara entre un 5 % y un 40 %. La prdida de DMO en la EHA se produce por un disbalance entre formacin y resorcin sea. Su etiopatogenia es multifactorial y comprende la toxicidad del alcohol sobre el hueso, las alteraciones endocrinolgicas y nutricionales secundarias al alcoholismo y el dficit de osteocalcina, vitamina D e IGF-1, entre otras. El diagnstico de las alteraciones de la DMO en la EHA se basa en su medicin mediante densitometra sea. El tratamiento incluye el abandono del alcohol y medidas generales de tipo nutricional, abandono del tabaco y ejercicio fsico. La suplementacin con calcio y vitamina D se recomienda en todos los pacientes con EHA y osteoporosis. Los bisfosfonatos son los principales frmacos para el tratamiento especfico de esta entidad. Otras alternativas son el raloxifeno, el tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo y la calcitonina. La presente revisin abordar los aspectos ms relevantes para el manejo clnico de las alteraciones de la DMO en el contexto de la EHA, incluyendo su prevalencia, etiopatogenia y diagnstico. Por otra parte, se efectuar una revisin del tratamiento de la osteoporosis en la EHC en general, incidiendo en los aspectos especficos relacionados con la prdida de masa sea en la EHA. Abstract in english Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD). These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk facto [...] r for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  12. [Changes in blood concentrations of bone-specific biomarkers, osteocalcin and C-telopeptide, in third or higher parity sows after administration of calcium and vitamin D].

    Counotte, G H M; Groenland, G; Salden, N

    2009-03-15

    Changes in blood concentrations of bone-specific biomarkers, osteocalcin and C-telopeptide, in third or higher parity sows after administration of calcium and vitamin D The study had two objectives: 1, to measure levels of two bone-specific biomarkers, with a view to identifying sows with leg problems; 2, to evaluate the effect of additional vitamin D/ monocalcium phosphate on the two bone-specific biomarkers and the number of stillborn piglets. Of 272 third or higher parity sows, 136 were randomly selected to receive a high dose (33 times the normal dose) of vitamin D (as depot) 1 to 5 days before parturition plus 20 g monocalcium phosphate 3 days before and 3 days after parturition. The sows in the control group received no treatment. The housing and feeding conditions of the two groups of sows were identical. Blood samples were taken from five sows per group just before parturition, 2-3 days after parturition, 3 weeks after parturition, and 1 week after weaning for the measurement of osteocalcin (bone formation, osteoblastic activity) and C-telopeptide (CTX, bone degradation, osteoclast activity), calcium, and phosphorus. The total number of piglets born, stillborn piglets, and weaned piglets were registered per group. The bone metabolism of sows is comparable with that of mice, sheep, and goats. CTX levels increased and osteocalcin levels decreased after parturition, and the reverse pattern was seen after weaning, with a decrease in CRX levels and an increase in osteocalcin levels. Thus these two bone-specific biomarkers can be used to monitor bone metabolism in sows. Serum calcium and CTX levels were clearly correlated. Blood calcium levels increased significantly after treatment with vitamin D/monocalcium phosphate in sows with low calcium levels at the start of the study but not in sows with normal calcium levels at the start of the study. Treatment with vitamin D/monocalcium phosphate did not influence the number of stillborn piglets or the number of weaned piglets. PMID:19353919

  13. The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Lee, Yun Hong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medicine Physics, The Graduate School of Biomedical Science Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.

  14. Analysis of trabecular bone architectural changes induced by osteoarthritis in rabbit femur using 3D active shape model and digital topology

    Saha, P. K.; Rajapakse, C. S.; Williams, D. S.; Duong, L.; Coimbra, A.

    2007-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease, which causes the cartilage between the bone joints to wear away, leading to pain and stiffness. Currently, progression of OA is monitored by measuring joint space width using x-ray or cartilage volume using MRI. However, OA affects all periarticular tissues, including cartilage and bone. It has been shown previously that in animal models of OA, trabecular bone (TB) architecture is particularly affected. Furthermore, relative changes in architecture are dependent on the depth of the TB region with respect to the bone surface and main direction of load on the bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for accurately evaluating 3D architectural changes induced by OA in TB. Determining the TB test domain that represents the same anatomic region across different animals is crucial for studying disease etiology, progression and response to therapy. It also represents a major technical challenge in analyzing architectural changes. Here, we solve this problem using a new active shape model (ASM)-based approach. A new and effective semi-automatic landmark selection approach has been developed for rabbit distal femur surface that can easily be adopted for many other anatomical regions. It has been observed that, on average, a trained operator can complete the user interaction part of landmark specification process in less than 15 minutes for each bone data set. Digital topological analysis and fuzzy distance transform derived parameters are used for quantifying TB architecture. The method has been applied on micro-CT data of excised rabbit femur joints from anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) (n = 6) and sham (n = 9) operated groups collected at two and two-to-eight week post-surgery, respectively. An ASM of the rabbit right distal femur has been generated from the sham group micro-CT data. The results suggest that, in conjunction with ASM, digital topological parameters are suitable for analyzing architectural changes induced by OA.

  15. Performance of linear and nonlinear texture measures in 2D and 3D for monitoring architectural changes in osteoporosis using computer-generated models of trabecular bone

    Boehm, Holger F.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease leading to de-mineralization and increased risk of fracture. The two major factors that determine the biomechanical competence of bone are the degree of mineralization and the micro-architectural integrity. Today, modern imaging modalities (high resolution MRI, micro-CT) are capable of depicting structural details of trabecular bone tissue. From the image data, structural properties obtained by quantitative measures are analysed with respect to the presence of osteoporotic fractures of the spine (in-vivo) or correlated with biomechanical strength as derived from destructive testing (in-vitro). Fairly well established are linear structural measures in 2D that are originally adopted from standard histo-morphometry. Recently, non-linear techniques in 2D and 3D based on the scaling index method (SIM), the standard Hough transform (SHT), and the Minkowski Functionals (MF) have been introduced, which show excellent performance in predicting bone strength and fracture risk. However, little is known about the performance of the various parameters with respect to monitoring structural changes due to progression of osteoporosis or as a result of medical treatment. In this contribution, we generate models of trabecular bone with pre-defined structural properties which are exposed to simulated osteoclastic activity. We apply linear and non-linear texture measures to the models and analyse their performance with respect to detecting architectural changes. This study demonstrates, that the texture measures are capable of monitoring structural changes of complex model data. The diagnostic potential varies for the different parameters and is found to depend on the topological composition of the model and initial "bone density". In our models, non-linear texture measures tend to react more sensitively to small structural changes than linear measures. Best performance is observed for the 3rd and 4th Minkowski Functionals and for the scaling index method.

  16. Age-related changes in the hemodynamics of the femoral head as evaluated by early phase of bone scintigraphy

    The femoral head is reported to be in a markedly hypoemic state as compared with other tissues even under normal conditions, and it is therefore necessary to understand its hemodynamics to investigate the pathogenesis of hip disorders. It is known that aspects of intraosseous hemodynamics including blood flow and blood pool can be evaluated soon after radioisotope administration. In this study, hemodynamic changes in the femoral head according to gender and age were examined by investigating accumulation of radioisotope in the tissue during the early phase of bone scintigraphy. The subjects of this study consisted of 58 joints of 31 men and 75 joints of 41 women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 87 years (average age: 67.9 years). Images of bone scintigraphy were obtained for 15 to 20 minutes at 5 minutes and at 3 hours after radioisotope administration. The ratio of accumulation in the femoral head to that in the diaphysis (head-to-diaphysis ratio, HD ratio) was calculated. HD ratios obtained 15-20 minutes later ranged from 0.01 to 7.35 (1.88±0.91, mean±SD). HD ratios decreased with age, and a significant inverse correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.27 (p=0.001). The HD ratio among men was 0.01-3.57 (1.66±0.71), while that among women was 0.53-7.35 (2.05±1.01), and a significant difference was observed in HD ratio between men and women (p=0.02). There was a significant difference in HD ratios between men and women in their teens to forties (p=0.03), while no significant differences was observed in the other age groups. HD ratios obtained 3 hours later ranged from 0.44 to 6.32 (1.95±0.79, mean±SD), and no significant correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.14. The present study demonstrated that blood flow and blood pool of the femoral head decrease with aging particularly in women. This hemodynamic deterioration of the femoral head caused by aging may have an effect on the onset and progression of hip disorders by influencing bone metabolism. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

  18. Fluctuations in [¹¹C]SB207145 PET binding associated with change in threat-related amygdala reactivity in humans

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Haahr, Mette Ewers; Jensen, Christian Gaden; Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsø; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin critically affects the neural processing of emotionally salient stimuli, including indices of threat; however, how alterations in serotonin signaling contribute to changes in brain function is not well understood. Recently, we showed in a placebo-controlled study of 32 healthy males that...... brain serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4) binding, assessed with [(11)C]SB207145 PET, was sensitive to a 3-week intervention with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, supporting it as an in vivo model for fluctuations in central serotonin levels. Participants also underwent functional...... lower threat-related amygdala reactivity, whereas intervention group status did not predict change in corticolimbic reactivity. This suggests that in the healthy brain, interindividual responses to pharmacologically induced and spontaneously occurring fluctuations in [(11)C]SB207145 binding, a putative...

  19. Cytogenetic changes in bone marrow and fibroblast cells of BALB/C laboratory mice induced by Mestranol

    Teodorović Radislava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the genotoxic effects provoked by Mestranol, which belongs to the group of chemical rodenticide-chemosterilants, were examined as a function of dose (7,5, 15 and 30 mg/kg w.b./c.c and of time (10, 20 and 30 days or 3, 5 and 7 days for "in vivo" and "in vitro" conditions respectively. The genotoxic effects were scored on the basis of numerical and structural aberrations in both bone marrow and fibroblast cells from BALB/C laboratory mice in comparison to control groups. Increased doses of the preparation increased numerical aberrations in both bone marrow and fibroblast cells significantly (p<0.01 so that the greatest changes were noticed after the treatment with 30 mg/kg w.b./c.c. Numerical aberrations showed no significant differences (p<0.05 as a function of time. Also, the several times greater number of aneuploid cells was significantly different (p<0.01 compared to the number of polyploid cells Greater values for structural aberrations were obtained not only after the treatment with the largest dose of 30 mg/kg w.b./c.c., but also after longer exposure times (i.e. for 30 or 5 days respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the number of gaps, as well as fragments, in comparasion to the number of Robertsonian translocations (p<0.01, while there were no significant differences between the number of gaps and fragments (p>0.05.

  20. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

    Mohammad Hossein Abnosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells.

  1. Bone mineral density changes in protease inhibitor-sparing vs. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from a randomized trial

    Hansen, Ab; Obel, N; Nielsen, Henrik Ib; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods Sixty-three HAART...

  2. Three-D imaging of dental alveolar bone change after fixed orthodontic treatment in patients with periodontitis

    Ma, Zhi-Gui; Yang, Chi; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun-Hui; Mao, Li-Xia; Feng, Yi-Miao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to radiographically quantify bone height and bone density in patients with periodontitis after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 81 patients including 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 41 patients with normal periodontal tissues (group 2) were selected. CBCT scanning for anterior teeth were taken before and after orthodontic treatment. Measurements of bone hei...

  3. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone density measures, has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that menstrual recovery and weight gain (≥10% increase in body mass index) would predict an increase in these measures of bone density. Methods: In a prospective observational study, lumbar and whole-body (WB) bone density was measured at 0, 6, and 12 months in 34 AN girls aged 12–18 yr and 33 controls. Using Ward’s modification of the Molgaard approach, we determined measures of BMC for BA and BA for height at the lumbar spine and WB and also determined spine bone mineral apparent density and WB BMC adjusted for height. Results: Girls with AN had lower spine BMC for BA Z-scores (P = 0.0009), and lower WB BA for height Z (P < 0.0001), compared with controls. Menstrual recovery and weight gain in AN (AN-recovered) (median 9 months) resulted in a stabilization of BMD measures, whereas BMD continued to decrease in AN who did not gain weight and recover menses (AN-not recovered). AN-recovered also predicted greater increases in spine BMC for BA and WB BA for height, compared with AN-not recovered (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Even short-term weight gain with menstrual recovery is associated with a stabilization of BMD measures. PMID:18089702

  4. Clinical application of changes of serum cytokines and hypersensitive C-reactive protein in patients with coronary heart disease

    Objective: To study clinical application of the changes of serum cytokines and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: The levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-8(IL-8), hs-CRP (with high-sensitive enzyme immunoassay) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) (with radioimmunoassay) in blood serum were determined in 124 patients with coronary heart disease (including 41 patients with stable angina pectoris (SA), 38 patients with unstable angina (USA) and 45 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)) and 54 normal controls, and then comparatively analysed all the data. Results: The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in 124 patients with coronary heart disease were significantly higher than those in 54 normal controls (tIL-1β=3.145, tIL-6=3.627, tIL-8=3.054, tTNF-α=3.301, PIL-1β= 1.431, tIL-6= 1.587, tIL-8= 1.745, tTNF-α=1.461, P>0.05). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in 38 patients with USA and in 45 patients with AMI were significantly higher than those of in 54 normal controls (USA: tIL-1β=2.871, tIL-6=2.748, tIL-8=2.687, tTNF-α=3.145, PIL-1β=2.776, tIL-6=2.874, tIL-8=2.689, tTNF-α=3.212, PSA=2.617, PUSA=3.018, PAMI=3.189, P<0.01). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6,IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP had increasing tendency follow up the severity degree of patients with SA or USA or AMI and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP in patients with AMI were highest in 124 patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: In the diagnosis of the patients with SA, USA and AMI, the determination of the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and hs-CRP in blood serum were important index, and they were references for cardiovascular happened. (authors)

  5. Changes in the stiffness of the human tibial cartilage-bone complex in early-stage osteoarthrosis

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F; Hvid, I

    Cylindrical human tibial cartilage-bone unit specimens were removed from 9 early-stage medial osteoarthrotic (OA) tibiae (mean age 74 years) and 10 normal age-matched tibiae (mean age 73 years). These specimens were divided into 4 groups: OA, lateral comparison, medial age-matched, and lateral age...... cartilage and bone remained significant in the three control groups. Our findings suggest that both cartilage and bone in early-stage OA are mechanically inferior to normal, and that OA cartilage and bone have lost their unit function to mechanical loading....

  6. Changes of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in cultured bone marrow stromal cells after 60Co γ-irradiation

    Objective: To explore the changes in bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment after exposure to γ-radiation. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)was used. Results: The nuclear translocation was found in cultured bone marrow stromal cells after 60Co γ-irradiation with immunohistochemistry. The expression of NF-κB in the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the level of protein was elevated after exposure to 60Co γ-rays at the dose of 8.0Gy with the uses of immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activities of NF-κB in the BMSCs increased significantly after exposure to γ-radiation by using EMSA. The activity peak was at 4 hours after irradiation. Conclusion: The results suggest that the activation of NF-κB in the BMSCs by irradiation might be involved in the protection of BMSCs and in the recovery of hematopoiesis after γ-irradiation

  7. Measurement of bone marrow lesions by MR imaging in knee osteoarthritis using quantitative segmentation methods - a reliability and sensitivity to change analysis

    Nielsen, Flemming K; Egund, Niels; Peters, David Alberg; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal assessment of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by MRI is usually performed using semi-quantitative grading methods. Quantitative segmentation methods may be more sensitive to detect change over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and......-up (median 334 days in between). STIR, T1 and fat saturated T1 post-contrast sequences were obtained using a 1.5 T system. The 44 sagittal STIR sequences were assessed independently by two readers for quantification of BML. The signal intensities (SIs) of the normal bone marrow in the lateral femoral...... condyles and tibial plateaus were used as threshold values. The volume of bone marrow with SIs exceeding the threshold values (BML) was measured in the medial femoral condyle and tibial plateau and related to the total volume of the condyles/plateaus.The 95% limits of agreement at baseline were used to...

  8. 18F-Fluoride bone positron emission tomography demonstrating changes related to finger clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy is manifested by clubbing and periostitis of bones. We present a very rare documentation of increased F18-sodium fluoride uptake in the distal phalanges of both hands correlating to clubbing of the fingers in a 55-year-old female patient with carcinoma of lung in whom bone positron emission tomography was performed for metastatic work-up

  9. Changes in the linear attenuation coefficient of canine appendicular bone following intravenous infusion of strontium lactate, measured using gamma-ray computed tomography.

    Overton, T R; Snyder, R E; Hangartner, T N; Girgis, S; Audette, R J; Secord, D C

    1992-04-01

    Changes in the average linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) within a fixed measurement volume in the proximal end of the dog tibia, which contains trabecular bone and associated soft tissues (the trabecular bone "space"), were monitored continuously using gamma-ray computed tomography (gamma-CT) prior to, during, and following intravenous infusion of strontium (Sr) lactate. An infusion of 1.3-4.7 g of Sr over a period of 110-160 minutes into 20-kg dogs resulted, within 6-8 hours, in an increase of 0.019-0.045 cm-1 (P less than 0.002) in the LAC. Calibration of the gamma-CT system showed that 0.44 mg/cm3 of Sr produced a change of 0.01 cm-1 in the LAC. Using this conversion factor, the Sr concentration in the trabecular bone space resulting from infusion, as measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, agreed with that predicted by the change observed in the LAC. Sr present in the serum and urine was consistent with the changes observed in the LAC over the study period. Control dogs infused with mineral-free solutions showed no change in LAC. Calcium equivalents required to give the changes observed in the LAC using Sr indicate that variations in skeletal turnover in man can be monitored in the peripheral skeleton using gamma-CT. PMID:1571847

  10. Changes of Proliferation and Apoptosis of K562 Cells after Co-culture with Leukemia Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Katja Karjalainen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the changes of proliferation and apoptosis of K562 cells after co-culture with human leukemia bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (LMSC. Methods: The prepared cells were randomly divided into SCG group, SCG + 0%FBS group, SCG + 0%FBS group and CCG + 0%FBS group. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 analytic approach was adopted to detect the optical density (OD of K562 cells in SCG and CCG groups, and the conditions of K562 cell proliferation under different cultured circumstances were compared. Flow cytometer (FCM was used to detect the changes of K562 cell cycle after co-culture with LMSC, Annexin V/polyimide (PI fluorescence labeling method to detect the changes of K562 cell apoptosis after co-culture with LMSC and serum starvation. Results: After co-culture with LMSC, the proliferation of K562 cells was markedly inhibited, and OD in CCG group was conspicuously lower than that in SCG group. Flow cytometer (FCM detection on cell cycles demonstrated that after co-culture with LMSC, the proportion of cells in gap phases 0 - 1 (G0 - G1 went up notably, whereas that in phase S went down obviously. Besides, the proportion of cells in phases G2 - M was on the rise. K562 cell apoptosis in CCG + 0%FBS group was more than in SCG + 10%FBS group, and less than in SCG + 0%FBS group, indicating LMSC had the function of resisting leukemia cell apoptosis. Conclusion: LMSC exerts the effect of inhibiting the proliferation by blocking K562 cell cycles in phases G0 - G1, and inhibiting K562 cell apoptosis induced by serum starvation.

  11. Effects of broiler breeder-feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on eggshell properties and progeny bone development.

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Pérez Serrano, M; Brake, J

    2014-01-01

    1. The effects of diet type, feeding programme and fast- or slow-feed allocation in fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens on eggshell properties and broiler progeny bone development were investigated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment. 2. The birds were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets during rearing and production and on a fast- or slow-feed allocation programme from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space (FS) either remained similar or was increased. 3. Eggs produced at 33 weeks were incubated, eggshell conductance (G) was determined and a sample of 14 chicks from each treatment combination was taken to obtain bone traits at hatching. 4. Diet type did not influence G, yolk-free body weight (BW), residual yolk weight or relative asymmetry (RA) of any bilateral traits of leg bones of hatchlings. However, breeder diet type was involved on two-way and three-way interaction effects on progeny leg bone traits. 5. Breeders feed restricted according to the slow-feeding programme laid eggs with greater G compared to those managed with the fast-feeding programme, but there was no effect of feeding programme on progeny bone traits at hatching. 6. Eggs from breeders given more FS at photostimulation had greater G than those from breeders provided with similar FS. Maternal FS change did not influence hatchling yolk-free BW; however, breeders given more FS produced progeny with heavier tibias and shanks and longer femurs compared with those provided with similar FS, but only when breeders were fed on maize. Moreover, increased maternal FS at photostimulation was associated with an increased RA of femur length in the progeny. 7. It was concluded that breeder FS change at photostimulation influenced eggshell conductance and consistently affected bone development of the broiler progeny. PMID:24814245

  12. Effects of spaceflight on the murine mandible: Possible factors mediating skeletal changes in non-weight bearing bones of the head.

    Ghosh, Payal; Stabley, John N; Behnke, Bradley J; Allen, Matthew R; Delp, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Spaceflight-induced remodeling of the skull is characterized by greater bone volume, mineral density, and mineral content. To further investigate the effects of spaceflight on other non-weight bearing bones of the head, as well as to gain insight into potential factors mediating the remodeling of the skull, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on mandibular bone properties. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown 15d on the STS-131 Space Shuttle mission (n=8) and 13d on the STS-135 mission (n=5) or remained as ground controls (GC). Upon landing, mandibles were collected and analyzed via micro-computed tomography for tissue mineralization, bone volume (BV/TV), and distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest (CEJ-AC). Mandibular mineralization was not different between spaceflight (SF) and GC mice for either the STS-131 or STS-135 missions. Mandibular BV/TV (combined cortical and trabecular bone) was lower in mandibles from SF mice on the STS-131 mission (80.70.8%) relative to that of GC (n=8) animals (84.21.2%), whereas BV/TV from STS-135 mice was not different from GC animals (n=7). The CEJ-AC distance was shorter in mandibles from STS-131 mice (0.2170.004mm) compared to GC animals (0.2830.009mm), indicating an anabolic (or anti-catabolic) effect of spaceflight, while CEJ-AC distance was similar between STS-135 and GC mice. These findings demonstrate that mandibular bones undergo skeletal changes during spaceflight and are susceptible to the effects of weightlessness. However, adaptation of the mandible to spaceflight is dissimilar to that of the cranium, at least in terms of changes in BV/TV. PMID:26545335

  13. Changes in alveolar bone thickness due to retraction of anterior teeth during orthodontic treatment: A cephalometric and computed tomography comparative study

    U S Nayak Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the changes in alveolar bone as a result of maxillary and mandibular incisor retraction in patients with bimaxillary protrusion by means of using lateral cephalograms and computed tomography (CT scans and to investigate any occurrence of bony defects like dehiscence and fenestration. Subjects and Methods: Ten patients (age 15 ± 3 years with bimaxillary protrusion treated by extraction of four first premolars were investigated by lateral cephalograms and CT scans during pre-treatment (T1 and after 3 months of completion of incisor retraction (T2. The labial and lingual cortex of all the incisors were assessed on the CT scan with measurements taken at site adjacent to widest point of the labiolingual root in three slices separated by 3 mm at crest level (S1, mid root level (S2, and apical level (S3. Result: In the mandibular arch, after lingual movement of the incisors, the bone labial to the anterior teeth decreased in thickness at the coronal level of the left lateral and left central incisors. Left lateral incisor showed significant changes in all the three levels. In the maxilla the change in the labial bone thickness was not statistically significant. Lingual bone of all the incisors showed significant changes in S1 level and S3 levels. Few patients demonstrated bone dehiscence that was not visible macroscopically or cephalometrically. Conclusions: When incisors are retracted, the risk of adverse effect is present. This must be carefully monitored to avoid negative iatrogenic effects. This study needs follow up after 6 months or 1 year after completion of the orthodontic treatment to assess the long-term consequences.

  14. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.gov.b, E-mail: lucianam@ital.gov.b [Food Technology Institute (ITAL), SP (Brazil). Meat Technology Center

    2011-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and {alpha}-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h{sup -1}) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s{sup -1}). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and {alpha}-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  15. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and α-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h-1) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s-1). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and α-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  16. Agreement between bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in assessing fat, lean and bone mass changes in adults after a lifestyle intervention.

    Macfarlane, Duncan J; Chan, Natalie T-Y; Tse, Michael A; Joe, Glen M

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the agreement of a commercially available bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device in measuring changes in fat, lean and bone mass over a 10-week lifestyle intervention, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. A sample of 136 volunteers (18-66 years) underwent a physical activity intervention to enhance lean mass and reduce fat mass. BIA (Tanita BC545) and DXA (Hologic Explorer) measures of whole-body composition were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. After an average of 74 ± 18 days intervention, DXA showed significant changes in 2 of 3 outcome variables: reduced fat mass of 0.802 ± 1.092 kg (P < 0.001), increased lean mass of 0.477 ± 0.966 kg (P < 0.001); minor non-significant increase of 0.007 ± 0.041 kg of bone mass (P = 0.052). The respective changes in BIA measures were a significant reduction of 0.486 ± 1.539 kg fat (P < 0.001), but non-significant increases of 0.084 ± 1.201 kg lean mass (P = 0.425), and 0.014 ± 0.091 kg bone (P = 0.074). Significant, but moderately weak, correlations were seen in absolute mass changes between DXA and BIA: 0.511 (fat), 0.362 (lean) and 0.172 (bone). Compared to DXA, BIA demonstrated mediocre agreement to changes in fat mass, but poor agreement to lean mass changes. BIA significantly underestimated the magnitude of changes in fat and lean mass compared to DXA. PMID:26451461

  17. Bone marrow pathology of culture proven typhoid fever.

    Shin, B. M.; Paik, I. K.; Cho, H I

    1994-01-01

    The authors analysed bone marrow findings of sixteen cases of culture proven typhoid fever to reveal the pathologic changes according to the disease stage. The most frequent finding was chronic granulomatous inflammation (eight cases). Infection (bacteria) associated hemophagocytic syndrome (four cases), reactive marrow (two cases), and non specific findings (two cases) were also encountered. Granulocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis appeared at the early stage and was followed by infect...

  18. Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite

    Dessau, Ram B; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Ekerfelt, Christina; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...... and a 1.8-fold rise for the C6 assay. Of 1,886 persons, 102/101 (5.4%) had a significant rise in antibody reactivity in the flagellar assay or the C6 assay. Among 40 cases with a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the sensitivities corresponding to a rise in antibodies were 33% and 50% for the flagellar...... either ELISA but only 40 (2.1%) developed clinical Lyme borreliosis....

  19. Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging

    Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Sleep in fruit flies shares all the essential features of mammalian sleep. Here, by using in vivo calcium imaging, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that neuronal activity and reactivity decline during sleep and increase during wake simultaneously in many cells of the fly brain. Furthermore, we show that long wake reduces baseline and evoked neural activity and causes neurons to respond inconsistently to stimuli. The latter finding is reminiscent of the phenomenon of “local sleep ...

  20. Changes in left ventricular filling patterns after repeated injection of autologous bone marrow cells in heart failure patients

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Møller, Jacob E; Thayssen, Per; Videbæk, Lars; Sækmose, Susanne G; Barington, Torben; Kassem, Moustapha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. We have previously shown that repeated intracoronary infusion of bone marrow cells (BMSC) did not improve left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction in patients with chronic ischemic heart failure. However, the impact of BMSC therapy on LV diastolic filling has remained uncertain...... intervention. Main outcome measures were the ratio of transmitral flow (E) velocity to early mitral annulus (e') velocity (E/e'), left atrial (LA) volume and plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT- pro-BNP). Results. During the initial observational period there were no changes in main...... outcome. After treatment with intracoronary BMSC a significant decrease was observed in E/e' ratio (14.7+/-6.7 vs. 13.2+/-7.7, p=0.04), LA volume (90+/-25 ml vs. 80+/-26 ml, p=0.006) and plasma NT-pro-BNP (p=0.03). The effect was greatest in patients who received the largest amount of CD34(+) cells...

  1. BN600 reactivity definition

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  2. Longitudinal changes in C-reactive protein, proform of eosinophil major basic protein, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A during weight changes in obese children

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Gamborg, Michael; Bjse, Christine; Hedley, Paula L; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Holm, Jens-Christian

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with several complications, including cardiovascular comorbidity. Several biomarkers, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), proform of eosinophil major basic protein (Pro-MBP) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), have equally...

  3. The mechanism of uptake of bone-seeking isotopes by skeletal metastases

    Although skeletal scintigraphy has become accepted as an extremely useful method of examining the skeleton, particularly for the early detection of skeletal metastases and the assessment of their response to therapy, the underlying pathological changes which allow this use of isotopes are not well understood. This study was undertaken in man and in the experimental animal in an attempt to explain the underlying mechanism for skeletal scintigraphy. Autopsy specimens indicated that tumour invasion of bone, with the possible exception of lymphomata, is associated with a significant increase in new bone production, shown by an increase in the amount of osteoid tissue and particularly immature woven bone. The animal experiments indicated that there are two mechanisms for this new bone formation. These different mechanisms may explain the different radiographic appearances. Irrespective of the mechanism of production, this new bone had a markedly increased avidity for bone-seeking isotopes. When the tumour was successfully irradiated the bone lost its osteoblastic reaction, and the production of immature new bone ceased as did the increased uptake of bone-seeking isotopes. Investigation of the vascularity of the lesion showed that there was an increase in small vessels in the neighbourhood of the tumour. The results of the study suggest that the uptake of isotope occurs in two phases. During the first phase, which occurs very rapidly, large amounts of isotope accumulate in the extracellular fluid following the increased vascularity. In the second slower phase, the isotope is gradually concentrated by the reactive immature new woven bone. (author)

  4. Age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone mineral status: A quantitative CT study in lumbar vertebrae

    To investigate the age and sex dependence of the bone mineral status of human lumbar vertebrae with special regard to differences between cortical and trabecular bone. The study group comprised 125 normal Japanese healthy volunteers (54 males and 71 females), and was subdivided into adult male and female groups (subjects younger than 40 years), intermediate male and female groups (ages ranging between 41 and 64 years) and old male and female groups (subjects older than 65 years). The cortical bone mineral status was estimated using a single-energy quantitative CT (SE-QCT) technique, whereas trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated using a dual-energy (DE-QCT) technique. A considerable gender difference in the age-related cortical bone status was found. There was a significant reduction of the mean values of the cortical volume and BMD in the old female group compared with those obtained in the old male group. The results suggest that in men, cortical and trabecular bone volume decrease very little with age. In women, cortical volume and BMD and trabecular BMD decrease with age while trabecular bone volume does not. The study showed that all variables had higher values in men than in women and that the difference increased with age

  5. 1. modification of the proliferative capacity of transplanted bone marrow colony forming units by changes in the host environment

    Regulation of the proliferation of transplanted colony forming units (CFUs) was investigated in lethally irradiated mice, pretreated by methods known to accelerate hemopoietic recovery after sublethal irradiation. Prospective recipients were exposed to either hypoxia, vinblastine or priming irradiation and at different intervals thereafter lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow. Repopulation of CFUs was determined by counting the number of splenic colonies in primary recipients or by retransplantation. Regeneration of grafted CFUs was greatly accelerated and their self-renewal capacity increased in mice grafted within 2 days after hypoxia. Also the number of splenic colonies formed by grafted syngeneic CFUs as well as by C57B1 parent CFUs growing in BC3F1 hosts was significantly increased. The effect was not dependent on the seeding efficiency of CFUs and apparently resulted from hypoxia induced changes in the hosts' physiological environment. Proliferative capacity of grafted CFUs increased remarkably in hosts receiving vinblastine 2 or 4 days prior to irradiation. Priming irradiation given 6 days before main irradiation accelerated, given 2 days before impaired regeneration of CFUs. The increased rate of regeneration was not related to the cellularity of hemopoietic organs at the time of transplantation. The growth of CFUs in diffusion chambers implanted into posthypoxic mice was only slightly improved which does indicate that the accelerated regeneration of CFUs in posthypoxic mice is mainly due to the changes in the hemopoietic microenvironment. A short conditioning of transplanted CFUs by host factor(s) was sufficient to improve regeneration. The results might suggest that the speed of hemopoietic regeneration depends on the number of CFUs being induced to proliferate shortly after irradiation, rather than on the absolute numbers of CFUs available to the organism. (author)

  6. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.)

  7. Electron Microscopy and Analytical X-ray Characterization of Compositional and Nanoscale Structural Changes in Fossil Bone

    Boatman, Elizabeth Marie

    The nanoscale structure of compact bone contains several features that are direct indicators of bulk tissue mechanical properties. Fossil bone tissues represent unique opportunities to understand the compact bone structure/property relationships from a deep time perspective, offering a possible array of new insights into bone diseases, biomimicry of composite materials, and basic knowledge of bioapatite composition and nanoscale bone structure. To date, most work with fossil bone has employed microscale techniques and has counter-indicated the survival of bioapatite and other nanoscale structural features. The obvious disconnect between the use of microscale techniques and the discernment of nanoscale structure has prompted this work. The goal of this study was to characterize the nanoscale constituents of fossil compact bone by applying a suite of diffraction, microscopy, and spectrometry techniques, representing the highest levels of spatial and energy resolution available today, and capable of complementary structural and compositional characterization from the micro- to the nanoscale. Fossil dinosaur and crocodile long bone specimens, as well as modern ratite and crocodile femurs, were acquired from the UC Museum of Paleontology. Preserved physiological features of significance were documented with scanning electron microscopy back-scattered imaging. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) revealed fossil bone compositions enriched in fluorine with a complementary loss of oxygen. X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that all specimens were composed of apatite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed preserved nanocrystallinity in the fossil bones and electron diffraction studies further identified these nanocrystallites as apatite. Tomographic analyses of nanoscale elements imaged by TEM and small angle X-ray scattering were performed, with the results of each analysis further indicating that nanoscale structure is highly conserved in these four fossil specimens. Finally, the results of this study indicate that bioapatite can be preserved in even the most ancient vertebrate specimens, further supporting the idea that fossilization is a preservational process. This work also underlines the importance of using appropriately selected characterization and analytical techniques for the study of fossil bone, especially from the perspective of spatial resolution and the scale of the bone structural features in question.

  8. Changes in bone mineralization, architecture and mechanical properties due to long-term (1 year) administration of pamidronate (APD) to adult dogs.

    Grynpas, M D; Acito, A; Dimitriu, M; Mertz, B P; Very, J M

    1992-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1 year of APD administration on bone mineralization and bone mineral chemistry in the dog. Disodium pamidronate (APD) was given orally by gavage to mature beagle dogs at doses of 0, 2.5, 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg per day (0.1% concentration for 12 months) as part of a long-term toxicity study. The os ilium and a vertebra were used to determine the mineralization profile and, subsequently, each density fraction was analysed chemically. The ribs were used to determine lattice parameters of the apatite crystal size using X-ray diffraction. The sternum was used to determine selected morphometric parameters using image analysis of specimen X-ray films and subsequently to determine mechanical properties using velocity-of-sound techniques. We found that for both the ilium and the vertebrae there was a significant shift of the mineralization profile towards greater density in a dose-related manner. This effect levelled off with the highest dose because the shift in mineralization profile correlated better with the square root of the dose than with the dose. Together with data on crystal size, which show an increase in lattice parameters and a decrease in crystal size with dose, our data lead us to believe that long-term administration of APD leads to an increase in bone mineralization without major changes in bone chemistry of Ca, Mg, and P and with a decrease in bone apatite crystal size. The image analysis shows a dose-related increase in trabecular bone volume and thickness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1536983

  9. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Full Text Available ... transmitted very efficiently through the head using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those ... changed from a normal soundwave into a bone conduction vibration, and that is what is passed then ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  12. Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support the application of PDT to the treatment of primary or metastatic lesions within bone. Secondly, that ALA-PDT may be useful as a treatment for osteomyelitis. Further studies aim to optimize the parameters of delivering PDT into bone and explore imaging technologies that can be used for clinical PDT.

  13. Changes in T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow following treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow were performed in 11 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis. Nine of the children were re-examined after chemotherapeutic treatment. The results were compared with histological data from bone marrow biopsies obtained in close association to the MR examinations. Ten age matched children were examined as a control group. A 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner was used for the measurements. The pretreatment T1 relaxation times of the bone marrow were significantly prolonged, compared to the age matched controls. After chemotherapy the T1 relaxation times of the children with ALL decreased significantly towards or into the normal range. A significant correlation was found between the T1 relaxation time and the content of malignant blast cells in the bone marrow. (orig.)

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced changes in subjects suspected of coronary artery disease

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Carlsen, Christian Malchau; Mattsson, Nick; Ruwald, Martin H; Binici, Zeynep; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. We wanted to investigate the effects of exercise on high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects who were suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Blood samples were obtained before......, 5 minutes after, and 20 hours after an exercise test in 155 subjects who were suspected of CAD. Coronary anatomy was evaluated by computed tomography coronary angiography and/or coronary angiography. RESULTS: Median baseline hs-CRP was higher in subjects with ?50% coronary artery lumen diameter...

  15. Biochemical passive reactors for treatment of acid mine drainage: Effect of hydraulic retention time on changes in efficiency, composition of reactive mixture, and microbial activity.

    Vasquez, Yaneth; Escobar, Maria C; Neculita, Carmen M; Arbeli, Ziv; Roldan, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical passive treatment represents a promising option for the remediation of acid mine drainage. This study determined the effect of three hydraulic retention times (1, 2, and 4 days) on changes in system efficiency, reactive mixture, and microbial activity in bioreactors under upward flow conditions. Bioreactors were sacrificed in the weeks 8, 17 and 36, and the reactive mixture was sampled at the bottom, middle, and top layers. Physicochemical analyses were performed on reactive mixture post-treatment and correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria and cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity. All hydraulic retention times were efficient at increasing pH and alkalinity and removing sulfate (>60%) and metals (85-99% for Fe(2+) and 70-100% for Zn(2+)), except for Mn(2+). The longest hydraulic retention time (4 days) increased residual sulfides, deteriorated the quality of treated effluent and negatively impacted sulfate-reducing bacteria. Shortest hydraulic retention time (1 day) washed out biomass and increased input of dissolved oxygen in the reactors, leading to higher redox potential and decreasing metal removal efficiency. Concentrations of iron, zinc and metal sulfides were high in the bottom layer, especially with 2 day of hydraulic retention time. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity were higher in the middle layer at 4 days of hydraulic retention time. Hydraulic retention time had a strong influence on overall performance of passive reactors. PMID:27016821

  16. Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite.

    Dessau, Ram B; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Ekerfelt, Christina; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2015-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). One assay is based on native purified flagellum antigen (IgG), and the other assay is based on a recombinant antigen called C6 (IgG or IgM). Paired samples were taken at the time of a tick bite and 3 months later from 1,886 persons in Sweden and the land Islands, Finland. The seroconversion or relative change is defined by dividing the measurement units from the second sample by those from the first sample. The threshold for the minimum level of significant change was defined at the 2.5% level to represent the random error level. The thresholds were a 2.7-fold rise for the flagellar IgG assay and a 1.8-fold rise for the C6 assay. Of 1,886 persons, 102/101 (5.4%) had a significant rise in antibody reactivity in the flagellar assay or the C6 assay. Among 40 cases with a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the sensitivities corresponding to a rise in antibodies were 33% and 50% for the flagellar antigen and the C6 antigen, respectively. Graphical methods to display the antibody response and to choose thresholds for a rise in relative antibody reactivity are shown and discussed. In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites showed a rise in Borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% threshold in either ELISA but only 40 (2.1%) developed clinical Lyme borreliosis. PMID:25994550

  17. Probing physical and chemical changes in cortical bone due to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes by solid-state NMR

    Zhou, Donghua; Taylor, Amanda; Rendina, Beth; Smith, Brenda; Department of Physics Collaboration; Department of Nutritional Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species. The authors appreciate financial support for this project from the College of Human Sciences and the College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University.

  18. Bone Diseases

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  19. Bone Cancer

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  20. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu., E-mail: blandinsky@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  1. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  2. Incidence and clinical importance of chronic reactive periostal new formations of bone in the cervical region in patients with varying neurological symptomatology

    Trattnig, S.; Fruehwald, F.; Schwaighofer, B.; Huebsch, P.; Reisner, T.; Binder, H.

    1989-02-01

    81 patients classed into three groups with clinical evidence of neurological symptoms and posttraumatic pain of the cervical spine and the incidence of degenerative disorders were studied noninvasively via CT scanning. In about half of the patients with nerve-root symptomatology as well as with signs of involvement of long tracts, narrowing of the foramen intervertebrale, respectively of the spinal tract, was seen, attributable to degenerative osseous apposition with excellent clinical segmental and (according to radicular symptoms) side correlation. In contrast to these results the group of patients with posttraumatic clinical symptoms showed almost 50% less preexisting degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Hypertrophic changes of the processus articulares with narrowing of the spinal canal occurred in 14% and were therefore of minor clinical significance. (orig./GDG).

  3. Changes in alveolar bone thickness due to retraction of anterior teeth during orthodontic treatment: A cephalometric and computed tomography comparative study

    U S Nayak Krishna; Ashutosh Shetty; M P Girija; Reshma Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the changes in alveolar bone as a result of maxillary and mandibular incisor retraction in patients with bimaxillary protrusion by means of using lateral cephalograms and computed tomography (CT) scans and to investigate any occurrence of bony defects like dehiscence and fenestration. Subjects and Methods: Ten patients (age 15 ± 3 years) with bimaxillary protrusion treated by extraction of four first premolars were investigated by lateral cephalograms and CT scans duri...

  4. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W.; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI 33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED. PMID:22470294

  5. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and downstream activation of the ERK/STAT3/RANKL signaling cascade in osteoblasts accounts for the protective effects of estradiol on ethanol-induced bone loss

    Bone loss occurs with chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption in males and cycling females as a result of increased bone resorption. We have demonstrated that in vivo estradiol treatment can reverse this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms of EtOH-induced bone loss and of estrogen protection are la...

  6. Mineral oxides change the atmospheric reactivity of soot: NO2 uptake under dark and UV irradiation conditions.

    Romanias, Manolis N; Bedjanian, Yuri; Zaras, Aristotelis M; Andrade-Eiroa, Aurea; Shahla, Roya; Dagaut, Philippe; Philippidis, Aggelos

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reactions between trace gases and aerosol surfaces have been widely studied over the past decades, revealing the crucial role of these reactions in atmospheric chemistry. However, existing knowledge on the reactivity of mixed aerosols is limited, even though they have been observed in field measurements. In the current study, the heterogeneous interaction of NO2 with solid surfaces of Al2O3 covered with kerosene soot was investigated under dark conditions and in the presence of UV light. Experiments were performed at 293 K using a low-pressure flow-tube reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The steady-state uptake coefficient, γ(ss), and the distribution of the gas-phase products were determined as functions of the Al2O3 mass; soot mass; NO2 concentration, varied in the range of (0.2-10) × 10(12) molecules cm(-3); photon flux; and relative humidity, ranging from 0.0032% to 32%. On Al2O3/soot surfaces, the reaction rate was substantially increased, and the formation of HONO was favored compared with that on individual pure soot and pure Al2O3 surfaces. Uptake of NO2 was enhanced in the presence of H2O under both dark and UV irradiation conditions, and the following empirical expressions were obtained: γ(ss,BET,dark) = (7.3 ± 0.9) × 10(-7) + (3.2 ± 0.5) × 10(-8) × RH and γ(ss,BET,UV) = (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10(-6) + (4.0 ± 0.9) × 10(-8) × RH. Specific experiments, with solid sample preheating and doping with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), showed that UV-absorbing organic compounds significantly affect the chemical reactivity of the mixed mineral/soot surfaces. A mechanistic scheme is proposed, in which Al2O3 can either collect electrons, initiating a sequence of redox reactions, or prevent the charge-recombination process, extending the lifetime of the excited state and enhancing the reactivity of the organics. Finally, the atmospheric implications of the observed results are briefly discussed. PMID:24188183

  7. Low Bone Density

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  8. Longitudinal changes in C-reactive protein, proform of eosinophil major basic protein, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A during weight changes in obese children

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Gamborg, Michael; Bøjsøe, Christine; Hedley, Paula L; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Holm, Jens-Christian

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with several complications, including cardiovascular comorbidity. Several biomarkers, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), proform of eosinophil major basic protein (Pro-MBP) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), have equally...... been linked to increased cardiovascular susceptibility. This study investigates these biomarkers during weight loss and regain in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study during a 12-week weight loss program with a 28 months follow-up was conducted. Anthropometrics and plasma...

  9. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Urate and Bone Mineral Density During Treatment with Thiazide Diuretics: Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Gamble, Gregory D; Horne, Anne; Reid, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations associate with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fractures. Thiazide diuretics slow the bone loss in healthy older adults, are associated with reduced incidence of fracture and also increase serum urate. We hypothesized that changes in serum urate are associated with changes in BMD during treatment with thiazide diuretics. We analysed data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg per day) and placebo in normal post-menopausal women. The relationship between change in serum urate and change in BMD after 2 years of treatment was examined using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression models. Total body BMD increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.52 % and reduced in the placebo group by 0.29 % over 2 years (between group difference P = 0.0034). Serum urate increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.038 mmol/L and reduced in the placebo group by 0.004 mmol/L (between group difference P creatinine (P change in serum urate = 0.043). These data raise the possibility that the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on BMD may be mediated, in part, by changes in serum urate concentrations. PMID:26713333

  10. Prescriptive proprioceptive insoles and dental orthotics change the frontal plane position of the atlas (C1), mastoid, malar, temporal, and sphenoid bones: a preliminary study.

    Rothbart, Brian A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this series of case studies was to determine if the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas could be altered using dental orthotics, prescriptive insoles, or both concurrently. The cranial radiographs of four patients were reviewed for the study. Three of the patients were diagnosed as having a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and a preclinical clubfoot deformity. The fourth patient was diagnosed as having a TMJ dysfunction, a preclinical clubfoot deformity and a Catetgory II sacral occipital subluxation, as designated in the chiropractic's Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Each patient had a series of four cranial radiographs taken using a modified orthogonal protocol. In two patients, improvement towards orthogonal was achieved when using both prescriptive dental orthotics and prescriptive insoles concurrently. Improvement towards orthogonal was less apparent when using only the prescriptive dental orthotic. No improvement or a negative frontal plane shift was noted when using only the prescriptive proprioceptive insoles. In the third patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas increased (away from orthogonal) when using the generic proprioceptive insoles alone or in combination with a prescriptive dental orthotic. In the fourth patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones improved using the dental orthotic. However, the proprioceptive insoles, when used alone or in combination with the dental orthotic, increased the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas. This study demonstrates that changes in the frontal plane position of the cranial and atlas bones can occur when using proprioceptive insoles and/or dental orthotics. PMID:24308104

  11. The Effect of Changes in Oxygen Tension During Fracture Repair on Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Bone Activities

    W.S. Khan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing is a complex phys iological proces s that results in regenerative of bone. This s tudylooks in greater detail into the effect of oxygen tension, one of the multiple parameters that successful fracturehealing depends on. A summary of the biology of bone and bone repair is described before delving into theeffect of oxygen tens ion on fracture healing. The preponderance of evidence appears to suggest that hypoxiataken in isolation promotes the up regulation of several signalling molecules involved in the fracture repaircascade in In vitro studies by many cells especially osteoblasts, however there is some suggestion to thecontrary. The influence of oxygen tens ion on fracture healing will continue to b e inves tigated especially howHIF-1 affects the v arious cells respo ns ible for this regenerative process .

  12. Changes to the cell, tissue and architecture levels in cranial suture synostosis reveal a problem of timing in bone development

    J Regelsberger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Premature fusion of cranial sutures is a common problem with an incidence of 3-5 per 10,000 live births. Despite progress in understanding molecular/genetic factors affecting suture function, the complex process of premature fusion is still poorly understood. In the present study, corresponding excised segments of nine patent and nine prematurely fused sagittal sutures from infants (age range 3-7 months with a special emphasis on their hierarchical structural configuration were compared. Cell, tissue and architecture characteristics were analysed by transmitted and polarised light microscopy, 2D-histomorphometry, backscattered electron microscopy and energy-dispersive-x-ray analyses. Apart from wider sutural gaps, patent sutures showed histologically increased new bone formation compared to reduced new bone formation and osseous edges with a more mature structure in the fused portions of the sutures. This pattern was accompanied by a lower osteocyte lacunar density and a higher number of evenly mineralised osteons, reflecting pronounced lamellar bone characteristics along the prematurely fused sutures. In contrast, increases in osteocyte lacunar number and size accompanied by mineralisation heterogeneity and randomly oriented collagen fibres predominantly signified woven bone characteristics in patent, still growing suture segments. The already established woven-to-lamellar bone transition provides evidence of advanced bone development in synostotic sutures. Since structural and compositional features of prematurely fused sutures did not show signs of pathological/defective ossification processes, this supports the theory of a normal ossification process in suture synostosis – just locally commencing too early. These histomorphological findings may provide the basis for a better understanding of the pathomechanism of craniosynostosis, and for future strategies to predict suture fusion and to determine surgical intervention.

  13. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E; Lakka, T A; Herder, C; Koenig, W; Lindström, J; Eriksson, J G; Uusitupa, M; Kolb, H; Laakso, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect...... of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study...... (≥3 mg/L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on...

  14. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This

  15. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  16. Fluctuations in [(11)C]SB207145 PET Binding Associated with Change in Threat-Related Amygdala Reactivity in Humans

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Haahr, Mette Ewers; Jensen, Christian Gaden; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging while performing a gender discrimination task of fearful, angry, and neutral faces. This offered a unique opportunity to evaluate whether individual fluctuations in central serotonin levels, indexed by change in [(11)C]SB207145 binding, predicted changes in threat...

  17. Field-based landslide risk of deep-seated landslides reactivating based on changes in infrastructure: an example from Kelso, Washington, 2014.

    Burns, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Large, deep-seated landslides always have the potential to reactivate in the future - generally locally and not the whole slide. How does one determine if one of these large landslides has reactivated if there are houses on it? In April of 2014 a 25 year old house was investigated to see if it was creeping on an ancient landslide near Kelso, Washington. In 1998 we had worked on nearby prehistoric slides to determine if they had reactivated. We developed a list of 17 points to investigate on a lot and in a house that showed that stress was causing movement. Inside the house we checked for: propagation of cracks in the walls, nails popping out of the walls, bulging walls, separation of internal and external chimney from walls, creaking and popping noises in the house, light switches coming out of the walls, doors and windows that are hard to shut, twisted ceiling and floor beams, cracks in concrete floors, and water seeping into the basement. On the lot outside we looked for changes in surface water drainage, bulges in retaining walls, scarps developing in the soils, pistol butt trees, and broken sewage and water lines. A stable site is defined as a site having none of the above characteristics. Slight movement is defined as having 1-5 of the above characteristics. Moderate movement is from 6 to 10 and considerable movement is from 11+. The house we investigated had a score of 14 - definitely was moving! It had had two electrical fires in the past year from severed electrical wires. We recommend that areas of slight movement be monitored, and lots with moderate to considerable movement to be dewatered to slow the movement. If engineering geologists know that movement has started early enough, proper mitigation can be installed that might stop the movement and save the homes.

  18. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  19. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  20. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract