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Sample records for reactive bone change

  1. Reactive changes of disc space and foreign body granuloma due to bone wax in lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Nail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone wax is a well-known agent used to prevent bleeding from the bone that can be used in different surgical procedures. Bone wax is a safe agent, but it may rarely lead to significant foreign body reactions. In this report, we present a patient who developed bone wax-related disc space foreign body granuloma following L4 total laminectomy, extremely rare complication.

  2. Reactive changes of disc space and foreign body granuloma due to bone wax in lumbar spine

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdemir Nail; Gelal Mustafa; Minoglu Mustafa; Celik Levent

    2009-01-01

    Bone wax is a well-known agent used to prevent bleeding from the bone that can be used in different surgical procedures. Bone wax is a safe agent, but it may rarely lead to significant foreign body reactions. In this report, we present a patient who developed bone wax-related disc space foreign body granuloma following L4 total laminectomy, extremely rare complication.

  3. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. Bone changes in leprosy

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    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  6. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Roentgenologic bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria

  9. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of reactive hematopoietic bone marrow in aplastic anemia using MR spectroscopy with variable echo times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess quantitative and qualitative differences in water components between normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with variable echo times (TEs). Design: Water content, T2 value of the water component, and signal change in water related to TE were assessed in normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow by a stimulated echo acquisition mode with TEs of 30, 45, 60, and 90 ms. Patients: Six patients with aplastic anemia (13-84 years) and seven normal volunteers (25-38 years) were examined. Results and conclusion: Reactive hematopoietic marrow showed significantly higher water content than normal bone marrow. The T2 value of water components tended to be longer in reactive hematopoietic marrow. Water signal ratio related to TE was significantly higher in reactive hematopoietic marrow. These results suggest a quantitative and qualitative difference in water components between normal and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of reactive hematopoietic bone marrow in aplastic anemia using MR spectroscopy with variable echo times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantitative and qualitative differences in water components between normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with variable echo times (TEs). Design: Water content, T2 value of the water component, and signal change in water related to TE were assessed in normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow by a stimulated echo acquisition mode with TEs of 30, 45, 60, and 90 ms. Patients: Six patients with aplastic anemia (13-84 years) and seven normal volunteers (25-38 years) were examined. Results and conclusion: Reactive hematopoietic marrow showed significantly higher water content than normal bone marrow. The T2 value of water components tended to be longer in reactive hematopoietic marrow. Water signal ratio related to TE was significantly higher in reactive hematopoietic marrow. These results suggest a quantitative and qualitative difference in water components between normal and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow. (orig.)

  11. Periarticular Bone Changes in Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Weinans, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) can be considered an organ failure with pathological aspects in cartilage, bone, ligaments, and synovium. Altogether, these tissue changes can result in pain and immobilization—a failure of the joint. It is well regarded that OA is a complex multifactorial disease with many risk factors and different etiological pathways that all lead to an apparently similar end stage. Bony changes are clearly observed in advanced OA. However, little understandin...

  12. Relationship of Circulating Total Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein to Trabecular Bone in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184)....

  13. Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Robert W; Davidson, Eric A; Goodale, Christine L; Greaver, Tara L; Herrick, Jeffrey D; Liu, Lingli

    2012-05-15

    Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). We use the global temperature potential (GTP), calculated at 20 and 100 y, in units of CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)e), as a common metric. The largest cooling effects are due to combustion sources of oxides of nitrogen altering tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations and enhancing carbon sequestration in forests. The combined cooling effects are estimated at -290 to -510 Tg CO(2)e on a GTP(20) basis. However, these effects are largely short-lived. On a GTP(100) basis, combustion contributes just -16 to -95 Tg CO(2)e. Agriculture contributes to warming on both the 20-y and 100-y timescales, primarily through N(2)O emissions from soils. Under current conditions, these warming and cooling effects partially offset each other. However, recent trends show decreasing emissions from combustion sources. To prevent warming from US reactive nitrogen, reductions in agricultural N(2)O emissions are needed. Substantial progress toward this goal is possible using current technology. Without such actions, even greater CO(2) emission reductions will be required to avoid dangerous climate change. PMID:22547815

  14. Symptomatic bone langerhans cell histiocytosis treated at diagnosis or after reactivation with indomethacin alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braier, Jorge; Rosso, Diego; Pollono, Daniel; Rey, Guadalupe; Lagomarsino, Eduardo; Latella, Antonio; Zubizarreta, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the outcome of patients with symptomatic bone Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) treated with indomethacin alone, either at diagnosis or after reactivation (after recurrence with previous therapies). We evaluated the nonrandomized use of oral indomethacin (2 mg/kg/d) in patients with symptomatic single-system bone LCH. From 1997 to 2012, 38 sequential patients were treated for a median of 4 months. Criteria of nonactive disease (NAD) after initial treatment (8 wk) were: no pain, no soft tissue involvement, no increase of size, or no new bone lesions. Twenty-two patients were treated at diagnosis: 18 showed NAD after initial treatment (2 patients who had bone reactivations were retreated with indomethacin and remain with NAD). Three patients improved and they are with NAD after treatment with indomethacin, steroids, or radiotherapy. One patient developed progressive bone disease and he is with NAD after treatment with steroids and chemotherapy. Sixteen patients were treated after reactivation, and all were with NAD after initial treatment: 5 reactivated and 4 remain with NAD after retreatment with indomethacin. Toxicity was not significant. We conclude that indomethacin is a well tolerated and active drug in patients with symptomatic bone disease. The results support the concept that chemotherapy may not be necessary for limited bone disease. PMID:24977402

  15. Bone Proteoglycan Changes During Skeletal Unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Uzawa, K.; Pornprasertsuk, S.; Arnaud, S.; Grindeland, R.; Grzesik, W.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal adaptability to mechanical loads is well known since the last century. Disuse osteopenia due to the microgravity environment is one of the major concerns for space travelers. Several studies have indicated that a retardation of the mineralization process and a delay in matrix maturation occur during the space flight. Mineralizing fibrillar type I collagen possesses distinct cross-linking chemistries and their dynamic changes during mineralization correlate well with its function as a mineral organizer. Our previous studies suggested that a certain group of matrix proteoglycans in bone play an inhibitory role in the mineralization process through their interaction with collagen. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that the altered mineralization during spaceflight is due in part to changes in matrix components secreted by cells in response to microgravity. In this study, we employed hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) rat model to study the effects of skeletal unloading on matrix proteoglycans in bone.

  16. Experimental change of reactivity of mesenteric microvessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in hemodynamic parameters due to the action of adrenalin in the microcirculatory channel of tissue mesentery treated locally with beta radiation were studied. The studies were made on the mesenteries of 35 white rats (male) weighing 150-250 g. The diameters and linear blood flow rates were measured before irradiation and after application of adrenalin (1:100,000 dilute, 0.15 ml) to the irradiated portions in the same vessels. After irradiation the action of the adrenalin often caused deeper disruption of the blood flow than was observed when it was applied to mesentery tissue of the intact animals. Three to 5 s after application of the adrenalin, in some cases there was a lengthened cessation of blood flow, and then the flow started slowly in the reverse direction. Sometimes the result of the action of the preparation was an irreversible stasis of the blood. In the next 2-3 min there was retardation, and then acceleration, with a jerky blood flow. All changes in the peripheral blood circulation occurred in the narrow vessels, but an ischemia was not observed. Mathematical analysis of the data from our experiments showed that with application of adrenalin on irradiated mesentery tissue the greatest decrease in cross-section area is in the small arterioles (42.5-7.5 ? dia), i.e. 53-43% of the initial value. The cross-section area of the capillaries (7.5-17.5 ?) of the arterial and venous terminals decrease an average of 33-30%. The least reaction was noted in 33-30%. The least reaction was noted in the venules of 42-75 ? (21%). The blood flow rate decreased in all vessels of the microcirculatory channel of irradiated tissue mesentery after application of adrenalin. The greatest decrease was in the arterioles and the precapillaries(42-50%). In the capillaries (7.5-17.5 ?) there was a decrease in blood volume through them of 25-30%, and in the venules (42.5-72.5 ?), 18%. With even a very small ionizing radiation dose, in the tissues there were a number of vaso-active substances (to which, apparently, the fat cells contribute), which start to interact with the vessel walls. The reactivity of the micro vessels changes with combined use of the vaso-active substances

  17. Prevention of glucocorticoid induced bone changes with beta-ecdysone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weiwei; Jiang, Li; Lay, Yu-An Evan; Chen, Haiyan; Jin, Guoqin; Zhang, Hongliang; Kot, Alexander; Ritchie, Robert O; Lane, Nancy E; Yao, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Beta-ecdysone (?Ecd) is a phytoecdysteroid found in the dry roots and seeds of the asteraceae and achyranthes plants, and is reported to increase osteogenesis in vitro. Since glucocorticoid (GC) excess is associated with a decrease in bone formation, the purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with ?Ecd could prevent GC-induced osteoporosis. Two-month-old male Swiss-Webster mice (n=8-10/group) were randomized to either placebo or slow release prednisolone pellets (3.3mg/kg/day) and treated with vehicle control or ?Ecd (0.5mg/kg/day) for 21days. GC treatment inhibited age-dependent trabecular gain and cortical bone expansion and this was accompanied by a 30-50% lower bone formation rate (BFR) at both the endosteal and periosteal surfaces. Mice treated with only ?Ecd significantly increased bone formation on the endosteal and periosteal bone surfaces, and increased cortical bone mass were their controls to compare to GC alone. Concurrent treatment of ?Ecd and GC completely prevented the GC-induced reduction in BFR, trabecular bone volume and partially prevented cortical bone loss. In vitro studies determined that ?Ecd prevented the GC increase in autophagy of the bone marrow stromal cells as well as in whole bone. In summary, ?Ecd prevented GC induced changes in bone formation, bone cell viability and bone mass. Additional studies are warranted of ?Ecd for the treatment of GC induced bone loss. PMID:25585248

  18. Changes in bone microstructure and toughness during the healing process of long bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, T.; Nakano, T.; Umakoshi, Y.; Tabata, Y.

    2009-05-01

    It is of great importance to understand how bone defects regain the microstructure and mechanical function of bone and how the microstructure affects the mechanical function during the bone healing process. In the present study on long bone defects, we investigated the relationship between the recovery process of fracture toughness and biological apatite (BAp)/collagen (Col) alignment as an index of the bone microstructure to clarify the bone toughening mechanisms. A 5-mm defect introduced in the rabbit ulna was allowed to heal naturally and a three-point bending test was conducted on the regenerated site to assess bone toughness. The bone toughness was quite low at the early stage of bone regeneration but increased during the postoperative period. The change in toughness agreed well with the characteristics of the fracture surface morphology, which reflected the history of the crack propagation. SEM and microbeam X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the toughness was dominated by the degree and orientation of the preferred BAp/Col alignment, i.e. bundles aligned perpendicular to the crack propagation clearly contributed to the bone toughening owing to extra energy consumption for resistance to crack propagation. In conclusion, regenerated bone improves fracture toughness by reconstructing the preferred BAp/Col alignment along the bone longitudinal axis during the healing process of long bones.

  19. Changes in bone microstructure and toughness during the healing process of long bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of great importance to understand how bone defects regain the microstructure and mechanical function of bone and how the microstructure affects the mechanical function during the bone healing process. In the present study on long bone defects, we investigated the relationship between the recovery process of fracture toughness and biological apatite (BAp)/collagen (Col) alignment as an index of the bone microstructure to clarify the bone toughening mechanisms. A 5-mm defect introduced in the rabbit ulna was allowed to heal naturally and a three-point bending test was conducted on the regenerated site to assess bone toughness. The bone toughness was quite low at the early stage of bone regeneration but increased during the postoperative period. The change in toughness agreed well with the characteristics of the fracture surface morphology, which reflected the history of the crack propagation. SEM and microbeam X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the toughness was dominated by the degree and orientation of the preferred BAp/Col alignment, i.e. bundles aligned perpendicular to the crack propagation clearly contributed to the bone toughening owing to extra energy consumption for resistance to crack propagation. In conclusion, regenerated bone improves fracture toughness by reconstructing the preferred BAp/Col alignment along the bone longitudinal axis during the healing process of long bones.

  20. Method for assessment of vascular reactivity in bone: in vitro studies on resistance arteries isolated from porcine cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, A; Aalkjær, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge about vascular regulation in bone is central to the understanding of both normal and pathological bone physiology. This article describes a new method for direct assessment of the reactivity of bone blood vessels. Resistance arteries (diameter approximately 250 microns) were isolated from epiphyseal cancellous bone (porcine femoral condyle). Arterial segments (2 mm long) were mounted as ring preparations on a myograph, and isometric force development was measured continuously. Fifty-nine vessels from 31 pigs were investigated. The active force development was maximal at 0.9 x L100 in nine of 12 investigated arteries (L100 corresponds to the circumference the vessel would have if relaxed and exposed to a luminal pressure of 100 mm Hg [13.3 kPa]). In all subsequent experiments, the vessels were stretched to 0.9 x L100. Noradrenaline (2 x 10(-8) to 10(-5) M) induced a concentration-dependent vasoconstriction; mean maximal tension development was 3.69 N/m. This force development would enable the arteries to contract against a pressure of more than 22 kPa (165 mm Hg), indicating preserved function of the media smooth muscle. Response to acetylcholine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) was observed in only two of 12 arteries. Bradykinin (10(-11) to 10(-6) M) induced a concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation in all vessels; the relaxation was endothelium-dependent, since no effect of bradykinin was detected after mechanical removal of the endothelium. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) induced a reproducible and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. The results demonstrate preserved function of both smooth muscle and endothelium in this preparation. The model allows pharmacological investigations of bone arteries under well defined conditions and enables studies on focal bone lesions and human bone tissue.

  1. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. ? Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. ? Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1-/- mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1-/- mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm2) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1-/- compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1-/- mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1-/- mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1-/- mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1-/- mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  2. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietana, Michael J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Arruda, Ellen M. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Larkin, Lisa M., E-mail: llarkin@umich.edu [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1{sup -/-} mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  3. Nonspecific suppressor T cells cause decreased mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreased reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was observed in patients within 1 yr after allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Suppressor activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from transplant patients was studied by adding these cells as modulator cells to a bidirectional MLC with cells from normal individuals. PBMC from transplant patients markedly suppressed MLC reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppressor activity was present in cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. Treatment of modulator cells with monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens (OKT8, OKIa1) and complement completely abolished suppression of MLC. Suppressor activity was unaffected by 30 Gy irradiation. Suppressor activity declined gradually after transplantation and was inversely correlated with MLC reactivity of each patient at a significant level (p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that OKT8+ Ia+ radioresistant suppressor T cells play a role in the development of decreased MLC reactivity observed during the early post-transplant period

  4. Calculation of research reactor RA power at uncontrolled reactivity changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety analysis of research reactor RA involves also the calculation of reactor power at uncontrolled reactivity changes. The corresponding computer code, based on Point Kinetics Model has been made. The short review of method applied for solving kinetic equations is given and several examples illustrating the reactor behaviour at various reactivity changes are presented. The results already obtained are giving rather rough picture of reactor behaviour in considered situations. This is the consequence of using simplified feed back and reactor cooling models, as well as temperature reactivity coefficients, which do not correspond to the actual reactor RA structure (which is now only partly fulfilled with 80% enriched uranium fuel). (author)

  5. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. PMID:17021706

  6. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

  8. Changes in bone fatigue resistance due to collagen degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Willett, Thomas L; Omelon, Sidney; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhirui; Grynpas, Marc D

    2011-02-01

    Clinical tools for evaluating fracture risk, such as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS), focus on bone mineral and cannot detect changes in the collagen matrix that affect bone mechanical properties. However, the mechanical response tissue analyzer (MRTA) directly measures a whole bone mechanical property. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes in fatigue resistance after collagen degradation and to determine if clinical tools can detect changes in bone mechanical properties due to fatigue. Male and female emu tibiae were endocortically treated with 1?M KOH for 1-14 days and then either fatigued to failure or fatigued to induce stiffness loss without fracture. Partial fatigue testing caused a decrease in modulus measured by mechanical testing even when not treated with KOH, which was detected by MRTA. At high stresses, only KOH-treated samples had a lower fatigue resistance compared to untreated bones for both sexes. No differences were observed in fatigue behavior at low stresses for all groups. KOH treatment is hypothesized to have changed the collagen structure in situ and adversely affected the bone. Cyclic creep may be an important mechanism in the fast deterioration rate of KOH-treated bones, as creep is the major cause of fatigue failure for bones loaded at high stresses. Therefore, collagen degradation caused by KOH treatment may be responsible for the observed altered fatigue behavior at high stresses, since collagen is responsible for the creep behavior in bone. PMID:20803484

  9. Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thinner. In addition, vertebrae lose some of their mineral content, making each bone thinner. The spinal column becomes ... arms and legs, although more brittle because of mineral loss, do not ... compared with the shortened trunk. The joints become stiffer ...

  10. Ontogenetic change in temporal bone pneumatization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cheryl A

    2011-07-01

    Pneumatization of the temporal bone is often included in descriptions of fossils and as a phylogenetic marker, but a number of questions about the evolution, growth, and development of the trait remain. Many studies have analyzed temporal bone pneumatization from a clinical perspective, but a systematic quantification of normal development of pneumatized spaces has not been conducted. In this study, ontogenetic change in the size and organization of temporal bone pneumatization is analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of humans. High resolution computed tomography scans of the temporal bone were acquired from a cross-sectional sample of humans (N = 28). Bone volume fractions, anisotropy, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, surface area, and volume were analyzed to provide information about the organization and size of pneumatized spaces across ontogeny. The results indicate that there are general and region-specific patterns of ontogenetic changes in the organization of pneumatized spaces. These changes reflect the transition from nonpneumatized bone to pneumatized bone. It also demonstrates that those regions that are pneumatized early in ontogeny (such as the mastoid antrum) continue to remodel after the initial period of pneumatization. The dynamic nature of temporal bone pneumatization over ontogeny suggests that this character requires careful consideration when used as a character for phylogenetic analyses. These results demonstrate the importance of comparing individuals from similar developmental stages, especially when completing quantitative analyses of the extent of pneumatization or organization of the spaces. PMID:21618436

  11. Changes of bone scintigraphy and CT scan in metastatic bone tumors after radiotherapy with Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) and CT scan after irradiation were discussed with 28 lesions in 22 cases of metastatic bone tumor. Methods: 1) Co-60 irradiation: 200 rad/day x 5 times in a week and 5,000 - 6,000 rad in total dose were prearranged for radiotherapy. 2) Bone scintigraphy was taken by PHO/GAMMA LFOV 3 hours after the injection of Tc-99m-MDP with 10 mCi. 3) CT scan was performed by EMI-scanner CT 5005/12 and Ca concentration was calculated from EMI units. Results: 1) In bone scintigraphy, many of lesions treated with prearranged dose in total showed decreased or unchanged accumulation after irradiation, but in Ca concentration by CT, the lesions treated with a break showed increased concentration and the lesions continuously treated or given up showed no tendency. 2) The osteolytic lesions in CT images had no tendency to change their findings of bone scintigraphy but their Ca concentration measured by CT image was decreased after irradiation. 3) Changes of bone scintigraphy and CT image were not shown a clear correlation but there was a tendency as follows: In cases of decreased abnormal accumulation in postirradiative bone scintigraphy, Ca concentration of the lesion was increase, and in cases with increased accumulation, Ca concentration was decreased. (author)

  12. Bone and joint tuberculosis: phthisis changes course

    OpenAIRE

    Gawkrodger, David J.; Cole, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen cases of bone and joint tuberculosis occurred in North Staffordshire between 1976 and 1980. The immigrant population is small and the disease was commonest in whites over 60 years old. There were only three cases of spinal tuberculosis. A lack of uniformity was found in the chemotherapeutic regimens used.

  13. In-vitro studies of change in edge detection with changes in bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires edge detection software to identify the skeletal regions for quantitation of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). As bone mass decreases, the detection of bone edges becomes more difficult and this potentially could cause errors in DXA estimations of areal BMD or BMC. To address this issue, we have used an in-vitro model to study the effects of 'bone loss' on calculated bone area, BMD and BMC. Multiple vertebral phantoms, of equal cross-sectional area but incrementally decreased areal BMD, were constructed using calcium sulphate hemihydrate. The weight of each phantom vertebra, measured accurately using an electronic balance, was used as an index of its true 'bone mass equivalent' (BME). The phantoms were scanned and analysed in the lumbar spine mode using a Lunar DPX-L (L) and Hologic QDR-1000 (H). The changes in BME were compared to changes in measured area, BMC and areal BMD. The results demonstrate that, in an in-vitro model, as bone mass decreases, measured bone area and consequently BMC will decrease as the edge detection algorithms have greater difficulty in detecting the true edges. In conclusion, in an in-vitro model, the DXA edge detection algorithms will underestimate bone area as bone mass decreases. This has potential implications for monitoring changes in bone mass in vivo

  14. Radiographic changes in cortical bone after intramedullary nailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse osteotomies of the midshaft of the tibia in 75 rabbits were stabilized with intramedullary nails which prevented rotational instability. In a further 36 animals intramedullary nailing was performed without preceding osteotomy. The animals were able to move freely immediately after the operation without any supporting cast or splint. The structural changes in the bones were analysed radiographically 3 to 24 weeks after the operation. Fracture repair was accompanied by moderate periosteal callus formation and remodelling of the callus was seen from 9 weeks on. A sleeve of new endosteal bone surrounding the nail was found after 12 weeks. Porotic transformation of the diaphyseal cortical bone was seen in both osteotomized and non-osteotomized bones from 12 weeks onwards. It is concluded that intramedullary nailing provides favorable conditions for fracture repair and enables accurate radiographic assessment of the healing. Attention is focused on the causes and features of secondary porotic transformation of the cortical bone after intramedullary nailing. (orig.)

  15. Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Aguirre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum (Sm during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and also in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

  16. Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ignacio, Aguirre; María Soledad, Gomar; Silvio, Igal; María Alejandra, Quiroga; Enrique Leo, Portiansky; Eduardo Juan, Gimeno.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum) (Sm) during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and als [...] o in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

  17. Wax D of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced osteomyelitis accompanied by reactive bone formation in Buffalo rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Y; Semba, I; Hirayama, Y; Koga, T; Nagao, S; Takada, H

    1998-12-01

    A suspension of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid paraffin has been reported to induce foot swelling accompanied by new bone formation in Buffalo (BUF) rats, which are low responders to the induction of adjuvant arthritis. In the present study, we found that wax D, a mycobacterial cell wall peptidoglycan fragment-arabinogalactan-mycolic acid complex, was an effective component of this bacterium for the induction of osteomyelitis accompanied by reactive bone formation in BUF rats. Chronic inflammation was produced in BUF rats by a single subcutaneous injection of wax D suspended in liquid paraffin. Other Mycobacterium species and Gordona bronchialis were also capable of inducing this reaction. Other bacterial cells including the acid-fast bacteria Nocardia and Rhodococcus, purified cell walls and peptidoglycans from Lactobacillus plantarum, wax C, cord factor, arabinogalactan and mycolic acid prepared from M. tuberculosis were inactive in this respect. In addition, when wax D was administered as a water-in-oil emulsion (Freund's type adjuvant), bone formation scarcely occurred in BUF rats. In Fisher (F344) and Wistar rats, both of which are responder strains to adjuvant arthritis, wax D in liquid paraffin did not induce bone formation. PMID:9879920

  18. Age-related elemental change in bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Eisa, M.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, W. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shen, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn; Mi, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, J.; Zhou, Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-04-15

    To investigate age dependence of the bone element contents and structure, lumbar and femur from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen for their more susceptibility to fracture. These rats were divided into to 5 age groups: 1, 4, 7, 11 and 25 month-age, corresponding human beings from the young to the old. The elements contents were detected by external Proton Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) method was also applied to obtain information about calcium (Ca) and phosphor (P) structure. It was found that Ca content, Ca/P ratio, valance state of Ca and P and their coordinate structure remains unaltered with age variance, whereas the content of strontium (Sr) was significantly decreasing. Sr concentration may provide a new parameter for diagnosis of bone disorder.

  19. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  20. MRI spectrum of bone changes in the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purposes: (1) To assess the prevalence of bone marrow changes in the diabetic foot and (2) to discuss the clinical significance of these changes. Methods: 85 patients with radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) foot examinations were selected. Inclusion criteria were clinical diagnosis of diabetes and bone changes on radiographs and MRI. The material was selected from the image storage (PACS) system. We searched for vascular (infarct and necrosis), traumatic (bruise and occult fractures), destruction and debris, dislocation, osteochondritis, osteomyelitis. Five patients had bilateral examinations. A total of 90 feet were evaluated. Results: From 90 feet, 17 (18.9%) presented with vascular changes, from them, 11 feet had infarct and 6 feet had necrosis. Twenty (22.2%) feet had traumatic changes; of them, 10 (50%) had edema on MRI. Five (25%) cases had occult fracture on MRI; and 5 (25%) had visible fracture on both X-ray and MRI. Bone destruction was detected in 8 (8.9%) feet. Bony debris was visualized in three of them. Bone dislocation was visualized in 11 (12.2%) feet. There was evidence of osteochondritis in twenty-four (26.7%) feet. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in ten (11.1%) feet. Conclusion: Diabetic foot is a challenge for both clinicians and radiologists due to its complexity. The bone derangements inherent to the diabetic foot can be evaluated with high accuracy with MRI.

  1. Radiologic bone changes of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 50 cases of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia (PLO) with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (SL) have been described in Finland, Sweden, Japan, and in the USA. Radiographic bone changes, including symmetrical cystic lesions in the small bones of the extremities and trabecular loss in the distal ends of the long tubular bones, represent primary abnormalities in the diagnosis of the disease. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, frontal syndrome, and pyramidal signs make the patients dangerous to themselves. They are often involved in traffic accidents are prone to multiple spontaneous or almost spontaneous fractures. PLO usually starts with slight bone pain around the age of 20 years. Progress is very slow during the next ten years, but faster after the age of 40 years. The patients usually die before the age of 50 years having total dementia and epileptiform convulsions. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of bone marrow lymphocyte subsets in normal, reactive, and neoplastic states using paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny, H P; Wehrmann, M; Griesser, H; Tiemann, M; Bültmann, B; Kaiserling, E

    1993-02-01

    Bone marrow lymphocyte subsets in normal and reactive states and in neoplastic diseases involving the marrow were investigated with a select panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive on routinely processed, paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy material. In all cases, the antibodies beta F1 and UCHL1 (CD45RO) stained virtually equal numbers of T cells (reactive and neoplastic), whereas antibody OPD4 stained only about one half of this number of T cells. Antibody L26 (CD20) stained B cells (reactive and neoplastic) in all specimens. The T-cell to B-cell ratio in the normal marrow was between 4:1 and 5:1, and a significant increase in T-cell numbers was observed in reactive and myelodysplastic states. A significant increase in B-cell numbers, however, was seen only in marrow infiltrated by B-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow exhibiting infiltrates of B-cell lymphoma, acute leukemia, or myeloproliferative disorders showed normal or decreased numbers of T cells. These findings show that antibodies UCHL1, beta F1, and L26 can be used to determine the numbers of B and T lymphocytes in paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed bone marrow specimens and thus may help to distinguish reactive T lymphocytosis from B-cell lymphoma. PMID:8438787

  3. Mandibular antegonial and ramus notch depths and condylar bone change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, I M; Yamada, K; Hanada, K

    2005-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify the relationship between antegonial and ramus notch depths and condylar bone change, and analyse the effects of such change on craniofacial structure. The study sample was of 28 pre-orthodontic patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, who underwent helical computed tomography to diagnose their TMJ pathology. Craniofacial structures were compared between 14 subjects with bilateral condylar bone change (BBC group: two male and 12 female) and 14 subjects with no bone change (NBC group: two male and 12 female). Sella-nasion-point B (SNB) and point A-nasion-point B (ANB) angles were significantly smaller in BBC than in NBC, with ramus height and mandibular body lengths significantly shorter in BBC than in NBC. The BBC lower facial height and SN-Go-Ar angle, as well as antegonial and ramus notch depths, were significantly greater than in NBC, and the mandible was significantly more retruded in BBC than in NBC. These results showed that condylar bone change might be related not only to mandibular size (e.g. retrusion) but also to mandibular outline (including antegonial and ramus notch depth). PMID:15634294

  4. Change of MRI images in bone metastasis caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation therapy on bone metastasis was studied by MR imaging. The study comprised 32 patients with bone metastasis from lung cancer, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma and various other malignancies that were evaluated by MR imaging before and after radiation therapy (Group I); and 3 patients with preexisting bone metastasis of breast cancer who were free from recurrence for more than 5 years after radiation therapy (Group II). Signal intensities fell into 5 degrees: iso-intense to normal bone marrow within the radiation field (I); iso-intense to the muscles (L); hypointense to the muscles (LL); iso-intense to subcutaneous fat (H); and hyperintense to the fat (HH). Before radition therapy, most bone metastasis was (L) on T1-weighted images or (H) on T2-weighted images with enhancement by Gd-DTPA. MR images within or after 2 years in Group I showed the following T1-/T2-weighted images: LL/HH (31%, Type I), I/I (13%, Type II), LL/LL (9%, Type III), mixed changes (Type IV), and unchanged (NC). Gd-DTPA enhanced images before radiotherapy showed solid pattern in 23 of 27 patients. Among the 23 patients, the enhancement after radiation showed the decrease in 18 patients as follows: mottled (7), ring-shaped (4) and lacking (7). This seemed to have resulted from radiation. Tumor size reduction on MR imags was noted in a total of 12 patients. All 3 patients in Group II had Type III on non-enhanced MR images. Therefore, changes in T1- and T2-weighted images, Gd changes in T1- and T2-weighted images, Gd-DTPA enhancement, and tumor size are considered helpful in the evaluation of therapeutic results of bone metastasis. (N.K.)

  5. Radiodiagnosis of bone changes in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of analysis of roentgenograms and scintigrams of hands and feet of 21 patients with diabetes mellitus are presented. Scintigraphy was carried out with 99mTc-pyrophosphate. The examination was conducted with ON-110 gamma chamber. Changes in scintigrams are detected for 19 of 21 patients examined; 37 foci of pathologic buildup of radiopharmaceuticals are determined. Increased buildup of radiopharmaceuticals in the region of the focus isn't marked in roentgeograms for 48.6% of patients. For 51.4% of patients the results of both methods coincide. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-pyrophosphates allows to refiny the degree of osteal changes propagation in diabetes mellitus as well as to detect them earlier than by the roentgenologic method

  6. The skeletal site-differential changes in bone mineral density following bone marrow transplantation: 3-year prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Young; Kang, Moo Il; Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Eun Sook; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Sun Woo; Kim, Choon Choo

    2002-01-01

    Loss of bone mass is usually detected after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during the early post-transplant period. However, little is known about the long-term effects of BMT on bone metabolism. We have prospectively investigated 11 patients undergoing BMT. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured before BMT, and 1, 2, and 3 yr after BMT. Serum markers of bone turnover were serially measured before BMT and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 yr after BMT. The mean change in the lumba...

  7. Reactive endplate marrow changes: a systematic morphologic and epidemiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the morphology and location of vertebral endplate changes, and to analyze their association with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). At 1.5 T (T1-weighted, T2-weighted/STIR) 100 lumbar spines were evaluated separately by three observers. The readers classified the endplate bone marrow abnormalities on sagittal MR images according to the definitions of Modic et al. Findings were localized by disc segment; whether in the upper and/or lower endplate; and within each endplate divided into 15 segments. Disc space narrowing, as well as disc desiccation, was also noted at each vertebral level. In addition, endplate changes were correlated with age, gender, and BMI (weight(kg)/height(m)2). A total of 15,000 data points were studied and 422 total changes recorded. A total of 99 vertebral levels were affected in 58 patients. Of these, 171 were of type I, 242 were of type II, and 9 were of type III. L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 vertebral levels were most commonly involved, having (142, 4.73%) and (116, 3.87%) changes respectively (P<0.0001). The upper and lower aspects of the endplate were affected similarly. Changes most frequently occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate (P<0.0001). Endplate marrow changes were associated with increasing age (P<0.0001) and, surprisingly, male gender (P<0.0001). Endplate changes were not associated with BMI. The fatty pattern was most common, with the sclerotic pattern being rare. Endplate marrow changes most often occue. Endplate marrow changes most often occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate, particularly at L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 levels. Modic changes occur more frequently with aging, evidence of their degenerative etiology. They were, however, not related to body habitus, but to weight and male gender. (orig.)

  8. Endometrial metaplasias and reactive changes: a spectrum of altered differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Alina; Preda, Ovidiu; Nogales, Francisco F

    2011-02-01

    Endometrial metaplasias and changes (EMCs) are conditions frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. The aim of this review is to update current issues and provide a classification with a practical clinicopathological approach. Hormonal or irritative stimuli are the main inducing factors of EMCs, although some metaplasias have a mutational origin. EMCs vary from reactive, degenerative lesions to those able to associate with malignancy or those having a preneoplastic potential. The most common types of EMCs are ciliated tubal metaplasia (CTM) and mucinous metaplasia (MM), which occur in simple and complex glands, and possibly these architectural changes hold the same prognostic significance as they do in hyperplastic endometrioid lesions. Immunohistochemically, CTM is positive for LhS28, bcl-2, PAX2 and p16(INK4A). Complex CTM is likely to be a precursor of ciliated endometrioid-type carcinomas. MMs should be evaluated architecturally, taking into account that their atypicality is minimal. The differentiation between complex MM and mucinous carcinoma may be extremely difficult. Surface complex, papillary MM in endometrial polyps can be considered as benign. Intestinal-type endometrial MM is rare and its presence should prompt further investigation of associated lesions in the endocervix. Endometrial squamous metaplasia (ESS) is often linked to chronic irritative situations. It should be differentiated from secondary involvement by a human papilomavirus-related cervical lesion. Morular metaplasia is a mutational phenomenon with a distinct phenotype that helps to differentiate it from ESS. Morules are benign, hormonally inert structures that are often markers of complex endometrioid glandular architecture, and they are associated with an attenuated malignancy. Endometrial reactive changes are commonly associated with desquamation or hormonal imbalance. The frequent, p16(INK4A) positive, benign surface papillary syncytial change may be misdiagnosed, in some cases, as surface serous adenocarcinoma. Eosinophilic, oxyphilic, oncocytic and clear cell changes are non-specific. Rare stromal metaplasias have little clinical significance and should be differentiated from implanted fetal or embryonal tissues. PMID:21126963

  9. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.780.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images

  10. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Hyung Seop; Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.78{sub 0}.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images.

  11. Increase of bone marrow lymphocytes in systemic mastocytosis: reactive lymphocytosis or malignant lymphoma? Immunohistochemical and molecular findings on routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny, H-P; Lange, K; Sotlar, K; Valent, P

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To clarify the nature (reactive or neoplastic) of lesional, perifocally aggregated lymphocytes in bone marrow infiltrates of systemic mastocytosis (SM), the histopathology of which can resemble malignant lymphoma with focal bone marrow involvement, particularly low grade malignant B cell lymphoma of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma subtype, which frequently exhibits increased mast cell (MC) numbers. Methods: Thirteen cases of SM and three of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma with predominant focal bone marrow infiltration were investigated. Immunostaining of formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow specimens was performed using antibodies against CD2, CD5, CD20, CD23, and CD25; ? and ? immunoglobulin light chains; and MC markers chymase, tryptase, and CD117 (KIT). Monoclonal rearrangements of IgH and TCR? were studied using seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). c-kit point mutation Asp816-Val was detected by PNA mediated PCR clamping and hybridisation probes. Results: The lymphocytic clusters in SM contained nearly equal numbers of mature T and B cells, the latter with no coexpression of aberrant antigens, such as CD5 or CD23. Most MCs in SM cases constantly coexpressed tryptase, CD25, and CD117. No monoclonal rearrangements were seen for IgH or TCR?. In contrast, B cells from immunocytomas showed light chain restriction and monoclonal rearrangement for IgH, confirming their neoplastic nature. c-kit point mutation Asp816-Val was found in ten of 13 SM cases, but in none of the three immunocytomas. Conclusions: Focal accumulations of lymphocytes in the bone marrow of SM are reactive in nature and could be termed lymphocytosis. A diagnosis of SM-AHNMD/immunocytoma should not be made. PMID:12890804

  12. Lectin histochemistry of human bone marrow: investigation of trephine biopsy specimens in normal and reactive states and neoplastic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, U; Horny, H P; Welsch, U; Kaiserling, E

    1991-05-01

    The lectin binding pattern of bone marrow cells in normal and reactive states and in various neoplastic disorders was investigated using trephine biopsy specimens taken from the iliac crest. The tissue samples were routinely processed (fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax) and subjected to mild decalcification with EDTA. The following results were obtained. (1) More than half of the 23 fluoresceinated lectins used reacted with normal blood cells and/or their neoplastic derivatives. Inhibition tests with the appropriate sugars confirmed the specificity of binding for the majority, but not all, of the lectins. (2) WGA, Con A, PSA, STA and RCA60 and RCA120 produced a particularly intense reaction with normal, reactive and neoplastic myeloid cells. Erythroblasts exhibited weak staining in a few cases by a few lectins (WGA producing the strongest staining), while megakaryocytes nearly always remained unstained. Neoplastic lymphoid cells in various lymphoproliferative disorders and plasmacytoma cells generally reacted with the same lectins as the myeloid cells. (3) Since neoplastic myeloid cells in various myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders exhibited a lectin binding pattern similar to that of myeloid cells in normal and reactive bone marrow, it is unlikely that lectin histochemistry of the bone marrow will prove of great value in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disorders. PMID:1783564

  13. Changes of Elastic Constants and Anisotropy Patterns in Trabecular Bone During Disuse-Induced Bone Loss Assessed by Poroelastic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luis; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the approach most widely used to examine bone loss is the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, bone loss due to immobilization creates changes in bone microarchitecture, which in turn are related to changes in bone mechanical function and competence to resist fracture. Unfortunately, the relationship between microarchitecture and mechanical function within the framework of immobilization and antiresorptive therapy has not being fully investigated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in trabecular bone in the real-world situations of a rapidly evolving osteoporosis (disuse), both with and without antiresorptive treatment. We evaluated the structure-function relationship in trabecular bone after bone loss (disuse-induced osteoporosis) and bisphosphonate treatment (antiresorptive therapy using risedronate) in canine trabecular bone using ?CT and ultrasound wave propagation. Microstructure values determined from ?CT images were used into the anisotropic poroelastic model of wave propagation in order to compute the apparent elastic constants (EC) and elastic anisotropy pattern of bone. Immobilization resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV), while risedronate treatment combined with immobilization exhibited a lesser reduction in Tb.Th and BV/TV, suggesting that risedronate treatment decelerates bone loss, but it was unable to fully stop it. Risedronate treatment also increased the tissue mineral density (TMD), which when combined with the decrease in Tb.Th and BV/TV may explain the lack of significant differences in vBMD in both immobilization and risedronate treated groups. Interestingly, changes in apparent EC were much stronger in the superior-inferior (SI) direction than in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) anatomical directions, producing changes in elastic anisotropy patterns. When data were pooled together, vBMD was able to explain 58% of ultrasound measurements variability, a poroelastic wave propagation analytical model (i.e., BMD modulated by fabric directionality) was able to predict 81% of experimental wave velocity variability, and also explained 91% of apparent EC and changes in elastic anisotropy patterns. Overall, measurements of vBMD were unable to distinguish changes in apparent EC due to immobilization or risedronate treatment. However, anisotropic poroelastic ultrasound (PEUS) wave propagation was able to distinguish functional changes in apparent EC and elastic anisotropy patterns due to immobilization and antiresorptive therapy, providing an enhanced discrimination of anisotropic bone loss and the structure-function relationship in immobilized and risedronate-treated bone, beyond vBMD. PMID:25412022

  14. Analysis of changes in bone cement damping factor and its effect on bone load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the results of simulations and material-related investigations for bone cement used for alloplasty of hip joint. Mechanical properties of bone cements are of key importance for a successful surgery and further use of the joint as well as its behaviour during complex load which appears during patient’s walk.Design/methodology/approach: One of the methods of thermal analysis for polymeric materials has been used for investigations. DMTA method is based on the analysis of the signal (reaction from the deformed material under particular conditions, at the changeable ambient temperature as well as frequency and amplitude of vibrations. DMTA thermograms give information on change in storage modulus E’ and the mechanical loss factor tg?, which is responsible for dissipation of energy during deformation.Findings: During simulation investigations ADINA engineering environment has been used; it enabled, at the assumed boundary and initial conditions, to assess the stress which appears in individual cross-sections of the analysed bone and the implant fixed by means of bone cement. During the analysis the cross-sections have been presented and the values of the stress which appears in individual zones have been determined.Research limitations/implications: Due to high complexity, only the results of simulation software have been used, clinic trials will be possible not before thorough check and analysis of the obtained results.Practical implications: Practical application of the results of the investigations described in this paper will be possible after long and comprehensive clinical trials.Originality/value: Original value of this paper are the results of tests since such an analysis has never been conducted by scientific environment working on this subject.

  15. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)splasia. (orig.)

  16. Differences in origin of reactive microglia in bone marrow chimeric mouse and rat after transient global ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Deierborg, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Current understanding of microglial involvement in disease is influenced by the observation that recruited bone marrow (BM)-derived cells contribute to reactive microgliosis in BM-chimeric mice. In contrast, a similar phenomenon has not been reported for BM-chimeric rats. We investigated the recruitment and microglial transformation of BM-derived cells in radiation BM-chimeric mice and rats after transient global cerebral ischemia, which elicits a characteristic microglial reaction. Both species displayed microglial hyperplasia and rod cell transformation in the hippocampal CA1 region. In mice, a subpopulation of lesion-reactive microglia originated from transformed BM-derived cells. By contrast, no recruitment or microglial transformation of BM-derived cells was observed in BM-chimeric rats. These results suggest that reactive microglia in rats originate from resident microglia, whereas they have a mixed BM-derived and resident origin in mice, depending on the severity of ischemic tissue damage.

  17. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow: frequent medium change method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani M, Nadri S, Izadpanah R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: MSCs have been isolated from a variety of mammals by the plastic adherence method. However, this method can be problematic due to the unwanted growth of hematopoietic cells and non-MSCs. The potential of MSCs to differentiate along multiple lineages is the key to the identification of stem cell populations in the absence of molecular markers. In the present study, we describe a homogeneous population of MSCs from mouse bone marrow isolated using an improved plastic adherence method that employs frequent medium change (FMC at the initial hours of harvested bone marrow cell culture."n"nMethods: Balb/c mice were sacrificed and whole bone marrow cells were aspirated from the femur and tibia and then cultivated in six-well plates. After 3-4 hours of culture, old medium was removed and fresh medium was added. FMC was performed every eight hours over a 72 hour period. When primary cultures became nearly confluent, the first passage was performed. These cells were then used for further examination. To investigate their mesenchymal nature, the cells were allowed to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages and examined at each passage up to the tenth passage for surface antigens by flow cytometry."n"nResults: We achieved purified populations of fibroblast-like cells in the two weeks after culture initiation. The cells were capable of differentiating into osteocytes and adipocytes. Isolated MSCs were reactive to the CD44, Sca-1, and CD90 cell surface markers. MSCs were negative for hematopoietic surface markers such as CD34, CD11b, CD45, CD31, CD106, CD117 and CD135."n"nConclusions: This protocol provides an efficient isolation of homogeneous populations of MSCs from mouse bone marrow.

  18. Evaluation of temporal scintigraphic changes of bone fractures in rabbits using multiphase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Familiarity with the temporal changes in the scintigraphic pattern of the healing fractures overtime on multiphase bone scan, can be useful to ascertain whether a fracture is of recent origin or long standing, and in improving the specificity for diagnosis of infection when suspected at the site of an old fracture. This could also be useful in avoiding additional imaging studies such as labelled leukocyte imaging, particularly when resources are limited as in many developing countries. The objective of this experimental study was to assess temporal changes of blood flow, blood pool activity and delayed uptake at the site of fracture using Tc-99m MDP and to determine the potential value of quantitation in differentiating non- infected from infected fractures. Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits of the same age and approximately same weight (2.2 kg each) were studied. Fractures were induced into one femur under general anaesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, and fixed with plaster. Imaging was performed every week for 3 months and every two weeks for another 3 months in all animals using 5 mCi (158 MBq) of Tc-99m MDP for each study. Flow studies for 1 second per frame for 1 minute, blood pool static image for 5 minutes and delayed images for 5 minutes each at 3 hours and at 24 hours post injection were acquired, each time using the same geometrical parameters. Temporal changes of flow and blood pool were determined over the period of the study by two experienced ne period of the study by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The time at which flow and blood pool returned to normal was determined. Ratio of radioactivity in the fractured site to normal bone was also determined on the delayed images (3 and 24 hours) and the factor of change in the ratios between 3 and 24 hours was determined in each study. At the end of the studies animals were sacrificed and histopathologic examinations of fracture sites were carried out to determine whether infection was present. In 17 animals with no evidence of infection, flow and blood pool activity returned to normal within 6 months (Range = 8 to 24 weeks). In the remaining four rabbits who had evidence of skeletal infection at the sites of fracture, flow and blood pool activity did not normalize by 6 months. The calculated ratios of radioactivity concentration at fractured site to normal bone at 3 and 24 hours for each animal during the entire period of the study revealed that the mean values of 24 hour to 3 hour ratio for non-infected group was persistently below one (p < 0.001), while in the infected group the mean value was above one(p < 0.05). Our preliminary data suggests that flow and blood pool activity normalize by 6 months at the site of non-infected fractures which also show persistently lower 24 hour fracture to normal bone ratio than the three hour ratio, contrary to that in infected fractures. This quantitative parameter could be potentially helpful in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis at fracture sites by bone scan. (author)

  19. Scintigraphic changes in bone metastasis from prostate cancer after hormonal therapy. Comparison with tumor markers and bone X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy is often performed to assess the response to systemic therapy of bone metastasis from prostate cancer. We examined the changes in bone scintigraphic findings and the agreement with alkaline phosphatase(AlP), acid phosphatase(AcP), or other tumor markers measured in the follow-up of patients with known bone metastasis after hormonal therapy. Out of 32 patients, 22 (69%) showed improved scintigraphic findings on the first follow-up bone scintigraphy after hormonal therapy. However, 7 out of 22 patients who showed improvement on the first follow-up scintigraphy, deteriorated thereafter. Changes in the scintigraphic findings were closely correlated with those in the measured tumor markers except for patients with small bone metastasis. Though there were no significant differences in the agreement ratios of the 6 tumor markers evaluated, AlP might be a practical and acceptable indicator. Bone X-ray findings did not change at all in almost half of the cases though the scintigraphic findings showed improvement or deterioration. (author)

  20. Cortical and cancellous bone: age-related changes in morphologic features, fluid spaces, and calcium homeostasis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in cortical and cancellous bone that occur with aging were studied by measuring morphologic and physiologic variables for both types of bone in dogs. The percentage area of cortical and cancellous bone, rate of bone formation, vascular volume, bone water, and volume of distribution of calcium tracer all showed statistically significant changes at the time of bone maturity. Canine cortical bone cell volume progressively decreased with advancing age, and cancellous bone cell volume significantly decreased between adult and old dogs. The volume of distribution technique can be used to determine the relative contributions of cortical and cancellous bone to the total body exchangeable calcium ion pool

  1. Diagnostic usefulness and changing value during irradiation of bone metabolic markers for metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the efficacy of Pyridinoline-cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal propep tide of the type I procollagen (PICP), as bone metabolic markers (BMM) that reflect the effects of radiotherapy in patients with metastatic bone tumors (MBT). One-hundred eight patients who had had malignant tumors and been suspected of developing MBT were measured for ICTP and PICP. Ninety six patients with recognized MBT and 12 patients without MBT were evaluated for the diagnostic accuracy of MBT. Out of the 96 cases, 49 received radiotherapy and were measured for ICTP and PICP before and after the treatment. The 49 cases were divided into 25 cases (Com group) that had all of the MBT irradiated and 24 cases (InCom group) that could not have all sites irradiated. Increase ratios from before to after the radiotherapy were compared between ICTP and PICP. In the 96 patients with MBT, both ICTP and PICP were observed to be significantly high. Diagnostic accuracy was 81.5% for ICTP, and 61.6% for PICP. InCom group showed an increase in ICTP by about 25% while no significant change was observed in the Com group. BMM has diagnostic significance in patients with MBT. Performing radiotherapy to every osseous lesion results in a decline or leveling-off of ICTP. (author)

  2. The relationship between bone marrow edema and bone changes in the mandibular condyle. A longitudinal study with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreased signal intensity on T1 or proton-density weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2 weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the bone marrow space are considered to represent bone marrow edema (BME). The purpose of this study was to determine whether condyle BME is associated with condyle bone changes. The study group consisted of 65 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 57 patients with TMJ disorders showing condyle BME on initial MRI. Condyle bone changes were compared between TMJs that showed a persistent BME pattern (BME-persistent group; 43 TMJs of 40 patients) and TMJs that showed a normal bone marrow signal (BME-disappeared group; 21 TMJs of 22 patients) on follow-up MRI. In the TMJs which were normal shaped condyle on initial MRI, follow-up MRI showed that condyle bone changes had occurred in 53.9% of the BME-persistent group, whereas normal shaped condyle had continued in all of the BME-disappeared group. In the TMJs which showed condyle erosion on initial MRI, follow-up MRI showed that condyle erosion had continued in 35.7% of the BME-persistent group, whereas condyle erosion had disappeared in all of the BME-disappeared group. In the TMJs which were condyle osteophyte on initial MRI, follow-up MRI showed that condyle erosion had occurred in 22.2% of the BME-persistent group, whereas condyle osteophyte had continued in all of the BME-disappeared group. The longitudinal study showed that condyle BME was associated with condyle bone changesE was associated with condyle bone changes. Furthermore, it was suggested that condyle BME could cause condyle erosion. (author)

  3. Early changes in bone density, microarchitecture, bone resorption, and inflammation predict the clinical outcome 12 weeks after conservatively treated distal radius fractures: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ursina; de Jong, Joost J; Bours, Sandrine G P; Keszei, András P; Arts, Jacobus J; Brink, Peter R G; Menheere, Paul; van Geel, Tineke A C M; van Rietbergen, Bert; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet P; Willems, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Fracture healing is an active process with early changes in bone and inflammation. We performed an exploratory study evaluating the association between early changes in densitometric, structural, biomechanical, and biochemical bone parameters during the first weeks of fracture healing and wrist-specific pain and disability at 12 weeks in postmenopausal women with a conservatively treated distal radius fracture. Eighteen patients (aged 64?±?8 years) were evaluated at 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 weeks postfracture, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), micro-finite element analysis, serum procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). After 12 weeks, patients rated their pain and disability using Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) questionnaire. Additionally, Quick Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire and active wrist range of motion was evaluated. Linear regression models were used to study the relationship between changes in bone parameters and in hsCRP from visit 1 to 2 and PRWE score after 12 weeks. A lower PRWE outcome, indicating better outcome, was significantly related to an early increase in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) (? -0.96 [95% CI -1.75 to -0.16], R(2) ?=?0.37), in torsional stiffness (-0.14 [-0.28 to -0.004], R(2) ?=?0.31), and to an early decrease in trabecular separation (209 [15 to 402], R(2) ?=?0.33) and in ICTP (12.1 [0.0 to 24.1], R(2) ?=?0.34). Similar results were found for QuickDASH. Higher total dorsal and palmar flexion range of motion was significantly related to early increase in hsCRP (9.62 [3.90 to 15.34], R(2) ?=?0.52). This exploratory study indicates that the assessment of early changes in trabecular BMD, trabecular separation, calculated torsional stiffness, bone resorption marker ICTP, and hsCRP after a distal radius fracture provides valuable information regarding the 12-week clinical outcome in terms of pain, disability, and range of motion and validates its use in studies on the process of early fracture healing. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24644096

  4. Galloping exercise induces regional changes in bone density within the third and radial carpal bones of Thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that a localised bone hypertrophy could occur within the subchondral cancellous architecture of the third and radial carpal bones. Using 2 levels of controlled and defined exercise, it was observed that a high intensity treadmill exercise protocol resulted in functional adaptation of the carpal bones. The increase in trabecular thickening and density was seen to be localised to those regions underlying common sites of cartilage degradation, the interface of the thickened trabeculae with the normal architecture in the third carpal hone was coincident with a common site of clinical fractures. The bone changes were determined both qualitatively on examination of slab radiographs and quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The findings from this study are relevant to mechanical factors involved in the pathophysiology of joint degeneration. The potential clinical implications of this study are in relation to changes in the type and duration of exercise regimens used in training of equine athletes. The rapid response of bone to mechanical stimulation has implications in the longer term for localised cartilage degradation. Imaging techniques could be developed to monitor these early bone changes in the specific areas identified in this study and thus allow appropriate changes in training intensity to minimise subsequent damage to the articular surface

  5. Exercise-Induced Changes in the Cortical Bone of Growing Mice Are Bone and Gender Specific

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Joseph M.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Bloomfield, Susan A.; Robey, Pamela G.; Young, Marian F.; Kohn, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Fracture risk and mechanical competence of bone are functions of bone mass and tissue quality, which in turn are dependent on the bone’s mechanical environment. Male mice have a greater response to non weight-bearing exercise than females, resulting in larger, stronger bones compared with control animals. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that short-term weight-bearing running during growth (21 days starting at 8 weeks of age; 30 minutes/day; 12 meters/minute; 5° incline; 7 ...

  6. Restoring and maintaining bone in osteopenic female rat skeleton: I. Changes in bone mass and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L. Y.; Jee, W. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the lose, restore, and maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses anabolic agents to restore bone mass and architecture (+ phase) and then switches to an agent with the established ability to maintain bone mass, to keep the new bone (+/- phase). The purpose of this study was to learn whether switching to an agent known chiefly for its ability to maintain existing bone mass preserves new bone induced by PGE2 in osteopenic, estrogen-depleted rats. The current study had three phases, the bone loss (-), restore (+), and maintain (+/-) phases. We ovariectomized (OX) or sham ovariectomized (sham-OX) 5.5-month-old female rats (- phase). The OX rats were treated 5 months postovariectomy with 1-6 mg PGE2 per kg/day for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (+ phase), and then PGE2 treatment was stopped and treatment began with 1 or 5 micrograms/kg of risedronate, a bisphosphonate, twice a week for 60 days (+/- phase). During the loss (-) phase, the cancellous bone volume of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the OX rat fell to 19% of initial and 30% of age-matched control levels. During the restore (+) phase, the cancellous bone volume in OX rats doubled. When PGE2 treatment was stopped, however, and no special maintenance efforts were made during the maintain (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone persisted when the PGE2 treatment was followed by either a 1 or 5 micrograms treatment of risedronate per kg given twice a week for 60 days during the maintain (+/-) phase. The tibial shaft demonstrated very little cortical bone loss during the loss (-) phase in OX rats. The tibial shaft cortical bone fell some 8%. During the restore (+) phase, new cortical bone in OX rats increased by 22%. When PGE2 treatment was stopped and nothing was given during the maintain (+/-) phase, however, all but the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone disappeared. In contrast, when PGE2 treatment was stopped and 1 micron risedronate per kg twice a week for 60 days was administered during the maintenance (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone and some of the subendocortical bone and marrow trabeculae persisted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  7. Calculation of reactivity changes due to bubble collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based on Behrens' method indicate that a substantial increase in reactivity may accompany the collapse of a large number of small bubbles in an LMFBR core. More sophisticated transport approaches to this problem have encountered several difficulties: the large number of bubbles requires many mesh points; the desired effect can easily be masked by the movement of fuel to regions of greater (or lesser) importance; the reactivity is desired for a random distribution of spherical bubbles. This paper describes a transport approach to this problem which avoids the above difficulties by using the ''sub-group'' or ''probability table'' method

  8. MRI evaluation of bone marrow changes in the diabetic foot: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Talya R; Fatone, Eliana A; Weis, Adina; Cotten, Anne; Beltran, Javier

    2011-07-01

    One of the most important roles of magnetic resonance (MR) in imaging of the diabetic foot is to differentiate between the common and often comorbid pathologies that present with abnormal bone marrow signal. The primary diagnostic challenges in this setting are to distinguish osteomyelitis from reactive bone marrow edema, neuroarthropathy from osteomyelitis, and the sterile from the superinfected neuropathic joint. Whereas both osteomyelitis and reactive marrow edema share increased T2 signal, osteomyelitis is confirmed by T1 hypointensity in the bone marrow and reactive edema demonstrates isolated T2 signal hyperintensity. In distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, a localized or contiguously spreading forefoot focus of abnormal bone marrow away from the subchondral surface and adjacent to a skin ulcer, cellulitis, abscess, or sinus tract would be indicative of osteomyelitis. A midfoot, subchondral, periarticular, or polyarticular distribution of findings in the absence of a contiguous focus of skin disruption would strongly support neuroarthropathy. Parameters that have been successfully correlated with acute infection superimposed on neuroarthropathy include diffuse bone marrow signal abnormality, progressive subarticular enhancement, loss of subchondral cysts, and the presence of the MRI "ghost sign." PMID:21644199

  9. Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumsohn, A; Marin, F

    2011-01-01

    We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment. INTRODUCTION: The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD) changes after 24 months of teriparatide. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-month study at 95 centers in 10 countries in 758 postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis (n?=?181 treatment-naïve) who had at least one post-baseline bone marker determination. Teriparatide (20 ?g/day) was administered for up to 24 months. We measured procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) at baseline, 1 and 6 months, and change in BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck from baseline to 24 months. RESULTS: Significant increases in formation markers occurred after 1 month of teriparatide regardless of prior osteoporosis therapy. The absolute increase at 1 month was lower in previously treated versus treatment-naïve patients, but after 6 months all groups reached similar levels. PINP showed the best signal-to-noise ratio. Baseline PINP correlated positively and significantly with BMD response at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the long-term responsiveness of bone formation markers to teriparatide is notaffected in subjects previously treated with antiresorptive drugs.

  10. Process for monitoring reactivity effects due to the power changes in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for monitoring reactivity effects due to the power changes in pressurized water nuclear reactors using the displacement in fuel assemblies of mobile bunches of absorbing material as well as soluble boron for correcting the long term effects of reactivity

  11. Reactive and neoplastic lymphocytes in human bone marrow: morphological, immunohistological, and molecular biological investigations on biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, S M; Horny, H P; Greschniok, A; Kaiserling, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slight, diffuse or focal lymphocyte proliferation is relatively common in bone marrow biopsy specimens. It may be impossible to determine whether this represents a reactive lymphocytosis or low grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) on the basis of routine investigations alone. AIM: To investigate the supplementary use of molecular biological techniques in this situation. METHODS: 529 formalin fixed, paraffin embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens from the iliac crest were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical staining to determine the number and nature of the lymphocytes present. The cases were divided into three groups according to the lymphocyte count: normal ( 30%). All of the last group could be diagnosed as NHL from the morphological findings alone. The clonality of rearrangements of the IgH and TCR gamma genes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Monoclonality was observed in 7.5% of the 372 cases with a normal lymphocyte count, in 50% of the cases with a modest increase in lymphocyte numbers (suggesting a diagnosis of low grade NHL not detected by immunostaining), and in 77% of the cases with markedly increased lymphocyte numbers. CONCLUSIONS: If PCR is used in addition to the immunohistochemical investigation of bone marrow biopsies, considerably more cases of NHL can be identified, making this of particular use in staging and detection of recurrences. Images PMID:10605406

  12. Study of changes in antioxidant protective system activity in animal tissues in a bone defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work changes of the activity of antioxidant protective system in a bone defect model were studied by evaluation of endogenous tocopherols, antiradical activity, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. It has been shown that 1*0.5 sm shaft of femur defect model causes significant decrease of tissue antiradical activity values, the level of endogenous tocopherols, SOD and GPx in periosteum, bone marrow, liver and blood. This process occurs more drastically on the background of autoplastic substitution of the defect. In a bone defect the largest changes were observed in antiradical activity and GPx activity in periosteum and bone marrow. Analysis of obtained data unambiguously suggests the necessity of correction of tissue antioxidant activity disorders in bone defect for thye prevention of the lipid peroxidation that causes possible complications and reparative bone regeneration suppression

  13. Relationship between Coronary Risk Factors, C-Reactive Protein, Bone Mineral Density and Carotid Circulation Among Frail Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatassem S. Amer1, Tamer M. Farid1, Ekrami E. Abdel-rahman1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frailty may now be regarded as a geriatric syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors, resulting from cumulative declines across multiple physiologic systems, causing vulnerability to adverse health outcomes including falls, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and mortality. The inflammatory mediators as C-reactive protein have been associated with the development of the geriatric frailty. Several studies have pointed out increased level of homocystiene in frail elderly Increasing frailty was associated with lower bone mineral density, as both bone mass and muscle strength decrease during ageing and this has also been associated with higher risk of osteoporotic fractures in frail elderly. Objective: To compare frail and non-frail elderly regarding Bone mineral density, carotid circulation and serum levels of Homocysteine, coronary risk factors and CRP. Methods: 104 elderly patients, who were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (52 frail participants: diagnosed by Fried’s criteria as applied by Avila-Funes et al., 2008. Group B (52 non-frail participants.All participants were subjected to the following: through history, physical examination, ADL, IADL assessment, MMSE ,GDS, laboratory investigations including; CRP, homocystiene and total lipid profile, measurement of bone mineral density by DEXA and carotid intima-media thickness by carotid duplex. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, among both groups.Frail participants had higher ADL and IADL dependence, higher incidence of depression, cognitive impairment and osteoprosis.They also had higher levels of homocystiene , CRP , CIMT and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is more prevalent among frail elderly also frailty is associated with more ADL & IADL dependence, higher GDS scores & lower MMSE score in addition to higher mean level of homocystiene, CRP & triglycerides in addition to low serum HDL & higher CIMT

  14. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, K.; Courtial, M.; Dunstetter, F.; Khelidj, A.; Mounanga, P.; de Noirfontaine, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  15. Changes in vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mass after gastric bypass surgery: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, A L; Li, X; Schwartz, A V; Tufts, L S; Wheeler, A L; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, S J; Carter, J T; Posselt, A M; Black, D M; Shoback, D M

    2015-05-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean±SD decline 19.1±6.1kg or 36.5%±10.9%, pBMD) decreased by 5.2%±3.5% and 4.1%±2.6% at the femoral neck and total hip, respectively, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine by 7.4%±2.8% (p<0.001 for all). Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (-7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=-0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  16. Calculations of Changes in Reactivity during some regular periods of operation of JEN-1 MOD Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By a Point-Reactor model and Perturbation Theory, changes in reactivity during some regular operating periods of JEN-1 MOD Reactor have been calculated and compared with available measured values. they were in good agreement. Also changes in reactivity have been calculated during operations at higher power levels than the present one, concluding some practical consequences for the case of increasing the present power of this reactor. (Author)

  17. An Assessment of Image Analysis of Longitudinal Bone Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    This study was performed to assess the analyzing methods developed to detect clinically and quantitatively longitudinal bone changes. Through preliminary experiment, accuracy of Cu-Eq value conversion to the mass of HA was examined. For main experiment, 15 intraoral radiograms taken at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture in extracted sites of 3 cases were user. We took the radiograms with copper step wedge as test object and HA phantom. X -ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner into computer were digitized and analyzed by NH image program, the stability of the copper equivalent transformation and the usefulness of two analyzing methods by ROI and Reslice were examined. Obtained results as follows : 1. On the Cu equivalent images, the coefficient of variation in the measurement of Cu-Eq. value of ROI ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 and showed high reproducibility. 2. All results obtained by resliced contiguous images were coincident with those obtained from the assessment by ROI an d formation of plot profile. 3. On the stacked and resliced image at the line of interest, we could analyze directly and quantitatively the longitudinal changes at several portions by plot profile and qualitatively by surface plot. 4. Implant area showed marked resorption till 2 weeks after implantation and showed significant increase in Cu-Eq. value at 6th week (P<0.01) and periapical area showed increase in Cu-Eq. value at 6th week compared to after-operation's.

  18. Effects of dehydration-induced structural and material changes on the apparent modulus of cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievers, W B; Poljsak, A S; Waldman, S D; Pilkey, A K

    2010-10-01

    Dehydration is known to cause an increase in the elastic modulus of bone tissue. However, it also causes structural changes (i.e. shrinkage) which can themselves significantly alter the mechanical properties, particularly in cancellous bone. The current study attempts to estimate the contribution of these two competing factors to the net change of dehydration on the apparent modulus of bovine cancellous bone. Cylindrical cores from the lumbar vertebrae were tested in tension, while hydrated and again after dehydration. The bone volume fractions (BV/TV) were measured in both conditions. The results indicate that the average overall increase in the apparent modulus after dehydration is 14±14% (mean±SD), which represents the net effect of a 27% increase in modulus due to increased tissue modulus offset by a modulus decrease of 13% due to reductions in bone volume fraction. These observations underscore the need to consider both structural and material changes when comparing hydrated and dehydrated mechanical behaviour. PMID:20638319

  19. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of changes in bone cement damping factor and its effect on bone load

    OpenAIRE

    Postawa, P.; Szarek, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The article presents the results of simulations and material-related investigations for bone cement used for alloplasty of hip joint. Mechanical properties of bone cements are of key importance for a successful surgery and further use of the joint as well as its behaviour during complex load which appears during patient’s walk.Design/methodology/approach: One of the methods of thermal analysis for polymeric materials has been used for investigations. DMTA method is based on the ana...

  1. Founders lecture 2007. Metabolic bone disease: what has changed in 30 years?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Diagnostic Radiology, MSK, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-09-15

    To provide an update on imaging of metabolic bone disease based on new developments, findings, and changing practices over the past 30 years. Literature review of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's disease, bisphosphonates, with an emphasis on imaging. Cited references and pertinent findings. Significant developments have occurred in the imaging of metabolic bone disease over the past 30 years. (orig.)

  2. Founders lecture 2007. Metabolic bone disease: what has changed in 30 years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide an update on imaging of metabolic bone disease based on new developments, findings, and changing practices over the past 30 years. Literature review of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, Paget's disease, bisphosphonates, with an emphasis on imaging. Cited references and pertinent findings. Significant developments have occurred in the imaging of metabolic bone disease over the past 30 years. (orig.)

  3. Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome. (orig.)

  4. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  5. Early periosteal changes in translation-induced bone modelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Feik, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This primarily ultrastructural study examines the effects of strain induced in the periosteum using an in vivo translation model with minimal internal bone strain. Caudal vertebrae (CV 7, 8, 9) from 4 d rats were threaded onto the arms of prestressed helical torsion springs and transplanted subcutaneously into 50 g hosts of the same inbred strain. After 7 d the appliances were activated in the experimental rats causing the bones to translate, i.e. to move through the soft tissues. Tissues for...

  6. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapilmoto Monika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1 improve nutrition, (2 increase health literacy and, (3 increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood test panel and a quality of life inventory (AlgaeCal 1. Two weeks after the last subject completed, a second group of 58 was enrolled and followed the identical plan, but with a different bone-health supplement (AlgaeCal 2. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline bone mineral density (BMD or in variables related to BMD (age, sex, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, or fat-free mass. In both groups, no significant differences in BMD or related variables were found between volunteers and non-volunteers or between those who completed per protocol and those who were lost to attrition. Both groups experienced a significant positive mean annualized percent change (MAPC in BMD compared to expectation [AlgaeCal 1: 1.15%, p = 0.001; AlgaeCal 2: 2.79%, p = 0.001]. Both groups experienced a positive MAPC compared to baseline, but only AlgaeCal 2 experienced a significant change [AlgaeCal 1: 0.48%, p = 0.14; AlgaeCal 2: 2.18%, p p = 0.005. The MAPC contrast between compliant and partially compliant subjects was significant for both plans (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively. No clinically significant changes in a 43-panel blood chemistry test were found nor were there any changes in self-reported quality of life in either group. Conclusions Following The Plan for six months with either version of the bone health supplement was associated with significant increases in BMD as compared to expected and, in AlgaeCal 2, the increase from baseline was significantly greater than the increase from baseline in AlgaeCal 1. Increased compliance was associated with greater increases in BMD in both groups. No adverse effects were reported in either group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01114685

  7. Bone malformations in Proteus syndrome: an analysis of bone structural changes and their evolution during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic follow-up of a patient with Proteus syndrome is presented. Review of radiographs obtained at 3 years 10 months, 10 years, and 17 years 8 months indicated that the rate of growth in length of the oversized tubular bones of the hands was similar to that of the normal bones of the same hand. This observation supports the view that the primary lesion occurs in the early embryonic period, when the limb bud mesenchyme cells condense and cartilage differentiates producing oversized cartilage anlages, rather than being a defect of bone cell-mediated apposition and modelling processes of bone. Additional radiographs of the pelvis and spine were obtained at age 4 years 10 months and head CT at 8 years 10 months. This pathogenetic mechanism fits well with the hypothesis of somatic mosaicism, which is at present the most credible explanation for the aetiology of Proteus syndrome. Other skeletal malformations recognized as typical of the syndrome can be interpreted as secondary adaptations to the altered mechanical conditions induced by overgrowth of bones. (orig.)

  8. Bone malformations in Proteus syndrome: an analysis of bone structural changes and their evolution during growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni; Ranchetti, Federico [University of Brescia Spedali Civili di Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Policlinico San Matteo, Pediatric Radiology Department, Pavia (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    The radiographic follow-up of a patient with Proteus syndrome is presented. Review of radiographs obtained at 3 years 10 months, 10 years, and 17 years 8 months indicated that the rate of growth in length of the oversized tubular bones of the hands was similar to that of the normal bones of the same hand. This observation supports the view that the primary lesion occurs in the early embryonic period, when the limb bud mesenchyme cells condense and cartilage differentiates producing oversized cartilage anlages, rather than being a defect of bone cell-mediated apposition and modelling processes of bone. Additional radiographs of the pelvis and spine were obtained at age 4 years 10 months and head CT at 8 years 10 months. This pathogenetic mechanism fits well with the hypothesis of somatic mosaicism, which is at present the most credible explanation for the aetiology of Proteus syndrome. Other skeletal malformations recognized as typical of the syndrome can be interpreted as secondary adaptations to the altered mechanical conditions induced by overgrowth of bones. (orig.)

  9. Immobilisation-induced changes in forearm bone quantity and quality: radiographic fourier image analysis vs bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determinants of bone fracture risk include indices of bone 'quantity' such as bone mineral content (BMC, mineral mass per unit scanned bone length), plus 'environmental' (eg impact force) and 'quality' factors (Melton L.J. III et al, Bone and Min 2: 321, 1987). Bone 'quality' refers largely to the micro-geometry of bone (? 10-200?), but has been less well studied because of the need for bone slices from (invasive) bone biopsies. Such studies often compare the geometry of trabecular networks (eg trabecular bone volume, trabecular number) with clinical outcomes such as fracture rates. Another (invasive) approach is to examine the two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier transform (FT) of a high-resolution radiographic image of the bone slice, since structural information is in theory encoded in the 2-D spatial-frequency (?) spectrum. Additionally, the FT method can be applied to bone images obtained in-vivo, though superposition of information from the third dimension is a major confounding factor in their interpretation. Quantitative radiography of the ultradistal (UD) forearm permits determination of BMC (Price R et al; ACPSEM 6: 128- 137, 1983 and ACPSEM 11: 36-43, 1988), and (as a bonus) reveals a pattern (suitable for FT analysis) of the radiographic shadows of the 3-D trabecular network projected onto the image plane. Hemiplegia is associated with excessive bone loss in the paralysed (hemi) forearm, and is a model for the study of immobilisation osteoporosis. study of immobilisation osteoporosis. Thus, by comparing hemiplegia-induced changes in BMC and trabecular structure, derived from the same in vivo radiographic image, it is possible to compare directly the effects of disease on both bone quantity and quality, using the image of the non-paralysed (non-hemi) arm as a control. Seventy-four patients with hemiplegia of duration 3.6±3.6 (Mean±SD) years were studied cross-sectionally for radiographic BMC of their normal and paralysed UD forearms in AP view, each arm in duplicate. Methods (including water-immersion of the forearm, plus image calibration) and results of the bone densitometry study have been published (Prince RL et al, J Bone and Min Res, 3: 305-310, 1988). In the present study, the original radiographs from a subset of 30 patients (16M and 14F) were re-analysed by specifically-designed software (IMS). Radiographs were digitised and a square (128 x 128 pixels, 256 grey levels) was extracted centrally from the image of the UD radius, with its distal side perpendicular to the forearm long axis and lined up with the base of the ulnar styloid process, representing an area of 16x16 mm2 on the unmagnified image. Following thresholding using a value derived from sampling of the bone-free image, a 2-D FT was derived. It is reasonable to expect that there is (at least) a qualitative relationship between the sizes and orientations of the image elements identified by the FT and those of the trabeculae generating them by superposition. The general orientations (or sizes) of these periodic elements were analysed by dividing up the Fourier plane (described by polar coordinates ?, ?) into contiguous sectors (or annuli) and summing the normalised intensities within each sector (or annulus) (eg Lendaris GG et al, Proc IEEE 58: 198-216, 1970). Principal Components Analysis using all 8 annuli produced a complete separation of male and female non-hemi forearms, marked separation of male hemi and male non-hemi, and no separation in women. We conclude from this preliminary study that FT analysis of in-vivo forearm radiographs reveals gender dimorphism and detects immobilisation-induced changes in bone structure (ie 'quality') in males but not females. Thus the pattern of trabecular bone loss in males may differ from that of women, in a manner not discernible by conventional bone densitometry, which addresses bone 'quantity' only

  10. Changed morphology and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the mandibular condyles of edentate people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, E B W; Ding, M; Dalstra, M; van Eijden, T M G J

    2004-03-01

    Since edentate subjects have a reduced masticatory function, it can be expected that the morphology of the cancellous bone of their mandibular condyles has changed according to the altered mechanical environment. In the present study, the morphology of cylindrical cancellous bone specimens of the mandibular condyles of edentate subjects (n = 25) was compared with that of dentate subjects (n = 24) by means of micro-computed tomography and by the application of Archimedes' principle. Stiffness and strength were determined by destructive mechanical testing. Compared with dentate subjects, it appeared that, in edentate subjects, the bone was less dense and the trabecular structure was less plate-like. The regression models of stiffness and strength built from bone volume fraction and the trabecular orientation relative to the axis of the specimen were similar for both dentate and edentate subjects. This indicates that, under reduced mechanical load, the fundamental relationship between bone morphology and mechanical properties does not change. PMID:14981130

  11. Osseous changes in the foot bones in patients with arterial occlusion and simultaneous polyneuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article evaluates 26 cases with arterial occlusion and additional polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus or chronic alcohol addiction. For comparison, a group of 30 patients with arterial occlusion without neutrologically detectable polyneuropathy were also evaluated. It is pointed out that the osseous changes in the foot bone region are due to the additionally existing polyneuropathy and cannot be explained alone by an avascular bone necrosis in arterial vascular occlusion. Changes in the sense of an arthropathy occur in our group of patients even in case of unilateral arterial occlusion, these changes occurring bilaterally in the foot bones; after reconstruction measures in the arterial vascular system, these arthropathic changes in the foot bones continue to advance in case of persisting polyneuropathy. (orig.)

  12. Histopathologic change of vertebral bone metastasis after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen tumor-metastatic vertebrae, to which radiotherapy had been performed, were histologically examined to know radiation effects on metastatic tumors and a reparative process of the bone. Five metastatic vertebrae were also examined as controls. The vertebrae were taken from 11 autopsy cases of breast or lung cancer (adenocarcinomas), which were mostly osteolytic. The total prescribed doses of irradiation ranged from 3.5 to 69.4 Gy or 7.3 to 105.5 values in TDF. The intervals between radiotherapy initiation and autopsy ranged from 1 to 241 weeks. Two weeks after radiotherapy initiation, tumor viability began to decline clearly and the tumor cells strongly decreased after 10 weeks. The tumor tissues were gradually replaced by fibrous tissue in which woven bones and lamellar bone trabeculae developed. Beyond 24 weeks most metastatic lesions were completely replaced by dense fibrous tissues without any tumor cell, except for a few lesions with spotty foci of highly viable tumor cells, which seemed to have grown after radiation. Bone marrow cells were often regenerative after 85 weeks and remodeling of bone tissue was dominant after 241 weeks. The grades of tumor viability were significantly related to the duration after radiotherapy. There was, however, no statistical correlation between tumor viability and doses of irradiation. (author)

  13. Vitamin E and Bone Structural Changes: An Evidence-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Naina Mohamed; Boekhtiar Borhanuddin; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid; Nur Farhana Mohd Fozi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This paper explores the effects of vitamin E on bone structural changes. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies about vitamin E and osteoporosis/bone structural changes. A comprehensive search in Medline and CINAHL for relevant studies published between the years 1946 and 2012 was conducted. The main inclusion criteria were published in English, studies had to report the association or effect of vitamin E and osteoporosis-related bon...

  14. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  15. Changes of anterior maxillary alveolar bone thickness following incisor proclination and extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Charoemratrote, Chairat; Jearapongpakorn, Sarayut

    2014-09-10

    Objective: To investigate changes in maxillary alveolar bone thickness after maxillary incisor proclination and extrusion during anterior crossbite correction in a group of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Maxillary incisors of 15 growing patients with anterior crossbite were proclined and extruded with 0.016? beta-titanium advancing loops and Class III elastics. Lateral cephalograms were recorded before advancement (T0) and 4 months after a normal overjet and overbite were achieved (T1). Changes in alveolar bone thickness surrounding the maxillary incisors at the crestal (S1), midroot (S2), and apical (S3) levels were measured using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of the changes. A Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between thickness changes and the rate and amount of incisor movements. Results: Although statistically significant decreases were observed in palatal and total bone thickness at the S2 and S3 level (P labial bone thickness at all levels were not significant. Changes in palatal bone thickness at S3 were negatively correlated with changes in incisor inclination. (r ?=? -0.71; P alveolar bone. PMID:25208232

  16. Bone changes occurring spontaneously and caused by estrogen in early postmenopausal women: a local generalized phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional values of bone mineral content and bone mineral density were calculated from total body dual photon absorptiometry scans of 52 early postmenopausal women treated with estrogen for one year and of 52 similar women treated with placebo. The six regions were head, arms, chest, spine, pelvis, and legs. In addition, bone mineral density of the spine was calculated by dual photon absorptiometry and bone mineral content of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry, using separate special purpose scanners. All regions were unchanged after one year of treatment with estrogen, excluding the lumbar spine, for which values rose. Values for all regions except the lumbar spine fell significantly in the placebo group. The rates of loss ranged from 2 to 8%, with no significant differences between the regions. It is concluded that loss of bone in the early menopause is a generalized phenomenon, affecting all parts of the skeleton. Furthermore, estrogen prophylaxis for loss of bone is effective in all parts of the skeleton. Finally, it is suggested that the measurement of bone mineral content in the forearm be used for clinical follow up of bone changes, as this method is superior to others in the ratio of change to precision

  17. Changes in alveolar bone thickness due to retraction of anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Simten; Haydar, Bülent; Ci?er, Semra; Ariyürek, Macit

    2002-07-01

    In cases of bimaxillary protrusion, extraction of 4 premolars and orthodontic treatment with retraction of the anterior teeth is a widely used approach. However, there is controversy over whether the changes that occur in the anterior alveolar bone always follow the direction and quantity of tooth movement. Nineteen patients with dentoalveolar bimaxillary protrusion treated by extracting the 4 first premolars were evaluated with lateral cephalograms and computed tomography (CT). Cephalograms and CT scans were made before treatment and 3 months after retraction of the incisors. The measurements of the cephalograms showed that maxillary and mandibular incisors were retracted primarily by controlled tipping of the teeth. For all maxillary and mandibular incisors, we assessed the labial and the lingual alveolar plates at crest level (S1), midroot level (S2), and apical level (S3) for bone-thickness changes during retraction of the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments. In the mandibular arch, the labial bone maintained its original thickness, except the S1 measurements, which showed a significant decrease in bone thickness (P bone thickness remained unchanged. There were statistically significant decreases in lingual bone width in both arches after retracting the incisors. Some of the patients demonstrated bone dehiscence that was not visible macroscopically or cephalometrically. When tooth movement is limited, forcing the tooth against the cortical bone may cause adverse sequelae. This type of approach must be carefully monitored to avoid negative iatrogenic effects. PMID:12142888

  18. Impacts of reactive nitrogen on climate change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yalan; Cui, Shenghui; Ju, Xiaotang; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    China is mobilizing the largest anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the world due to agricultural, industrial and urban development. However, the climate effects related to Nr in China remain largely unclear. Here we comprehensively estimate that the net climate effects of Nr are -100 +/- 414 and 322 +/- 163 Tg CO2e on a GTP20 and a GTP100 basis, respectively. Agriculture contributes to warming at 187 +/- 108 and 186 +/- 56 Tg CO2e on a 20-y and 100-y basis, respectively, dominated by long-lived nitrous oxide (N2O) from fertilized soils. On a 20-y basis, industry contributes to cooling at -287 +/- 306 Tg CO2e, largely owing to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) altering tropospheric ozone, methane and aerosol concentrations. However, these effects are short-lived. The effect of industry converts to warming at 136 +/- 107 Tg CO2e on a 100-y basis, mainly as a result of the reduced carbon (C) sink from the NOx-induced ozone effect on plant damage. On balance, the warming effects of gaseous Nr are partly offset by the cooling effects of N-induced carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The large mitigation potentials through reductions in agricultural N2O and industrial NOx will accompany by a certain mitigation pressure from limited N-induced C sequestration in the future.

  19. Impacts of reactive nitrogen on climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yalan; Cui, Shenghui; Ju, Xiaotang; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    China is mobilizing the largest anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the world due to agricultural, industrial and urban development. However, the climate effects related to Nr in China remain largely unclear. Here we comprehensively estimate that the net climate effects of Nr are -100 ± 414 and 322 ± 163?Tg CO?e on a GTP?? and a GTP??? basis, respectively. Agriculture contributes to warming at 187 ± 108 and 186 ± 56?Tg CO?e on a 20-y and 100-y basis, respectively, dominated by long-lived nitrous oxide (N2O) from fertilized soils. On a 20-y basis, industry contributes to cooling at -287 ± 306?Tg CO?e, largely owing to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) altering tropospheric ozone, methane and aerosol concentrations. However, these effects are short-lived. The effect of industry converts to warming at 136 ± 107?Tg CO?e on a 100-y basis, mainly as a result of the reduced carbon (C) sink from the NOx-induced ozone effect on plant damage. On balance, the warming effects of gaseous Nr are partly offset by the cooling effects of N-induced carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The large mitigation potentials through reductions in agricultural N?O and industrial NOx will accompany by a certain mitigation pressure from limited N-induced C sequestration in the future. PMID:25631557

  20. Temporal change in microdosimetry to bone marrow and stromal progenitor cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides incorporated in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A L; Ellender, M; Haines, J W; Harrison, J D; Lord, B I

    1999-12-01

    The microdistributions of the alpha-particle-emitting bone surface-seeking radionuclides (239)Pu, (241)Am and (233)U in the mouse femoral shaft have been studied using computer-based image analysis of neutron-induced and alpha-particle track autoradiographs, prepared from femora of CBA/H mice which had been injected with 40 kBq kg(-1) of radionuclide (as citrate solution) at times from 1 to 448 days previously. Employing dosimetric methods, radiation dose rates and cumulative radiation doses to regions of the bone marrow thought to contain hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells susceptible to neoplastic transformation to leukemia and osteosarcomas have been calculated. It has been shown that the three radionuclides differ in their relative deposition on the bone surfaces, and that patterns of changing redistribution with time are also varied. For stromal progenitor cells, which are thought to be targets for induction of osteosarcoma and are found in proximity to the bone surfaces, cumulative doses showed the trend (239)Pu > (241)Am > (233)U, correlating well with incidences of osteosarcoma observed in mice. Cumulative doses to the primitive hemopoietic stem cells, concentrated in the central marrow and thought to be susceptible to neoplastic transformation to myeloid leukemia, were considerably lower and also showed the trend plutonium > americium > uranium. PMID:10564934

  1. The changes of bone mineralization after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes of bone demineralization in the patient after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Bone mineralization was evaluated by Lunar DPX-L equipment in lumbar spine, femoral neck, radius and total skeleton area in 3 months intervals during 18 months period. Because of transient after surgical hypocalcemia she has received active metabolite of vitamin D - Alfacalcidolum during one year. After removal of parathyroid adenoma there was disappearance of clinical and biochemical signs of primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time there was total normalization of bone mineral density in lumbar spine, femoral neck, ultradistal site of radius and total area. There was partial normalization of bone mineralization in radius shaft. The surgery of adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism with transient treatment with active metabolite of vitamin D is successful therapy of bone demineralization in this disease. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  2. Rate of reactivity change of the BOR-60 reactor during the operation cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of measurements and calculations of the reactivity reserve at the BOR-60 reactor is reported. The results of the computations of the rate of change of the isotopic composition of the fuel during burn-up depending on the inventory of fissile material and the results of the computations aimed at showing the influence of radiation-induced volumetric swelling of the fuel on the reactivity change are represented graphically. The results of measurements and computations are compared with one another. (HR)

  3. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  4. The change of fast reactivity effects in the operation of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the dependence of main fast reactivity effects of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor, i.e. isothermal effect, flow effect and effect of fast power feedback, on the energy production has been carried out. It has been shown that the main fluctuations of reactivity are correlated with the random change of the temperature of sodium. The absolute isothermal coefficient of reactivity weakly increases with the power production (by 20% during the whole operation time of the reactor). The fast power reactivity coefficient has decreased practically by a factor of 6 from -12?p/MW (in 1982, the start-up of the reactor) to -2 ?p/MW (in 2006, the stop of operation) and has a complicated dependence on the energy production. It has been shown that the flow fluctuation of coolant sodium through the core is small and influences weakly the random change of reactivity. The total sodium flow effect does not practically change with the power production

  5. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E2 (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author)

  6. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  7. COLLAGEN MUTATION CAUSES CHANGES OF THE MICRODAMAGE MORPHOLOGY IN BONE OF AN OI MOUSE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, X. Neil; Zoghi, Mahyar; Ran, Qitao; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have postulated that ultrastructural changes may alter the pattern and capacity of microdamage accumulation in bone. Using an osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) mouse model, this study was performed to investigate the correlation of collagen mutation with the microdamage morphology and the associated brittleness of bone. In this study, femurs from mild OI and wild type mice were fatigued under four-point bending to create microdamage in the specimens. Then, the microdamage morpholo...

  8. Paleopathological analysis of changes on animal bones originating from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the estimation of incidence and analysis of paleopathological changes on skeletal remains of the animals from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery. Moreover, there has been carried out the assessment of the skeletal elements, as well as taxonomic and age determination. The total of 2595 bones or bone fragments were examined. In 22 specimens there were noticed various abnormal skeletal changes in following animal species: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys and camels. Pathological changes were noticed on the teeth, mandibles, joints of long bones and phalanxes. By macroscopic analysis of these acquired pathological changes on bones of the animals, there was determined that the observed lesions had had proliferative, hypertrophic and chronic character. Proliferative changes on the bones of the cattle, horses, donkeys and camels point out to the fact that these animals were used for towing and/or load carrying. Identified diseases of oral cavity in small ruminants point out to improper and inadequate nutrition of these animals in the past.

  9. Changes in Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Procollagen Type-1 C-Peptide after Static and Dynamic Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Yuki, Kazuhito; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two types of nonweight-bearing exercise on changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and pro-collagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P). BAP is a specific marker of bone synthesis, whereas P1P reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen in other organs as well as bone. Eight participants performed static and dynamic…

  10. Intracellular reactive oxygen species are required for directional migration of resident and bone marrow-derived hepatic pro-fibrogenic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Parola, Maurizio; Ferrero, Ivana; Mareschi, Katia; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Busletta, Chiara; Paternostro, Claudia; Povero, Davide; Compagnone, Alessandra; Tamagno, Elena; Novo, Erica; Cannito, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fibrogenesis is sustained by myofibroblast-like cells originating from hepatic stellate cells (HSC/MFs), portal fibroblasts or bone marrow-derived cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Herein, we investigated the mechanistic role of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways in mediating chemotaxis, a critical profibrogenic response for human HSC/MFs and for MSC potentially engrafting chronicall...

  11. An Investigation of the Efficacy of Cuttlefish Bone Powder in the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium and Isotherm Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mojtaba Momtaz; Mahboobeh Dehvari

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Discharge of textile wastewater causes the reduction of sunlight penetration, interferes with the receiving waters ecology and damage the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the removal efficiency of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions by cuttlefish bone powder. Materials & Methods: This study was performed experimentally and in laboratory scale. In this research, the effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration and pH was evaluated. ...

  12. Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y.L.; Li, C.K.; Pang, L.M.; Chik, K.W

    2000-08-01

    AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

  13. Changes of the immune reactivities of antibodies produced against gamma-irradiated antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the changes of immunogenicity and antigenicity of gamma-irradiated ovalbumin (OVA), an antigen (Ag) solution (2.0 mg/ml) was prepared and irradiated with the absorbed doses of 3 and 10 kGy. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was produced for each Ag. 0, 3 and 10 kGy-IgG were individually reacted against 3 Ags in an ELISA cross reactivity test. Cross reactivity of each IgG was significantly different for each Ag. Especially the 10 kGy-irradiated OVA lost most antigenicity compared to the 0 kGy-IgG

  14. Clinical study of bone changes after parathyroidectomy among patients maintained by hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen patients maintained by hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism were mainly studied using Tc 99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and lamina dura index (LDI) which was judged by dental films. After parathyroidectomy (PTX), the most prominent change appeared on the calvaria, maxilla, and mandible in scintigrams. Intensity of Tc 99m-MDP accumulation was represented by using a quantitative method of bone-to-soft tissue uptake ratio (4 hr-B/St ratio). 4 hr-B/St ratio gradually decreased and became normal within one and a half years after PTX. The accumulation of Tc 99m-MDP on the calvaria may reveal the status of bone metabolism in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Also, LDIes gradually decreased during 4 through 6 months after PTX. However it was considered that these indexes might need a long term to return to normal range. We couldn't differenciate which method was superior in the diagnostic value for detecting early skeletal changes between roentogenograms and bone scintigraphy as a indicator of post-PTX bone improvement. However, bone scintigraphy should be added to conventional examinations for following the courses of patients that underwent PTX because this procedure has many other advantages. (author)

  15. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, age-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair

  16. The biochemical changes of bone collagen after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our clinic, patients with malignant bone tumors have been treated by high-dose irradiation therapy, 10,000-20,000 rads, for primary lesions. In order to study the biochemical changes of normal bone around tumor tissue, especially bone collagen, after high-dose irradiation, the author performed the following experiments. The right knee joint of rabbits was irradiated with either 6,000, 10,000, or 15,000 rads by 60Co-? ray. The cortical bone of the right tibial metaphysis was used for analyses and compared with the left tibia of the same rabbit. These studies were followed for one year after the final irradiation. The calcium, phosphorous and collagen contents of irradiated bone were remarkably changed. These data indicate that collagen biosynthesis of irradiated bone was decreased and the calcification was disturbed. An increase in the amount of total soluble collagen and a decrease in the amount of hydroxylysine bound sugar were observed. The ratio of ? to ? chains of the collagen molecule was also changed by the irradiation. The amount of reducible cross-links per hydroxyproline residue was strikingly increased three months after the final irradiation. These changes were remarkable especially in the 10,000 and 15,000 rads irradiated group and found to be recovered approximately six months to one year after the final irradiation. These findings indicate that high-dose irradiation reduces the stability of bone collagen both with the destruction of sugalagen both with the destruction of sugar bonds of hydroxylysine residues and the replacement of matured collagen matrix to immatured one which contain mostly labile reducible cross-links. (author)

  17. Changes in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollan JK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jackie K Gollan, Laina Rosebrock, Denada Hoxha, Katherine L Wisner Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum to inform future research. Numerous changes occur in attentional processing and affective reactivity across the childbearing period. This review focuses on the definition and methods of measuring attentional processing and affective reactivity. We discuss research studies that have examined the changes in these two processes during the perinatal phases of pregnancy and postpartum, with and without depression and anxiety. We evaluate the importance of using multiple levels of measurement, including physiological and neuroimaging techniques, to study these processes via implicit and explicit tasks. Research that has identified regions of brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as other physiological assessments is integrated into the discussion. The importance of using sophisticated methodological techniques in future studies, such as multiple mediation models, for the purpose of elucidating mechanisms of change during these processes in pregnancy and postpartum is emphasized. We conclude with a discussion of the effect of these processes on maternal psychological functioning and infant outcomes. These processes support a strategy for individualizing treatment for pregnant and postpartum women suffering from depression and anxiety. Keywords: attentional processing, emotion, affective reactivity, depression, pregnancy, postpartum

  18. Time-course of exercise and its association with 12-month bone changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainionpää Aki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on bone density and strength. However, knowledge of the time-course of exercise and bone changes is scarce due to lack of methods to quantify and qualify daily physical activity in long-term. The aim was to evaluate the association between exercise intensity at 3, 6 and 12 month intervals and 12-month changes in upper femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD and mid-femur geometry in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer in 35 healthy women (35-40 years participating in progressive high-impact training. To describe exercise intensity, individual average daily numbers of impacts were calculated at five acceleration levels (range 0.3-9.2 g during time intervals of 0-3, 0-6, and 0-12 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry and mid-femur geometry was evaluated with quantitative computed tomography at the baseline and after 12 months. Physical activity data were correlated with yearly changes in bone density and geometry, and adjusted for confounding factors and impacts at later months of the trial using multivariate analysis. Results Femoral neck aBMD changes were significantly correlated with 6 and 12 months' impact activity at high intensity levels (> 3.9 g, r being up to 0.42. Trochanteric aBMD changes were associated even with first three months of exercise exceeding 1.1 g (r = 0.39-0.59, p r = 0.38-0.52, p Conclusion The number of high acceleration impacts during 6 months of training was positively associated with 12-month bone changes at the femoral neck, trochanter and mid-femur. These results can be utilized when designing feasible training programs to prevent bone loss in premenopausal women. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00697957

  19. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing

  20. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 ?g/day subcutaneous) who had 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq 99mTc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for 99mTc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (Kbone). Regional Kbone differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton Kbone displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium Kbone changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all Kbone and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased 99mTc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM ine formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of 99mTc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  1. Pathologic changes in the maxillary sinus wall after conservative therapy in odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Examination using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single photon emission computed tomographic bone scintigraphy (bone SPECT) was performed in 16 patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis to compare inflammatory changes in the maxillary sinus wall including the alveolar process (bony lesions) before and after conservative therapy. Morphologic changes in bony lesions as evaluated by bone SPECT images correlated with those of the maxillary sinus mucosa (mucosal lesions) as evaluated by CT images. Morphologic changes in the bony lesions also correlated with changes in inflammatory activity in the maxillary alveolar process as functionally evaluated by bone SPECT before and after conservative therapy. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is considered a disease in which maxillary alveolitis causes mucosal lesions as well as bony lesions. Changes in alveolitis are associated with morphologic changes in bony lesions after conservative therapy, and these changes affect the pathophysiologic nature of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Bone SPECT is valuable for predicting outcome and treatment planning in patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. (author)

  2. Age-related changes in marmoset trabecular and cortical bone and response to alendronate therapy resemble human bone physiology and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Cedo M; Volberg, Marlo; Moalli, Maria; Shen, Victor; Olson, Ellen; Hanson, Nels; Berryman, Edwin; Andresen, Catharine J

    2007-08-01

    In older humans, bone elongation ceases, periosteal expansion continues, and bone remodeling remains a dominant metabolic process. An appropriate animal model of type I and type II osteoporosis would be a species with sealed growth plates and persistence of bone remodeling. The rat is commonly used as a primary model, but due to delayed epiphyseal closure with continuous modeling and lack of Haversian remodeling, Food and Drug Administration guidelines recommend assessment of bone quality in an additional, non rodent, remodeling species. This study investigated the skeletal characteristics of senescent marmosets to evaluate their suitability as an osteoporosis model. Animals were randomized across three experimental groups; controls for both sexes and marmosets receiving alendronate for either 30 or 60 days (28 microg/kg, sc, twice per week). Outcome measures included serum chemistry and bone biomarkers, DEXA, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. Results showed that the adult marmoset skeleton has similar anatomical characteristics to the adult human, including the absence of growth plates, presence of Haversian system, and true remodeling of cancellous and cortical bone. Structural analyses of senescent marmoset cancellous bone demonstrated loss of trabecular mass and architecture similar to skeletal changes described for elderly men and women. Treatment with alendronate improved trabecular volume and number by reducing bone resorption, although bone formation was also reduced through coupling of bone remodeling. The common marmoset may provide a valuable model for research paradigms targeting human bone pathology and osteoporosis due to skeletal features that are similar to age-related changes and response to bisphosphonate therapy reported for humans. PMID:17610276

  3. Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuki, Mervet El [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Benghazi University College of Dentistry, Benghazi (Libya); Omami, Galal [Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Horner, Keith [Dept. of Oral Radiology, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

  4. Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

  5. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (Plabial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. PMID:25471836

  6. Comparative study of longitudinal changes in peri-implant bone microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The load applied to an implant is directly transmitted to the jaw and is considered to be one of the causes of remodeling of internal trabecular bones. However, the longitudinal changes during loading and the rearrangement of the trabecular bone structure are mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in internal jaw bone structure longitudinally during natural tooth eruption as well as tooth extraction and post-implantation periods in a dog model by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). Maxillae of 16 male beagle dogs were used in this study. First, 4 dogs with all maxillary molar teeth erupted were euthanized as a control group. Next, 6 teeth consisting of the bilateral maxillary fourth premolars, and first and second molars were extracted from each of the 12 dogs. Then, 4 dogs of the tooth-extracted group were euthanized 3 months after extraction of the teeth. At this time, three implants were inserted in the left side of the maxilla of the remaining 8 dogs, and the superstructures were placed after 3 months. Four of these 8 dogs with implants were euthanized at 3 months and the other 4 at 1 year after placement of the superstructure. Then, the maxillary bone was removed from each dog as a specimen and sequential micro-CT images were taken. After reconstruction of three-dimensional images, morphological and metrical observation of the jaw trabecular bone structure was performed. A decrease of the trabecular bone in the tooth-extracted group wacular bone in the tooth-extracted group was morphologically and morphometrically observed, whereas the implanted group showed thick, rich trabecular bone. Although a longitudinal decrease in the bone tissue volume was recognized both in the tooth-extracted and the implanted groups, the amount was smaller in the implanted group than in the tooth-extracted group. The results suggested that the application of load by implants in the case of tooth loss inhibits resorption of the alveolar bone and prevents thinning of the jaw. (author)

  7. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p = or <50 nmol/L (vitamin D adequate and inadequate, respectively) during late-winter, showed that Ur-Pyr and Ur-Dpyr in bothgroups were significantly (p <0.05) lower during late summer, and the magnitude of the reduction from winter to summer was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Seasonal changes in bone resorption markers appeared to be linked to seasonal changes in vitamin D status. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of these changes on risk of bone loss and fracture.

  8. Nitric oxide-mediated changes in vascular reactivity in pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arteria...

  9. Changes in Early Cortical Visual Processing Predict Enhanced Reactivity in Deaf Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bottari, Davide; Caclin, Anne; Giard, Marie-he?le?ne; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with profound deafness rely critically on vision to interact with their environment. Improvement of visual performance as a consequence of auditory deprivation is assumed to result from cross-modal changes occurring in late stages of visual processing. Here we measured reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in profoundly deaf adults and hearing controls during a speeded visual detection task, to assess to what extent the enhanced reactivity of deaf individuals could re...

  10. Local changes in bone marrow at MRI after treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence and appearance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes that occur in local bone marrow after radiation therapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Seventy patients with primary STS at the level of a long bone who also had undergone pretreatment MRI and at least one post-treatment MRI of the tumor bed were identified. MRIs of each patient were retrospectively reviewed for new changes in marrow signal in the region of the tumor bed and for the morphology, relative signal intensities, heterogeneity, and progression or regression of changes over time. Focal signal changes in marrow were observed in 26/70 patients (37%) at a median of 9.5 months after RT and/or chemotherapy and diffuse changes in seven (10%) at a median of 8 months. Patients who received neither RT nor chemotherapy did not develop marrow changes. Mean RT doses in patients with changes and those without were 5,867 and 6,076 cGy, respectively. In most patients with focal changes, changes were seen in all sequences and were linear-curvilinear, patchy, or mixed at the level of the tumor bed. Predominant signal intensity of changes was between muscle and fat at T1WI and between muscle and fluid at fat-saturated T2WI or short tau inversion recovery. Most focal changes enhanced heterogeneously and increased or fluctuated in size over time. Changes in MRI appearance of long bone marrow frequently are evident after combined RT and chemotherapy forent after combined RT and chemotherapy for STS and most commonly increase or fluctuate in size over time. These changes have various non-mass-like configurations and often show signal intensities similar to those of red marrow and thus should not be mistaken for metastases. The marrow changes might represent an early stage of gelatinous transformation of marrow. (orig.)

  11. Cystic changes in desmoplastic fibroma of bone: A new MRI finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging features of desmoplastic fibroma (DF) of bone. Materials and methods: Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated imaging findings of pathologically confirmed DFs in eight patients. Involved sites and longitudinal location in long bones were evaluated using radiography and computed tomography (CT). At MRI, the presence of low signal areas on T2-weighted images (low-T2), enhancement, cystic changes, and locations of the mass were evaluated. The location of masses was evaluated, based on cortical disruption and adjacent soft-tissue extension. Results: Involved sites were the femur in three patients, the tibia in two, and the humerus, fibula, and pubic bone in one each. Of the seven masses in the long bones, three were located in the epi- and metaphysis, two in the meta- and diaphysis, one in the diaphysis, and one in the epiphysis. Seven masses had areas of low T2-weighted or heterogeneous enhancement, and three (38%) showed cystic changes. cortical disruption was seen at MRI in six of eight patients (88%). Conclusion: DFs contained cystic change. Cortical disruption may also occur, which may cause confusion with malignant lesions.

  12. Changing of bone resorption marker by treatment with infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate which clinical factors are associated with bone improvement by treatment with infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve cases using concise laboratory data were analyzed in terms of urinary N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) one year before and one year after treatment with infliximab. Urinary NTx changed from 41.55±13.5 (20.9-62.8) (nM BCE/mM Cr) to 40.77±16.34 (15-75.7) (nM BCE/mM Cr) and there was no significant difference between before and after treatment with infliximab (p=0.814). There was a significant correlation between improvement of urinary NTX and steroid or RAPA one year after treatment with infliximab (p=0.038 respectively). At less than 80 times RAPA, urinary NTx significantly decreased from 40.0±15.0 (nM BCE/mM Cr) to 29.98±8.65 (nM BCE/mM Cr) (p=0.043). Therefore, low RAPA and low dose of steroid was associated with improvement of urinary NTx after using infliximab. X-ray examination revealed that bone atrophy improved in 8 cases out of 12 (67%) and erosion improved in 1 case out of 12 (8.3%). MRI of the hand was assessed and synovium proliferation decreased in 1 case. Histological findings of the subchondral bone at the time of total elbow replacement during treatment with infliximab revealed newly formed fibrous woven bone, including osteoid material which filled the space of trabecular bone tissue. Therefore, the rheumatoid factor (RF) may be one of the points which indicates bone healing after using infliximates bone healing after using infliximab for RA. (author)

  13. Changes in proximal femoral bone mineral density around a hydroxyapatite-coated hip joint arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis JC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the results of a prospective analysis of proximal femoral bone mineral density changes around a hydroxyapatite-coated total hip joint replacement. METHODS: 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were enrolled in the study and treated with an uncemented ABG prosthesis. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed in 9 patients preoperatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. An orthopaedic software program was used to determine the bone mineral density in the proximal femur, expressed as a percentage of the preoperative value. RESULTS: The values of Gruen zones 1 to 6 averaged between 96.0% and 113.8% of the preoperative value by 24 months (overall average, 104.1%. In zone 7, however, there was a gradual decline in bone mineral density to an average of 72.1% of the preoperative value by 24 months. This represented ongoing loss of bone from the calcar; although this may not pose a problem to the prosthetic's short-term stability, it may render potential revision surgery more difficult. CONCLUSION: The initial outcome of uncemented total hip replacement appears to be promising. There was excellent maintenance of bone around the femoral component in all regions other than the calcar and lesser trochanter. Further scans are required to see if these trends continue in the long term.

  14. Bone metabolic changes during pregnancy: a period of vulnerability to osteoporosis and fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Salvador, Lucía; García-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Changes in bone density and bone markers suggest that pregnancy is associated with deterioration of bone mass in the mother. The metabolism of calcium resets to allow for the needs imposed by the building of the fetal skeleton. The fetus contributes to the process through the output of regulators from the placenta. Understanding of the whole process is limited, but some changes are unambiguous. There is an increase in the circulating levels of vitamin D, but its functional impact is unclear. Fetal parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrp) play an indirect role through support of a calcium gradient that creates hypercalcemia in the fetus. Placental GH, which increases up to the end of pregnancy, may exert some anabolic effects, either directly or through the regulation of the IGF1 production. Other key regulators of bone metabolism, such as estrogens or prolactin, are elevated during pregnancy, but their role is uncertain. An increase in the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as an additional pro-resorbing factor in bone. The increase in bone resorption may lead to osteoporosis and fragility fracture, which have been diagnosed, although rarely. However, the condition is transitory as long-term studies do not link the number of pregnancies with osteoporosis. Prevention is limited by the lack of identifiable risk factors. When fractures are diagnosed, rest, analgesics, or, when indicated, orthopedic intervention have demonstrated efficacy. Systemic treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs is effective, but the potential harm to the fetus imposes caution in their use. PMID:25209679

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CaO AND P2O5 OF BONE ASH UPON THE REACTIVITY AND THE BURNABILITY OF CEMENT RAW MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMÁŠ IFKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of CaO and P2O5 upon the reactivity of cement raw meal was investigated in this paper. Ash of bone meal containing Ca3(PO42 - 3CaO·P2O5 was used as the source of P2O5. Two series of samples with different content of the ash of bone meal were prepared. In the first series, the ash of bone was added into cement raw meal. The second series of samples were prepared by considering ash as one of CaO sources. Therefore, the total content of CaO in cement raw meal was kept constant, while the amount of P2O5 increased. These different series of samples were investigated by analyzing free lime content in the clinkers. The XRD analysis and Electron Micro Probe Analyzer analysis of the clinkers were also carried out. Two parameters were used to characterize the reactivity of cement raw meal: content of free lime and Burnability Index (BI calculated from free lime content in both series of samples burnt at 1350 ºC, 1400 ºC, 1450 ºC and 1500 ºC. According to the first parameter, P2O5 content that drastically makes worse the reactivity of cement raw meal was found at 1.11 wt.% in the first series, while this limit has reached 1.52 wt.% in the second one. According to the BI, the limit of P2O5 was found at 1.42 wt. % in the first series and 1, 61 wt.% in the second one. Furthermore, EPMA has demonstrated the presence of P2O5 in both calcium silicate phases forming thus solid solutions.

  16. Three-dimensional measurement of regional bone mineral density change (?rBMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures the changes in regional bone mineral density (rBMD) associated with demineralizing bone diseases and/or drug treatment. Serial measurements of rBMD are made with a three-dimensional (3D) protocol with a 4-mm3 effective sampling volume and 0.8 x 0.8 x 1.0-mm voxel spacing. For each serial study, values are computed in a rotated and translated coordinate system with the use of trilinear interpolation at 0.8 x 0.8 x 0.8-mm intervals. Registration of two studies is done by interactively changing the three translation and three rotation variables while viewing transverse, sagittal, and coronal subtraction images. Following registration, the serial 3D data is subtracted to produce a 3D ?rBMD array. Patterns of serial density change and regional averages at particular sites can be computed from the ?rBMD array

  17. The dynamic volume changes of polymerising polymethyl methacrylate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Scott D; Green, Sarah M; McCaskie, Andrew W

    2002-12-01

    The Swedish hip register found an increased risk of early revision of vacuum-mixed cemented total hip replacements. The influence of cement mixing technique on the dynamic volume change in polymerising PMMA is not well understood and may be relevant to this observation. Applying Archimedes' principle, we have investigated the dynamic volume changes in polymerising cement and determined the influence of mixing technique. All specimens showed an overall volume reduction: hand-mixed 3.4% and vacuum-mixed 6.0%. Regression analysis of sectional porosity and volume reduction showed a highly significant relationship. Hand-mixed porous cement showed a transient volume increase before solidification. However, vacuum-mixed cement showed a progressive volume reduction throughout polymerisation. Transient expansion of porous cement occurs at the critical time of micro-interlock formation, possibly improving fixation. Conversely, progressive volume reduction of vacuum-mixed cement throughout the formation of interlock may damage fixation. Stable fixation of vacuum-mixed cement may depend on additional techniques to offset the altered volumetric behaviour of vacuum-mixed cement. PMID:12553519

  18. Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum : a controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, U K; við Streym, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation

  19. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  20. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid against bone changes in salt-loaded rats: possible role of kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mona A.; Abd El Samad, Abeer A.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fats are important components contributing in bone health and that bone mineral density is inversely related to sodium intake. Salt loading is also known to impose negative effects on renal function. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 on bone changes imposed by salt loading, highlighting the role of kidney as a potential mechanism involved in this effect. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: cont...

  1. Changes in bone remodelling and antifracture efficacy of intermittent bisphosphonate therapy: implications from clinical studies with ibandronate

    OpenAIRE

    Papapoulos, S. E.; Schimmer, R c

    2007-01-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce the rate of bone resorption and bone remodelling. Given daily, they decrease the risk of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. When bisphosphonates were given at extended drug?free intervals this antifracture efficacy was generally not seen. This may be due to the different pattern of bone remodelling changes. Data from randomised clinical studies of ibandronate, given orally or intravenously, at different doses and for variable time intervals to women with osteop...

  2. / Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustina, Malpeli; María, Apezteguia; José L, Mansur; Alicia, Armanini; Melisa, acías Couret; Rosa, Villalobos; Marta, Kuzminczuk; Horacio F, Gonzalez.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish Suplementación con calcio, densidad mineral ósea y contenido mineral óseo. Predictores de cambios en la masa ósea en madres adolescentes a los 6 meses postparto. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto de dos formas de suplementare calcio sobre la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y el contenido [...] mineral óseo (CMO), e identificar predictores de cambios en la masa ósea en madres adolescentes a los 6 meses postparto. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, analítico y clínico en madres adolescentes (?19 años; n=37) de la ciudad de La Plata, Argentina. A partir de los 15 días postparto, las adolescentes fueron distribuidas al azar en 2 grupos y comenzaron con la suplementación con calcio; un grupo recibió productos lácteos (932 mg Ca; n=19) y el otro citrato de calcio (1000 mg calcio/día; n=18). Se midió peso, altura y consumo de alimentos y se determinó la DMO por DEXA a los 15 días (línea de base) y a los 6 meses postparto. También se determinó CMO, DMO corporal total y DMO de columna lumbar, cuello femoral, trocánter y cadera total. Se usaron modelos de regresión para identificar relaciones entre DMO corporal total y CMO con variables independientes (tipo de suplementación, meses de lactancia, peso a los 6 meses, porcentaje de cambio de peso, masa magra a los 6 meses, porcentaje de cambio de masa magra, consumo total de calcio). Los resultados muestran que los cambios en DMO y CMO en los distintos sitios fueron similares en ambos grupos, y que los cambios en los porcentajes de peso corporal e ingesta total de calcio fueron los principales factores predictivos. En conclusión, el efecto del calcio fue similar tanto con productos lácteos como con comprimidos. Los cambios porcentuales en peso corporal e ingesta total de calcio resultaron factores predictivos de los cambios de la DMO corporal total y el CMO. Abstract in english We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (?19 years old; n=3 [...] 7) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n=19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n=18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes.

  3. Progression and association with lameness and racing performance of radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones of young Standardbred trotters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic examination of the metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal joints was performed on 753 Standardbred trotters (6-21 months of age): 21 showed obvious changes in 26 proximal sesamoid bones on lateromedial projection. The radiographic changes were divided into 6 different types: (1) irregular abaxial margin (8 horses); (2) enlargement of the sesamoid bone (6 horses); (3) 'fracture' or separate centre of ossification of the apex (4 horses); (4) vertical, non-articular fracture of the plantar part of the sesamoid bone (1 horse); (5) a small bony fragment located in a defect in the apical part of the bone (2 horses); and (6) multiple areas of decreased radiodensity (1 horse). Each horse displayed only one type of radiographic change except for one which possessed those of types 3 and 5. Follow-up radiographic examination of 21 of the 26 affected proximal sesamoid bones at approximately 6-month intervals revealed a reduction in the changes in 13 bones and an unaltered condition in 8. Lameness examination was performed on 16 of the 21 horses at 3 years of age and 14 (87.5%) were observed to be lame, but detected lameness did not seem to be referrable to the sesamoid changes. Earnings after the racing season as 3- and 4-year-old horses showed no differences (P > 0.05) between horses with radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones and those without such changes

  4. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, H.G.; Bartl, R.; Koischwitz, D.; Rodermund, O.E.

    1982-12-01

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatory granulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequently occurring bone lesions (half of all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy.

  5. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatorygranulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequenctly occurring bone lesions (half on all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy. (orig.)

  6. Reactive Halogen Species in the Polar Troposphere - Will there be an influence of Sea Ice Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, U.; Friess, U.; Pöhler, D.; Sihler, H.; Wagner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS, e.g. BrO, IO, HOBr) play an important role in polar regions (and also in other parts of the troposphere e.g. in coastal regions, over salt pans, in and volcanic plumes). Despite much progress in recent years the origin and some of the chemical interactions of reactive halogen species (RHS) in the polar troposphere are still not quantitatively understood. Among the many unanswered questions are: Why is there an Antarctic - Arctic asymmetry of reactive iodine species? What drives the autocatalytic bromine release from sea salt (the bromine explosion)? Why does the bromine explosion almost exclusively occur during springtime? What is the effect of coupling cycles involving different halogens? What is the vertical extent of the layer containing RHS? What is the influence of Sea Ice change? In particular the shrinking sea ice volume will shift the balance from multi-year sea ice to one year sea ice and also lead to reduced ice thickness, thus it appears plausible that halogen activation may be enhanced (at least in the Arctic). The presentation gives an overview of ground-based and aircraft observations and recent advances in satellite observations illustrating the above questions and providing answers to some of them. In particular new insight is being gained from the synergistic use of satellite observations and ground based measurements of BrO. Also the question of a NOx - driven (rather than HOx - driven) bromine explosion is discussed.

  7. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  8. Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

    2009-01-01

    The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

  9. Therapy-related changes of the bone marrow in chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, J.; Kvasnicka, H. M.; Schmitt-gra?ff, A.; Hu?lsemann, R.; Diehl, V.

    2004-01-01

    In chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs) a conflict of opinion exists regarding therapyinduced bone marrow (BM) changes and the evolution of myelofibrosis during the lengthy course of the disease. For a more elaborate study of these features chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) seems to be a most suitable condition. Therefore this review is focused on this CMPD and amongst other findings analyzes data from a series of 340 patients with a long follow-up...

  10. Relationship between bone mineral density changes and fracture risk reduction in patients treated with strontium ranelate

    OpenAIRE

    Bruye?re, Olivier; Roux, C.; Detilleux, Johann; Slosman, D. O.; Spector, T. D.; Fardellone, P.; Brixen, K.; Devogelaer, J. P.; Diaz-curiel, M.; Albanese, C.; Kaufman, J. M.; Pors-nielsen, S.; Reginster, Jean-yves

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to analyze the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) changes and fracture incidence during 3-yr treatment with strontium ranelate. Patients: Women from the strontium ranelate arm of the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study and the TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis study were evaluated. Outcome Measures: The outcome measures included BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total proximal femur assessed at baseline and after a follow-up...

  11. Dynamic Change and Impact of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dapeng; Yu, Yu; Haarberg, Kelley; Fu, Jianing; Kaosaard, Kane; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Anasetti, Claudio; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Yu, Xue-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of myeloid cells comprised of hematopoietic progenitor cells, immature macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes, which accumulate in inflammatory diseases and various cancers. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes and effects of MDSCs in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) development and/or tumor relapse after syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We found that adding functional MDSCs in donor graft alleviated G...

  12. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test to...

  13. Mechanisms involved in mycobacterial growth inhibition by gamma interferon-activated bone marrow macrophages: role of reactive nitrogen intermediates.

    OpenAIRE

    Flesch, I. E.; Kaufmann, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages are able to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium bovis after stimulation with recombinant gamma interferon. This antimycobacterial activity was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a specific inhibitor of nitrite and nitrate synthesis from L-arginine. Furthermore, there was a complete lack of mycobacterial growth inhibition in a medium deficient in L-arginine. Nitrite is generated by gamma interferon-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages after infec...

  14. The exploration of the changes in bone metabolism in patients with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, BGP and PTH in 91 patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 patients with hypothyroidism, 51 controls, were measured by means of IRMA, calcaneus heel bone density (BMD) was measured by means of 241Am single photon absorptiometry. BGP levels in hyperthyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). BGP levels in hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001). PTH levels in hyperthyroidism were a little lower than those in controls (P < 0.05). PTH levels in hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). The measurement of BMD showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis (OP) in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls. In hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups the age of OP tends to be younger. The patients with hyperthyroidism over 55 years of age were all suffered from OP. The changes in BGP and PTH were earlier than BMD, so BGP and PTH can be used as sensitive indicator of the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, especially for curative effect observations

  15. Change in haemopoiesis at fractionated large field irradiation of dogs, accompanied with autotransplantation of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The right part of the chest of 36 mongrel dogs including the whole breast has been irradiated, the left part has been shielded. The irradiation has been performed twice a week. 9 Gy for each session, the integral dose constituted 54 Gy. Where upon irradiation 18 dogs have been subjected to automyelotransplantation from nonirradiated section of bone marrow (4-5x109 myelokaryocytes to each animal). The dynamics of changes in hemopoiesis in irradiated, shielded and nonirradiated sections of bone marrow has been traced by the data of paracentetic and histologic investigations in the early and late periods upon irradiation (up to 3 years). Under certain irradiation conditions when a considerable volume of bone marrow is affected, automyelotransplantation contributes to its faster recovery in the early periods affer irradiation. Compete recovery of blood formation in the irradiated bone marrow has been observed in a year and in animals with automyelotransplantation - in half a year and remained at this level during the whole observation period

  16. Experimental studies of blood flow and metabolism changes in ?-ray induced bone injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate regional blood flow (RBF) and metabolism changes in the short-and long-term after bone irradiation injury. Methods: The tibia of the rabbits on the right side was irradiated with 60Co ? ray at a dose of 30 Gy. The tibia on the other side was taken as the control. RBF measurement, perfusion imaging and delayed bone imaging were respectively performed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th and 52nd week after the irradiation. Results: The RBF of injured side gradually increased after irradiation, and reached as two times as the level of the control at the 3rd week, and approached to the similar values on both sides at the 6th week, and then became only 27.8% of the value of the control at the 52nd week, the differences of RBF between two sides at all phases were significant or very significant (P 0.05), the ROI counts markedly decreased at the 12th week and very significantly declined at the 52nd week on irradiated side. Concat the 52nd week on irradiated side. Conclusions: The study shows that the RBF increases and bone metabolism is activated at irradiated side in the earlier stage after irradiation, and both regional microcirculation and bone metabolism significantly decrease in the medium and late stage

  17. Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, H; Kontulainen, S; Sievänen, H; Kannus, P; Järvinen, M; Vuori, I

    2000-09-01

    Bilateral bone characteristics of the humerus (proximal, shaft, and distal sites) and radius (shaft and distal sites) in 12 former Finnish national-level male tennis players (mean age 30 years) and their 12 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The pQCT variables analyzed were bone mineral content (BMC), total cross-sectional area of bone (Tot.Ar), cross-sectional area of the marrow cavity (M.Cav.Ar), cortical bone (Co.Ar) and trabecular bone (Tr.Ar), volumetric density of cortical (Co.Dn) and trabecular (Tr. Dn) bone, cortical wall thickness (Co.Wi.Th), bone strength index (BSI), and principal moments of inertia (I(min) and I(max)). In the players, significant side-to-side differences, in favor of the dominant (playing) arm, were found in BMC (ranging 14%-27%), Tot.Ar (16%-21%), Co.Ar (12%-32%), BSI (23%-37%), I(min) (33%-61%), and I(max) (27%-67%) at all measured bone sites, and in Co.Wi.Th. (5%-25%) at the humeral and radial shafts, and distal humerus. The side-to-side M.Cav.Ar difference was significant at the proximal humerus (19%) and radial shaft (29%). Concerning the players' Co.Dn and Tr.Dn, the only significant side-to-side difference was found in the Co.Dn of the distal humerus, with the playing arm showing a slightly smaller Co.Dn than the nonplaying arm (-2%). In controls, significant dominant-to-nondominant side differences were also found, but with the majority of the differences being rather small, and significantly lower than those of the players. In conclusion, despite the large side-to-side differences in BMC, the volumetric bone density (Co.Dn, Tr.Dn) was almost identical in the dominant and nondominant arms of the players and controls. Thus, the players' high playing-arm BMC was due to increases in the Tot.Ar, M.Cav.Ar, Co.Ar, and CW.Th. In other words, the playing arm's extra bone mineral, and thus increased bone strength, was mainly due to increased bone size and not due to a change in volumetric bone density. These upper arm results may not be generalized to the entire skeleton, but the finding may give new insight into conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based bone density measurements when interpreting the effects of exercise on bone. PMID:10962345

  18. Denosumab and Changes in Bone Turnover Markers During Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Egerdie, Blair; Sieber, Paul; Tammela, Teuvo LJ; Leder, Benjamin Z; Ke, Chunlei; Goessl, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increases fracture risk, decreases bone mineral density, and increases bone turnover markers (BTMs) including serum type 1 C-telopeptide (sCTX), tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and procollagen-1 N-terminal telopeptide (P1NP). In a pre-specified exploratory analysis of a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 3 years) vs. placebo (1468 patients, 734 in each group) on BTM values. BTMs were measured at baseline, month 1, and pre-dose at months 6, 12, 24, and 36 in the overall population. BTMs at month 1 are also reported for subgroups based on age (6 months), and baseline BTM (? median vs. >median BTM values). Treatment with denosumab provided a rapid and sustained decrease of BTM values compared with placebo. The median change in sCTX levels at month 1 was ?90% in the denosumab group and ?3% in the placebo group (p <.0001). The median change in TRAP-5b levels at month 1 was ?55% in the denosumab group and ?3% in the placebo group (p <.0001). The maximal median change in P1NP was ?64% in the denosumab group and ?11% in the placebo group, (p <.0001). Significantly greater decreases in BTM for denosumab were also seen in subgroup analyses based on age, prior ADT treatment, and baseline BTM values. Suppression of bone turnover markers was consistent with marked increases in bone mineral density reported previously. PMID:21898590

  19. Restoring and Maintaining Bone in Osteopenic Female Rat Skeleton. Part 1; Changes in Bone Mass and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li Ya; Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the lose, restore, and maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses anabolic agents to restore bone mass and architecture (+ phase) and then switches to an agent with the established ability to maintain bone mass, to keep the new bone (+/- phase). The purpose of this study was to learn whether switching to an agent known chiefly for its ability to maintain existing bone mass preserves new bone induced by PGE2, in osteopenic,estrogen-depleted rats. The current study had three phases, the bone loss (-), restore (+), and maintain (+/-) phases. We ovariectomized (OX) or sham ovariectomized (sham-OX) 5.5 month-old female rats (- phase). The OX rats were treated 5 months postovariectomy with 1-6 mg PGE2, per kg/day for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (+ phase), and then PGE2, treatment was stopped and treatment began with 1 or 5 micro-g/kg of risedronate, a bisphosphonate, twice a week for 60 days (+/- phase). During the loss (-) phase, the cancellous bone volume of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the OX rat fell to 19% of initial and 30% of age-matched control levels. During the restore (+) phase, the cancellous bone volume in OX rats doubled. When PGE2 treatment was stopped, however, and no special maintenance efforts were made during the maintain (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone persisted when the PGE2 treatment was followed by either a 1 or 5 micro-g treatment of risedronate per kg given twice a week for 60 days during the maintain (+/-) phase. The tibial shaft demonstrated very little cortical bone loss during the loss (-) phase in OX rats. The tibial shaft cortical bone fell some 8%. During the restore (+) phase, new cortical bone in OX rats increased by 22%. When PGE2 treatment was stopped and nothing was given during the maintain (+/-) phase, however, all but the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone disappeared. In contrast, when PGE2 treatment was stopped and 1 micro-g risedronate per kg twice a week for 60 days was administered during the maintenance (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone and some of the subendocortical bone and marrow trabeculae persisted. When 5 micro-g risedronate per kg was given twice a week, all the PGE2-induced bone persisted. The study shows that most of the new cancellous and cortical bone induced by PGE2, can be maintained for at least 60 days after discontinuing PGE2 by administering enough of the resorption inhibitor, risedronate. The lower dose of risedronate was not adequate to save most of the PGE2-induced endocortical bone.

  20. Changes in bone remodelling and antifracture efficacy of intermittent bisphosphonate therapy: implications from clinical studies with ibandronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapoulos, S E; Schimmer, R C

    2007-01-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce the rate of bone resorption and bone remodelling. Given daily, they decrease the risk of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. When bisphosphonates were given at extended drug?free intervals this antifracture efficacy was generally not seen. This may be due to the different pattern of bone remodelling changes. Data from randomised clinical studies of ibandronate, given orally or intravenously, at different doses and for variable time intervals to women with osteoporosis were examined to explore the relationship between intermittent bisphosphonate therapy, changes in bone resorption and fracture risk. The magnitude of the reduction of the rate of bone resorption at the end of the drug?free interval rather than its fluctuation pattern after bisphosphonate administration determines antifracture efficacy, provided that these fluctuations occur within the premenopausal range. Prolongation of the drug?free interval beyond 2?weeks should be compensated by a dose higher than the cumulative daily dose. PMID:17277001

  1. Platelet deposition in non-parallel flow: influence of shear stress and changes in surface reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Frédéric Frank

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with flow- and surface-related aspects of primary hemostasis. It investigates the influence of both shear stress and changes in surface reactivity on platelet adhesion. For this purpose, a mathematical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations and on particle conservation is developed. Several vessel geometries of physiological relevance are considered, such as stagnation point flow, sudden expansion and t-junction. Model parameters have been optimized to fit corresponding experimental data. When platelet adhesion was assumed independent of shear, numerically predicted spatial platelet distribution did not match these data at all. However, when adhesion was assumed shear-dependent, better agreement was achieved. Further improvement was obtained when changes in surface reactivity due to platelet adhesion were taken into account. This was done by coupling platelet flux conditions to ordinary differential equations for the evolution of surface-bound platelets. Existence of weak solutions is shown for generalized parabolic systems having such boundary conditions. This, together with proofs for uniqueness and positivity of solutions, guarantees mathematical well posedness of the presented model. Limitations due to the complexity of the hemostatic system are discussed, as well as possible applications in practice. The findings of this paper contribute to understand the roles of flow and surface in primary hemostasis, which is of paramount interest in bioengineering and clinical practice. PMID:18274749

  2. [Severe microcytic anemia with megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow. A hematological paradoxon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibke, R; Hausmann, A; Cnossen, J; Hiddemann, W; Spiekermann, K; Braess, J

    2009-07-01

    We discuss the case of a 32 year-old male with severe microcytic anemia (hemoglobin 2,9 g/dl) and megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow. The patient reported of substantial dietary weight loss. The family history was positive for beta-thalassemia. Previous blood work showed iron deficiency with mild anemia. Further work-up verified beta-thalassemia minor and revealed severely decreased vitamin B12 levels with positive anti intrinsic-factor antibodies, pathognomonic for autoimmune pernicious anemia. The paradoxon therefore dissolved as a pernicious anemia with megaloblastic changes with microcytic erythrocytes due to beta-thalassemia. PMID:19536514

  3. Early ultrastructural changes in bone marrow cells exposed to gamma and neutron radiation. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotikov, L.A.; Nikishin, B.K.; Tatsii, Yu.A.

    1979-06-01

    An electron microscopic study was made of early changes in ultrastructure of rat bone marrow cells after exposure to ..gamma.. radiation and neutrons. It was determined that these changes are qualitatively the same with both types of radiation, and they refer mainly to lipoprotein membranes of the nuclear envelope, mitochondrial cristae and plasma membrane, as well as nucleoprotein structures of the nucleus. The forms and dynamics of development thereof in the interphase are described. The severity and stability of cell lesions are related to the type and dosage of radiation, type of cell and stage of maturation of the latter.

  4. MR tomography of bone marrow changes after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of MR standard imaging and short time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to assess changes in red bone marrow cellularity after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSCT). Results: STIR sequences demonstrated marked changes in signal intensity not only until the aplasia occurred but also during bone marrow repopulation. An increased signal intensity was observed after HDC in 13/15 patients (87%), followed by a decrease in signal intensity immediately after aplasia in 14/15 patients (93%). Signal intensity further changed parallel to marrow engraftment in 11/15 patients (73%). T2-TSE only showed clear changes during repopulation in 8/15 patients (53%). The individual course of the signal in T1-TSE was markedly inhomogeneous. Conclusions: STIR sequences show bone marrow edema during aplasia and marrow cellularity during reconstitution and are suitable for characterisation of red bone marrow after HDC and autologous PBSCT. (orig.)

  5. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance, a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change films. We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method. The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed. Meanwhile, Ge2Sb2Te5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged. After the top electrode is deposited, current-voltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1mA to 0.025mA. Furthermore, we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method

  6. Neutrophil transcriptional profile changes during transit from bone marrow to sites of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Visser, Michelle B; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been established that neutrophils, the most abundant leukocytes, are capable of changes in gene expression during inflammatory responses. However, changes in the transcriptome as the neutrophil leaves the bone marrow have yet to be described. We hypothesized that neutrophils are transcriptionally active cells that alter their gene expression profiles as they migrate into the vasculature and then into inflamed tissues. Our goal was to provide an overview of how the neutrophil's transcriptome changes as they migrate through different compartments using microarray and bio-informatic approaches. Our study demonstrates that neutrophils are highly plastic cells where normal environmental cues result in a site-specific neutrophil transcriptome. We demonstrate that neutrophil genes undergo one of four distinct expression change patterns as they move from bone marrow through the circulation to sites of inflammation: (i) continuously increasing; (ii) continuously decreasing; (iii) a down-up-down; and (iv) an up-down-up pattern. Additionally, we demonstrate that the neutrophil migration signaling network and the balance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic signaling are two of the main regulatory mechanisms that change as the neutrophil transits through compartments. PMID:24909740

  7. Bone mineral change during experimental calcination: an X-ray diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Sergio; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz

    2014-11-01

    The effects of calcination (400-1200°C) on pig bones have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary modifications, such as color change and weight loss. The characterisation by powder XRD confirmed the presence of the crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite, and comparison of the results obtained at different temperatures suggested that at 650°C, all the organic components and carbonate substitutions were completely removed. Accordingly, these samples were white. In addition, the crystallinity degree and the crystallite size progressively increased with the calcination temperature until 650°C, remaining stable until 1200°C. Below 650°C, bone samples presented organic compounds, resulting in background noise in the diffractogram and gray or black color. In addition, impurities in the lattice correspond to low crystallite sizes. PMID:24962811

  8. Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T

    1993-01-01

    A non-invasive evaluation of bone metabolism was performed in 44 morbidly obese patients before and after a mean weight loss of 22.4 kg (range 7.9-43.4 kg) after 2 months and a further weight loss of 7.3 kg after 8 months (0.8-20.0 kg). This weight reduction was obtained by a nutritionally adequate very-low-calorie diet. Before treatment the bone mineral content of the distal forearm was increased compared to normals (51.9 U vs. 43.7 U, p < 0.001). Bone formation was evaluated by serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin. Serum alkaline phosphatase was increased (187.8 U/l vs 147.4 U/l, p < 0.001) while serum osteocalcin was lower than in the controls (0.67 nmol/l vs 0.98 nmol/l, p < 0.01). Bone resorption, as measured by the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio, was not increased in the obese patients (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 16.7 molar ratio x 10(-3), NS). After 2 months, the bone mineral content had declined by 3.3%. Serum alkaline phosphatase remained unchanged (187.8 U/l vs 186.9 U/l, NS) but serum osteocalcin demonstrated a significant rise (3.94 nmol/l vs 10.53 nmol/l, p < 0.001), parallel to changes in the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 25.2 molar ratio x 10(-3), p < 0.001). At 8 months, no further change in the bone mineral content was seen. The hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio did still increase (from 25.8 molar ratio x 10(-3) to 30.1 molar ratio x 10(-3), p < 0.05), while serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow of the foot and ankle in children: red marrow or traumatic changes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [NYU/Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Carrino, John A. [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Keller, Marc S.; Grissom, Leslie E. [DuPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2006-07-15

    High-signal T2-weighted bone marrow changes can be found in both bone marrow edema and hematopoietic marrow and are often seen on pediatric MR images of the feet and ankle. To evaluate whether high-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow seen on pediatric MRI of feet and ankles represent residual hematopoietic marrow. A total of 402 bones in 41 pediatric MRI studies of feet and ankles (34 children, 1-18 years) were reviewed by two observers who were blinded to the patients' ages. The studies were reviewed for the presence of high-signal changes of the bone marrow on sagittal fluid-sensitive images. The frequency and location of these foci were correlated with the patients' ages. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow were seen in 45/402 bones (11%) and in 24/41 patients younger than 16 years (59%). The changes were most commonly located in the calcaneus (54%), followed by the talus (35%) and navicular bone (35%), invariably at the endosteal surface. In 16 ankles, such foci were seen in the feet but not in the distal tibia/fibula. Symmetric presence (two ankles) or absence (four ankles) of high-signal marrow were seen in six of seven patients with bilateral ankles. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow in pediatric feet and ankle MRIs have a symmetric, fairly consistent pattern and disappear after the age of 15 years. We believe that these high-signal areas are normal and represent residual hematopoietic marrow. (orig.)

  10. Microglia change from a reactive to an age-like phenotype with the time in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Cláudia; Oliveira, Ana F; Cunha, Carolina; Vaz, Ana R; Falcão, Ana S; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Age-related neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with chronic neuroinflammation and microglia activation. However, cumulative evidence supports that inflammation only occurs at an early stage once microglia change the endogenous characteristics with aging and switch to irresponsive/senescent and dystrophic phenotypes with disease progression. Thus, it will be important to have the means to assess the role of reactive and aged microglia when studying advanced brain neurodegeneration processes and age-associated related disorders. Yet, most studies are done with microglia from neonates since there are no adequate means to isolate degenerating microglia for experimentation. Indeed, only a few studies report microglia isolation from aged animals, using either short-term cultures or high concentrations of mitogens in the medium, which trigger microglia reactivity. The purpose of this study was to develop an experimental process to naturally age microglia after isolation from neonatal mice and to characterize the cultured cells at 2 days in vitro (DIV), 10 DIV, and 16 DIV. We found that 2 DIV (young) microglia had predominant amoeboid morphology and markers of stressed/reactive phenotype. In contrast, 16 DIV (aged) microglia evidenced ramified morphology and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activation, as well as reduced MMP-9, glutamate release and nuclear factor kappa-B activation, in parallel with decreased expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4, capacity to migrate and phagocytose. These findings together with the reduced expression of microRNA (miR)-124, and miR-155, decreased autophagy, enhanced senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity and elevated miR-146a expression, are suggestive that 16 DIV cells mainly correspond to irresponsive/senescent microglia. Data indicate that the model represent an opportunity to understand and control microglial aging, as well as to explore strategies to recover microglia surveillance function. PMID:24917789

  11. Microglia change from a reactive to an age-like phenotype with the time in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with chronic neuroinflammation and microglia activation. However, cumulative evidence supports that inflammation only occurs at an early stage once microglia change the endogenous characteristics with ageing and switch to irresponsive/senescent and dystrophic phenotypes with disease progression. Thus, it will be important to have the means to assess the role of reactive and aged microglia when studying advanced brain neurodegeneration processes and age-associated related disorders. Yet, most studies are done with microglia from neonates since there are no adequate means to isolate degenerating microglia for experimentation. Indeed, only a few studies report microglia isolation from aged animals, using either short-term cultures or high concentrations of mitogens in the medium, which trigger microglia reactivity. The purpose of this study was to develop an experimental process to naturally age microglia after isolation from neonatal mice and to characterize the cultured cells at 2 days in vitro (DIV, 10 DIV and 16 DIV. We found that 2 DIV (young microglia had predominant amoeboid morphology and markers of stressed/reactive phenotype. In contrast, 16 DIV (aged microglia evidenced ramified morphology and increased metalloproteinase (MMP-2 activation, as well as reduced MMP-9, glutamate release and nuclear factor kappa-B activation, in parallel with decreased expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR-2 and TLR-4, capacity to migrate and phagocytose. These findings together with the reduced expression of microRNA (miR-124, and miR-155, decreased autophagy, enhanced senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity and elevated miR-146a expression, are suggestive that 16 DIV cells mainly correspond to irresponsive/senescent microglia. Data indicate that the model represent an opportunity to understand and control microglial aging, as well as to explore strategies to recover microglia surveillance function.

  12. Changes in bone geometry and microarchitecture caused by intermittent administration of PTH. Comparison with those by exercise load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been several studies showing that periodical intermittent medication with parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increases in cancellous bone mass. However, there have been almost no reports comparing the effects of periodical intermittent PTH medication on bone microarchitecture with changes caused by physiological stimulation such as exercise load. In this study, we compared the effects of these two interventions on the microarchitecturural deterioration of femoral cancellous bone associated with unloading, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and the effects of PTH administration and motion loading on improvement of the deteriorated structure. In the study, 32 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group without tail suspension (CON), a control recovery group after suspension (S+C), a suspension/PTH group (S+P), and a suspension/jumping exercise group (S+J). Periodical intermittent human PTH (1-34) was given periodically to the S+P group rats at a dose of 75 ?g/kg/day five times a week for five weeks, after two weeks of exercise with suspension of the tail. The rats in the S+J group performed 40 cm-high jumping 10 times/day five times a week for five weeks. After this conditioning, upon examination, bilateral femurs were removed and the right distal metaphysis was scanned using micro-CT to obtain images of the cancellous bone region of the femur. Based on the tomographic data, indices of cancellous bone microarchitectundices of cancellous bone microarchitecture was the index of trabecular bone structure were determined by using three-dimensional image analysis system. In addition, to examine the geometric properties of the diaphysis, mid-portion images of the bone shaft of the left femur were obtained by micro-CT, and then the mechanical bone strength of the left femur was determined by performing a three-point bending test. Compared to the S+C group, the S+P and S+J groups showed significantly higher bone volume, bone surface mass values, superficial bone area, bone volume fraction rates, fractal dimensions, connectivity density, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone number and degrees of anisotropy. They conversely showed significantly lower bone volume ratio values, trabecular bone separation, trabecular bone pattern factors, and structural model indices. However, the area values, thickness, and strength of femoral diaphysis cortical bone in the S+J group were significantly higher than those in the S+C group. The S+P group showed no significant difference other than cortical bone thickness. These data suggest that periodical intermittent medication with PTH could cause changes in the fine structure of the femoral metaphysic cancellous bone microarchitecture that are similar to changes caused by jumping exercise, but the effects of PTH seem to be small on the geometric properties and bone strength of the cortical bone. (author)

  13. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity: steady-state versus transient changes in carbon dioxide tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Crandall, Craig G; Zhang, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) is assessed during steady-state or transient changes in P aCO 2. This study tested the following two hypotheses: (i) that CVMR during steady-state changes differs from that during transient changes in P aCO 2; and (ii) that CVMR during rebreathing-induced hypercapnia would be blunted when preceded by a period of hyperventilation. For each hypothesis, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET , CO 2) middle cerebral artery blood velocity (CBFV), cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCI; CBFV/mean arterial pressure) and CVMR (slope of the linear regression between changes in CBFV and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2) were assessed in eight individuals. To address the first hypothesis, measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) steady-state increases in P ET , CO 2 of 5 and 10 Torr above baseline; and (ii) rebreathing-induced transient breath-by-breath increases in P ET , CO 2. The linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.65) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.44) was similar between methods; however, individual variability in CBFV or CVCI responses existed among subjects. To address the second hypothesis, the same measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) immediately following a brief period of hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation for 1 min followed by rebreathing; and (ii) during rebreathing only. The slope of the linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) was reduced during hyperventilation plus rebreathing relative to rebreathing only. These results indicate that cerebral vasomotor reactivity to changes in P aCO 2 is similar regardless of the employed methodology to induce changes in P aCO 2 and that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia attenuates the cerebral vasodilatory responses during a subsequent period of rebreathing-induced hypercapnia. PMID:25172891

  14. Energetic Ion Transport and Concomitant Change of the Fusion Reactivity during Reconnection Events in Spherical Tori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

    2004-07-06

    Effects of MHD reconnection events on the beam-plasma fusion reactivity and transport of the beam ions are studied. Based on the analysis of fusion reactivity changes induced by MHD events, the conclusion is drawn that the strong drops of the neutron yield during sawtooth crashes observed in the National Spherical Torus experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are associated with both a particle redistribution inside the plasma and a loss of the beam ions. Mechanisms of the energetic ion transport during sawtooth crashes are analyzed, in particular, with the use of the resonance adiabatic invariant derived in this paper. A numerical simulation of the particle motion during a sawtooth crash in NSTX is done with the code OFSEF [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1325 (2000)] extended for a better description of the particle precession. It is shown that the motion of toroidally passing particles in NSTX can become stochastic under the influence of a crash. This stochasticity, as well as the motion along the resonance island, leads to the escape of some particles from the plasma.

  15. Energetic ion transport and concomitant change of the fusion reactivity during reconnection events in spherical tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) reconnection events on the beam-plasma fusion reactivity and transport of the beam ions are studied. Based on the analysis of fusion reactivity changes induced by MHD events, the conclusion is drawn that the strong drops of the neutron yield during sawtooth crashes observed in the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are associated with both a particle redistribution inside the plasma and a loss of the beam ions. Mechanisms of the energetic ion transport during sawtooth crashes are analyzed, in particular, with the use of the resonance adiabatic invariant derived in this paper. A numerical simulation of the particle motion during a sawtooth crash in NSTX is done with the code OFSEF (orbit following in the sawtooth electromagnetic field) [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1325 (2000)] extended for a better description of the particle precession. It is shown that the motion of toroidally passing particles in NSTX can become stochastic under the influence of a crash. This stochasticity, as well as the motion along the resonance island, leads to the escape of some particles from the plasma

  16. On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as ''the code''). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed

  17. On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freels, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as ``the code``). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed.

  18. On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freels, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as the code''). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed.

  19. Evaluation by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of changed bone density in metastatic bone sites as a consequence of systemic treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Angeli, Alberto; Dogliotti, Luigi; Reimondo, Giuseppe Matteo; Berruti, Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen cancer patients with bone metastases from various primary malignancies were submitted to repeated dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan before and after systemic antineoplastic treatments. In the nine patients with lytic lesions the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) increased after chemotherapy + pamidronate in four (by +11.2%, +7.5%, +5.0% and +6.6%, respectively), decreased in four (by -19.9%, -8.1%, -7.5%, and -7.0%, respectively) and remained unchanged in one. BMD changes paralleled var...

  20. Maintaining Restored Bone with Bisphosphonate in the Ovariectomized Rat Skeleton: Dynamic Histomorphometry of Changes in Bone Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Tang, L.; Ke, H. Z.; Setterberg, R. B.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the Lose, Restore and Maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses ovariectomy (ox) to lose bone, an anabolic agent to restore bone mass and then switches to an antiresorptive agent to maintain bone mass. We ox'd or sham-ox'd rats for 150 days (Loss Phase), treated them with 6 mg PGE(sub 2)kg/d for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (Restore Phase) and then stopped PGE(sub 2) treatment and began treatment with 1 or 5 micrograms/kg Risedronate, a bisphosphonate twice a week for 60 days (Maintain Phase). During the Loss Phase, cancellous bone volumes of the Proximal Tibial Metaphysis (PTM) in the ox'd rat fell to 19% of initial controls. During the Restore Phase, the PTM bone volume in ox'd rats doubled. However, when PGE(sub 2) treatment was stopped, the PGE(sub 2)-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, 5 miligrams of Risedronate inhibited the bone loss and maintained it at the PGE(sub 2) treatment level. The key dynamic histomorphometry value for the Restore (R) and Maintenance (M) phases was the ratio of bone formation to resorption rates. The ratio was elevated to 5.8 in the R phase and depressed to 0.4 for no and 1 miligram Risedronate treated M phase and to a ratio of near unity of 1.1 for the 5miligrams Risedronate treatment. These findings indicate that we were successful in maintaining the new PTM bone induced by PGE(sub 2) after discontinuing PGE(sub 2) by administering enough Risedronate, a resorption inhibitor. We concluded that the LRM concept is correct and such an approach should be considered when employing anabolic agents or growth factors in the treatment of osteoporosis. Continued use of an anabolic agent may not be appropriate because of cost, potential adverse side effects and a loss of efficacy.

  1. Maintaining Restored Bone with Bisphoshonate in the Ovariectomized Rat Skeleton: Dynamic Histomorphometry of Changes in Bone Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Tang, L.; Ke, H. Z.; Setterberg, R. B.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment contains the crucial data for the Lose, Restore and Maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses ovariectomy (ox) to lose bone, an anabolic agent to restore bone mass and then switches to an anti-resorptive agent to maintain bone mass. We ox'd or sham-ox'd rats for 150 days (Loss Phase), treated them with 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (Restore Phase) and then stopped PGE2 treatment and began treatment with 1 or 5 micro-g/kg Risedronate, a bisphosphonate twice a week for 60 days (Maintain Phase). During the Loss Phase, cancellous bone volumes of the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) in the ox'd rat fell to 19% of initial controls. During the Restore Phase, the PTM bone volume in ox'd rats doubled. However, when PGE2 treatment was stopped, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, 5 micro-g of Risedronate inhibited the bone loss and maintained it at the PGE2 treatment level. The key dynamic histomorphometry value for the restore (R) and maintenance (M) phases was the ratio of bone formation to resorption rates. The ratio was elevated to 5.8 in the R phase and depressed to 0.4 for no and 1 micro-g Risedronate treated M phase and to a ratio of near unity of 1.1 for the 5 micro-g Risedronate treatment. These findings indicate that we were successful in maintaining the new PTM bone induced by PGE2 after discontinuing PGE2 by administering enough Risedronate, a resorption inhibitor. We concluded that the LRM concept is correct and such an approach should be considered when employing anabolic agents or growth factors in the treatment of osteoporosis. Continued use of an anabolic agent may not be appropriate because of cost, potential adverse side effects and a loss of efficacy.

  2. Reactivating memories during sleep by odors: odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Rihm, Julia S.; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Bjo?rn

    2014-01-01

    Memories are reactivated during sleep. Reexposure to olfactory cues during sleep triggers this reactivation and improves later recall performance. Here, we tested if the effects of odor-induced memory reactivations are odor specific, that is, requiring the same odor during learning and subsequent sleep. We also tested whether odor-induced memory reactivation affects oscillatory EEG activity during sleep, as a putative mechanism underlying memory processing during sleep. Participants learned a...

  3. Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallman, Tyler N.; Radel, Tracy E.; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Villa, Daniel L.; Smith, Brandon M. (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Radel, Ross F.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

  4. Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

  5. Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sun-Jong, Kim; Jaeyoung, Yoo; Young-Soo, Kim; Sang-Wan, Shin.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two convention [...] al drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system) was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm), which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.). Baseline temperature was 31±1ºC. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Mean values (n=10 drill sequences) for maximum recorded temperature (Max TºC), change in temperature (?TºC) from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (?TºC) were 1.57ºC and 2.46ºC for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05). No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47ºC, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation.

  6. Factors underlying changes in bone mineral during postpartum amenorrhea and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg-Marttila, D; Sievänen, H; Laippala, P; Tuimala, R

    2000-01-01

    To determine the physiologic and habitual factors that may modulate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) postpartum, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and dominant distal radius immediately after delivery, after resumption of menses, and 1 year thereafter in a cohort of 41 healthy postpartum Finnish women aged 31.5 (SD 4.6) years. Mean durations of lactation and postpartum amenorrhea (PPA) were 7.7 (3.7) and 5.9 (2.9) months, respectively. After PPA, significant bone losses of 2%-4% were observed at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Duration of PPA and different lactational variables explained (adjusted R2) from 21% to 27% of the variability in changes in BMD during PPA. A recovery to postpregnancy BMD levels was observed at the lumbar spine; in contrast BMD at the femoral neck showed only a partial recovery. The duration of unsupplemented lactation was weakly (adjusted R2 = 0.13) associated with recovery at the lumbar spine, while a long duration of total lactation also showed a weak association (adjusted R2 = 0.02) with delayed recovery at the femoral neck. In conclusion, a systematic bone loss occurs during PPA, and after resumption of menstruation BMD recovers despite continued lactation. However, the time of bony recovery back to postpregnancy level seems to be modulated slightly by lactation habits. It is obvious that the control of postpartum BMD changes is a multifactorial process that may be specific to the skeletal site of interest. PMID:11069190

  7. Polymorphisms of the farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene modulate bone changes in response to atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castrillón, José L; Zarrabeitia, María T; Abad, Laura; Vega, Gemma; Ruiz-Mambrilla, Marta; Gonzalez-Sagredo, Manuel; Dueñas-Laita, Antonio; Riancho, José A

    2014-08-01

    Although their primary therapeutic indications are different, aminobisphosphonates and statins target enzymes in the mevalonate pathway, which is critical for bone homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that some polymorphisms of the gene encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), the main target of aminobisphosphonates, modulate the response to these drugs. In this study, we explored whether those single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also influence the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following therapy with statins. Sixty-six patients with coronary heart disease were studied at baseline and after 1-year therapy with atorvastatin. BMD was measured by DXA. Three SNPs of the FDPS gene (rs2297480, rs11264359 and rs17367421) were analyzed by using Taqman assays. The results showed that there was no association between the SNPs and basal BMD. However, rs2297480 and rs11264359 alleles, which are in linkage disequilibrium, were associated with changes in hip BMD following atorvastatin therapy. Thus, patients with AA genotype at the rs2297480 locus had a 0.8 ± 0.8 % increase in BMD at the femoral neck, whereas in patients with AC/CC genotypes, BMD showed a 2.3 ± 0.8 % decrease (p = 0.02). Similar results were obtained regarding changes of BMD at the femoral trochanter and when alleles at the rs11264359 locus were analyzed. However, there was no association between BMD and rs17367421 alleles. In conclusion, these results suggest that polymorphisms of the FDPS gene may influence the bone response to various drugs targeting the mevalonate pathway, including not only aminobisphosphonates but also statins. PMID:24311107

  8. Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Sun-Jong; YOO, Jaeyoung; KIM, Young-Soo; SHIN, Sang-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during lowspeed drilling using infrared thermography. Material and Methods Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system) was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm), which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.). Baseline temperature was 31±1ºC. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. Results and Conclusions Mean values (n=10 drill sequences) for maximum recorded temperature (Max TºC), change in temperature (?TºC) from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (?TºC) were 1.57ºC and 2.46ºC for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05). No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47ºC, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation. PMID:21085811

  9. Light-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats--early bone changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Güray, Enis; Yüksel, Yasemin

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate histomorphometrically the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation therapy (LPT) on bone formation in response to expansion of the interpremaxillary suture in rats. Twenty male, 50- to 60-day-old Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups (control and experimental). Both groups were subjected to expansion for 5 days, and 50 cN of force was applied to the maxillary incisors with helical spring. An OsseoPulse® LED device, 618-nm wavelength and 20-mW/cm(2) output power irradiation, was applied to the interpremaxillary suture for 10 days. Bone formation in the sutural area was histomorphometrically evaluated, including the amount of new bone formation (in square micrometers), number of osteoblasts, number of osteoclasts, and number of vessels. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical evaluation at p?bone formation area (p?=?0.024, 1.48-fold), number of osteoblasts (p?Bone histomorphometric measurements revealed that bone architecture in the LPT group was improved. The application of LPT can stimulate bone formation in the orthopedically expanded interpremaxillary suture during expansion and the early phase of the retention periods. PMID:23139069

  10. Changes of the radiological image of tuberculose of bones and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis of bones and joints still occurs in the Netherlands, although with a low incidence. Most patients in this country are natives of Mediterranean countries and of Surinam. The classical radiological image appears to be changing in that multiple lesions occur more often, lesions occur in localizations rare for tuberculosis in patients of Dutch origin, very large abscesses are formed and in case of vertebral tuberculosis, extensive sclerosis develops with early osseous bridging and complete or partial preservation of disc spaces. The findings in 12 personal patients are described. (Auth.)

  11. Monitoring radiation-induced changes in bone marrow histopathology with ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldrup, H E; Link, T M; Blasius, S; Strozyk, A; Könemann, S; Jürgens, H; Rummeny, E J

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor radiation-induced alterations of the blood-bone marrow barrier (BMB) and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with AMI-227-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty New Zealand white rabbits (n = 10 following total body irradiation and n = 10 controls) underwent AMI-227-enhanced MRI. Pulse sequences included dynamic fast low-angle shot (FLASH; TR/TE 50/4 msec, flip angle 60 degrees) MRI and static T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and turbo-SE sequences of the lumbar spine and sacrum. Bone marrow enhancement was quantified as delta signal intensity (SI) (%) =|[(SIpost - SIpre)/SIpre] x 100%| and compared with histopathology, including iron stains and electron microscopy. Dynamic bone marrow deltaSI (%) data steadily increased up to 10-15 minutes after AMI-227 administration, while blood deltaSI (%) data stayed nearly constant, histologically corresponding to iron oxide leakage into the bone marrow interstitium. This bone marrow contrast enhancement increased significantly following irradiation, corresponding to alterations of the endothelial lining of the bone marrow sinusoids. Late postcontrast images exhibited a significant positive T1 enhancement and negative T2 enhancement of the normal bone marrow, which further increased with irradiation due to increased RES activity. Irradiation-induced changes in bone marrow physiology could be reliably assessed with AMI-227-enhanced MRI. PMID:10331759

  12. Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1, 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years apart. Results: In total, 134 (39% of the Study population) had a different SPT result at follow-up compared with baseline, based on a diagnostic criterion of 3 min for a positive test result 77 (22%) developed de novo sensitizations to I or more allergens, 45 (13%) had remission of 1 or more sensitizations, and 12 (4%) both gained and lost sensitizations. Female sex (odds ratio = 1.90 [1.02-3.57] P =.04) significantly predicted incidence of 1 or more sensitizations. Conclusions: Four of 10 adults with atopic disease will have changes in SPT status during a 3-year period, and most will gain new sensitizations. Women with atopic disease are at increased risk of developing new sensitizations compared with men Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11

  13. Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells in irradiation bone marrow chimeras and neonatally tolerant mice. Evidence for intercellular transfer of Mlsa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolerance to Mlsa has been shown to be associated with clonal deletion of cells carrying TCR beta chain variable regions V beta 6 or V beta 8.1 in mice possessing I-E antigens. To evaluate the rules of tolerance induction to Mlsa we prepared irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressing Mlsa or Mlsb and I-E by different cell types. Deletion of V beta 6+, Mlsa-reactive T cells required the presence of Mlsa and I-E products either on bone marrow-derived cells or on irradiated recipient cells. Tolerance was induced when Mlsa and I-E were expressed by distinct cells of the chimera. Also neonatally tolerized mice exhibited depletion of V beta 6+ cells after injection of I-E- Mlsa spleen cells (DBA/1) into newborn I-E+ Mlsb mice (BALB/c x B10.G)F1. These results suggest that the product of the Mlsa locus is soluble and/or may be transferred from cell to cell and bound to I-E antigens. The chimera experiments also showed that tolerance to Mlsa is H-2 allele independent, i.e., is apparently unrestricted. Differentiation of chimeric (H-2d/Mlsa x H-2q/Mlsb)F1 stem cells in either an H-2d or an H-2q thymus revealed that tolerance assessed by absence of V beta 6+ T cells is not dependent on the thymically determined restriction specificity of T cells

  14. Unusual bone dysplasia featuring severe platyspondyly and vertebral 'coronal cleft' in infancy, and changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a boy who presented at birth with severe generalized platyspondyly, a vertebral ''coronal cleft'', and an abnormal configuration of the pelvis with short and broad iliac and ischial bones and horizontal acetabular roofs. The rest of the skeleton was normal. In the ensuing years the vertebral bodies and pelvis assumed a near normal configuration, but the patient developed changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in the long bones of the lower limbs with progressive shortness of stature. (orig.)

  15. A role for subchondral bone changes in the process of osteoarthritis; a micro-CT study of two canine models

    OpenAIRE

    Jvm, Osch Gerjo; Pjg, Lafeber Floris; Intema Femke; Sniekers Yvonne H; Ptm, Leeuwen Johannes; Weinans Harrie; Mastbergen Simon C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluates changes in peri-articular bone in two canine models for osteoarthritis: the groove model and the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Methods Evaluation was performed at 10 and 20 weeks post-surgery and in addition a 3-weeks time point was studied for the groove model. Cartilage was analysed, and architecture of the subchondral plate and trabecular bone of epiphyses was quantified using micro-CT. Results At 10 and 20 weeks cartilage his...

  16. The radiographic study of cortical changes of bone caused by jaw lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the diagnostic significance of cortical changes in the bone of diseased jaws utilizing computed tomography (CT). Computed tomographic images of 91 patients, consisting of 7 osteomyelitis, 46 cysts, 18 benign tumors, and 20 malignant tumors, were analyzed. The pattern of cortical expansion was classified into three types: no expansion (N), buccal or lingual expansion (B/L), and buccolingual expansion (B and L). The pattern of cortical destruction was classified into four types: no destruction (N), point destruction (PO), gross destruction (GR), and permeative destruction (PE). The pattern of periosteal reaction was classified into four types: parallel, irregular, spicule, and Codmans triangle. The relationship between the pattern of cortical bone changes and diseases of the jaws was assessed. When the pattern of cortical expansion was compared to diseases of the jaw, N-type was most prevalent in cases of osteomyelitis and malignant tumors, B/L-type with cysts, and BandL-types with benign tumors. Comparison between the pattern of cortical bone destruction with diseases of the jaw showed strong correlations between PO and PE-types to osteomyelitis, N-type with cysts, N and GR-types with benign tumors, and GR-type with malignant tumors. Finally, the relationship between the pattern of periosteal reaction to diseases of the jaw showed a strong correlation between parallel-type to osteomyelitis and spicule-type to malignant tumors. The pattern of cortical expignant tumors. The pattern of cortical expansion and cortical destruction is useful in differentiating diseases of the jaws.

  17. Glucocorticoid-Treated Mice Have Localized Changes in Trabecular Bone Material Properties and Osteocyte Lacunar Size That Are Not Observed in Placebo-Treated or Estrogen-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Nancy E.; Yao, Wei; Balooch, Mehdi; Nalla, Ravi K.; Balooch, Guive; Habelitz, Stefan; Kinney, John H.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares changes in bone microstructure in 6-month-old male GC-treated and female ovariectomized mice to their respective controls. In addition to a reduction in trabecular bone volume, GC treatment reduced bone mineral and elastic modulus of bone adjacent to osteocytes that was not observed in control mice nor estrogen-deficient mice. These microstructural changes in combination with the macro-structural changes could amplify the bone fragility in this metabolic bone disease.

  18. Viscoelastic and biological performance of low-modulus, reactive calcium phosphate-filled, degradable, polymeric bone adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Neel, E. A.; Salih, V.; Revell, P. A.; Young, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate addition on the mechanical, surface free energy, degradation and cell compatibility properties of poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate (PPGLDMA) thin films. Dry composites containing up to 70 wt.% filler were in a flexible rubber state at body temperature. Filler addition increased the initial strength and Young's modulus and reduced the elastic and permanent deformation under...

  19. Assessing joint effusion and bone changes of the head of the mandible in MR images of symptomatic patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefferson Xavier de, Oliveira; Jucely Aparecida da, Rosa; Marcelo Eduardo Pereira, Dutra; Karina Cecilia Panelli, Santos; Cibelle, Gil.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between degenerative bone changes of the head of the mandible and the presence of joint effusion (JE). This study was based on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports of 148 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 74 patients comp [...] laining of pain and/or dysfunction in the TMJ area. The mandible heads were surveyed for osteoarthritis characteristics, which were classified as osteophytosis, sclerosis or erosion. The presence of JE was checked whenever high signal intensity was observed in the articular space. The results evidenced the presence of bone changes in 30% of the sample. Osteophytes and erosions were the changes most commonly observed. JE was reported in 10% of TMJs. The results from the statistical tests revealed that bone changes in the head of the mandible are associated with the presence of JE.

  20. Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland emissions add to this value. 7. If current patterns of N and water resource management continue, nitrogen loading to inland waters is expected to increase while the nitrogen retention efficiency within aquatic ecosystems will decline as a function of nitrogen saturation of biological demand. 8. Management that reduces N loss to the nation's water will reduce environmental and economic damage, reduce the risk to human health, and prevent the production of some N2O. Preventing the loss of N to aquatic systems is likely to be most effective at its point of origin. Reducing reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere, increasing N uptake efficiency of crops and greater N retention in soils, better animal management, and improved sewage treatment to remove N from urban waste waters will be increasingly important approaches for the provision of water resources and services in a warmer and highly populated world.

  1. Efficient integration of stiff kinetics with phase change detection for reactive reservoir processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, Margot G.

    2007-01-01

    We propose the use of implicit one-step Explicit Singly Diagonal Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) methods for integration of the stiff kinetics in reactive, compositional and thermal processes that are solved using operator-splitting type approaches. To facilitate the algorithmic development we construct a virtual kinetic cell model. The model serves both as a tool for the development and testing of tailored solvers as well as a testbed for studying the interactions between chemical kinetics and phase behavior. As case study, two chemical kinetics models with 6 and 14 components, respectively, are implemented for in situ combustion, a thermal oil recovery process. Through benchmark studies using the 14 component reaction model the new ESDIRK solvers are shown to improve computational speed when compared to the widely used multi-step BDF methods DASSL and LSODE. Phase changes are known to cause convergence problems for the integration method. We propose an algorithm for detection and location of phase changes based on discrete event system theory. Experiments show that the algorithm improves the robustness of the integration process near phase boundaries by lowering the number convergence and error test failures by more than 50% compared to direct integration without the new algorithm.

  2. Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren; Rogers, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training change-of-direction speed and small-sided games on performance in the Planned-AFL agility test and reactive agility. Twenty-five elite-standard U-18 Australian Rules football players were randomly allocated either to a change-of-direction group or a small-sided games group. Players participated in one or two 15-min sessions per week with 11 sessions conducted over a 7-week period during the season. Tests conducted immediately before and after the training period included the Planned-AFL agility test and a video-based reactive agility test specific to Australian Rules football. The reactive agility test variables were total time, decision time and movement response time. The small-sided games group improved total time (P = 0.008, effect size = 0.93), which was entirely attributable to a very large reduction in decision time (P 0.05). The change-of-direction training produced small to trivial changes in all of the test variables (P > 0.05, effect size = 0-0.2). The results suggest that small-sided games improve agility performance by enhancing the speed of decision-making rather than movement speed. The change-of-direction training was not effective for developing either change-of-direction speed as measured by the Planned-AFL test or reactive agility. PMID:24016360

  3. Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Chubb, G.T.; Tolle, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplasstic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders. In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modifications of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points.

  4. The study of the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of bones of Catla catla due to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, P L R M; Krishnakumar, N; Vadivelu, M; Vijayasundaram, V

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of lead-intoxicated bones of Catla catla at subchronic (15.5 ppm) exposure, and also to determine whether the effects of Pb intoxication can be reversed with the chelating agent meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the bones of freshwater fingerlings Catla catla by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to lead exposure. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the lead-exposed bones were less than those of the control group, and there was an increase in the mineral contents of the bones after DMSA treatment. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the subchronic lead exposure results in severe loss of bone minerals. The overall decrease in the FT-IR band intensity of Pb-exposed bones relative to the control indicates a decrease in the biochemical constituents like proteins and lipids. The increase in the band intensity after treatment with chelating agent DMSA indicates increased biochemical constituents, showing that the subchronic effects of lead can be reversed by DMSA. The amide I bands observed at 1654 cm(-1) in the present study suggest that the protein is dominated by alpha-helical structure. PMID:19219934

  5. 99mTc HMDP bone scanning in generalised nodal osteoarthritis. II. The four hour bone scan image predicts radiographic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, C. W.; Higgs, E. R.; Jackson, P. C.; Watt, I.; Dieppe, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with generalised nodal osteoarthritis a four hour bone scan image was found to predict the changes that occur on the radiograph at follow up between three and five years later. The scan abnormality appeared to precede the development of radiographic signs, and joints abnormal on scintigraphy showed most progression. Normal joints and joints abnormal on x ray alone showed little progression, and those that did subsequently alter became abnormal on scan. Scanning may provide a se...

  6. A role for subchondral bone changes in the process of osteoarthritis; a micro-CT study of two canine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Gerjo JVM

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates changes in peri-articular bone in two canine models for osteoarthritis: the groove model and the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT model. Methods Evaluation was performed at 10 and 20 weeks post-surgery and in addition a 3-weeks time point was studied for the groove model. Cartilage was analysed, and architecture of the subchondral plate and trabecular bone of epiphyses was quantified using micro-CT. Results At 10 and 20 weeks cartilage histology and biochemistry demonstrated characteristic features of osteoarthritis in both models (very mild changes at 3 weeks. The groove model presented osteophytes only at 20 weeks, whereas the ACLT model showed osteophytes already at 10 weeks. Trabecular bone changes in the groove model were small and not consistent. This contrasts the ACLT model in which bone volume fraction was clearly reduced at 10 and 20 weeks (15–20%. However, changes in metaphyseal bone indicate unloading in the ACLT model, not in the groove model. For both models the subchondral plate thickness was strongly reduced (25–40% and plate porosity was strongly increased (25–85% at all time points studied. Conclusion These findings show differential regulation of subchondral trabecular bone in the groove and ACLT model, with mild changes in the groove model and more severe changes in the ACLT model. In the ACLT model, part of these changes may be explained by unloading of the treated leg. In contrast, subchondral plate thinning and increased porosity were very consistent in both models, independent of loading conditions, indicating that this thinning is an early response in the osteoarthritis process.

  7. Oscillator measurements of the reactivity changes resulting from the irradiation of low enrichment particulate fuel in the Dragon reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report describes a series of experiments carried out as a joint UKAEA/CEA/DRAGON project to determine the reactivity changes of low-enrichment particulate fuel samples following their irradiation in the DRAGON reactor to various levels up to approximately 60,000 MWD/Te. The samples are described, together with the method of measurement of reactivity in the Winfrith reactor HECTOR, which was an extension of the well-known Oscillator Technique to yield simultaneously overall reactivity changes and changes in macroscopic absorption cross-sections. Measurements were carried out at room temperature in two reactor spectra; a thermal spectrum and one typical of an HTR type reactor. The resultant reactivity changes are presented together with the relevant sample burn-ups as determined by #betta#-scanning methods and, in some cases, by rigorous chemical analysis. The results of supporting measurements are also reported, carried out to characterise the neutron spectra in which the oscillator measurements were made and to determine the neutron flux distributions in the HECTOR reactor. (author)

  8. Factors Predicting Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Changes in Young Women over A One-year Study:Changes in Body Weight and Bone Metabolic Markers during the Menstrual Cycle and Their Effects on BMD

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Tadayuki; Chikamura, Chiho; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Aoi, Satomi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Harada, Toshihide; Katada, Kazuhiro; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 26% of Japanese women in their twenties are under weight, and therefore at risk of developing various metabolic abnormalities due to an inadequate nutrient intake, which in turn affects the acquisition of a peak bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of menstrual cycle-related changes in body weight and bone metabolic marker levels on the BMD changes. The subjects were 42 women (19.6±0.8 years). The levels of osteocalcin (OC), BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD,...

  9. Regional bone density changes in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees: a DEXA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Ahmet; Sarikaya, Selda; Keser, Selçuk; Ozdolap, Senay; Tuncay, Ibrahim; Ege, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is one of the secondary problems occurring in knee joint after injury of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The effect of this injury on BMDs of specific regions is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate BMD changes in unreconstructed ACL-deficient knees with subregion analysis of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Precision and reliability studies of DEXA revealed that two region of interests (ROI) in medial condyle, two ROIs in lateral femoral condyle (LFC) and one ROI in medial tibial plateau (MTP) in anteroposterior (AP) DXA view and one ROI for each of distal femur, proximal tibia and patella in lateral view had high reproducibility and reliability. Thirty-two patients with complete ACL ruptures were collected for the study and uninjured sides served as the control. All the patients were male with a mean age of 30 years. Mean duration of ACL rupture was 24 months. There were significant BMD losses in both ROIs of LFC and ROI of MTP in AP view and all three ROIs of lateral view. Greatest BMD losses in AP and lateral views were at MTP and patella respectively. There was a significant association between patellar BMD loss and duration after trauma. Bone bruises in lateral condyle might be the cause of selective involvement of LFC. Periarticular bone mineral loss in ACL-deficient knees has a predilection for the specified region of interest rather than uniform periarticular loss. This may be important for graft fixation or a factor in tunnel enlargement. PMID:18585044

  10. Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. An experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Matthias; Park, Jung; Schulz, Norbert; Amann, Kerstin; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G; Fahrig, Antje; Karg, Juergen; Wiltfang, Joerg; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental study sought to determine the effect of high-dose irradiation on the rat mandible in order to establish an experimental model of radiogenic bone damage. The left mandibles of 20 adult Wistar rats were irradiated (single fraction 1500cGy, total dose 60Gy) by means of a hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hfSRT) over a period of 6 weeks. Follow-up was 6 weeks (group 1, n=10) and 12 weeks (group 2, n=10). The contralateral mandibles as well as 5 non-irradiated animals served as controls. Primary endpoints were fibrosis, loss of cell count, decreased immunohistochemical labelling for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteocalcin as well as increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta). Cell loss, progressive fibrosis, and focal necrosis were detected in all irradiated sites. Quantitative measurement revealed 32.0+/-8.7% and 37.3+/-9.5% empty osteocyte lacunae for groups 1 and 2 resp., compared to 16.3+/-4.7% and 18.9+/-4.9% on the contralateral side and 7.9+/-1.7% for unirradiated controls (Mann-Whitney U test; p<.01). BMP-2 and osteocalcin labelling showed a marked decrease in irradiated and contralateral sides while TGF-beta was expressed strongly in irradiated sites only (for all p<.05). External hypofractionated irradiation with a total dose of 60Gy is feasible in rats and yields all histologic changes attributed to osteoradionecrosis (ORN) after a follow-up of 6 weeks. The irradiation protocol is suitable for an assessment of regenerative options in severe radiogenic bone damage. As a split mouth design entails major inaccuracies healthy animals have to be used as controls. PMID:19951841

  11. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy sieceiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  13. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, L.W.; Koch, J.A.; Scherer, A.; Boerner, D.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom; Niederau, C.; Haeussinger, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rechenzentrum

    2001-09-01

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  15. Zone-dependent changes in human vertebral trabecular bone: clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that there are pronounced age-related changes in human vertebral cancellous bone density and microarchitecture. However, the magnitude of these changes seemed to be dependent on zone location in the vertebral body-the central third vs. the areas adjacent to the endplates. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate whether such zone-specific differences could be identified by static histomorphometric measures. The material comprised 48 individuals (24 women aged 19-97 years, and 24 men aged 23-95 years). Three of the women had a known fracture of the L-2. From each L-2, thick frontal sections of half of the vertebra were embedded undecalcified in methylmethacrylate, cut into 10-microm-thick sections, and stained with aniline blue. The sections were scanned into a computer, and classic static histomorphometry was performed on the images. The histomorphometry was performed on both the whole section and on the separate zones (central and sub-endplate zone). The results showed that trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density decreased significantly faster with age, whereas marrow space star volume increased significantly faster with age in the zones adjacent to the endplates than in the central zone. The other histomorphometric measures showed no zone specificity in relation to aging. However, trabecular thickness and trabecular separation were both higher at all ages in the central zone than in the sub-endplate zone, although this was significant only for trabecular separation. The described differences might have significant clinical implications concerning quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scanning, X-ray analyses, and assessment of fracture liability in the human spine, but the underlying pathogenesis is still not known. This study shows that the human vertebral body can be described as two distinct zones with very specific age-related changes in density and microstructure. This zone-specificity is important for the correct interpretation of clinical data.

  16. Changes of serum bone metabolic biochemical markers in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum bone metabolic biochemical markers levels in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum S-BGP (with RIA), TSH, FT4 (with ECLIA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL, LDL, ApoA1, ApoB and Ca2+ (with biochemical methods) were measured in 30 elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of S-BGP and calcium in elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (2.78 ± 0.96 ?g/L and 2.16 ± 0.17 mmol/L respectively) were significantly lower than those in controls (3.9 ± 1.48 ?g/L and 2.31 ± 0.21 mmol/L respectively, both P<0.01). TC and LDL levels in the subclinical hypothyroid subjects (5.58 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 3.67 ± 0.36 mmol/L) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: The lowering of calcium levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism would lead to loss of bone mass. Decreased S-BGP contents might be the chief cause of osteoporosis in these subjects. (authors)

  17. Denosumab and changes in bone turnover markers during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Egerdie, Blair; Sieber, Paul; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Leder, Benjamin Z; Ke, Chunlei; Goessl, Carsten

    2011-12-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increases fracture risk, decreases bone mineral density, and increases bone turnover markers (BTMs) including serum type 1 C-telopeptide (sCTX), tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and procollagen-1 N-terminal telopeptide (P1NP). In a prespecified exploratory analysis of a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 3 years) versus placebo (1468 patients, 734 in each group) on BTM values. BTMs were measured at baseline, month 1, and predose at months 6, 12, 24, and 36 in the overall population. BTMs at month 1 are also reported for subgroups based on age ( 6 months), and baseline BTM (?? median versus >? median BTM values). Treatment with denosumab provided a rapid and sustained decrease of BTM values compared with placebo. The median change in sCTX levels at month 1 was -90% in the denosumab group and -3% in the placebo group (p? mineral density reported previously. PMID:21898590

  18. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, U K; Við Streym, S

    2012-01-01

    In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate changes in BMD and BC during and following a pregnancy. METHODS: We measured BMD and BC in 153 women planning pregnancy (n?=?92 conceived), once in each trimester during pregnancy and 15, 129, and 280 days postpartum. Moreover, BMD was measured 19 months postpartum (n?=?31). Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. RESULTS: Compared with controls, BMD decreased significantly during pregnancy by 1.8?±?0.5% at the lumbar spine, 3.2?±?0.5% at the total hip, 2.4?±?0.3% at the whole body, and 4.2?±?0.7% at the ultra distal forearm. Postpartum, BMD decreased further with an effect of breastfeeding. At 9 months postpartum, women who had breastfed for

  19. MRI manifestations of bone marrow changes after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor was subcutaneous for healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate MRI manifestations of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changes before and after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was subcutaneous injected for healthy adults. Methods: Twenty healthy blood stem cell donors without hematologic disease were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent lumbar sagittal and proximal femur coronal MRI examination with spin echo T1WI and fat-suppressed T2WI. The first examination were performed before subcutaneous injection of rhG-CSF for comparison. In 4-7 days and 30-60 days after injection, the other two examinations were performed. The signal changes of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow were investigated by reading pictures and calculating the contrasted noise ratio (CNR). Results: Before rhG-CSF injection, all patients presented normal signal intensity of bone marrow. In 4- 7 days after injection, all the 20 cases presented homogeneous signal decrease in lumbar vertebral bodies on T1WI, accompanied by reduced fatty signal. In proximal femur, patchy or stripped hypointensity areas were found in intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas on T1WI. On fat-suppressed T2WI images, the signal of' lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changed to equal or slightly-high signal intensity. In all cases, abnormal signal areas presented in lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow occurred simultaneously in the same case. In the 10 cases received the third MRI during 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection, signal intensity of lumbar bone marrow turned to normal in all sequence, but abnormal signal intensity areas were still existed and extended to distal part in femoral bone marrow, which appeared as symmetric stripped or patchy equal or slightly-low signal intensity on T1WI and equal or slightly-high signal intensity on T2WI. The CNR of lumbar bone marrow to subcutaneous fat before rhG-CSF injection, in 4-7 days and 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection were 114.11±15.11, 71.04±12.25 and 91.64±11.68, respectively. Significant difference was found between before rhG-CSF injection and 4-7 days after injection (P0.05). Conclusion: After injection of rhG-CSF, the short- term changes of hematopoietic cells and fat content in bone marrow can be displayed on MRI, which provided non-invasive information for bone marrow transplantation. (authors)

  20. Changes in serum C-reactive protein during complicated and uncomplicated measles virus infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, D. E.; Hirsch, R. L.; Johnson, R. T.; Soriano, I. L.; Roedenbeck, S.; Vaisberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Serum C-reactive protein levels become elevated coincident with the onset of the rash in patients with measles. Serum C-reactive protein elevations are prolonged in measles complicated by pneumonia and may show a second elevation in measles complicated by encephalitis.

  1. Analysis of the results of reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactivity change measurements have been carried out in the graphite-moderated reactor HECTOR on plutonium-uranium fuel elements with a low Pu240 content. The aim of the work was to develop a method in which measurements on small fuel samples (typically 18 in. long) could be used to check the validity of proposed methods of calculation for plutonium-bearing lattices. The experiments were carried out in a variety of lattices and demonstrated that, at a lattice pitch of 8.5 in. which was used for the majority of the measurements, the results were not significantly affected by the lattice environment. In particular, the results showed that it is not necessary to use plutonium-uranium fuel in the lattice surrounding the sample but that uranium fuel with similar properties is adequate. The accuracy obtained corresponded to an error of 0.5% in k? for a lattice containing the plutonium-uranium fuel. The results of the measurements were compared with the predictions of the TRACER method of lattice calculation. It was found that, at room temperature, there was no significant difference between the measured and calculated values of k? but that, at temperatures in the range 400-450 deg. C, the calculated value of k? was about 1 1/2% lower than the measured value. (author)

  2. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  3. An Investigation of the Efficacy of Cuttlefish Bone Powder in the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium and Isotherm Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge of textile wastewater causes the reduction of sunlight penetration, interferes with the receiving waters ecology and damage the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the removal efficiency of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions by cuttlefish bone powder. Materials & Methods: This study was performed experimentally and in laboratory scale. In this research, the effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration and pH was evaluated. Dye concentration in unknown samples was determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. In order to better understand the adsorption process, the experimental data were analysed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Results: Results showed that increasing the adsorbent dose up to 0.4 gr/100ml and increasing of contact time, led to an increase in the efficiency of dye removal. Increasing the initial pH had no effect on the adsorption efficiency and increasing the initial concentration of dye decreased the removal efficiency. The Removal efficacy of the dye was found to be 60%, 45%, 37.5% and 31.9% at the time interval of 3h and the initial dye concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l, respectively. The experimental data were in good concordance with Langmuir isotherm model (R2=0.993. Conclusion: Cuttlefish bone powder is a natural and inexpensive adsorbent that can be used for the removal of environmental contaminations. The adsorption process is affected by sorbent dose, initial dye concentration and contact time but pH had no significant effect on removal efficiency

  4. Changes of porous poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) bone grafts resulted from e-beam sterilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, L. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary) and Research Center for Biomechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary)]. E-mail: olah@pt.bme.hu; Filipczak, K. [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, 93-590 Lodz, Wroblewskiego 15 (Poland); Czvikovszky, T. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary); Czigany, T. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary); Borbas, L. [Research Center for Biomechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary)

    2007-08-15

    The most important mechanical feature of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) foams applied in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold, has been investigated as a function of irradiation dose. Radiation is proposed for the sterilization of the polymer before the implantation. Polycaprolactone scaffold foams were obtained by combination of compression molding and particulate leaching techniques. The porogen was changed in the range 74-96 w% and the irradiation dose was varied from 25 to 150 kGy. Our results show that yield strength is not a function of radiation dose, but is rather influenced by the porosity, while the critical strain is mainly dependent on the dose. All these together mean that the modulus of the elasticity of PCL foams is dependent on both the porosity and the dose.

  5. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 10(6); intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions. PMID:25422634

  6. Age-related changes in vertebral and iliac crest 3D bone microstructure-differences and similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Jensen, Michael Vinkel

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes of vertebra and iliac crest 3D microstructure were investigated, and we showed that they were in general similar. The 95th percentile of vertebral trabecular thickness distribution increased with age for women. Surprisingly, vertebral and iliac crest bone microstructure was only weakly correlated (r?=?0.38 to 0.75), despite the overall similar age-related changes. INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the study were to determine the age-related changes in iliac and vertebral bone microstructure for women and men over a large age range and to investigate the relationship between the bone microstructure at these skeletal sites. METHODS: Matched sets of transiliac crest bone biopsies and lumbar vertebral body (L2) specimens from 41 women (19-96 years) and 39 men (23-95 years) were micro-computed tomography (?CT) scanned, and the 3D microstructure was quantified. RESULTS: For both women and men, bone volume per total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (CD), and trabecular number (Tb.N) decreased significantly, while structure model index (SMI) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) increased significantly with age at either skeletal site. Vertebral trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) was independent of age for both women and men, while iliac Tb.Th decreased significantly with age for men, but not for women. In general, the vertebral and iliac age-related changes were similar. The 95th percentile of the Tb.Th distribution increased significantly with age for women but was independent of age for men at the vertebral body, while it was independent of age for either sex at the iliac crest. The Tb.Th probability density functions at the two skeletal sites became significantly more similar with age for women, but not for men. The microstructural parameters at the iliac crest and the vertebral bodies were only moderately correlated from r?=?0.38 for SMI in women to r?=?0.75 for Tb.Sp in men. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in vertebral and iliac bone microstructure were in general similar. The iliac and vertebral Tb.Th distributions became more similar with age for women. Despite the overall similar age-related changes in trabecular bone microstructure, the vertebral and iliac bone microstructural measures were only weakly correlated (r?=?0.38 to 0.75).

  7. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Changes in Electrical Conductivity Associated with Bacterial Growth and Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regberg, A. B.; Singha, K.; Picardal, F.; Brantley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked measured changes in the bulk electrical conductivity (?b) of water-saturated sediments to the respiration and growth of anaerobic bacteria. If the mechanism causing this signal is understood and characterized it could be used to identify and monitor zones of bacterial activity in the subsurface. The 1-D reactive transport model PHREEQC was used to understand ?b signals by modeling chemical gradients within two column reactors and corresponding changes in effluent chemistry. The flow-through column reactors were packed with Fe(III)-bearing sediment from Oyster, VA and inoculated with an environmental consortia of microorganisms. Influent in the first reactor was amended with 1mM Na-acetate to encourage the growth of iron-reducing bacteria. Influent in the second reactor was amended with 0.1mM Na-Acetate and 2mM NaNO3 to encourage the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria. While effluent concentrations of acetate, Fe(II), NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ remained at steady state, we measured a 3-fold increase (0.055 S/m - 0.2 S/m) in ?b in the iron-reducing column and a 10-fold increase in ?b (0.07 S/m - 0.8 S/m) in the nitrate-reducing column over 198 days. The ionic strength in both reactors remained constant through time indicating that the measured increases in ?b were not caused by changing effluent concentrations. PHREEQC successfully matched the measured changes in effluent concentrations for both columns when the reaction database was modified in the following manner. For the iron-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing the rate of iron reduction, the rate of bacterial growth, and the production of methane were added to the reaction database. Additionally, surface adsorption and cation exchange reactions were added so that the model was consistent with measured effluent chemistry. For the nitrate-reducing column, kinetic expressions governing nitrate reduction and bacterial growth were added to the reaction database. Additionally, immobile porosity was added along with adsorption and cation exchange reactions. Although the model revealed the existence of chemical and biological gradients within the columns that were not discernable as changes in effluent concentrations, none of the chemical reactions or gradients could explain the measured ?b increases in either column. This result is not consistent with chemical gradients within the column reactor causing the measured changes in ?b. To test the alternate hypothesis that microbial biofilms are electrically conductive, we used the output from PHREEQC to calculate the amount of biomass produced within the column reactors. If biofilm causes the ?b changes, our model is consistent with an electrical conductivity for biomass in the iron-reducing column between 2.75 and 220 S/m. The model is also consistent with an electrical conductivity for biomass in the nitrate-reducing column between 350 and 35,000 S/m. These estimates of biomass electrical conductivity are poorly constrained but represent a first step towards understanding the electrical properties associated with respiring biofilms.

  8. Relationship between bilateral condylar bone change and mandibular morphology: a study using morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamrah, Bashar; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Yamaki, Masaki; Ali, Iyad M; Hanada, Kooji

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between bilateral condylar bone change (BCBC) and mandibular morphology. Thirty Japanese women with BCBC as diagnosed from computed tomographic scans were compared to 2 control groups: 26 Class I and 25 Class II Japanese women. All cephalograms were traced and scanned, and 14 homologous landmarks were digitized. Coordinates were used for cephalometric analysis, Procrustes analysis, Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA), and thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. Comparison of the cephalometric data for the BCBC and Class I groups revealed significant shrinkage in the condylar process and ramus height, in addition to a shorter body length. The centroid size showed that BCBC mean geometric forms were smaller than those of Class I and Class II. The landmark morphology of the BCBC group differed from both Class I and Class II, as shown by the residuals (P antegonial notching, a vertically expanded symphysis, and a collapsed and more horizontal condyle in the BCBC group. The combination of the above methods was very helpful in assessing mandibular morphology and showed that BCBC might be related not only to changes in the condyle, but may dictate changes in the rest of the mandible as well. PMID:12353938

  9. Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Chubb, G.T.; Tolle, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplastic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders (Seed et al., 1977). In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modification of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. The more prominent of these changes include the following. (i) In developing aplastic anemia: severe vascular sinus and parenchymal cord compression, and focally degenerate endosteal surfaces. (ii) In developing myelofibrosis: hyperplasia of endosteal and reticular stomal elements. (iii) In developing leukemia: hypertrophy of reticular and endothelial elements in the initial restructuring of the stromal matrix and the subsequent aberrant hemopoietic repopulation of the initially depleted stromal matrix. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points.

  10. Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplastic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders (Seed et al., 1977). In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modification of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. The more prominent of these changes include the following. (i) In developing aplastic anemia: severe vascular sinus and parenchymal cord compression, and focally degenerate endosteal surfaces. (ii) In developing myelofibrosis: hyperplasia of endosteal and reticular stomal elements. (iii) In developing leukemia: hypertrophy of reticular and endothelial elements in the initial restructuring of the stromal matrix and the subsequent aberrant hemopoietic repopulation of the initially depleted stromal matrix. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points

  11. Raman microspectroscopic analysis of changes in the chemical structure and reactivity of soot in a diesel exhaust aftertreatment model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Messerer, Armin; Yang, Xin; Niessner, Reinhard; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2007-05-15

    Raman microspectroscopy has been applied to follow structural changes in spark discharge (GfG) soot and light-duty diesel vehicle (LDV) soot upon oxidation and gasification by nitrogen oxides and oxygen in a diesel exhaust aftertreatment model system at 523 and 573 K. Raman spectra have been recorded before and during the oxidation process, and spectral parameters have been determined by curve fitting with five bands (G, D1-D4). For GfG soot, a steep initial decrease of the relative intensity of the D3 band suggested rapid preferential oxidation of a highly reactive amorphous carbon fraction, while a less steep but also substantial decrease of band widths (in particular, the D1 band) indicated a slower overall increase of chemical homogeneity and structural order in the partially oxidized material. The spectroscopic changes are in agreementwith a strong decrease of chemical reactivity at increasing mass conversion of GfG soot. In contrast, the spectral parameters and reactivity of partially oxidized LDV soot remained largely unchanged throughout the oxidation process. Overall, the spectroscopic and kinetic findings suggest that Raman spectroscopic parameters provide information about the relative abundance and structural order of graphitelike and amorphous carbon and can be used as proxies for the chemical reactivity of soot undergoing oxidation and gasification. Thus, Raman spectroscopy promisesto become an efficient tool forfurther investigation and optimization of diesel exhaust aftertreatment in continuously regenerating traps and particle filters. PMID:17547200

  12. Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal® Consta®-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as “osteodystrophy” were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.

  13. Evaluation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, G.Y., E-mail: tgy17@126.co [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Tenth People' s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lv, Z.W.; Tang, R.B.; Liu, Y.; Peng, Y.F.; Li, W.; Cheng, Y.S. [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Tenth People' s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To prospectively investigate the role of MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in assessing vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 +- 3.5 years; range 55-81 years), who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the spine, were divided into three bone density groups (24 with normal, 25 with osteopaenic, and 29 with osteoporotic) based on T score. Both MRS and DWI of the L3 vertebral body were performed to calculate the marrow fat content and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The results were compared between three groups and correlated with BMD. Results: Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group (59.97 +- 5.78%), when compared with that of the osteopaenic group (53.04 +- 7.66%, p = 0.001) and the normal bone density group (48.79 +- 7.1%, p < 0.001). ADC values in the osteoporotic, osteopaenic, and normal bone density groups were 0.39 +- 0.02 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, 0.41 +- 0.02 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and 0.47 +- 0.03 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation between T scores and ADC existed (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). The vertebral marrow fat content was negatively correlated to the bone density (r = -0.639, p < 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.554, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibited a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreased. Marrow fat content and ADC were related to the bone density. MRS and DWI are helpful in evaluating the bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  14. Bone marrow scintigraphy and MR tomography in malignant lymphoma: Comparison with results of histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and seven patients with malignant Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were examined by bone marrow scintigraphy, MRI of bone marrow and bone marrow biopsy to detect bone marrow infiltration. The findings of bone marrow imaging and biopsy were classified as normal (grade 0), suggesting reactive changes of bone marrow (grade 1) or suspicious for infiltration (grade 2). About half of all results of biopsy and imaging methods agreed completely. There was a difference of two steps in the classification in only 2 cases (MRI) and 5 cases (scintigraphy). In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia false negative findings by both bone marrow imaging techniques were frequent. Although a positive biopsy result must be accepted as proof of bone marrow infiltration, our results indicate that a negative biopsy does not exclude tumor involvement. In all 4 patients with infiltration suspected on MRI or scintigraphy results but with normal findings or reactive changes in the first blind biopsy, blind rebiopsy or guided rebiopsy confirmed the results of the imaging methods. In both patients evaluated at autopsy the preceding MRI and scintigraphy results were confirmed completely, although in both of these patients antemortem biopsy had indicated different findings. Based upon these observations, bone marrow scintigraphy and MRI should be routinely included in the staging of malignant lymphoma as an adjunct to blind bone marrow biopsy in the complete evaluation of bone marrow in the complete evaluation of bone marrow status. (orig./MG)

  15. Evaluation of radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalp Bengul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT and determine their roles on the evaluation of therapy response.

  16. MRI signal changes in the skull base bone after endoscopic nasopharyngectomy for recurrent NPC: A serial study of 9 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was focused on the serial changes in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the skull-base bone that occur after endoscopic nasopharyngectomy in patients with local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC). Materials and methods: Nine patients with histologically proven rNPC were enrolled in this study. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed all presurgical and postsurgical MR images for each patient. Results: At 36 sites on the skull base, the MRI signal underwent a change after surgery, which took the form of a heterogeneous pattern of hypointense regions with moderate contrast enhancement on T1WI. The onset of changes ranged between 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. For 21 of the sites, the changes subsided over the course of follow-up, while in 6 they remained stable. At 9 sites, the alteration MRI signal became more pronounced with time. Changes were more common on the homolateral side of the skull base with respect to the recurrent tumor (P < 0.05). The skull-base bone adjacent to the resection boundary had a higher incidence of signal change than nonadjacent areas (P < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI changes in the skull base bone, having a number of distinguishing characteristics, appear to be a common sequel to endoscopic nasopharyngectomy for rNPC

  17. A novel scratching approach for measuring age-related changes in the in situ toughness of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Yoon, Y. J.; Ji, H.

    2006-01-01

    A scratch test using a nanoindentation system was proposed in this study to assess the age-related changes in the in situ toughness of bone matrix at ultrastructural levels. A tissue removal energy density (ur) was defined and estimated as the work done by the scratch (UT) divided by the total volume of the scratch groove (us). The value of us was used as a relative measure of the in situ toughness of the tissue. Human cortical bone specimens obtained from middle-aged (between 49 and 59 years...

  18. Changes in reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? levels in missed abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li-jun; Chen, Ya-ping; Chen, Bing-jin; Mei, Xiao-hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate changes in the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) in the trophoblasts of patients who had experienced missed abortions. The missed abortion group included 28 patients with missed abortions. The control group was comprised of 35 women who had elected to undergo surgically induced abortion in their first trimester, and whose embryos were confirmed to be alive before surgery. N...

  19. Relationship between bone mineral density changes with denosumab treatment and risk reduction for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Matthew; Yang, Yu-ching; Vittinghoff, Eric; Adami, Silvano; Boonen, Steven; Bauer, Douglas C.; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Bolognese, Michael A.; Christiansen, Claus; Eastell, Richard; Grauer, Andreas; Hawkins, Federico; Kendler, David L.; Oliveri, Beatriz; Mcclung, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric bone mineral density (DXA BMD) is a strong predictor of fracture risk in untreated patients. However, previous patient-level studies suggest that BMD changes explain little of the fracture risk reduction observed with osteoporosis treatment. We investigated the relevance of DXA BMD changes as a predictor for fracture risk reduction using data from the FREEDOM trial, which randomly assigned placebo or denosumab 60 mg every 6 months to 7808 women aged 60 to 90 ...

  20. Changes in jaw dimensions and bone density in patients with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pošti? Sr?an D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Osteopenia and osteoporosis reduce the density and mass of jaw bones. Aim The aim of this study was to present the methods of radiographic analysis in patients with osteoporosis prior to restorative treatment. Method 127 panoramic radiographs (Kodak, USA) and 39 retroalveolar radiographs (KD 58-R 30×40 mm, USA) were used for the analysis of density (DT II 05 densitometer, England) and dimensions of jaw bones with respect to segments corresponding to bone layers. Results The resu...

  1. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, A.; Shamoradi, H.; Shahabi, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR ) has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity wort...

  2. Predicting Developmental Changes in Internalizing Symptoms: Examining the Interplay Between Parenting and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate R.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child’s HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. PMID:24009085

  3. Measurement of reactivity change with temperature of single fuel rod using coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactivity decrease with temperature rise of a single coated-particle fuel rod was measured in a SHE-14 core using a heating apparatus, to verify the core design accuracy of High Temperature Experimental Reactor. The coated-particle fuel rod was made by inserting 4% enriched uranium coated-particle fuel pellets into a silica sleeve. The rod was then inserted into a heating tube of the heating apparatus, which was placed along the central axis of the SHE-14 core. The measured reactivity decrease for the single coated-particle fuel rod, minus the reactivity decrease graphite rod of same form, can be interpreted to originate only in the increased resonance neutron capture rate of 238U by Doppler effect. The measured reactivity decrease is in excellent agreement with the calculated value by multi-group perturbation theory taking into account only the increased effective resonance integral of 238U estimated using the resonance parameter of ENDF/B-3. It is concluded, therefore, that calculation of Doppler reactivity coefficient using the resonance parameters is very accurate for Very High Temperature Experimental Reactor using coated-particle fuel. (author)

  4. Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. PMID:24009085

  5. Bone marrow transplantation controlling hormonal and structural changes in radiation exposed pregnant mice and their developing embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascending doses of whole body gamma irradiation delivered at different gestational stages of mouse exposed to 1 and 2 Gy gamma rays fractionated at 1 Gy installments and possible curative role of bone marrow transplantation has been studied. The results confirmed the impairment of the levels of the two maternal hormones 17 estradiol and progesterone besides histopathological changes in the skin, heart and skeleton at different embryonic stages. 17 Beta estradiol level was not changed significantly in mice treated with 1 Gy and fractionated 2 Gy. Bone marrow treatment remarkably restored its level. Animals subjected to the dose level 1 Gy exhibited a slight decrease in the progesterone level while a significant drop in the hormone level was noticed upon irradiation at 2 Gy. Bone marrow transplantation provided little repair for the hormone. Treatment with bone marrow transplantation, was effective in alleviating the histopathological changes due to the lower dose (One Gy), yet it had less pronounced recovery of defects produced by the higher irradiation dose

  6. Changes in grafted autogenous bone during edgewise treatment in patients with unilateral cleft lip/palate or alveolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Aya; Uehara, Sawako; Suga, Mayu; Nishihara, Kazuhide; Nakamura, Norifumi; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2014-09-01

    Objective : To examine the changes in autogenous bone from 6 to 12 months after alveolar bone grafting (ABG) (T1) through completion of edgewise treatment (T2). Design : Retrospective longitudinal study. Setting : Multidisciplinary long-term follow-up at Kagoshima University Hospital. Patients : Forty-three patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate or alveolus. Main Outcome Measures : At T1 and T2, the bone bridge and quantity of grafted bone were evaluated using the Chelsea scale and the ABG scale. The cleft-adjacent tooth angles before ABG and at T2, as well as the number of orthodontic space closures, were examined. Patients were classified as having either adequate (type A or C; adequate group) or poor bone bridges (type B, D, E, or F; poor group) by the assessment at T1. Results : At T1, the ABG scores for the cleft-adjacent central incisor side of patients in the adequate group were higher than those of patients in the poor group (P < .001). At T2, the adequate group had higher ABG scores for the cleft-adjacent central incisor side (P = .022) and the canine sides (P = .034). No significant differences in tooth angles or the number of orthodontic space closures were noted between the groups. Conclusions : These results suggest that the quantity of grafted bone in the cleft-adjacent central incisor at 6 to 12 months post-ABG may be an indicator of the quantity of grafted bone that will be present after edgewise treatment. PMID:24047436

  7. Some peculiarities of ultrastructural changes of bone marrow myeloid and erythroid sprouts of rats in acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in rat bone marrow tissue in 3,7,14,21 and 28 days after 750 R irradiation have been studied by electron microscopy. Deep injuries in ultrastructure of cells of myeloid and erythroid sprouts of bone marrow have been established. A more intensive macrophage reaction leading to the bone marrow cleaning from destructing cells results from the reconstruction of reticular cells. Myeloid cells are destructed due to their ultrastructures disintegration, while erythroid cells - due to pyknosis. Maximum injury of erythroid sprout cells is noted during the period of the most pronounced recovery in a myeloid sprout. These regularities point to the necessity of special measures to stimulate red hematopoiesis during the period of its greatest injury

  8. Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy ?-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

  9. Evaluation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To prospectively investigate the role of MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in assessing vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 ± 3.5 years; range 55-81 years), who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the spine, were divided into three bone density groups (24 with normal, 25 with osteopaenic, and 29 with osteoporotic) based on T score. Both MRS and DWI of the L3 vertebral body were performed to calculate the marrow fat content and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The results were compared between three groups and correlated with BMD. Results: Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group (59.97 ± 5.78%), when compared with that of the osteopaenic group (53.04 ± 7.66%, p = 0.001) and the normal bone density group (48.79 ± 7.1%, p -3 mm2/s, 0.41 ± 0.02 x 10-3 mm2/s, and 0.47 ± 0.03 x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation between T scores and ADC existed (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). The vertebral marrow fat content was negatively correlated to the bone density (r = -0.639, p < 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.5 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.554, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibited a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreased. Marrow fat content and ADC were related to the bone density. MRS and DWI are helpful in evaluating the bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  10. Bone Mineral Changes and Cardiovascular Effects among Female Athletes with Chronic Menstrual Dysfunction

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    Elham Dadgostar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: Oligo/amenorrhea, as a part of the Female Athlete Triad has adverse effects on the athlete’s bone mineral density (BMD and cardiovascular system. Hypoestrogenism, due to suppression of hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA as a result of energy imbalance, is the possible cause of the Triad. This study was designed based on following up and reassessment of elite female athletes who were diagnosed as menstrual dysfunction about two years ago.

    Methods: This study was conducted in three phase sections: 1 Reassess the pattern of menstrual cycle among athletes who reported menstrual dysfunction about two years ago; 2 Bone mineral density was measured twice in the same machine and same center with a two-year interval; 3 The laboratory data including blood glucose, lipid profile and inflammatory markers was assessed in phase 3.

    Results: BMD of athletes did not change significantly after 25.5 months of oligomenorrhea P (spine = 0.2, P (femur=0.9. Mean of all cardiovascular factors was in the normal range except for high density lipoprotein (HDL which was 49.28 (SD=9.18, however, most of the athletes had abnormalities in their lipid profile. Inverse relationship between the increase in the BMD of spine and total cholesterol (r =-0.49, P=0.04, Apolipoprotein A (r = -0.51 P=0.04, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL (r =-0.66, P=0.009. Also correlation between BMD of spine and HbA1C (r =-0.70, P=0.003 were significant.

    Conclusion: Findings of this study show that negative changes in BMD and cardiovascular biomarkers of female athletes with functional hypothalamic menstrual dysfunction could occur if proper therapeutic intervention (including increase in calorie intake, decrease in exercise load or hormonal replacement will not consider.

  11. The changes of bone mineral density in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of change of the bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with multiple myeloma ( MM), and evaluate the use of Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure BMD in MM patients. Methods: Using a dual energy osteo-densitometer Hologic QDR-2000, the BMD was examined on the whole body, vertebrate L2 to L4 in the antero-posterior and lateral position and the proximal left femur in both 34 MM patients and 24 normal individuals. The BMD of type IgG and unclassified patients were dynamically studied before and after chemotherapy, and the study also included serum immunoprotein, protein electrophoresis, blood calcium and phosphorus. Results: (1) Decrease of BMD of the whole body, vertebrate L2 to L4 in the antero-posterior and lateral position and the proximal left femur was significantly lower in MM patients compared with normal individuals (P < 0.05); (2) The BMD of stage III patients of type IgG was less than that of stage II patients' (P < 0.05); (3) Lumbar BMD of IgG type had negative correlation with IgG change but without any association with the whole body and the proximal left femur BMD (P < 0.05); (4) After regular chemotherapy, the lumbar BMD increased rapidly, but the BMD of whole body and the proximal left femur decreased. Conclusion: DXA is a sensitive way to quantitatively study the BMD changes of MM patients and evaluate therapeutic effect. The BMD fall in MM patients can be reversed by effective therapy, but the be reversed by effective therapy, but the osteal damage and restoration are not equivalent in the lumbar and proximal femur

  12. Changes of lymphocyte subsets in leukemia patients who received allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

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    Komatsuda,Mitsumoto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Proportional changes of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were monitored by two-color flow-cytometry in seven leukemia patients who had received allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT. Lymphocyte counts, and proportions of T and B-cells returned to normal ranges between the 2nd and 12th months after BMT. Activated T-cells prominently increased after BMT, and the values gradually returned toward normal. As to lymphocyte subsets, the proportions of CD 4+ cells had remained low, while those of CD 8+ cells high for a whole observation period after BMT. The changes of CD 4+ cells were caused by the decrease of suppressor-inducer T-cells (CD 4+ Leu 8+. High proportion of CD 8+ cells was mainly associated with increased suppressor T-cells (CD 8+ CD 11+. Among natural killer (NK cells, highly active NK cells (CD 16+ CD 57- markedly increased shortly after BMT, and gradually returned to normal. CD 16 -CD 57+ NK cells increased beyond normal ranges after the 2nd month. The incidence or degree of acute and chronic graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD did not correlate with the changes of any lymphocyte subsets. The present results suggest that the increase of activated T-cells shortly after BMT reflects lymphocyte reconstitution. The prolonged immune deficiency after BMT might be related to either deficient expression of homing receptor (Leu 8 antigen on CD 4+ cells or increased suppressor T-cells (CD 8+ CD 11+. In addition, the early increase of NK cells after BMT may compensate for the immune deficiency in BMT patients.

  13. Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells at the early stage of T cell development in thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential appearance of T cell subpopulations occurs in the thymocytes of irradiated C3H/He mice (H-2k, Mls-1b2a, Thy-1.2) after transplantation with bone marrow cells of AKR/J mice (H-2k, Mls-1a2b, Thy-1.1) (AKR----C3H chimeras). The donor-derived thymocytes of AKR----C3H chimeras on day 14 after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) contained a large number of blastlike CD4+CD8+ cells which represent relatively immature thymocytes, whereas those on day 21 after BMT consisted of small sized CD4+,CD8+ cells which represent a great part in normal thymocytes. To define the developmental stage at which clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells occurs in adult thymus, we followed the fate of V beta 6- or V beta 11-bearing T cells in the donor-derived thymocytes at the early stage of AKR----C3H chimeras. Mature thymocytes expressing high intensity of V beta 6 or V beta 11, which are involved in recognition of Mls-1a or MHC I-E gene products, respectively, were deleted from the donor-derived thymocytes on day 21. Immature thymocytes expressing low intensity of V beta 6 in CD3low thymocyte fraction decreased in proportion, whereas those expressing low intensity of V beta 11 rather increased in proportion in the donor-derived thymocytes of AKR----C3H chimeras from day 14 to day 21 after BMT. These results suggest that the clonal deletion of V beta 6-positive cells occurs just at the stage of immature CD3lowCD4+CD8+ cells, whereas the clonal deletion of V beta 11-positive cells maal deletion of V beta 11-positive cells may begin at the transitional stage from CD3lowCD4+CD8+ cells to CD3high single positive cells. Timing of negative selection of thymocytes may vary in distinct T cells capable of recognizing different self-Ag

  14. The imaging features of surrounding changes caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the imaging features of bone marrow edema (BME) and soft tissue edema (STE) caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. Methods: Ninety nine patients with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions which were proved by surgical pathology were reviewed. The patients were divided into benign and malignant groups. Evaluation parameters included the size and signal intensity of BME and STE, the features of enhancement, the bone sclerosis and its relation with BME, and joint effusion, et al. The data of two groups were analyzed by ?2 test. Results: There were 40 patients in benign group and 59 patients belonged to malignant group. BME and STE demonstrated low signal on T1-weighted images and high signal on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. Some BMEs demonstrated low signal on T2- weighted images, which corresponded to sclerosis on X-ray film and (or) CT. Both BME and STE demonstrated uniform enhancement. There were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant groups including the frequency of BME, sclerosis, the median of the size of the BME and STE (P0.05). Conclusions: Both benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions and malignant bone tumors can be accompanied by BME and STE. The size of BME in the benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions is bigger than those in malignant ones, and the size of STE in malignant bone tumors is bigger than benign ones. (authors)

  15. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

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    A Shirani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

  16. Changes in the chemical reactivity of metals exposed to an inert gas glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From time to time the literature mentions curious effects on the chemical reactivity of metals due to inert gas ion bombardment: reactivity in corrosive environments is variously said to be inhibited or enhanced. Although there is no obvious explanation for such effects, some possible mechanisms have been suggested. Some simple experiments have been carried out to demonstrate that reactivity effects really do exist and to test such mechanisms. The results are qualitative because a glow discharge was used to implant the rare gas ions. Evaporated films of aluminium and nickel become amorphous after bombardment with xenon ions and the films resisted gaseous and liquid corrosion. On the other hand, aluminium foil bombarded with xenon ions in a Penning pump arrangement was attacked more heavily than unbombarded aluminium. Passivation is attributed to the known lack of reactivity of amorphous metals. Glassy materials appear to lack the normal routes of attack between their subsurface regions and the attacking medium. On the other hand, when a metal surface is heavily ion bombarded the surface is probably damaged to such an extent that the attacking medium gains physical access to the interior and corrosion proceeds rapidly. (author)

  17. Age-related changes in rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell plasticity

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    Chase P Bryant

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of adult stem cells is known to be compromised as a function of age. This therefore raises questions about the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy in elderly patients. Results We demonstrated that the expression profile of stemness markers was altered in BM-MSCs derived from old rats. BM-MSCs from young rats (4 months expressed Oct-4, Sox-2 and NANOG, but we failed to detect Sox-2 and NANOG in BM-MSCs from older animals (15 months. Chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic potential is compromised in old BM-MSCs. Stimulation with a cocktail mixture of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 induced cardiomyogenesis in young BM-MSCs but not old BM-MSCs. Significant differences in the expression of gap junction protein connexin-43 were observed between young and old BM-MSCs. Young and old BM-MSCs fused with neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes in co-culture and expressed key cardiac transcription factors and structural proteins. Cells from old animals expressed significantly lower levels of VEGF, IGF, EGF, and G-CSF. Significantly higher levels of DNA double strand break marker ?-H2AX and diminished levels of telomerase activity were observed in old BM-MSCs. Conclusion The results suggest age related differences in the differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs. These changes may affect the efficacy of BM-MSCs for use in stem cell therapy.

  18. Late bone marrow changes in Hodgkin's disease patients: a characterization with proton chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to measure, by quantitative chemical shift imaging (CSI), the late therapy-induced changes in bone marrow (BM) of Hodgkin's disease (HD) patients. Fifteen HD patients treated with radiotherapy alone and radiochemotherapy (age at treatment between 11 and 50 years; post-treatment interval between 15 and 127 months; applied dose 25.5 to 50 Gy), were studied with a 1.5 T MR imager. For the fat-water separation in-phase and opposed-phase (SE 1200/22) images were generated according to the Dixon method, with a modified post-processing. Long-term fatty replacement was seen in the irradiated BM only. The radiation fields were visualized as areas of high signal intensity in the T1-weighted images. There was a marked increase of the relative fat signal fraction in quantitative CSI without time, dose and age dependent recovery within the investigated ranges. Fatty replacement of the irradiated BM is a long-term effect in HD patients, probably induced by an obliteration of the microvasculature with consecutive fatty metaplasia. (orig.)

  19. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Akesson, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergdahl, Ingvar A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Shifang [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Liang, Yihuai [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

  20. Trichostatin a modulates intracellular reactive oxygen species through SOD2 and FOXO1 in human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sin-Gu; Cho, Goang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Engraft cells are often exposed to oxidative stress and inflammation; therefore, any factor that can provide the stem cells resistance to these stresses may yield better efficacy in stem cell therapy. Studies indicate that histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors alleviate damage induced by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs through the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) in human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). Intracellular ROS levels increased following exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and were suppressed by TSA treatment. Levels of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) increased following treatment with 200?nM TSA and to a lesser level at 1-5??M TSA. Cell protective effects against oxidative stress were significantly increased in TSA-MSCs after treatment with low doses of TSA (50-500?nM) and decreased with high doses of TSA (5-10??M). Consistent results were obtained with immunoblot analysis for caspase3. Investigation of Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and p53 levels to determine intracellular signaling by TSA in oxidative stress-induced MSCs demonstrated that expression of phosphorylated-FOXO1 and phosphorylated-SOD2 decreased in H2 O2 -treated MSCs while levels of p53 increased. These effects were reversed by the treatment of 200?nM TSA. These results suggest that the main function of ROS modulation by TSA is activated through SOD2 and FOXO1. Thus, optimal treatment with TSA may protect hBM-MSCs against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25515622

  1. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone t 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  2. Pulmonary function changes in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term pulmonary function changes in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), to assess their clinical significance, and to identify factors influencing these changes. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were evaluated before and after BMT in 111 adult patients undergoing BMT between 1985 and 1991. Forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity (DLCO), and total lung capacity (TLC) were evaluated. One hundred and three patients (92.8%) received total body irradiation (TBI) to a total dose of 14 Gy in nine equal fractions. The lung dose was restricted to 1, FVC, and TLC were lower than pre transplant values (p 1 did not fall significantly in patients without acute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier ute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier than in patients without post transplant pulmonary infection. Recovery of FVC, TLC, and DLCO was also delayed in patients with acute and chronic GVHD and post transplant pulmonary infection. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between a higher radiation dose to the lungs, and decreased FVC at 2 years (p = 0.01). Progressive obstructive pulmonary disease was not observed. Conclusions: An initial decline in PFTs with subsequent recovery was observed. Factors associated with delayed recovery and incomplete recovery of PFTs were GVHD, post transplant pulmonary infection, and higher radiation dose to the lungs. The conditioning regimen used at Medical College of Wisconsin, including relatively high TBI doses with partial transmission pulmonary shielding, appears to be well tolerated by the lungs in long-term survivors. No progressive decline in PFTs or symptomatic decline in pulmonary function was observed during the time interval studied

  3. Molecular changes in bone marrow, tumor and serum after conductive ablation of murine 4T1 breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Beata D; Shafirstein, Gal; Vishal, Sagar J; Dennis, Richard A; Griffin, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Thermal ablation of solid tumors using conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) produces coagulative necrosis in the center of ablation. Local changes in homeostasis for surviving tumor and systemic changes in circulation and distant organs must be understood and monitored in order to prevent tumor re-growth and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to use a mouse carcinoma model to evaluate molecular changes in the bone marrow and surviving tumor after CITT treatment by quantification of transcripts associated with cancer progression and hyperthermia, serum cytokines, stress proteins and the marrow/tumor cross-talk regulator stromal-derived factor 1. Analysis of 27 genes and 22 proteins with quantitative PCR, ELISA, immunoblotting and multiplex antibody assays revealed that the gene and protein expression in tissue and serum was significantly different between ablated and control mice. The transcripts of four genes (Cxcl12, Sele, Fgf2, Lifr) were significantly higher in the bone marrow of treated mice. Tumors surviving ablation showed significantly lower levels of the Lifr and Sele transcripts. Similarly, the majority of transcripts measured in tumors decreased with treatment. Surviving tumors also contained lower levels of SDF-1? and HIF-1? proteins whereas HSP27 and HSP70 were higher. Of 16 serum chemokines, IFN? and GM-CSF levels were lower with treatment. These results indicate that CITT ablation causes molecular changes which may slow cancer cell proliferation. However, inhibition of HSP27 may be necessary to control aggressiveness of surviving cancer stem cells. The changes in bone marrow are suggestive of possible increased recruitment of circulatory cancer cells. Therefore, the possibility of heightened bone metastasis after thermal ablation needs to be further investigated and inhibition strategies developed, if warranted. PMID:24270800

  4. MRI signal changes of the bone marrow in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy: correlation with clinical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ana I.; Tomas, Xavier; Pomes, Jaume; Amo, Montserrat del [Hospital Clinic, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Milinkovic, Ana; Perez, Inaki; Mallolas, Josep [IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Department of Infectious Diseases, Barcelona (Spain); Rios, Jose [Hospital Clinic, Department of Biostatistics, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi [Hospital Clinic, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To assess the prevalence, imaging appearance, and clinical significance, of bone marrow MR signal changes in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome. Twenty-eight HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 12 HIV-negative controls underwent MRI of the legs. Whole-body MRI, SPECT/CT, and a complete radiographic skeletal survey were obtained in subjects with signal changes in bone marrow. MRI and clinical evaluations were reviewed 6 months after baseline to determine changes after switching from thymidine analogs (TA) to tenofovir-DF (TDF). MRI results correlated with clinical parameters. We observed foci of a serous-like pattern (low signal and no enhancement on T1-weighted, high signal on T2-weighted images) in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%) and an intermediate signal on T1-weighted images in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%). Serous-like lesions were located in the lower limbs and scattered in the talus, calcaneus, femurs, and humeral bones; they showed slight uptake on SPECT bone scans and were normal on CT and radiographs. Patients with serous-like lesions had significantly lower peripheral and total fat at baseline than other groups (P < 0.05). No changes at 6 months were observed on MRI, and the serous-like lesion group showed good peripheral fat recovery after changing drug treatment. A serous-like MRI pattern is observed in the peripheral skeletons of HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, which correlates with peripheral lipoatrophy, and should not be misdiagnosed as malignant or infectious diseases. Although the MR lesions did not improve after switching the treatment, there was evidence of lipoatrophy recovery. (orig.)

  5. Changes in jaw dimensions and bone density in patients with osteoporosis

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    Pošti? Sr?an D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Osteopenia and osteoporosis reduce the density and mass of jaw bones. Aim The aim of this study was to present the methods of radiographic analysis in patients with osteoporosis prior to restorative treatment. Method 127 panoramic radiographs (Kodak, USA and 39 retroalveolar radiographs (KD 58-R 30×40 mm, USA were used for the analysis of density (DT II 05 densitometer, England and dimensions of jaw bones with respect to segments corresponding to bone layers. Results The results of this study indicated statistically significant differences in bone density (p<0.05 and p<0.01 in patients with osteopenia. Bone density was significantly reduced (p<0.01 and p<0.001 in osteoporotic patients, when compared to controls. Significant reductions of edentulous ridges in osteoporotic patients women X=23.05 mm (kV=30.72% and X=22.85 mm (kV=28.81%, and men X=28.83 (kV=8.55% as well as X=25.36 (kV=11.43%, were observed. Conclusion Bone density of the upper and lower jaw is reduced in osteoporotic patients. At the very beginning of restorative prosthodontic therapy of osteoporotic patients, retroalveolar radiographs and panoramic radiographs should be obtained. Reference lines should be assigned, contours of the alveolar and edentulous ridges on radiographs should be analysed and bone density assessed.

  6. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid against bone changes in salt-loaded rats: possible role of kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mona A; Abd El Samad, Abeer A

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that dietary fats are important components contributing in bone health and that bone mineral density is inversely related to sodium intake. Salt loading is also known to impose negative effects on renal function. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 on bone changes imposed by salt loading, highlighting the role of kidney as a potential mechanism involved in this effect. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group, salt-loaded group consuming 2% NaCl solution as drinking water for 8 weeks, and omega-3-treated salt-loaded group receiving 1 g/kg/day omega-3 by gavage with consumption of 2% NaCl solution for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Plasma levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphorus (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3], and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) were measured. The right tibia and kidney were removed for histologic examination and renal immunohistochemical analysis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was performed. The results revealed that omega-3 reduced SBP, DBP, and MAP and plasma levels of sodium, potassium, Pi, creatinine, urea, and TGF-?1, but increased plasma levels of calcium, ALP, and 1,25(OH)2D3 as well as renal eNOS. Omega-3 increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, decreased osteoclast number, and increased newly formed osteoid bone. Renal morphology was found preserved. In conclusion, omega-3 prevents the disturbed bone status imposed by salt loading. This osteoprotective effect is possibly mediated by attenuation of alterations in Ca(2+), Pi, and ALP, and improvement of renal function and arterial blood pressure. PMID:24303178

  7. Multidetector Computed Tomography-Based Microstructural Analysis Reveals Reduced Bone Mineral Content and Trabecular Bone Changes in the Lumbar Spine after Transarterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Miyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuko; Komoto, Daisuke; Kaichi, Yoko; Tani, Chihiro; Date, Shuji; Kiguchi, Masao; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is well recognized that therapeutic irradiation can result in bone damage. However, long-term bone toxicity associated with computed tomography (CT) performed during interventional angiography has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and trabecular microstructural changes in patients after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy using an interventional-CT system. Materials and Methods Spinal microarchitecture was examined by 64-detector CT in 81 patients who underwent TACE, 35 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 79 controls. For each patient, the volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv) during TACE (CTDIv (TACE)), the dose-length product (DLP) during TACE (DLP (TACE)), and CTDIv and DLP of routine dynamic CT scans (CTDIv (CT) and DLP (CT), respectively), were calculated as the sum since 2008. Using a three dimensional (3D) image analysis system, the tissue bone mineral density (tBMD) and trabecular parameters of the 12th thoracic vertebra were calculated. Using tBMD at a reported cutoff value of 68 mg/cm3, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly greater in the TACE vs. the control group (39.6% vs. 18.2% for males, P<0.05 and 60.6% vs. 34.8% for females, P<0.01). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sex, age, and CTDIv (CT) significantly affected the risk of osteoporosis. Of these indices, CTDIv (CT) had the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.735). Correlation analyses of tBMD with cumulative radiation dose revealed weak correlations between tBMD and CTDIv (CT) (r2?=?0.194, P<0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in post TACE patients than in control subjects. The cumulative radiation dose related to routine dynamic CT studies was a significant contributor to the prevalence of osteoporosis. PMID:25329933

  8. Localized sclerotic bone response demonstrated reduced nanomechanical creep properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuli; Goh, James Cho Hong; Teoh, Swee Hin; De, Shamal Das; Soong, Richie; Lee, Taeyong

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosis (tissue hardening) development is a common occurrence in slow growing or benign osteolytic lesions. However, there is lack of knowledge on the mechanical and material property changes associated with sclerotic bone response. The immune system is postulated to play a relevant role in evoking sclerotic bone responses. In this study, localized sclerotic response in an immunocompetent model of Walker 256 breast carcinoma in SD rats showed an apparent increase in new reactive bone formation. Sclerotic rat femurs had significant increases in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structural model index (SMI) as compared to control rat femurs. Significantly reduced creep responses (increased ?) were observed for both trabecular and cortical bone in sclerotic bones while no significant difference was observed in elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) values. Therefore, we conclude that viscoelastic creep property using nanoindentation would serve as a more sensitive indicator of localized bone modeling than elastic properties. Moreover, reduced viscoelasticity can contribute towards increased microcrack propagation and therefore reduced toughness. Since significant positive correlations between elastic properties (E) and (H) with viscosity (?) were also observed, our results indicate that sclerotic response of bone metastasis would cause reduced toughness (increased ?) with stiffening of material (increased E and H). PMID:23127639

  9. Bone mineral density changes of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty. A randomised study with the use of porous tantalum metaphyseal cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus L; Petersen, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomised study using conventional method or "Trabecular Metal Cone" (TM Cone) (Zimmer inc., Warsaw, USA) for reconstruction of bone loss of the proximal tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal tibia.

  10. Changes in Cytokine Levels during Reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Filice, Gregory A.; Clabots, Connie R.; Riciputi, Paul E.; Gon?i-laguardia, Oscar; Pomeroy, Claire

    1999-01-01

    We studied cytokine proteins and mRNAs in mice with two forms of Toxoplasma gondii pneumonia resulting from reactivation of infection. In the first form, mice were infected with T. gondii, developed and recovered from systemic disease, and then developed pneumonia 3 weeks later. As pulmonary inflammation developed, levels of cytokine mRNAs for gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-10 increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells or lung tissue, and the level of IFN-?...

  11. Changes in bone mineral density in response to 24 weeks of resistance training in college-age men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almstedt, Hawley C; Canepa, Jacqueline A; Ramirez, David A; Shoepe, Todd C

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of major public health concern. Characterized by low bone mass and increasing risk for fracture, osteoporosis occurs to a greater extent in women. Resistance training is a mode of exercise that can be used to build peak bone mass during youth, thereby preventing osteoporosis later in life. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a resistance training protocol designed to apply loads to the hip and spine in men and women. We recruited recreationally active men (n = 12) and women (n = 12), ages of 18-23. An additional 10 participants (5 men, 5 women) served as controls. Volunteers completed questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The training program was performed for 24 weeks, on 3 nonconsecutive days per week, including exercises for the upper, lower, and core musculature, marked by an undulating periodization varying between 67 and 95% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) on the multijoint exercises of bench press, squats, and deadlifts. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g · cm(-2)). A 2-tailed analysis of covariance, controlling for body mass index, revealed that in comparison to women, men had significantly greater increases in BMD at the lateral spine and femoral neck. Male exercisers were found to increase BMD by 2.7-7.7%, whereas percent change in women ranged from -0.8 to 1.5%, depending on the bone site. Both male and female controls demonstrated about 1% change at any bone site. Results indicate that 24 weeks of resistance training, including squat and deadlift exercises, is effective in increasing BMD in young healthy men. Similar benefits were not derived by women who followed the same protocol. PMID:20647940

  12. Sex- and age-related changes of trabecular bone of tibia in growing domestic geese (Anser domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuta, Anna; Dzierzecka, Ma?gorzata; Czerwi?ski, Edward; Cooper, Ross Gordon; Horba?czuk, Jaros?aw Olav

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of radiological images of the spongious substance of the tibiotarsal bones in domestic goose (120 individuals) was performed for the first time. Based on radiographs obtained from radiological examinations conducted in the region of interest (80 x 90 mm2) of the proximal metaphysis, an analysis of the spongious substance of the tibia was performed with the Trabecula programme in order to construct a map of trabeculae and identify their number, volume and density. The results were evaluated statistically using two-way ANOVA. Changes in the number, volume and density of radiological trabeculae of the tibiotarsal bone (TB) in geese from 4 to 16 weeks old were observed. The lowest number (6.34 per mm2), volume (1.50% mm) and density (33.73%) of radiological trabeculae in the proximal metaphysis of TB was reported in male geese at the age of 6 weeks. Similar tendencies were observed in females as well. It should be noted that the volume and density of radiological trabeculae of the tibiotarsal bone achieved a maximum value in males 12 weeks of age, whereas in females at 8 weeks of age. An inverse relationship between body weight and the number of trabeculae in domestic geese (r = - 0.28; P < or = 0.05) was found. We also found a positive relationship between body weight and the volume of radiological trabeculae in domestic geese (r = 0.43; P < or = 0.05). During posthatching development, from the 4th week to slaughter maturity, a decrease in relative bone mass was observed. Negative changes in the trabecular structure combined with high weight gain could lead to bone deformities and locomotor problems in the studied geese. PMID:23342918

  13. Relationship between change in femoral neck bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence during treatment with strontium ranelate

    OpenAIRE

    Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Strontium ranelate (SR) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture incidence. Hip fracture reduction has also been observed during 3-year treatment with SR in osteoporotic women at high risk of hip fracture. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between BMD changes and hip fracture incidence during treatment with SR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis, 465 women aged ove...

  14. Relationship between changes in bone mineral density and fracture risk reduction with antiresorptive drugs: some issues with meta-analyses.

    OpenAIRE

    Delmas, Pd; Li, Z.; Cooper, C.

    2004-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Published meta-analyses have investigated the relationship between changes in BMD and fracture risk reduction observed with antiresorptive agents, with inconsistent results. Many factors may affect the outcome of such analyses. Our work explores some of these factors and illustrates the need for caution in interpreting the results of meta-analyses. INTRODUCTION: The role of the increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in fracture risk reduction observed in osteoporotic patients trea...

  15. Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes. A new congenital malformation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Kozlowski, K.

    1987-07-01

    Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome.

  16. Microarray analysis of changes in bone cell gene expression early after cadmium gavage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed an in vivo model for cadmium-induced bone loss in which mice excrete bone mineral in feces beginning 8 h after cadmium gavage. Female mice of three strains [CF1, MTN (metallothionein-wild-type), and MT1,2KO (MT1,2-deficient)] were placed on a low-calcium diet for 2 weeks. Each mouse was gavaged with 200 ?g Cd or vehicle only. Fecal calcium was monitored daily for 9 days, beginning 4 days before cadmium gavage, to document the bone response. For CF1 mice, bones were taken from four groups: +/- Cd, 2 h after Cd and +/- Cd, 4 h after Cd. MTN and MT1,2KO strains had two groups each: +/-Cd, 4 h after Cd. PolyA+ RNA preparations from marrow-free shafts of femura and tibiae of each +/- Cd pair were submitted to Incyte Genomics for microarray analysis. Fecal Ca results showed that bone calcium excreted after cadmium differed for the three mouse strains: CF1, 0.24 ± 0.08 mg; MTN, 0.92 ± 0.22 mg; and MT1,2KO, 1.7 ± 0.4 mg. Gene array results showed that nearly all arrayed genes were unaffected by cadmium. However, MT1 and MT2 had Cd+/Cd- expression ratios >1 in all four groups, while all ratios for MT3 were essentially 1, showing specificity. Both probes for MAPK 14 (p38 MAPK) had expression ratios >1, while no other MAPK responded to cadmium. Vacuolar proton pump ATPase and integrin alpha v (osteoclast genes), transferrin receptor, and src-like adaptor protein genes were stimulated by Cd; other src-related genes were unaffected. Genes for bone formation, stresected. Genes for bone formation, stress response, growth factors, and signaling molecules showed little or no response to cadmium. Results support the hypothesis that Cd stimulates bone demineralization via a p38 MAPK pathway involving osteoclast activation

  17. Changes in hemopoiesis of dying and surviving mice after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice received doses of 3 Gy of 60Co-gamma rays total body irradiation at four-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy. After each dose per fraction half of the animals were injected with 106 bone marrow cells. At four- and nine-day intervals evaluations were made of the blood count, bone marrow and spleen cellularities, and spleen mass. In animals subjected only to irradiation the damage of hemopoietic organs was becoming deeper until the end of observation; the majority of these mice died by nine days after the irradiation with the last dose per fraction (by 37 days of the experiment). The authors consider anemia as the main cause of their death. All of the mice that were given bone marrow injections survived; nine days after the last dose of irradiation the mean cellularities of their bone marrows and spleens were 76.8% and 112.3% of the unirradiated controls respectively. In general, regeneration of erythropoiesis was quite successful, the number of thrombocytes was positively influenced, and the number of leukocytes nearly unchanged in bone marrow recipients when compared with the only irradiated mice. We observed two periods of maximum and one of minimum bone marrow and spleen regeneration, which were not synchronized. These results deny an unrepairable damage to the hemopoietic microenvironment in conditions of our experiment. This paper follows up with our preceding work describing results of an experiment which ended on day 24. (orig.)experiment which ended on day 24. (orig.)

  18. Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrams Steven A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OHD and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. Methods We measured cord serum 25(OHD levels, bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and their changes over 3 months of life with 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplementation. Results Cord serum 25(OHD was significantly lower in Hispanic than non-Hispanic Caucasian infants (16.4 ± 6.5 ng/mL, n = 27, vs 22.3 ± 9.4 n = 22, p = 0.013. Among 38 infants who completed a 3 month vitamin D supplementation intervention, provision of 400 IU/day of vitamin D increased final 25(OHD to a higher level in non-Hispanic Caucasian compared to Hispanic infants. There was no significant relationship between cord serum 25(OHD and BMC or BMD in the first week of life (n = 49 or after 3 months of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion Low cord 25(OHD levels are seen in Hispanic infants, but their functional significance is uncertain related to bone health in a southern US setting. Daily vitamin D intake of 400 IU during the first months of life appears adequate to increase serum 25(OHD and support BMC increases despite low initial 25(OHD levels in some infants. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00697294

  19. Assessing qualitative changes in simulated periodontal ligament and alveolar bone using a non-contact electromagnetic vibration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Kato, Takeshi; Komori, Norio; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the ability of a non-contact electromagnetic vibration device to assess a simulated periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions in experimental tooth models by applying mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity). The non-contact electromagnetic vibration device was made up of three components: vibrator, detector, and analyzer. The experimental tooth model consisted of a cylindrical rod made of polyacetal, a tissue conditioner for soft lining material, and urethane or urethane foam to simulate the tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. The tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Periotest values (PTVs) were also measured under the same conditions as those of the non-contact electromagnetic vibration device. All of the mechanical parameters derived from the non-contact electromagnetic vibration device significantly decreased as the proportion of liquid increased. Values for the three parameters of the urethane models were significantly larger than those of the urethane foam models. In contrast, PTVs increased significantly as the proportion of liquid increased; however, no significant difference was observed between the urethane and urethane foam models. The non-contact electromagnetic vibration device may be capable of evaluating not only periodontal ligament conditions but also bone quality. Mechanical parameters may be useful for assessing qualitative changes in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. PMID:21809012

  20. Changes of pulmonary function in patients treated with bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshihiro; Baba, Masumi; Aizawa, Shin (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Changes of pulmonary functions were studied with time in 10 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI, total lung dose, 3 to 12 Gy; dose rate, 5.3 to 10.0 cGy/min). Regardless of the total lung dose and the dose rate of irradiation or the period after BMT, the percent vital capacity (%VC) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV{sub 1.0}%) were kept within normal limits, whereas the diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (%DLco) tended to decrease within 100 days after BMT in all of our patients. From the possibility that respiratory insufficiency will rapidly occur due to infection, it seems unfavorable for the patients to return to routine life during this period after BMT, even if in states without any clinical manifestations. It was found that the %DLco began to decrease prior to the onset of interstitial pneumonia (IP) and that the degree was more marked in patients who progressed to IP than in those who did not. Therefore, it is possible to predict the occurrence of IP by frequently measuring pulmonary function. In patients with IP, the %DLco rapidly improved with steroid administration, and it tended to improve gradually even after discontinuing the administration of the drug. But regardless of the total lung dose and dose rate of irradiation, the %DLco in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) did not recover completely when compared with that in patients without chronic GVHD. Thus, it is considered that this persistant pulmonary dysfunction is caused mainly by chronic GVHD rather than by irradiation. (author).

  1. Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: syoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Oike, Takahiro; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (<40 pg/mL) and premenopausal (?40 pg/mL). Results: The mean BMDs within the irradiation field (lumbar vertebra 5) in the postmenopausal and the premenopausal groups were 0.825 and 0.910 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). In addition, in the premenopausal group the mean BMDs of the nonirradiated regions at thoracic vertebrae 9-12 and lumbar vertebrae 2-4 were 0.753 and 0.958 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD.

  2. Changes of pulmonary function in patients treated with bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of pulmonary functions were studied with time in 10 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI, total lung dose, 3 to 12 Gy; dose rate, 5.3 to 10.0 cGy/min). Regardless of the total lung dose and the dose rate of irradiation or the period after BMT, the percent vital capacity (%VC) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1.0%) were kept within normal limits, whereas the diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (%DLco) tended to decrease within 100 days after BMT in all of our patients. From the possibility that respiratory insufficiency will rapidly occur due to infection, it seems unfavorable for the patients to return to routine life during this period after BMT, even if in states without any clinical manifestations. It was found that the %DLco began to decrease prior to the onset of interstitial pneumonia (IP) and that the degree was more marked in patients who progressed to IP than in those who did not. Therefore, it is possible to predict the occurrence of IP by frequently measuring pulmonary function. In patients with IP, the %DLco rapidly improved with steroid administration, and it tended to improve gradually even after discontinuing the administration of the drug. But regardless of the total lung dose and dose rate of irradiation, the %DLco in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) did not recover completely when compared with that in pat completely when compared with that in patients without chronic GVHD. Thus, it is considered that this persistant pulmonary dysfunction is caused mainly by chronic GVHD rather than by irradiation. (author)

  3. Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Women Initiating Proton Pump Inhibitors or H2 Receptor Antagonists: A SWAN Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel H; Diem, Susan J; Ruppert, Kristine; Lian, Yin Juan; Liu, Chih-Chin; Wohlfart, Alyssa; Greendale, Gail A; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2015-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with diminished bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fracture; however, prior studies have not yielded consistent results, and many have suboptimal ascertainment of both PPI use and BMD. We used data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multicenter, multi-ethnic, community-based longitudinal cohort study of women across the menopause transition to examine the association between annualized BMD changes and new use of PPIs. We compared changes in BMD in new PPI users with changes in BMD in new users of histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and with changes in BMD in subjects who did not use either class of medications. Mixed linear regression models included recognized risk factors for osteoporosis, including demographics, menopausal transition stage, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle factors, as well as comorbidities and concomitant medications. To provide further evidence for the validity of our analytic approach, we also examined the effects of hormone-replacement therapy (HT), a class of medications that should reduce bone loss, on changes in BMD as an internal positive control group. We identified 207 new users of PPIs, 185 new users of H2RAs, and 1,676 non-users. Study subjects had a mean age of 50 years and were followed for a median of 9.9 years. Adjusted models found no difference in the annualized BMD change at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total hip in PPI users compared with H2RA users or non-users. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. BMD increased as expected in HT users, supporting the validity of our study design. These longitudinal analyses plus similar prior studies argue against an association between PPI use and BMD loss. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25156141

  4. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-? and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-? have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-?-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-?-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-?-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-?-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-? represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  5. Simulation of chemically reactive solute transport under conditions of changing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical code, THCC, has been developed for simulation of multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media with aqueous complexation and precipitation/dissolution of stable solid phases in the presence of variable temperature. THCC evolved from the isothermal code CHEMTRN and is capable of simulating the diffusion of solutes along a steady gradient of temperature and the mixing of fluids having different initial compositions and temperatures. Example calculations demonstrate the close coupling that can exist between temperature variations and the transport of chemically reactive solutes. This coupling can be an important consideration in the assessment of performance of nuclear waste repositories

  6. Changed morphology and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the mandibular condyles of edentate people : Giesen EB, Ding M, Dalstra M, van Eijden TM.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    Since edentate subjects have a reduced masticatory function, it can be expected that the morphology of the cancellous bone of their mandibular condyles has changed according to the altered mechanical environment. In the present study, the morphology of cylindrical cancellous bone specimens of the mandibular condyles of edentate subjects (n = 25) was compared with that of dentate subjects (n = 24) by means of micro-computed tomography and by the application of Archimedes' principle. Stiffness and strength were determined by destructive mechanical testing. Compared with dentate subjects, it appeared that, in edentate subjects, the bone was less dense and the trabecular structure was less plate-like. The regression models of stiffness and strength built from bone volume fraction and the trabecular orientation relative to the axis of the specimen were similar for both dentate and edentate subjects. This indicates that, under reduced mechanical load, the fundamental relationship between bone morphology and mechanical properties does not change. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 Mar

  7. Reactivation in post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis: ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the ultrasound (US) features of reactivation in post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Twelve patients with clinical suspicion of reactivation of chronic osteomyelitis, secondary to trauma, surgery, and who were investigated with US were selected for the study. The following US features were assessed: periosseous fluid collection, bone changes (periosteal reactions, cortical irregularity, callus, sequestrum and cloaca) and soft-tissue changes (cellulitis and sinus tracts). US findings were correlated with plain radiography (n = 11), computed tomography (n = 3) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2). US detected fluid collections in all patients (12 periosseous and 3 in soft tissues), bone changes in 10 and sinus tracts and cellulitis in 5 patients each. Bone changes detected were cortical irregularity (n = 10), discontinuity of cortex (n = 7), sequestrum (n = 2), callus (n = 2), periosteal reaction (n = 1) and cloaca (n = 1). Cellulitis was seen in 5 patients and sinus tracts in 5. Reactivation was confirmed at surgery in all patients. US is a reliable noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of reactivation of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis in adults. (author)

  8. X-ray evaluation of changes occurring in the bone under the influence of Gentamicin-Septopal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of several-year experience it was acknowledged that in treatment of chronic blood-derived and traumatic inflammations of bones the introduction of chains of Septopal to treatment was an obvious progress. The changes occurring in the bones of the patients for whom Septopal was left for good in the marrow cavity under the influence of antibiotic were evaluated. The observation included 89 patients for whom X-ray examinations were made many times in various intervals. Initially the chains of antibiotic were surrounded with a thin layer of connective tissue, and after several new-generating osseous tissue grow into them. In none of the observed cases any reaction indicating recoil of the carrier of the antibiotic was noticed. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Evaluation of spinal bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure by CT and MR imaging with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), bone mineral density (BMD) and T1 relaxation times were measured with CT and MR imaging and the results were correlated to histology. Excised lumbar vertebrae from 25 autopsy cases of CRF (18 males and 7 females), including 12 cases in which the patients had been receiving hemodialysis were examined. BMD and T1 relaxation times values were associated with specific histologic findings for cellularity, trabeculae, and peritrabecular fibrosis. Three vertebrae with low BMD showed incresed hematopoietic marrow content, a finding not observed in primary osteoporosis. The vertebrae with osteosclerosis showed prolonged T1 relaxation time, which was due to increased amount of hematopoietic marrow, and the presence of thickened or many small irregular trabeculae or perirabecular fibrosis. (orig.)

  10. Changes of density distribution of the subchondral bone plate after supramalleolar osteotomy for valgus ankle osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Christian; Paul, Jochen; Pagenstert, Geert; Vavken, Patrick; Hintermann, Beat; Valderrabano, Victor; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    CT-osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) has been used to visualize subchondral bone plate density distribution regarding to its mineralization. The purpose of this study was to display and analyze the density distribution of the subchondral bone plate before and after supramalleolar realignment osteotomies. We retrospectively analysed pre- and postoperative CT images of nine consecutive patients with post-traumatic unilateral valgus ankle OA. The distribution charts of CT-OAM scans were quantitatively analyzed for subchondral bone plate density distribution. VAS for pain and the Tegner activity scale were used to assess clinical outcome. At a mean follow-up of 20?±?5.6 months (range 13-27), we observed a significant pre- to postoperative decrease of the mean high-density area ratio in tibia (lateral and posterior area) (p???0.05) and the talus (lateral area) (p???0.05). Pairwise comparison between the pre- and postoperative mineralization at the articular surface showed a significant decrease of the high-density area ratio for the tibia and the talus. The VAS decreased from 6.2?±?0.9 pre- to 2.8?±?0.9 postoperatively (p?=?0.027), and the Tegner score inclined from 4.5?±?1.1 preoperatively to 5.3?±?0.7 after surgery (p?=?0.082). The tibial and talar subchondral bone plate density, regarding to its mineralization, decreased after supramalleolar medial closing wedge osteotomy in patients with valgus ankle OA. The results of this study suggest that realignment surgery may decrease peak bone density areas corresponding to the alignment correction and contribute to a homogenization of the subchondral bone plate mineralization. PMID:25042395

  11. Denosumab and Changes in Bone Turnover Markers During Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew R.; Saad, Fred; Egerdie, Blair; Sieber, Paul; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Ke, Chunlei; Goessl, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increases fracture risk, decreases bone mineral density, and increases bone turnover markers (BTMs) including serum type 1 C-telopeptide (sCTX), tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and procollagen-1 N-terminal telopeptide (P1NP). In a pre-specified exploratory analysis of a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 3 years) vs. placebo (1468 p...

  12. A Novel Locus on the X Chromosome Regulates Post-Maturity Bone Density Changes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Szumska, Dorota; Benes?, Helen; Kang, Ping; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; Shmookler Reis, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Two mouse strains, AKR/J and SAMP6, were assessed longitudinally for bone mineral density of the spine. They displayed very different time courses of bone accrual, with the SAMP6 strain reaching a plateau for vertebral BMD at 3 months, whereas AKR/J mice continued to increase spine BMD for at least 8 months. Among 253 F2 progeny of an AKR/J x SAMP6 cross, at 4 months of age the BMD variance was 5-6% of the mean, versus 15% for weight. Variance increased with age for every parameter measured, ...

  13. Reactive nitrogen in the environment and its effect on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans have doubled levels of reactive nitrogen in circulation, largely as a result of fertilizer application and fossil fuel burning. This massive alteration of the nitrogen cycle affects climate, food security, energy security, human health and ecosystem services. Our estimates show that nitrogen currently leads to a net-cooling effect on climate with very high uncertainty. The many complex warming and cooling interactions between nitrogen and climate need to be better assessed, taking also into account the other effects of nitrogen on human health, environment and ecosystem services. Through improved nitrogen management substantial reductions in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations could be generated, also allowing for other co-benefits, including improving human health and improved provision of ecosystem services, for example clean air and water, and biodiversity.

  14. Bone metabolism changes during anti-TNF-alpha therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriolo, Bruno; Paolino, Sabrina; Sulli, Alberto; Ferretti, Valentino; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2006-06-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) occurs more frequently in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in healthy individuals. Specific treatments of RA may increase susceptibility to OP, but at the same time decrease inflammatory activity, which is associated with accelerated bone loss. Treatment with TNF-alpha blockers might influence bone metabolism and prevent structural bone damage in RA, in particular at the periarticular level. Our aim was to assess the influence of anti-TNF-alpha therapy on bone metabolism in RA patients. To that end we evaluated a group of 30 RA patients [mean age 50.6 +/- 6.8 years; median disease duration 82 +/- 38 months; median disease activity score (DAS-28) 5.8 +/- 1.2: 70% of whom were positive for the rheumatoid factor IgM (>40 IU/mL)]. Patients were treated with stable therapy of prednisone (7.5 mg/day) and methotrexate (MTX = 10 mg/week). Eleven of these RA patients further received etanercept (25 mg, twice/weekly) and 10 infliximab (3 mg/kg on 0, 2, 6, and every 8 weeks thereafter). A control group included 10 RA patients with stable therapy (prednisone and MTX) and without anti-TNF-alpha therapy. All the patients fulfilled the ACR criteria for the diagnosis of adult RA and were treated for 6 months. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) bone densitometry was performed at the metaphyses of the proximal phalanges of both hands with a DBM Sonic 1200 QUS device (IGEA, Carpi, Italy). Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) was evaluated at base line and at 3 and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and lumbar spine (L1-L4) was determined by a densitometer (GE Lunar Prodigy, USA) at base line at after 6 months. Soluble bone turnover markers [osteocalcin (BGP) and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (Dpd/Cr) ratio] were measured in all patients at the same times, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. All data were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results were as follows: AD-SoS values were found increased by 1.3% after 6 months of treatment in the RA patients treated with anti-TNF-alpha therapy. On the contrary, the Ad-SoS levels decreased by 4.6% during the same period in the untreated RA group. BMD increased by 0.2% at lumbar spine and 0.1% at the hip in TNF-alpha-blocker-treated patients and decreased by 0.8% and 0.6% (at lumbar spine and at the hip, respectively) in RA patients without anti-TNF-alpha therapy. However, BMD variations were not significant. In RA patients treated with TNF-alpha blockers, BGP levels were found significantly increased (14.8 +/- 3.8 mg/mL vs. 22.4 +/- 4.2 mg/mL; P bone formation seems increased while bone resorption seems decreased. The reduced rate of OP appears to be supported by the same mechanisms involved in the decreased bone joint resorption during anti-TNF-alpha therapy, that is, the marked decrease of the proinflammatory (i.e., TNF-alpha) cytokine effects on bone metabolism. PMID:16855169

  15. Prediction of bone loss using biochemical markers of bone turnover.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenora, J.; Ivaska, Kaisa; Obrant, Karl; Gerdhem, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The association between baseline levels of eleven bone turnover markers and 5-year rate of bone density change was prospectively studied in a population-based sample of 601 75-year-old women. Several bone formation and resorption markers as well as urinary osteocalcin were modestly correlated to rate of bone density change. Introduction Prediction of bone loss by bone turnover markers (BTMs) has been investigated with conflicting results. There is limited information in the elderly. Methods E...

  16. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Swaminathan; Lucas, Robyn M.; David Harley; Mcmichael, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response,...

  17. The Effect of Global Change on Surface Ozone and Reactive Nitrogen Concentrations: Implications for the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, P. G.; Murazaki, K.; Emmons, L.; Lamarque, J.

    2005-12-01

    We simulated two ten year periods using the global chemical transport model MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers version 2): 1990-2000 and 2090-2100. In each case MOZART-2 is driven by meteorology from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) coupled Climate Systems Model (CSM) 1.0 forced with the (SRES) A1 scenario. Profound future changes in the summertime climate over the U.S. are found including changes in temperature, water vapor and clouds and the frequency of synoptic venting of the boundary layer. Even allowing for no changes in emissions in the future, the changes in climate alone drive a significant increase in the ozone concentration over the eastern U.S. (up to 5 ppbv on average) and an increase in the persistence of pollution events. Implications of these changes on the biosphere are assessed with and without allowing for the impact of climate on biogenic emissions. Furthermore the changes in climate alone cause large changes in the partitioning of NOy, decreasing PAN by over 20% over the U.S. Coupled with changes in precipitation; this induces significant changes in the deposition of nitrogen species to the biosphere in a future climate.

  18. Pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To examine the incidence of pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and to determine what constitutes a meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases. Patients and methods: Patients with bone metastases treated with external beam radiotherapy were asked to score their pain on a scale of 0-10 before the treatment (baseline), daily during the treatment and for 10 days after completion of external beam radiation. Pain flare was defined as a two-point increase from baseline pain in the pain scale of 0-10 with no decrease in analgesic intake or a 25% increase in analgesic intake employing daily oral morphine equivalent with no decrease in pain score. To distinguish pain flare from progression of pain, we required the pain score and analgesic intake to return back to baseline levels after the increase/flare. They were also asked to indicate if their pain changed during that time compared to pre-treatment level. The change in pain score was compared with patient perception. Results: Eighty-eight patients were evaluated in this study. There were 49 male and 39 female patients with the median age of 70 years. Twelve of 88 patients (14%) had pain flare on day 1. The overall incidence of pain flare during the study period ranged from 2 to 16%. A total of 797 pain scorings were obtained. Patients perceived an improvement in pain when their self-reported pain score decreased by at least two points. Conclusions: Our study confit two points. Conclusions: Our study confirms the occurrence of pain flare following the external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of bone metastases. Further studies are required to predict who are at risk for flare. Appropriate measures can be taken to alleviate the pain flare. The finding in the meaningful change in pain scores supports the investigator-defined partial response used in some clinical trials

  19. Strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Campos, Andrea P C; Martins Ferreira, Erlon H; San Gil, Rosane A S; Rossi, Alexandre M; Farina, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    We evaluate the effects of strontium ranelate on the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures, a system that gave us the advantage of obtaining mineral samples produced exclusively during treatment. Cells were treated with strontium ranelate at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 mM Sr(2+). Mineral substances were isolated and analyzed by using a combination of methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The minerals produced in all cell cultures were typical bone-like apatites. No changes occurred in the local structural order or crystal size of the minerals. However, we noticed several relevant changes in the mineral produced under 0.5 mM Sr(2+): (1) increase in type-B CO3 (2-) substitutions, which often lead to the creation of vacancies in Ca(2+) and OH(-) sites; (2) incorporation of Sr(2+) by substituting slightly less than 10 % of Ca(2+) in the apatite crystal lattice, resulting in an increase in both lattice parameters a and c; (3) change in the PO4 (3-) environments, possibly because of the expansion of the lattice; (4) the Ca/P ratio of this mineral was reduced, but its (Ca+Sr)/P ratio was the same as that of the control, indicating that its overall cation/P ratio was preserved. Thus, strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures. PMID:24859219

  20. MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor

  1. MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre-Jerome, Claude, E-mail: cpierr3@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Reyes, Emmanuel J.; Moncayo, Valeria; Chen, Zhengjia Nelson; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor.

  2. Changes of the proliferation kinetics of human bone marrow in vivo through hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-hour oral continuous infusion with hydroxyurea (HU) at a non-toxic concentration was performed in 20 malignoma patients with undisturbed bone marrow. Bone marrow taken before, during and after HU-administration was examined for 3H-TdR incorporation by means of autoradiography and liquid scintimetry, for cell phase distribution by means of flow cytophotometry, morphologically and by means of CFUc. 3H-TdR incorporation into bone marrow cells dropped to 16% of the initial value under HU and rose to 156% 10 h after HU-effect terminated. Cytophotometry did not furnish any proof of a decrease of S-phase cells or increase of cells in G1-to-S-transition during HU. S-cells rise to 129% of the initial value 10 h after having fallen below minimum inhibition concentration. Under HU, there is an equal number of cells in S which incorporate much less 3H-thymidine; after HU more S-cells incorporate more 3H-thymidine than before HU. During HU action, DNA synthesis activity is reduced to 17% and reaches the initial value with 105% afterwards. In human bone marrow, hydroxyurea in non-toxic concentration causes a temporary DNA synthesis inhibition in terms of activity reduction and partial arrest in S. A stop-and-go of the cell cycle effected by HU does not occur; the effect is rather a slow-down of DNA synthesis. (orig./MG)

  3. Age-related changes in bone mineral density, cross-sectional area and the strength of long bones in the hind limbs and first lumbar vertebra in female wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-related changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional area and bone strength index (SSI) of the femur, tibia, humerus. and first lumbar vertebra in female Wistar (WM/MsNrs) rats were examined by a quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) method. One hundred and sixteen virgin female Wistar (WM/MsNrs) rats aged 2-33 months were used. The data indicate that the total BMD values of metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones increased until 12 months, then decreased to a varying degree depending on the bone after 15-24 months, but the values of cortical and trabecular BMD with age were not always similar to the total BMD value. Nevertheless, the values for cross-sectional area and SSI in the long bones increased regardless of the total BMD decrease with age, indicating that this increase might have been due to a characteristic of the modeling pattern in rats. The total and cortical BMD values in the first lumbar vertebra decreased after 18 months, and SSI did after 15 months. The data obtained in this study were compared with those obtained from males in a previous study. In conclusion, it was indicated that in this strain the rats over 12 months with the highest total BMD values in the femur and tibia, and before the onset of various tumors, are useful as a model animal for osteoporosis experiments and observation of senile bone change

  4. A comparative study of changes in immunological reactivity during prolonged introduction of radioactive and chemical substances into the organism with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study was conducted into the factors of non-specific protection and specific immunity, allergic and autoallergic reactivities during prolonged exposure of experimental animals to 6 different radioactive and 7 harmful chemical substances. Qualitative and quantitative peculiarities were found in the changes in immunological reactivity during the exposure of the organism to radionuclides and stable chemical compounds. Impairment of immunity plays an essential role in the course and the outcome of effects induced by chronic action of the substances examined. (author)

  5. Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax Alterações histológicas e radiológicas no osso craniano na presença de cera de osso

    OpenAIRE

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz Albino de Almeida; Gustavo Paschoal; Daniela Franco Bueno; Luiz Carlos Vulcano; Maria Rita Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo Alonso

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm²) was performed in eight animals. The right side of the cranium remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. Th...

  6. Changes of bone mineral density and related parameters in patients of hyperthyroidism before and after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after 131I therapy. Methods: The serum levels of TT3, TT4, sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH), bone gla protein (BGP), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) of 58 patients with hyperthyroidism were measured and also the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the forearm, lumbar (L2-L4) and femur was obtained by dual photon X-ray before and after 131I therapy. Results: 1) Both BMD between the patients treated after 6 months, and before treatment, also the BMD between various 131I treated group and no response group had significant differences (P3 level before therapy was positively correlative to the serum BGP (r=0.4113, t=2.9896, P3 and CT/PTH radio (r=0.3613, t=2.6836, P131I therapy (authors)

  7. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations—particularly for children—to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

  8. Framework for reactive mass transport : Phase change modeling of concrete by a coupled mass transport and chemical equilibrium model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads MØnster; Johannesson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Reactive transport modeling is applicable for a range of porous materials. Here the modeling framework is focused on cement-based materials, where ion diffusion and migration are described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation system. A two phase vapor/liquid flow model, with a sorption hysteresis description is coupled to the system. The mass transport is solved by using the finite element method where the chemical equilibrium is solved explicitly by an operator splitting method. The IPHREEQC library is used as chemical equilibrium solver. The equation system, solved by IPHREEQC, is explained for aqueous, pure phase and solid solution reactions. Numerical examples, with cement-based materials, are constructed to demonstrate transient phase change modeling. A simulation of pure multi-species leaching from the material, showing deterioration of the solid phases is described and calculated. A second simulation, showing multi-species ingress with formation of new solid phases in the domain is described and calculated. It is shown that the numerical solution method is capable of solving the reactive mass transport system for the examples considered. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Perinatal exposure to environmental contaminants detected in Canadian Arctic human populations changes bone geometry and biomechanical properties in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbas, Lubna E; Finnilä, Mikko A; Herlin, Maria; Stern, Natalia; Trossvik, Christina; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie; Tuukkanen, Juha; Heimeier, Rachel A; Åkesson, Agneta; Håkansson, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Arctic inhabitants consume large proportions of fish and marine mammals, and are therefore continuously exposed to levels of environmental toxicants, which may produce adverse health effects. Fetuses and newborns are the most vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties during development following perinatal exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants corresponding to maternal blood levels in Canadian Arctic human populations. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed with a Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM) from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. NCM contains 27 contaminants comprising polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury. Femurs were collected on PND 35, 77 and 350, and diaphysis was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and three-point bending test, while femoral neck was assessed in an axial loading experiment. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish the benchmark dose (BMD) for the analyzed bone parameters. Exposure to the high dose of NMC resulted in short and thin femur with reduced mechanical strength in offspring at PND35. BMD of femur length, cortical area, and stiffness were 3.2, 1.6, and 0.8 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. At PND77 femur was still thin, but at PND350 no treatment-related bone differences were detected. This study provides new insights on environmental contaminants present in the maternal blood of Canadian Arctic populations, showing that perinatal exposure induces bone alterations in the young offspring. These findings could be significant from a health risk assessment point of view. PMID:21830859

  10. Changes in some parameters on immunological reactivity of irradiated and vaccinated pigs against Aujeszky's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was performed on ten two-month-old pigs irradiated with a dose rate of 2.2 Gy. The vaccination with a standard Aujeszky MK 35 vaccine was done on days 3 and 10, and re-vaccination - on day 17 after irradiation. The following parameters, reflecting the status of the immuno-biological reactivity, were estimated: total leucocyte count (Lc), differential WBC count (NTR, Lm), E-RFC and AEC-RFC, total T- and B-cell count, bacterial activity; phagocytic activity (PhA), antibody titer with RPHA. All parameters were measured before irradiation and on days 3, 7, 10, 17, 24 and 31 after vaccination. The analysis of the results showed that all parameters were influenced by irradiation and the values of most of them remained lower than initial values during the entire experimental period. Lc decreased in both groups, especially because the count of NTR and Lm decreased. That was supported by the E-, EAC-RFC, T- and B-cell count. The phagocyte count, phagocyte index and BA were negatively influenced at a greater extent in animals vaccinated on tenth day. The specific immune response was stronger and earlier manifested in animals vaccinated on the third day. The effect of vaccination, performed on the third day after irradiation, was an earlier activation of compensatory mechanisms in the experimental animals and resulted in a better specific immune response. (author)

  11. Adaptation strategies to climate change in the Arctic: a global patchwork of reactive community-scale initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic regions have experienced and will continue to experience the greatest rates of warming compared to any other region of the world. The people living in the Arctic are considered among most vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change ranging from decline in natural resources to increasing mental health concerns (IPCC 2014 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). A meta-analysis study by Ford et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 104005) has assessed the volume, scope and geographic distribution of reported in the English language peer-reviewed literature initiatives for adaptation to climate change in the Arctic. Their analysis highlights the reactive nature of the adopted policies with a strong emphasis on local and community-level policies mostly targeting indigenous population in Canada and Alaska. The study raises concerns about the lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track the success rate of the existing policies and the need for long-term strategic planning in adaption policies spanning international boundaries and including all groups of population.

  12. Early changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levelsand bone markers after monthly risedronatewith cholecalciferol in Korean patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung HY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ho Yeon Chung,1 Jawon Koo,1 Su Kyoung Kwon,2 Moo-IL Kang,3 Seong-Hwan Moon,4 Jin-Young Park,5 Chan Soo Shin,6 Byung-Koo Yoon,7 Hyun-Koo Yoon,8 Jae-Suk Chang,9 Yoon-Sok Chung,10 Hyoung-Moo Park111Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 2Department of Statistics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 4Department of Orthopedics, Yonsei University, 5Department of Orthopedics, Konkuk University, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sungkyunkwan University, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Kwandong University, 9Department of Orthopedics, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea; 10Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea; 11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South KoreaPurpose: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of monthly risedronate, with and without cholecalciferol, on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and bone markers in Korean patients with osteoporosis.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, prospective, 16-week clinical trial was conducted in ten hospitals. A total of 150 subjects with osteoporosis were randomized to one of the two treatment groups: RSDM+ (monthly risedronate 150 mg and cholecalciferol 30,000 IU combined in a single pill, n = 74 or RSDM (monthly risedronate 150 mg alone, n = 76. We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and bone markers, as well as performing muscle-function tests at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment.Results: After 16 weeks, serum 25(OHD levels significantly increased from 17.8 to 26.8 ng/mL in the RSDM+ group, but did not change in the RSDM group. The RSDM+ group exhibited significantly decreased serum PTH from 46 to 36.7 pg/mL, while the RSDM group showed a tendency for PTH to increase from 38 to 40.6 pg/mL. In both groups, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide rapidly declined, with significance at 16 weeks; there were no significant differences between the groups.Conclusion: A once-monthly pill of risedronate and cholecalciferol provided equivalent antiresorptive efficacy to risedronate alone in terms of bone turnover and improved 25(OHD levels over the 16-week treatment period without significant adverse events in Korean patients with osteoporosis. Keywords: bisphosphonate, cholecalciferol, bone markers, 25(OHD

  13. Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, [B10----AKR], against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of [B10----AKR] chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype

  14. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  15. Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features

    OpenAIRE

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Sharma, Ruby; Botha-scheepers, Stella A.; Le Graverand, Marie-pierre Hellio; Coene, L. Napoleon J. E. M.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43–76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR...

  16. Bone marrow cytomorphological changes in patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alana Jocelina Montenegro de, Castro; Romelia Pinheiro, Gonçalves; Maria Helena da Silva, Pitombeira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe systemic infectious disease.(1) It has been recognized as an opportunistic disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).(2,3) The analysis of the bone marrow of patients co-infected with VL and HIV showed dysplasia of erythroid, granulo [...] cytic and megakaryocytic lineages (Figure 1), besides the presence of plasmacytosis, cytoplasmic bodies, hemophagocytosis, granuloma and intracellular and extracellular leishmania amastigotes (Figure 2). These findings are found in the analysis of bone marrow of patients co-infected with HIV and VL; knowledge of these findings may be useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients.

  17. Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios : a radiographic study in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, SØren

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to learn about the volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone from the iliac crest or the mandible in different ratios in minipigs. Material and methods: Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 minipigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, and (E) 100% Bio-Oss. The autogenous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and expressed as mean percentage with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean volume of the graft was reduced by (A) 65% (95% CI: 60-70%), (B) 38% (95% CI: 35-41%), (C) 23% (95% CI: 21-25%), (D) 16% (95% CI: 12-21%), and (E) 6% (95% CI: 4-8%). The volumetric reduction was significantly influenced by the ratio of Bio-Oss and autogenous bone (P

  18. Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios: a radiographic study in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, SØren

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to learn about the volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone from the iliac crest or the mandible in different ratios in minipigs. Material and methods: Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 minipigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, and (E) 100% Bio-Oss. The autogenous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and expressed as mean percentage with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean volume of the graft was reduced by (A) 65% (95% CI: 60-70%), (B) 38% (95% CI: 35-41%), (C) 23% (95% CI: 21-25%), (D) 16% (95% CI: 12-21%), and (E) 6% (95% CI: 4-8%). The volumetric reduction was significantly influenced by the ratio of Bio-Oss and autogenous bone (P

  19. Maintenance of GLUT4 expression in smooth muscle prevents hypertension-induced changes in vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kevin B; Seki, Yoshinori; Saha, Jharna; Eichinger, Felix; Charron, Maureen J; Brosius, Frank C

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that expression of GLUT4 is decreased in arterial smooth muscle of hypertensive rats and mice and that total body overexpression of GLUT4 in mice prevents enhanced arterial reactivity in hypertension. To demonstrate that the effect of GLUT4 overexpression on vascular responses is dependent on vascular smooth muscle GLUT4 rather than on some systemic effect we developed and tested smooth-muscle-specific GLUT4 transgenic mice (SMG4). When made hypertensive with angiotensin II, both wild-type and SMG4 mice exhibited similarly increased systolic blood pressure. Responsiveness to phenylephrine, serotonin, and prostaglandin F2? was significantly increased in endothelium-intact aortic rings from hypertensive wild-type mice but not in aortae of SMG4 mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase equally reduced serotonin-stimulated contractility in aortae of hypertensive wild-type and SMG4-mice. In addition, acetylcholine-stimulated relaxation was significantly decreased in aortic rings of hypertensive wild-type mice, but not in rings of SMG4 mice. Inhibition of either prostacylin receptors or cyclooxygenase-2 reduced relaxation in rings of hypertensive SMG4 mice. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 had no effect on relaxation in rings of hypertensive wild-type mice. Cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression was decreased in hypertensive wild-type aortae but not in hypertensive SMG4 aortae compared to nonhypertensive controls. Our results demonstrate that smooth muscle expression of GLUT4 exerts a major effect on smooth muscle contractile responses and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and that normal expression of GLUT4 in vascular smooth muscle is required for appropriate smooth muscle and endothelial responses. PMID:25677552

  20. Volume changes of autogenous bone grafts after alveolar ridge augmentation of atrophic maxillae and mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, L; Toti, P; Menchini-Fabris, G B; Sbordone, C; Piombino, P; Guidetti, F

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present retrospective chart review was to determine the relationship between nonvascularized osseous graft remodeling and the three-dimensional (3D) features of grafts and recipient sites, the anatomical recipient regions and different graft sources. 32 iliac crest or chin grafts were onlay-positioned in the mandible or maxilla of 14 patients. CT scans, taken before implant positioning and after 1 year, revealed a mean volume resorption of 35-51%. For iliac crest grafts, the average resorption was 42% when the onlay was positioned in the anterior maxilla and 59% when it was positioned in the posterior mandible. Spearman correlation and 3D interpolation analysis revealed, for both iliac crest groups, a moderate or advanced remodeling pattern depending on 3D features, namely graft thickness and shape, basal bone volume of recipient site, and the basal bone/graft volume ratio of the recipient site. No statistically significant differences were found between the recipient and donor site groups. Retrospective analysis of the data indicates that iliac crest grafts, onlay-positioned on adequate basal bone volume, may register a reduced volume remodeling when shaped thick in the anterior maxilla or rounded and convex, on the external surface, in the posterior mandible. PMID:19632815

  1. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, purinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  2. Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2015-04-14

    Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom bodies change their activity and reactivity to stimuli during sleep, wake, and after short or long sleep deprivation. As before, sleep was defined as a period of immobility of >5 min associated with a reduced behavioral response to a stimulus. We found that calcium levels in Kenyon cells decline when flies fall asleep and increase when they wake up. Moreover, calcium transients in response to two different stimuli are larger in awake flies than in sleeping flies. The activity of Kenyon cells is also affected by sleep/wake history: in awake flies, more cells are spontaneously active and responding to stimuli if the last several hours (5-8 h) before imaging were spent awake rather than asleep. By contrast, long wake (?29 h) reduces both baseline and evoked neural activity and decreases the ability of neurons to respond consistently to the same repeated stimulus. The latter finding may underlie some of the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and is consistent with the occurrence of local sleep during wake as described in behaving rats. Thus, calcium imaging uncovers new similarities between fly and mammalian sleep: fly neurons are more active and reactive in wake than in sleep, and their activity tracks sleep/wake history. PMID:25825756

  3. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of muscle mass and the improved quality of the muscle tissue was observed and measured on whole muscle volume. The 3-dimensional approach proposed in this work allows the geometrical changes in denervated muscle to be measured. Central lines in rectus femoris are calculated during the treatment and the relative curvature indexes are used to quantify differences between data sets. The result shows a correlation between degeneration status and changes in shape; the differences in curvature between control and denervated muscle diminish with the growth. Furthermore, bone mineral density is measured on the femur to monitor the structural changes induced by the current flow and to evaluate the effect on the patella bone density due to the quadriceps contraction. Though the evidences aren’t yet statistically relevant a kind of structural change in the femur is measured as secondary effect from the muscle stimulation. Beside, the force applied on the patella through the elicited contraction seems also to have a beneficial effect on bone density. Indeed the mineral loss in the patella is remarkably slowed down.

  4. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) of bone and cartilage transplants in the knee. Transplant morphology and an attempt at a quantitative evaluation of cartilage changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRT control examinations were carried out on 15 patients with allogenic bone-cartilage transplants in the knee. Spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences were obtained by using a flat surface coil. The results were compared with arthroscopic and operative findings. In 8 symptom-free patients, there was inclusion of the bone implant with narrow, but smooth, cartilage. 7 patients with recurrence of symptoms showed various complications such as oedema of the marrow, exudative synovitis, cartilage oedema, degenerative cartilagenous changes with regeneration of fibro-cartilage and localised cartilage defects. Spin-echo sequences were useful for showing bone, whereas gradient-echo sequences proved better for showing changes in the cartilage. MRT can be recommended as the method of choice for the non-invasive control of bone-cartilage transplants. (orig.)

  5. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP Bone Scintigraphy Finding of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Bone Lesion Changed from Hot to Cold Lesion: Comparing with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Duk; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Kun Ho [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    A 26-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy for detecting bony metastasis after left total nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy showed small hot lesion in the first lumbar spine. About 12 months later, he underwent spinal MRI for lower back pain. A large mass was seen around spinous process of the first lumbar spine (L1) on spinal MRI and confirmed as metastatic renal cell carcinoma by bone biopsy. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were underwent for further evaluation. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy showed cold lesion in the first lumbar spine which was initially hot and newly developed hot lesion in the twelfth thoracic spine, and which were shown as hypermetabolic lesions in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. We report a case of bony metastasis from renal cell carcinoma which is changed from hot lesion to cold lesion in {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy and compare with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  6. Changed morphology and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the mandibular condyles of edentate people : Giesen EB, Ding M, Dalstra M, van Eijden TM.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Since edentate subjects have a reduced masticatory function, it can be expected that the morphology of the cancellous bone of their mandibular condyles has changed according to the altered mechanical environment. In the present study, the morphology of cylindrical cancellous bone specimens of the mandibular condyles of edentate subjects (n = 25) was compared with that of dentate subjects (n = 24) by means of micro-computed tomography and by the application of Archimedes' principle. Stiffness ...

  7. Changes in functional activity of bone tissue cells under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Nesterenko, Olga; Kabitskaya, Olga

    The space flight conditions affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bon?s metaphyses of rats flown on board the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) during 2 weeks and samples from tibial bones of mice C57 Black ( Bion ?-1). It was established, that under microgravity conditions there occur remodelling processes in a spongy bone related with a deficit of support load. In this work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure of osteogenetic cells and osteoclasts. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a synchronous control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction of a specific volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cytoplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity conditions. The population of osteogenetic cells shows a decrease in the number of differentiating osteoblasts and an increase in the number of little-differentiated stromal cells. In the population of osteoblasts, degrading and apoptotic cells are sometimes encountered. Such zones show a numerical increase of monocytic cells and osteoclasts. Among them are typical osteoclasts with 3 to 4 nuclei on a section, as well as the "giant" cells with 5 to 6 nuclei and a highly developed zone 2, in which organelles and structures are concentrated, providing for specific functions (primary and secondary lysosomes, heterophagous vacuoles, fibrous layer and "brush border"). The availability of these functionally active osteoclasts testify to the intensification of resorptive processes in remodelling zones. To confirm the obtained electronmicroscopic findings, the experiments were conducted on albino rats under model microgravity conditions ("tail suspension" method) with the use of radionuclides. The experiments with 3H-glycine demonstrated a lower isotope uptake in the osteogenetic cells compared with the control. The autoradiographic studies employing 3H-thymidine, showed that hind limbs unloading leads to a significant acceleration of osteoclast formation in zones of spongy bone reconstruction. Considering the obtained results, the cell mechanisms of osteoclast - osteoblast remodelling and bone tissue loss under the action of space flight factors are discussed.

  8. Immediate periodontal bone plate changes induced by rapid maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition: CT findings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Gamba, Garib; Maria Helena Ocké, Menezes; Omar Gabriel da, Silva Filho; Patricia Bittencourt Dutra dos, Santos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar alterações das tábuas ósseas vestibulares e linguais decorrentes da expansão rápida da maxila (ERM), em pacientes na dentição mista, por meio de tomografia computadorizada (TC). MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por exames de TC helicoidal [...] , realizados de 22 pacientes com dentição mista, dos 6 aos 9 anos de idade (média de 8,1 anos), com atresia maxilar, tratados com expansores do tipo Haas. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada helicoidal antes da expansão e após o período de ativação de parafuso expansor, com 30 dias de intervalo entre as fases T1 e T2. A reconstrução multiplanar foi usada para medir a espessura da tábua óssea vestibular e lingual e a altura da crista óssea alveolar dos dentes posteriores decíduos e dos dentes permanentes. As alterações induzidas pela expansão foram avaliadas usando o teste t pareado (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating buccal and lingual bone plate changes caused by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the mixed dentition by means of computed tomography (CT). METHODS: The sample comprised spiral CT exams taken from 22 mixed dentition patients from 6 to 9 years of age ( [...] mean age of 8.1 years) presenting constricted maxillary arch treated with Haas-type expanders. Patients were submitted to spiral CT scan before expansion and after the screw activation period with a 30-day interval between T1 and T2. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to measure buccal and lingual bone plate thickness and buccal bone crest level of maxillary posterior deciduous and permanent teeth. Changes induced by expansion were evaluated using paired t test (p

  9. Arsenic induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by reactive oxygen species generation rather than glutathione depletion in Chang human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huihui; Xue, Peng; Li, Xin; Li, Bing; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the possible involvement of mitochondrial pathway in NaAsO{sub 2}-induced apoptosis and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the apoptotic effect in Chang human hepatocytes. The MTT assay demonstrated that sodium arsenite (NaAsO{sub 2}) treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. NaAsO{sub 2} treatment (0-30{mu}M) was also found to induce phosphatidylserine externalization, a hallmark of apoptosis; to disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}); to cause the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and to trigger cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a dose-dependent manner. All these changes were accompanied with the enhanced generation of intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA). Increase of intracellular GSH also coincided unexpectedly. Moreover, the extracellular addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) effectively reduced the generation of ROS and MDA, and rescued the cells from NaAsO{sub 2} induced apoptosis and related alteration of mitochondria. These data suggest that the arsenic-induced cell apoptosis occurs though the mitochondrial pathway, and is mostly dependent on generation of ROS rather than GSH depletion in Chang human hepatocytes. (orig.)

  10. Changes in human bone marrow colony-forming cells following chemotherapy using an agar diffusion-chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been made of the effects of cyclophosphamide on the early granulocytic precursor cells in the marrow of patients receiving intermittent high doses (5 g) of the drug. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a single cytotoxic agent on normal granulocytic precursor cells; measurements have been made of the initial cytotoxicity, recovery, and changes in proliferation rate. The growth of granulocytic colonies was assayed in agar diffusion chambers. For this, bone marrow cells were suspended in semisolid agar medium, introduced into diffusion chambers for intraperitoneal incubation in radiated (900 rad 60Co ?) mice. The colonies present in the agar were scored 8-9 days later. In addition to measuring the effect of treatment on the colony-forming capacity of the patients' marrow, full dose-response curves were obtained by injecting graded doses of cyclophosphamide into chamber-bearing mice--the method allows some account to be taken of the continuous changes in drug activity, which occurs during its degradation in vivo. Comparison of these results with measurements of the sensitivity of mouse femoral cells under the same conditions or exposed to cyclophosphamide in situ in the donor mouse has been used to detect any effect of the culture environment or the response of the cells. Following treatment with cyclophosphamide, the incidence of colony precursor cells in the patients' marrow has been monitored. Changes in the proliferation rateitored. Changes in the proliferation rate of these cells during the recovery period have also been estimated by measuring their sensitivity to the S-phase specific drug, cytosine arabinoside. Information on the timing of changes in the incidence and proliferation rate of granulocytic precursor cells may provide guidelines for improving schedules of treatment in an attempt to reduce the attendant bone marrow toxicity

  11. Nanoscale changes in collagen are reflected in physical and mechanical properties of bone at the microscale in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Max A; Gallant, Maxime A; Burr, David B; Wallace, Joseph M

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes detrimentally affects the musculoskeletal system by stiffening the collagen matrix due to increased advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this study, tibiae and tendon from Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) rats were compared to Sprague-Dawley derived controls (CD) using Atomic Force Microscopy. ZDSD and CD tibiae were compared using Raman Spectroscopy and Reference Point Indentation (RPI). ZDSD bone had a significantly different distribution of collagen D-spacing than CD (p=0.015; ZDSD n=294 fibrils; CD n=274 fibrils) which was more variable and shifted to higher values. This shift between ZDSD and CD D-spacing distribution was more pronounced in tendon (pdiabetes may preferentially reduce the Raman signature of collagen. Decreased indentation distance increase (p=0.010) and creep indentation distance (p=0.040) measured by RPI (n=9 per group) in ZDSD rats suggest a matrix more resistant to indentation under the high stresses associated with RPI at this length scale. There were significant correlations between Raman and RPI measurements in the ZDSD population (n=18 locations) but not the CD population (n=16 locations) indicating that while RPI is relatively unaffected by biological noise, it is sensitive to disease-induced compositional changes. In conclusion, diabetes in the ZDSD rat causes changes to the nanoscale morphology of collagen that result in compositional and mechanical effects in bone at the microscale. PMID:24269519

  12. Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT imaging using 3D reformations (3DR with shaded surface display (SSD and maximum intensity projection (MIP in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ. Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374 was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

  13. IS 3D-CT REFORMATION USING FREE SOFTWARE APPLICABLE TO DIAGNOSIS OF BONE CHANGES IN MANDIBULAR CONDYLES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt; Morais, Luciano Engelmann; Silva, Daniela Nascimento; de Oliveira, Helena Willhelm; Heitz, Cláiton; Gaião, Lêonilson

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT) imaging using 3D reformations (3DR) with shaded surface display (SSD) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR) images, used as the criterion standard. Material and Methods: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ). Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. Results: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374) was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. Conclusions: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles. PMID:19466245

  14. Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Gerhardt de, Oliveira; Luciano Engelmann, Morais; Daniela Nascimento, Silva; Helena Willhelm de, Oliveira; Cláiton, Heitz; Lêonilson, Gaião.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT) imaging using 3D reformations (3DR) with shaded surface display (SSD) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared fin [...] dings with multiplanar reformation (MPR) images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ). Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374) was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

  15. Multiscale modeling of porosity, permeability, diffusivity and reactive surface changes during dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhukhan, S.; Gouze, Philippe; Dentz, Marco; Dutta, T.

    2012-01-01

    Meshed models in which equations are solved assuming that constant effective macroscopic properties can be defined in each cells are essential tools for predicting reservoir properties changes triggered by mineral dissolution (or precipitation) due to CO2 injection. However, the parameterization of the dissolution–precipitation problem and their feedback effects on the flow field are still challenging. The problem arises from the mismatch between the scales at which averaged parameters and ...

  16. Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author)

  17. Evaluation of sequential FDG-PET/CT for monitoring bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Correlation between morphological and metabolic changes with tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings for evaluating the bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Forty-seven patients with bone metastases from breast cancer who underwent sequential 18F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT studies during therapy were enrolled. A total of 771 lesions were identified. The changes in the PET and CT findings were compared with the tumor marker levels in each patient by calculating the weighted kappa value. The correlation between the PET and CT findings was examined for each lesion by an adjusted Chi-square test. The change in the tumor marker levels was substantially correlated with the PET findings and moderately correlated with the CT findings (weighted kappa=0.780 and 0.585 for quadratic weighting, respectively). An increase in FDG uptake was correlated with lytic changes on the CT images (62/65, 95.4%, p<0.05). Sclerotic changes suggested improvement, but sclerosis and progression occurred at the same time in some lesions. Changes of FDG uptake are useful for evaluating individual bone metastases in cases of breast cancer during therapy. Lytic change on CT images suggests progression of bone metastasis. The lysis-progression/sclerosis-improvement pattern was observed in the majority of subjects, but a sclerosis-progression pattern was also observed. The hybrid pattern of increase of FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is m FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is most accurate to show progression of bone metastases. Assessments of these processes during therapy are necessary for the precise evaluation of bone metastases. (author)

  18. Fatty acids binding to human serum albumin: Changes of reactivity and glycation level of Cysteine-34 free thiol group with methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavi?evi?, Ivan D; Jovanovi?, Vesna B; Taki?, Marija M; Penezi?, Ana Z; A?imovi?, Jelena M; Mandi?, Ljuba M

    2014-10-17

    Fatty acids (FAs) binding to human serum albumin (HSA) could lead to the changes of Cys-34 thiol group accessibility and reactivity, i.e. its scavenger capacity and antioxidant property. The influence of saturated, mono and poly unsaturated, and fish oil FAs binding to HSA on the carbonylation level and the reactivity of HSA-SH and HSA modified with methylglyoxal (MG-HSA-SH) was investigated. Changes of thiol group reactivity were followed by determination of pseudo first order rate constant (k') for thiols reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). HSA changes were monitored using native PAG electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy. For FA/HSA molar ratios screening, qTLC and GC were used. FAs increase thiol group carbonylation levels from 8% to 20%. The k' values obtained for FAs-free HSA-SH and FAs-free MG-HSA-SH are almost equal (7.5×10(-3) and 7.7×10(-3)s(-1), resp.). Binding of all FAs amplify the reactivity (k' values from 14.6×10(-3) to 26.0×10(-3)s(-1)) of HSA-SH group for 2-3.5times in the order: palmitic, docosahexaenoic, fish oil extract, stearic, oleic, myristic and eicosapentaenoic acid, due to HSA conformational changes. FAs-bound MG-HSA-SH samples follow that pattern, but their k' values (from 9.8×10(-3) to 14.3×10(-3)s(-1)) were lower compared to unmodified HSA due to additional conformation changes of HSA molecules during carbonylation. Carbonylation level and reactivity of Cys34 thiol group of unmodified and carbonylated HSA depend on type of FAs bound to HSA, which implies the possibility for modulation of -SH reactivity (scavenger capacity and antioxidant property) by FAs as a supplement. PMID:25451573

  19. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition of children with well-controlled homocystinuria caused by CBS deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J S; Lee, D H

    2013-09-01

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of methionine. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, dislocation of the optic lens, vascular lesions, arterial and venous thromboembolism, skeletal abnormalities, and osteoporosis. Most homocystinuria patients diagnosed in adulthood have severe osteoporosis, and homocystinuria is frequently mentioned as a cause of osteoporosis. Good control of plasma homocysteine may prevent or delay some of these complications. However, the effectiveness of bone mineral density (BMD) gain or fracture prevention has not been addressed. Here, we describe changes in BMD and body composition in 5 CBS deficiency patients who were diagnosed at young age and were managed with good metabolic control. We found that the BMD of each region was within the normal range. BMD gain was adequate and the patients had no significant change in skeletal morphology. PMID:23685761

  20. Heavy-metal-induced reactive oxygen species: phytotoxicity and physicochemical changes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dumat, Camille; Nadeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities have enhanced there distribution of many toxic heavy metals from the earth's crust to different environmental compartments. Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metals is increasing worldwide, and poses a rising threat to both the environment and to human health.Plants are exposed to heavy metals from various sources: mining and refining of ores, fertilizer and pesticide applications, battery chemicals, disposal of solid wastes(including sewage sludge), irrigation with wastewater, vehicular exhaust emissions and adjacent industrial activity.Heavy metals induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants, either directly or indirectly, and cause various damaging effects. The most frequently documented and earliest consequence of heavy metal toxicity in plants cells is the overproduction of ROS. Unlike redox-active metals such as iron and copper, heavy metals (e.g, Pb, Cd, Ni, AI, Mn and Zn) cannot generate ROS directly by participating in biological redox reactions such as Haber Weiss/Fenton reactions. However, these metals induce ROS generation via different indirect mechanisms, such as stimulating the activity of NADPH oxidases, displacing essential cations from specific binding sites of enzymes and inhibiting enzymatic activities from their affinity for -SH groups on the enzyme.Under normal conditions, ROS play several essential roles in regulating the expression of different genes. Reactive oxygen species control numerous processes like the cell cycle, plant growth, abiotic stress responses, systemic signalling, programmed cell death, pathogen defence and development. Enhanced generation of these species from heavy metal toxicity deteriorates the intrinsic antioxidant defense system of cells, and causes oxidative stress. Cells with oxidative stress display various chemical,biological and physiological toxic symptoms as a result of the interaction between ROS and biomolecules. Heavy-metal-induced ROS cause lipid peroxidation, membrane dismantling and damage to DNA, protein and carbohydrates. Plants have very well-organized defense systems, consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidation processes. The primary defense mechanism for heavy metal detoxification is the reduced absorption of these metals into plants or their sequestration in root cells.Secondary heavy metal tolerance mechanisms include activation of antioxidant enzymes and the binding of heavy metals by phytochelatins, glutathione and amino acids. These defense systems work in combination to manage the cascades of oxidative stress and to defend plant cells from the toxic effects of ROS.In this review, we summarized the biochemiCal processes involved in the over production of ROS as an aftermath to heavy metal exposure. We also described the ROS scavenging process that is associated with the antioxidant defense machinery.Despite considerable progress in understanding the biochemistry of ROS overproduction and scavenging, we still lack in-depth studies on the parameters associated with heavy metal exclusion and tolerance capacity of plants. For example, data about the role of glutathione-glutaredoxin-thioredoxin system in ROS detoxification in plant cells are scarce. Moreover, how ROS mediate glutathionylation (redox signalling)is still not completely understood. Similarly, induction of glutathione and phytochelatins under oxidative stress is very well reported, but it is still unexplained that some studied compounds are not involved in the detoxification mechanisms. Moreover,although the role of metal transporters and gene expression is well established for a few metals and plants, much more research is needed. Eventually, when results for more metals and plants are available, the mechanism of the biochemical and genetic basis of heavy metal detoxification in plants will be better understood. Moreover, by using recently developed genetic and biotechnological tools it may be possible to produce plants that have traits desirable for imparting heavy meta

  1. Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Daisuke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic bone cancer pain is thought to be partly due to central sensitization. Although murine models of bone cancer pain revealed significant neurochemical changes in the spinal cord, it is not known whether this produces functional alterations in spinal sensory synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined excitatory synaptic responses evoked in substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices of adult mice bearing bone cancer, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques. Results Mice at 14 to 21 days after sarcoma implantation into the femur exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of the ipsilateral hind paw, as well as showing spontaneous and movement evoked pain-related behaviors. SG neurons exhibited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The amplitudes of spontaneous EPSCs were significantly larger in cancer-bearing than control mice without any changes in passive membrane properties of SG neurons. In the presence of TTX, the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in SG neurons was increased in cancer-bearing mice and this was observed for cells sampled across a wide range of lumbar segmental levels. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by focal stimulation were also enhanced in cancer-bearing mice. Dorsal root stimulation elicited mono- and/or polysynaptic EPSCs that were caused by the activation of A? and/or C afferent fibers in SG neurons from both groups of animals. The number of cells receiving monosynaptic inputs from A? and C fibers was not different between the two groups. However, the amplitude of the monosynaptic C fiber-evoked EPSCs and the number of SG neurons receiving polysynaptic inputs from A? and C fibers were increased in cancer-bearing mice. Conclusions These results show that spinal synaptic transmission mediated through A? and C fibers is enhanced in the SG across a wide area of lumbar levels following sarcoma implantation in the femur. This widespread spinal sensitization may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the development of chronic bone cancer pain.

  2. Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

  3. Utilizing time-lapse micro-CT-correlated bisphosphonate binding kinetics and soft tissue-derived input functions to differentiate site-specific changes in bone metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, R J; Campbell, G M; Müller, M; Glüer, C C; Tiwari, S

    2015-05-01

    The turnover of bone is a tightly regulated process between bone formation and resorption to ensure skeletal homeostasis. This process differs between bone types, with trabecular bone often associated with higher turnover than cortical bone. Analyses of bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) reveal changes in structure and mineral content, but are limited in the study of metabolic activity at a single time point, while analyses of serum markers can reveal changes in bone metabolism, but cannot delineate the origin of any aberrant findings. To obtain a site-specific assessment of bone metabolic status, bisphosphonate binding kinetics were utilized. Using a fluorescently-labeled bisphosphonate, we show that early binding kinetics monitored in vivo using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) can monitor changes in bone metabolism in response to bone loss, stimulated by ovariectomy (OVX), or bone gain, resulting from treatment with the anabolic bone agent parathyroid hormone (PTH), and is capable of distinguishing different, metabolically distinct skeletal sites. Using time-lapse micro-CT, longitudinal bone turnover was quantified. The spine showed a significantly greater percent resorbing volume and surface in response to OVX, while mice treated with PTH showed significantly greater resorbing volume per bone surface in the spine and significantly greater forming surfaces in the knee. Correlation studies between binding kinetics and micro-CT suggest that forming surfaces, as assessed by time-lapse micro-CT, are preferentially reflected in the rate constant values while forming and resorbing bone volumes primarily affect plateau values. Additionally, we developed a blood pool correction method which now allows for quantitative multi-compartment analyses to be conducted using FMT. These results further expand our understanding of bisphosphonate binding and the use of bisphosphonate binding kinetics as a tool to monitor site-specific changes in bone metabolism in vivo. PMID:25613175

  4. Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax Alterações histológicas e radiológicas no osso craniano na presença de cera de osso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm² was performed in eight animals. The right side of the cranium remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. The areas of the bone defects were measured in three-dimensional images using Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD. RESULTS: The average amount of bone formation on the left and right side respectively was 4.85 mm² and 8.16 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation on the left and right sides were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Bone wax significantly diminishes the rate of bone formation in calvarial defects in a rat model.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a formação óssea da região da calvaria de ratos Wistar submetidos à craniotomia com a utilização de cera de osso como agente hemostático. MÉTODOS: Cirurgia para realizar um defeito ósseo craniano bilateral, simétrico (área: 18 mm² e com espessura total foi realizado em oito animais. O lado direito do crânio permaneceu aberto e as extremidades do defeito ósseo do lado esquerdo foram recobertas com cera de osso. O crânio foi submetido à avaliação radiológica imediatamente após a cirurgia e 12 semanas após a cirurgia com a utilização de tomografia computadorizada. As áreas dos defeitos ósseos foram medidas através de imagens tridimensionais e utilizando o programa de computador Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD. RESULTADOS: A quantidade média de formação óssea no lado esquerdo e direito foi respectivamente de 4.85 mm² e 8.16 mm². Diferença estatisticamente significante foi observada entre o lado direito e esquerdo. CONCLUSÕES: A cera de osso diminuiu significativamente a formação óssea nos defeitos ósseos em modelo animal.

  5. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on November 4; one week earlier of the largest seismic event registered during this volcanic crisis on November 11 (M = 4.6). This observed physico-chemical changes in the ground water system might be explained as a result of the changes on the strain/stress field due to the seismic activity enhancing mixing of water bodies with different conductivities.

  6. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  7. Tendon to bone tunnel healing--a study on the time-dependent changes in biomechanics, bone remodeling, and histology in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorthaug, Geir Aasmund; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars; Reinholt, Finn P; Steen, Harald; Dimmen, Sigbjorn

    2015-02-01

    Tendons and ligaments attach to bone through a transitional connective tissue with complex biomechanical properties. This unique tissue is not regenerated during healing, and surgical reattachment therefore often fails. The present study was designed to evaluate tendon healing in a bone tunnel and to evaluate the utilized rat model. Wistar rats (n = 61) were operated with the Achilles tendon through a bone tunnel in the distal tibia. Healing was evaluated at 2, 3, 4, and 12 weeks by biomechanical testing, bone mineral density and histology. After 2 weeks median (interquartile range) pull-out force was 2.2 N (1.9). The pull-out force increased chronologically, by 12 weeks fivefold to 11.2 N (11.4). Energy absorption, stiffness, and bone mineral density increased similarly. The histological analyses showed inflammation at early stages with increasing callus by time. Our data showed a slow healing response the first 4 weeks followed by an accelerated healing period, favoring that most of the gain in mechanical strength occurred later than 4 weeks postoperatively. These findings support the concern of a vulnerable tendon bone tunnel interface in the early stages of healing. PMID:25367445

  8. Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 ±6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P?0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CTTOTFEM and CTTROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip s integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by volumetric QCT may be suggested

  9. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  10. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  11. Acid-induced change in ozone-reactive site in indole ring of tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that ozone as well as oxygen activated by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase cleave the 2,3-C=C bond of the indole ring of tryptophan to produce N-formylkynurenine. In the present study, however, we found that exposure of tryptophan to aqueous ozone at and below pH 4.5 generated a different compound. The compound was identified as kynurenine by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Exposure of N-formylkynurenine to acidic ozone did not generate a significant amount of kynurenine, indicating that the kynurenine was not produced via N-formylkynurenine. Acidic ozone thus appears to cleave the 1, 2-N-C bond in place of the 2,3-C=C bond of the indole ring, followed by liberation of the 2-C atom. The 1,2-N-C bond and 2,3-C=C bond are likely to undergo changes in their nature of bonding on acidification, enabling ozone to react with the former bond but not with the latter bond.

  12. Radiation-induced changes in the patterns of free ninhydrin-reactive substances of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of minced lean beef and pork, breast muscle of chicken, and white meat of carp packed in polyethylene/Hostaphan bags were irradiated in the presence of air at about 250C with 10-MeV electrons. The doses applied were for beef 0.5-20 Mrad, and for other meat samples 10 Mrad. In the dose range of 0-5 Mrad, no statistically significant changes in the composition of the free amino acids and similar compounds usually present in beef were found. In the dose range between 10 and 20 Mrad a tendency towards small losses in such components became obvious. In beef samples irradiated at doses >= 0.5 Mrad a new substance (Y) appeared distinctly in the zone of the basic amino-acids. This compound was detected by two independent methods, column chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. The yellow colour of the band appearing above carnosine in the pherogram was striking. Substance Y was also found after irradiation of pork and chicken meat. At a dose of 10 Mrad the concentration of Y in white chicken meat was nearly three times higher than in beef and pork. After irradiation of white carp muscle no Y, but another new basic compound (X) was observed. In the pherograms it appeared as a brwonish-red band above ?-alanine. (orig./AJ)

  13. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small anima...

  14. Radiation-induced changes in the patterns of free ninhydrin-reactive substances of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of minced lean beef and pork, breast muscle of chicken, and white meat of carp packed in polyethylene/Hostaphan bags were irradiated in the presence of air at about 250C with 10-MeV electrons. The doses applied were for beef 0.5-20 Mrad, and for other meat samples 10 Mrad. In the dose range of 0-5 Mrad, no statistically significant changes in the composition of the free amino acids and similar compounds usually present in beef were found. In the dose range between 10 and 20 Mrad a tendency towards small losses in such components became obvious. In beef samples irradiated at doses >= 0.5 Mrad a new substance (Y) appeared distinctly in the zone of the basic amino-acids. This compound was detected by two independent methods, column chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. The yellow colour of the band appearing above carnosine in the pherogram was striking. Substance Y was also found after irradiation of pork and chicken meat. At a dose of 10 Mrad the concentration of Y in white chicken meat was nearly three times higher than in beef and pork. After irradiation of white carp muscle no Y, but another new basic compound (X) was observed. In the pherograms it appeared as a brownish-red band above ?-alanine. The irradiation products X and Y may be used to find out whether meat of animals as used in this investigation had been exposed to radiation, if doses of 0.5 Mrad or higher were applied. (orig.)

  15. Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Sommakia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes. We also show that applying 4000 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG prevents impedance increases in vitro, and reduces the percent change in impedance in vivo following implantation. Our results highlight the importance of considering the contributions of non-cellular components to the decline in neural microelectrode performance, and present a proof of concept for using a simple dip-coated PEG film to modulate changes in microelectrode impedance.

  16. Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet; Botha-Scheepers, Stella A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Groton, Groton, CT (United States); Coene, L.N.J.E.M. [Haga Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43-76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR images were made at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. BME lesions in 2 years were associated with clinical features assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scores. A total of 327 BME lesions were recorded. Total size of BME lesions changed in 90 patients (66%). Size of individual lesions changed in 147 foci (45%): new lesions appeared in 69 (21%), existing lesions disappeared in 32 (10%), increased in size in 26 (8%) and decreased in size in 20 (6%) lesions. Increase or decrease of BME lesions, over a 2-year time period, was not associated with severity of WOMAC scores. BME lesions fluctuated in the majority of patients with OA over a 2-year time period. These changes were not associated with severity of WOMAC scores at the study end point. (orig.)

  17. Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43-76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR images were made at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. BME lesions in 2 years were associated with clinical features assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scores. A total of 327 BME lesions were recorded. Total size of BME lesions changed in 90 patients (66%). Size of individual lesions changed in 147 foci (45%): new lesions appeared in 69 (21%), existing lesions disappeared in 32 (10%), increased in size in 26 (8%) and decreased in size in 20 (6%) lesions. Increase or decrease of BME lesions, over a 2-year time period, was not associated with severity of WOMAC scores. BME lesions fluctuated in the majority of patients with OA over a 2-year time period. These changes were not associated with severity of WOMAC scores at the study end point. (orig.)

  18. Regressive and reactive changes in the connectivity patterns of rod and cone pathways of P23H transgenic rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, N; Pinilla, I; Sauvé, Y; Lu, B; Wang, S; Lund, R D

    2004-01-01

    We have used the P23H line 1 homozygous albino rat to study how progressive photoreceptor degeneration affects rod and cone relay pathways. We examined P23H retinas at different stages of degeneration by confocal microscopy of immunostained sections and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. By 21 days of age in the P23H rat retina, there is already substantial loss of rods and reduction in rod bipolar dendrites along with reduction of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) and rod-associated bassoon staining. The cone pathway is relatively unaffected. By 150 days, when rods are absent from much of the retina, some rod bipolars remain and dendrites of rod and cone bipolar cells form synaptic complexes associated with cones and horizontal cell processes. These complexes include foci of mGluR6 and bassoon staining; they develop further by 270 days of age. Over the course of degeneration, beginning at 21 days, bipolar axon terminals atrophy and the inner retina undergoes further changes including a reduced and disorganized AII amacrine cell population and thinning of the inner plexiform layer. Electroretinogram (ERG) results at 23 days show reductions in a-wave amplitude, in rod and cone-associated b-waves (using a double flash paradigm) and in the amplitude of oscillatory potentials (OPs). By 38 days, rod scotopic a-wave responses and OPs are lost. B-wave amplitudes decline until 150 days, at which point they are purely cone-driven and remain stable up to 250 days. The results show that during the course of photoreceptor loss in the P23H rat, there are progressive degenerative changes, particularly in the rod relay pathway, and these are reflected in the changing ERG response patterns. Later reactive changes involving condensation of cone terminals and neurotransmitter receptors associated with rod and cone bipolar dendrites and with horizontal cell processes suggest that at this stage, there are likely to be complex changes in the relay of sensory information through the retina. PMID:15262321

  19. The Role of Sleep in Changing Our Minds: A Psychologist's Discussion of Papers on Memory Reactivation and Consolidation in Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rosalind D.

    2004-01-01

    The group of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep included in this volume represents cutting edge work in both animals and humans. They support that the two types of sleep serve different necessary functions. The role of slow wave sleep (SWS) is reactivation of the hippocampal-neocortical circuits activated during a waking…

  20. Oxygen extraction fraction and cerebrovascular reactivity to PaCO2 change in ischemic brain measured by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelations between oxygen extraction (OEF) and cerebrovascular reactivity to PaCO2 change (VRCO2) in ischemic brain were measured by the 15O gases steady state method and the H215O autoradiographic method using a positron emission tomography. OEF at rest and VRCO2 for hypercapnia and hypocapnia were assessed successively in five cross sections of 10 mm image resolution. With each study correlation coefficients between OEF and VRCO2 were calculated using 30 to 40 regions of interest. In hypercapnic measurements those which had a larger ischemic region resulted in a higher incident of a negative correlation. Fifteen of 19 studies (79 %) showed the negative correlation. From the regression lines which showed significant correlation a mean OEF at VRCO2 = 0 was 0.54 ± 0.09, which might indicate the point at the maximal dilatation of the resistance vessels. On the other hand, in hypocapnic studies only five of 18 (28 %) showed apositive correlation, and the other measurements showed diffusely negative VRCO2 over the whole regions in the brain. (author)

  1. Influence of closed skill and open skill warm-ups on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R; Leveritt, Michael D; Aldred, Murry J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two different dynamic warm-up conditions, one that was inclusive of open skills (i.e., reactive movements) and one that included only preplanned dynamic activities (i.e., closed skills) on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes. Fourteen (six male, eight female) junior (mean +/- SD age, 16.3 +/- 0.7 year) basketball players participated in this study. Testing was conducted on 2 separate days using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Each athlete performed a standardized 7-minute warm-up consisting of general dynamic movements and stretching. After the general warm-up, athletes were randomly allocated into one of two groups that performed a dynamic 15-minute warm-up consisting entirely of open or closed skills. Each of the warm-up conditions consisted of five activities of 3 minute duration. At the completion of the warm-up protocol, players completed assessments of reactive agility, speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprints), change of direction speed (T-test), and vertical jump. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected among warm-up conditions for speed, vertical jump, change of direction speed, and reactive agility performances. The results of this study demonstrate that either open skill or closed skill warm-ups can be used effectively for team sport athletes without compromising performance on open skill and closed skill tasks. PMID:18714250

  2. Changes in micro-CT 3D bone parameters reflect effects of a potent cathepsin K inhibitor (SB-553484) on bone resorption and cortical bone formation in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Anbo; Kanematsu, Masahiro; Kumar, Sanjay; Yamashita, Dennis; Kaise, Toshihiko; Kikkawa, Hideo; Asano, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Mine

    2007-05-01

    Cathepsin K is a cysteine proteinase that is highly expressed by osteoclasts and is being pursued as a potential drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. We have reported that microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of bone microarchitecture may serve as a valuable tool for evaluating both antiresorptive and anabolic agents in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of SB-553484, a novel cathepsin K inhibitor (human Ki,app=0.14 nM, mouse Ki,app=26 nM), on the OVX mice by micro-CT bone morphometric analysis. Seven weeks female BALB/c mice were OVX or sham-operated. OVX animals were treated with SB-553484 (30 mg/kg, sc) or Rolipram (10 mg/kg, po), a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor used as a positive bone anabolic agent, twice a day for 2 weeks. Both SB-553484 and Rolipram significantly prevented the decrease of trabecular bone volume as well as the deterioration of trabecular architecture in OVX mice. Interestingly, SB-553484 demonstrated a more pronounced effect in improvement of trabecular separation, number and connectivity, and a weaker effect in improvement of trabecular thickness compared to that of Rolipram. These differences indicate that SB-553484 mainly acted as an antiresorptive agent in OVX-induced loss of trabecular bone. On the other hand, SB-553484 significantly increased cortical bone volume and cortical thickness as well as Rolipram in OVX mice indicating an unexpected stimulatory effect of SB-553484 on cortical bone formation. These data suggest that targeting cathepsin K may prove therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of diseases with accelerated bone loss such as postmenopausal osteoporosis not only by inhibiting bone resorption but also by potentially stimulating cortical bone formation. PMID:17347064

  3. Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax / Alterações histológicas e radiológicas no osso craniano na presença de cera de osso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassio Eduardo, Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz Albino de, Almeida; Gustavo, Paschoal; Daniela Franco, Bueno; Luiz Carlos, Vulcano; Maria Rita, Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo, Alonso.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Quantificar a formação óssea da região da calvaria de ratos Wistar submetidos à craniotomia com a utilização de cera de osso como agente hemostático. MÉTODOS: Cirurgia para realizar um defeito ósseo craniano bilateral, simétrico (área: 18 mm²) e com espessura total foi realizado em oito an [...] imais. O lado direito do crânio permaneceu aberto e as extremidades do defeito ósseo do lado esquerdo foram recobertas com cera de osso. O crânio foi submetido à avaliação radiológica imediatamente após a cirurgia e 12 semanas após a cirurgia com a utilização de tomografia computadorizada. As áreas dos defeitos ósseos foram medidas através de imagens tridimensionais e utilizando o programa de computador Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD). RESULTADOS: A quantidade média de formação óssea no lado esquerdo e direito foi respectivamente de 4.85 mm² e 8.16 mm². Diferença estatisticamente significante foi observada entre o lado direito e esquerdo. CONCLUSÕES: A cera de osso diminuiu significativamente a formação óssea nos defeitos ósseos em modelo animal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm²) was performed in eight animals. The right side of the crani [...] um remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. The areas of the bone defects were measured in three-dimensional images using Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD). RESULTS: The average amount of bone formation on the left and right side respectively was 4.85 mm² and 8.16 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation on the left and right sides were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Bone wax significantly diminishes the rate of bone formation in calvarial defects in a rat model.

  4. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population. PMID:23452871

  5. The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.or to prevent any problem in the patient.

  6. The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medicine Physics, The Graduate School of Biomedical Science Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.

  7. Changes in the soluble bone proteome of reared white seabream (Diplodus sargus) with skeletal deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tomé S; Cordeiro, Odete; Richard, Nadège; Conceição, Luís E C; Rodrigues, Pedro M

    2011-03-01

    One of the main constrains for commercial aquaculture production of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) is the high incidence of skeletal malformations in reared fish. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of these types of skeletal malformations by comparative proteomic analysis of the vertebral column of normal and deformed fish using 2DE for protein separation and MS for protein identification. We observed a 3.2 and 3.4-fold increase in the expression of two tropomyosin isoforms, one of which (tropomyosin-4) is essential for the motility and polarization cycles of osteoclasts. Furthermore, a 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8-fold increase in three parvalbumin spots was detected, suggesting a cellular response to increased intracellular Ca²(+) levels. These results can be interpreted as signs of increased cellular activity in the bone of white seabream with skeletal deformities coupled to a higher degree of calcium mobilization, which elicits further studies into the use of these proteins as indicators of skeletal metabolic state. PMID:20435535

  8. Analysis of trabecular bone architectural changes induced by osteoarthritis in rabbit femur using 3D active shape model and digital topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Rajapakse, C. S.; Williams, D. S.; Duong, L.; Coimbra, A.

    2007-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease, which causes the cartilage between the bone joints to wear away, leading to pain and stiffness. Currently, progression of OA is monitored by measuring joint space width using x-ray or cartilage volume using MRI. However, OA affects all periarticular tissues, including cartilage and bone. It has been shown previously that in animal models of OA, trabecular bone (TB) architecture is particularly affected. Furthermore, relative changes in architecture are dependent on the depth of the TB region with respect to the bone surface and main direction of load on the bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for accurately evaluating 3D architectural changes induced by OA in TB. Determining the TB test domain that represents the same anatomic region across different animals is crucial for studying disease etiology, progression and response to therapy. It also represents a major technical challenge in analyzing architectural changes. Here, we solve this problem using a new active shape model (ASM)-based approach. A new and effective semi-automatic landmark selection approach has been developed for rabbit distal femur surface that can easily be adopted for many other anatomical regions. It has been observed that, on average, a trained operator can complete the user interaction part of landmark specification process in less than 15 minutes for each bone data set. Digital topological analysis and fuzzy distance transform derived parameters are used for quantifying TB architecture. The method has been applied on micro-CT data of excised rabbit femur joints from anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) (n = 6) and sham (n = 9) operated groups collected at two and two-to-eight week post-surgery, respectively. An ASM of the rabbit right distal femur has been generated from the sham group micro-CT data. The results suggest that, in conjunction with ASM, digital topological parameters are suitable for analyzing architectural changes induced by OA.

  9. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density / Enfermedad hepática alcohólica y alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán, López-Larramona; Alfredo J., Lucendo; Laura, González-Delgado.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La osteoporosis y la osteopenia son alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) que se desarrollan frecuentemente en la enfermedad hepática crónica (EHC). Dichas alteraciones han sido estudiadas predominantemente en la enfermedad colestásica crónica y en la cirrosis hepática. El consumo de alcoho [...] l es un factor de riesgo independiente para la aparición de osteoporosis, cuya prevalencia estimada en pacientes con enfermedad hepática por alcohol (EHA) varía entre un 5 % y un 40 %. La pérdida de DMO en la EHA se produce por un disbalance entre formación y resorción ósea. Su etiopatogenia es multifactorial y comprende la toxicidad del alcohol sobre el hueso, las alteraciones endocrinológicas y nutricionales secundarias al alcoholismo y el déficit de osteocalcina, vitamina D e IGF-1, entre otras. El diagnóstico de las alteraciones de la DMO en la EHA se basa en su medición mediante densitometría ósea. El tratamiento incluye el abandono del alcohol y medidas generales de tipo nutricional, abandono del tabaco y ejercicio físico. La suplementación con calcio y vitamina D se recomienda en todos los pacientes con EHA y osteoporosis. Los bisfosfonatos son los principales fármacos para el tratamiento específico de esta entidad. Otras alternativas son el raloxifeno, el tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo y la calcitonina. La presente revisión abordará los aspectos más relevantes para el manejo clínico de las alteraciones de la DMO en el contexto de la EHA, incluyendo su prevalencia, etiopatogenia y diagnóstico. Por otra parte, se efectuará una revisión del tratamiento de la osteoporosis en la EHC en general, incidiendo en los aspectos específicos relacionados con la pérdida de masa ósea en la EHA. Abstract in english Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD). These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk facto [...] r for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

  11. Age-related changes in the hemodynamics of the femoral head as evaluated by early phase of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femoral head is reported to be in a markedly hypoemic state as compared with other tissues even under normal conditions, and it is therefore necessary to understand its hemodynamics to investigate the pathogenesis of hip disorders. It is known that aspects of intraosseous hemodynamics including blood flow and blood pool can be evaluated soon after radioisotope administration. In this study, hemodynamic changes in the femoral head according to gender and age were examined by investigating accumulation of radioisotope in the tissue during the early phase of bone scintigraphy. The subjects of this study consisted of 58 joints of 31 men and 75 joints of 41 women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 87 years (average age: 67.9 years). Images of bone scintigraphy were obtained for 15 to 20 minutes at 5 minutes and at 3 hours after radioisotope administration. The ratio of accumulation in the femoral head to that in the diaphysis (head-to-diaphysis ratio, HD ratio) was calculated. HD ratios obtained 15-20 minutes later ranged from 0.01 to 7.35 (1.88±0.91, mean±SD). HD ratios decreased with age, and a significant inverse correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.27 (p=0.001). The HD ratio among men was 0.01-3.57 (1.66±0.71), while that among women was 0.53-7.35 (2.05±1.01), and a significant difference was observed in HD ratio between men and women (p=0.02). There was a significant difference in HD ratios between men andifference in HD ratios between men and women in their teens to forties (p=0.03), while no significant differences was observed in the other age groups. HD ratios obtained 3 hours later ranged from 0.44 to 6.32 (1.95±0.79, mean±SD), and no significant correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.14. The present study demonstrated that blood flow and blood pool of the femoral head decrease with aging particularly in women. This hemodynamic deterioration of the femoral head caused by aging may have an effect on the onset and progression of hip disorders by influencing bone metabolism. (author)

  12. Temporal changes in reproductive hormones and conceptus-endometrial interactions during embryonic diapause and reactivation of the blastocyst in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, R T; Ashworth, C J; Beattie, L; Gebbie, F E; Hutchinson, J S; Kyle, D J; Racey, P A

    2001-06-01

    The roe deer blastocyst is in diapause between August and December, after which time it expands and elongates rapidly before implantation. Blood samples were taken from 30 animals to define temporal changes in reproductively important hormones to investigate the physiological cues present at embryo reactivation. In 15 of these animals, changes in uterine and conceptus protein synthesis and secretion, and luteal progesterone release during diapause and reactivation, were assessed after culture of these tissues in vitro. Oestradiol concentrations remained low during diapause (1.07 +/- 0.4 pg ml(-1)) and expansion (1.2 +/- 0.4 pg ml(-1)) but increased by 30 times at trophoblast elongation (49.17 +/- 0.37 pg ml(-1)). Prolactin remained at basal concentrations (4.69 +/- 0.86 ng ml(-1)) and increased after implantation (12.34 +/- 2.71 ng ml(-1)). Peripheral progesterone concentrations and luteal progesterone release remained constant throughout diapause, reactivation and implantation (peripheral progesterone: 3.82 +/- 1.97 ng ml(-1); luteal progesterone: 6.72 +/- 0.81 ng mg(-1) protein). Incorporation of a radiolabel into conceptus secretory proteins increased by four times at expansion compared with diapause, whereas incorporation into endometrial secretions remained constant. At elongation, incorporation into endometrial secretions increased two times and conceptus secretions increased 32 times. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorography showed that the profile of endometrial secretory proteins was constant until implantation when qualitative changes were evident. Although a role for an endocrine maternal trigger of reactivation from diapause cannot be dismissed, these data provide no supporting evidence and indicate that the conceptus itself may drive reactivation. PMID:11373172

  13. Relationship between changes in bone mineral density and vertebral fracture risk associated with risedronate: greater increases in bone mineral density do not relate to greater decreases in fracture risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Nb; Cooper, C.; Lindsay, R.; Eastell, R.; Manhart, Md; Barton, Ip; Staa, Tp; Adachi, Jd

    2004-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is correlated with increased fracture risk. Whether greater BMD increases induced by osteoporosis drugs are related to greater decreases in fracture risk is controversial. We analyzed the relationship between BMD change and fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving antiresorptive treatment. The analysis combined data from three pivotal risedronate fracture end-point trials. Women received risedronate (n = 2047) or placebo (n = 1177) daily for ...

  14. Longitudinal changes in C-reactive protein, proform of eosinophil major basic protein, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A during weight changes in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Gamborg, Michael; Bøjsøe, Christine; Hedley, Paula L; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is associated with several complications, including cardiovascular comorbidity. Several biomarkers, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), proform of eosinophil major basic protein (Pro-MBP) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), have equally been linked to increased cardiovascular susceptibility. This study investigates these biomarkers during weight loss and regain in obese children. Materials and methods: A longitudinal study during a 12-week weight loss program with a 28 months follow-up was conducted. Anthropometrics and plasma concentrations of hs-CRP, Pro-MBP, and PAPP-A were measured at baseline; at days 14, 33 and 82 during weight loss; and at months 10, 16, and 28 during follow-up. Results: Fifty-three boys and 62 girls aged 8-15 years with a median body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at baseline of 2.78 (boys), and 2.70 (girls) were included. Ninety children completed the weight loss program and 68 children entered the follow-up program. Pro-MBP and PAPP-A, but not hs-CRP, exhibited individual-specific levels (tracking) during weight loss and regain. The PAPP-A/Pro-MBP correlation was strong, whereas the hs-CRP/PAPP-A correlation was weak during weight fluctuations. Conclusion: Hs-CRP changes reflect weight changes. PAPP-A and Pro-MBP exhibited tracking during weight perturbations and may contribute as early risk markers of cardiovascular susceptibility. PMID:25460282

  15. The role of sleep in changing our minds: A psychologist's discussion of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation in sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Rosalind D.

    2004-01-01

    The group of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep included in this volume represents cutting edge work in both animals and humans. They support that the two types of sleep serve different necessary functions. The role of slow wave sleep (SWS) is reactivation of the hippocampal-neocortical circuits activated during a waking learning period, while REM sleep is responsible for the consolidation of this new learning into long-term memory. These studies provide further insi...

  16. Bone marrow pathology of culture proven typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, B. M.; Paik, I. K.; Cho, H. I.

    1994-01-01

    The authors analysed bone marrow findings of sixteen cases of culture proven typhoid fever to reveal the pathologic changes according to the disease stage. The most frequent finding was chronic granulomatous inflammation (eight cases). Infection (bacteria) associated hemophagocytic syndrome (four cases), reactive marrow (two cases), and non specific findings (two cases) were also encountered. Granulocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis appeared at the early stage and was followed by infect...

  17. Changing the substrate reactivity of 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1 by directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas; Schmid, Andreas; Held, Martin; Westphal, Adrie H; Rothlisberger, Martina; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; van Berkel, Willem J H; Witholt, Bernard

    2002-02-15

    The substrate reactivity of the flavoenzyme 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (EC, HbpA) was changed by directed evolution using error-prone PCR. In situ screening of mutant libraries resulted in the identification of proteins with increased activity towards 2-tert-butylphenol and guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol). One enzyme variant contained amino acid substitutions V368A/L417F, which were inserted by two rounds of mutagenesis. The double replacement improved the efficiency of substrate hydroxylation by reducing the uncoupled oxidation of NADH. With guaiacol as substrate, the two substitutions increased V(max) from 0.22 to 0.43 units mg(-1) protein and decreased the K'(m) from 588 to 143 microm, improving k'(cat)/K'(m) by a factor of 8.2. With 2-tert-butylphenol as the substrate, k'(cat) was increased more than 5-fold. Another selected enzyme variant contained amino acid substitution I244V and had a 30% higher specific activity with 2-sec-butylphenol, guaiacol, and the "natural" substrate 2-hydroxybiphenyl. The K'(m) for guaiacol decreased with this mutant, but the K'(m) for 2-hydroxybiphenyl increased. The primary structure of HbpA shares 20.1% sequence identity with phenol 2-monooxygenase from Trichosporon cutaneum. Structure homology modeling with this three-domain enzyme suggests that Ile(244) of HbpA is located in the substrate binding pocket and is involved in accommodating the phenyl substituent of the phenol. In contrast, Val(368) and Leu(417) are not close to the active site and would not have been obvious candidates for modification by rational design. PMID:11733527

  18. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Rogers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

  19. The histomorphologic changes in vascularized bone transfer and their interrelationship with the recipient sites: a 1-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, A K; McCarthy, J G; Staffenberg, D; Glat, P M; Simmons, D J

    1996-04-01

    In 13 New Zealand White rabbits with a mean age of 6 months, vascularized bone transfers incorporated as paired auricular anterior myo-osseous flaps were harvested; they were placed in either an inlay or an onlay position relative to the zygomatic arch. The onlay bone transfers were placed either in full contact or in partial contact with the zygomatic arch. The animals were sacrificed 1 year after transfer. At 1 year, the inlay transfer simulated the adjacent zygoma in width and thickness. Onlay full contact transfers maintained significant aug mentation in thickness of the zygoma, while the onlay partial contact transfers did not; the thickness of the augmented zygoma in the onlay full contact subgroup was significantly greater than that in the onlay partial contact transfers. The onlay partial contact grafts had remodeled into the zygoma in bone contact, where the orientation of mismatched osteons within the bone transfers had transformed to match that of the native zygoma. In areas of bone contact between the onlay and the host bone, full-thickness conversion from a cortical to a trabecular architecture had occurred in both the transfer and host bones. These findings have numerous implications regarding mechanisms that could be exploited clinically to optimize the survival of a bone transfer; they also raise questions regarding alteration of the recipient bed after placement of an onlay bone transfer. PMID:8618965

  20. Changes in 3-dimensional bone structure indices in hypoparathyroid patients treated with PTH(1-84) : A randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikjaer, Tanja; Rejnmark, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) is characterized by a state of low bone turnover and high bone mineral density (BMD) despite conventional treatment with calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogues. To assess effects of PTH substitution therapy on 3-dimensional bone structure, we randomized 62 patients with hypoPT into 24 weeks of treatment with either PTH(1-84) 100?µg/day subcutaneously or similar placebo as an add-on therapy. Micro-computed tomography was performed on 44 iliac crest bone biopsies (23 on PTH treatment) obtained after 24 weeks of treatment. Compared with placebo, PTH caused a 27% lower trabecular thickness (p?

  1. The change of reactivity effect in the IBR-2 pulsed reactor related to burn-up in the period from 1982 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the analysis of the IBR-2 reactor operation within 1982-2006 one derived the dependence of the reactivity change on the energy generation. The extra effects caused probably by the fuel compaction and by the structural change of the reactor core material apart from the burnup effect are shown to be operating at the reactor operation initial stage. In the course of time the mentioned effects reduce and approach zero. Upon 40000 MW h one observes just the effect of the burnup, and starting from this moment the reactivity reduces linearly with kB factor. One derived formula to calculate the energy generation factor at any moment of the reactor operation

  2. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  3. 18F-Fluoride bone positron emission tomography demonstrating changes related to finger clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Ali, Mirza Athar; Nagaraju, Madhusudhan; Muntimadugu, Babaiah

    2014-04-01

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy is manifested by clubbing and periostitis of bones. We present a very rare documentation of increased F18-sodium fluoride uptake in the distal phalanges of both hands correlating to clubbing of the fingers in a 55-year-old female patient with carcinoma of lung in whom bone positron emission tomography was performed for metastatic work-up. PMID:24761070

  4. Microarray gene expression profiling of osteoarthritic bone suggests altered bone remodelling, WNT and transforming growth factor-?/bone morphogenic protein signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, Blair; Tsykin, Anna; Findlay, David M.; Fazzalari, Nicola L.

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by alterations to subchondral bone as well as articular cartilage. Changes to bone in OA have also been identified at sites distal to the affected joint, which include increased bone volume fraction and reduced bone mineralization. Altered bone remodelling has been proposed to underlie these bone changes in OA. To investigate the molecular basis for these changes, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of bone obtained at autopsy from individual...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

  7. Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, A.S

    2013-01-01

    The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were ?CT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory hypertrophy of vertical trabeculae in women, but not in men.

  8. Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were ?CT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory hypertrophy of vertical trabeculae in women, but not in men. PMID:23899636

  9. Concise review: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells change phenotype following in vitro culture: implications for basic research and the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jennifer J; Richards, R Geoff; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly being used in tissue engineering and cell-based therapies in all fields ranging from orthopedic to cardiovascular medicine. Despite years of research and numerous clinical trials, MSC therapies are still very much in development and not considered mainstream treatments. The majority of approaches rely on an in vitro cell expansion phase in monolayer to produce large cell numbers prior to implantation. It is clear from the literature that this in vitro expansion phase causes dramatic changes in MSC phenotype which has very significant implications for the development of effective therapies. Previous reviews have sought to better characterize these cells in their native and in vitro environments, described known stem cell interactions within the bone marrow, and discussed the use of innovative culture systems aiming to model the bone marrow stem cell niche. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on our knowledge of MSCs in their native environment, focusing on bone marrow-derived MSCs. We provide a detailed description of the differences between naive cells and those that have been cultured in vitro and examine the effect of isolation and culture parameters on these phenotypic changes. We explore the concept of "one step" MSC therapy and discuss the potential cellular and clinical benefits. Finally, we describe recent work attempting to model the MSC bone marrow niche, with focus on both basic research and clinical applications and consider the challenges associated with these new generation culture systems. PMID:24449458

  10. Changes in the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 and Tamm– Horsfall Protein in the Early Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanchun; Du, E; Zhang, Yue; Li, Shengzhi; Han, Ruifa; Qiu, Mengsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been suggested to play a protective role against kidney injury in chronic kidney disease. Objectives To identify the critical molecular regulators in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, we studied the expression of BMP7 and 2 important kidney-specific markers, podocin and Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP). Materials and Methods A diabetic nephropathy model was established by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin (STZ) in male Kunming mice. Kidney weight index was used as an indicator of early renal injury. Kidney tissue from the diabetic model mice was obtained at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and total protein was extracted to assess the expression of BMP7, podocin, and THP by western blot analysis. Results Diabetic model mice were successfully established, and the kidney weight index of the model animals increased significantly. The expression of BMP7 was significantly downregulated, while the expression of THP was increased in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. However, the expression of podocin did not change. Conclusions Our observations suggested that down-regulation of BMP7 expression and up-regulation of THP expression were early events that occur prior to podocyte injury with the structure protein, podocin spoiled, which further confirmed that BMP7 is a key molecular regulator in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23573468

  11. Oxidative stress and gamma radiation-induced cancellous bone loss with musculoskeletal disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisataka; Yumoto, Kenji; Alwood, Joshua S; Mojarrab, Rose; Wang, Angela; Almeida, Eduardo A C; Searby, Nancy D; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of astronauts in space to radiation during weightlessness may contribute to subsequent bone loss. Gamma irradiation of postpubertal mice rapidly increases the number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and causes bone loss in cancellous tissue; similar changes occur in skeletal diseases associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased oxidative stress mediates radiation-induced bone loss and that musculoskeletal disuse changes the sensitivity of cancellous tissue to radiation exposure. Musculoskeletal disuse by hindlimb unloading (1 or 2 wk) or total body gamma irradiation (1 or 2 Gy of (137)Cs) of 4-mo-old, male C57BL/6 mice each decreased cancellous bone volume fraction in the proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae. The extent of radiation-induced acute cancellous bone loss in tibiae and lumbar vertebrae was similar in normally loaded and hindlimb-unloaded mice. Similarly, osteoclast surface in the tibiae increased 46% as a result of irradiation, 47% as a result of hindlimb unloading, and 64% as a result of irradiation + hindlimb unloading compared with normally loaded mice. Irradiation, but not hindlimb unloading, reduced viability and increased apoptosis of marrow cells and caused oxidative damage to lipids within mineralized tissue. Irradiation also stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species in marrow cells. Furthermore, injection of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, mitigated the acute bone loss caused by irradiation. Together, these results showed that disuse and gamma irradiation, alone or in combination, caused a similar degree of acute cancellous bone loss and shared a common cellular mechanism of increased bone resorption. Furthermore, irradiation, but not disuse, may increase the number of osteoclasts and the extent of acute bone loss via increased reactive oxygen species production and ensuing oxidative damage, implying different molecular mechanisms. The finding that alpha-lipoic acid protected cancellous tissue from the detrimental effects of irradiation has potential relevance to astronauts and radiotherapy patients. PMID:19875718

  12. Blood and bone marrow findings in tuberculosis in adults -A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Dafale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India. Hematolgical changes have been studied with variable results. Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of blood and bone marrow changes in tuberculosis. Methods: The peripheral blood and bone marrow changes were evaluated in hundred adult patients with tuberculosis, admitted at District Hospital, Belgaum and KLES Hospital and MRC were. Results: The peripheral blood findings seen were anemia, raised ESR, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, leucopenia, thrombocytosis and thrombocytope-nia. The bone marrow changes seen were hypercellularity , myeloid hyperplasia , erythroid hyperplasia with megaloblastic changes and reactive plasmacytosis. Another interesting finding in bonemarrow was presence of granulomas which were seen in 5% of cases of which 1 case showed positivity for acid fast bacilli on Zeihl –Neelsen stain. Conclusion: The varied hematological findings observed in tuberculosis should prompt us to consider tuberculosis as one of the differential diagnosis in patients with hematological findings.

  13. 1. modification of the proliferative capacity of transplanted bone marrow colony forming units by changes in the host environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation of the proliferation of transplanted colony forming units (CFUs) was investigated in lethally irradiated mice, pretreated by methods known to accelerate hemopoietic recovery after sublethal irradiation. Prospective recipients were exposed to either hypoxia, vinblastine or priming irradiation and at different intervals thereafter lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow. Repopulation of CFUs was determined by counting the number of splenic colonies in primary recipients or by retransplantation. Regeneration of grafted CFUs was greatly accelerated and their self-renewal capacity increased in mice grafted within 2 days after hypoxia. Also the number of splenic colonies formed by grafted syngeneic CFUs as well as by C57B1 parent CFUs growing in BC3F1 hosts was significantly increased. The effect was not dependent on the seeding efficiency of CFUs and apparently resulted from hypoxia induced changes in the hosts' physiological environment. Proliferative capacity of grafted CFUs increased remarkably in hosts receiving vinblastine 2 or 4 days prior to irradiation. Priming irradiation given 6 days before main irradiation accelerated, given 2 days before impaired regeneration of CFUs. The increased rate of regeneration was not related to the cellularity of hemopoietic organs at the time of transplantation. The growth of CFUs in diffusion chambers implanted into posthypoxic mice was only slightly improved which does indicate that the accelerated regeneration of CFUs in posthypoxic mice is mainly due to the changes in the hemopoietic microenvironment. A short conditioning of transplanted CFUs by host factor(s) was sufficient to improve regeneration. The results might suggest that the speed of hemopoietic regeneration depends on the number of CFUs being induced to proliferate shortly after irradiation, rather than on the absolute numbers of CFUs available to the organism. (author)

  14. Age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone mineral status: A quantitative CT study in lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the age and sex dependence of the bone mineral status of human lumbar vertebrae with special regard to differences between cortical and trabecular bone. The study group comprised 125 normal Japanese healthy volunteers (54 males and 71 females), and was subdivided into adult male and female groups (subjects younger than 40 years), intermediate male and female groups (ages ranging between 41 and 64 years) and old male and female groups (subjects older than 65 years). The cortical bone mineral status was estimated using a single-energy quantitative CT (SE-QCT) technique, whereas trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated using a dual-energy (DE-QCT) technique. A considerable gender difference in the age-related cortical bone status was found. There was a significant reduction of the mean values of the cortical volume and BMD in the old female group compared with those obtained in the old male group. The results suggest that in men, cortical and trabecular bone volume decrease very little with age. In women, cortical volume and BMD and trabecular BMD decrease with age while trabecular bone volume does not. The study showed that all variables had higher values in men than in women and that the difference increased with age

  15. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of Tc-99m labeled polyphosphates, bone scintigraphy has become a widely accepted method in pediatry. Compared to adults children are less cooperative and the bony structures, which have to be investigated, are much smaller. Due to the age dependent differences of bone metabolism in the developing skeleton the interpretation of bone scans is more difficult than in adults and requires more experience. High quality images require the child's immobilisation and a correct positioning as well as an optimized technical equipment. The administered activity should follow the recommendations of the 'Paediatric Task Group' of EANM. Two or three phase scintigraphy is the routine procedure but additional techniques like pinhole images or SPECT can be very helpful for different indications and localisations. The most important diseases requiring bone scintigraphy in childhood are infections, aseptic necrosis, benign, malignant or metastatic bone tumors and posttraumatic lesions. Bone scan has a high sensitivity in the early detection of pathological bone metabolism indicating bone disease; other investigations, which are describing morphological changes like X-ray, are less sensitive especially at the onset of most of those diseases. Negative bone scan rules out significant bone disorders with a high certainty. Follow-up studies can give additional information about the response to therapeutical regimes and about the prognosis. To improve the specificity of aprognosis. To improve the specificity of a bone scan a combined interpretation of scintigraphy and X-ray is recommended. (orig./MG)

  16. Age Dependent Changes in Cartilage Matrix, Subchondral Bone Mass, and Estradiol Levels in Blood Serum, in Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yin Yan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dunkin Hartley (DH guinea pig is a widely used naturally occurring osteoarthritis model. The aim of this study was to provide detailed evidence of age-related changes in articular cartilage, subchondral bone mineral density, and estradiol levels. We studied the female Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age (eight animals in each group. Histological analysis were used to identify degenerative cartilage and electron microscopy was performed to further observe the ultrastructure. Estradiol expression levels in serum were assessed, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and glycosaminoglycan expression in cartilage was performed by immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density of the tibia subchondral bone was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Histological analysis showed that the degeneration of articular cartilage grew more severe with increasing age starting at 3 months, coupled with the loss of normal cells and an increase in degenerated cells. Serum estradiol levels increased with age from 1 to 6 months and thereafter remained stable from 6 to 12 months. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in cartilage increased with age, but no significant difference was found in glycosaminoglycan expression between 1- and 3-month old animals. The bone mineral density of the tibia subchondral bone increased with age before reaching a stable value at 9 months of age. Age-related articular cartilage degeneration occurred in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs beginning at 3 months of age, while no directly positive or negative correlation between osteoarthritis progression and estradiol serum level or subchondral bone mineral density was discovered.

  17. MRI findings of bone tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanaka, Hideaki; Kashiwagi, Teruyuki; Chosa, Etuo; Kuwahara, Shigeru; Tajima, Naoya [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, of bone tumors, we retrospectively reviewed 32 MRI examination already diagnosed pathologically. Subjects included 18 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 5 to 63 years, with a means of 29.3 years. These included 25 benign bone tumors and 7 malignant bone tumors. The accuracy of a qualitative diagnosis was observed in giant cell tumor, osteoid osteoma, fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. In malignant bone tumors, it is difficult to accurately diagnose with MRI, although MRI was useful in showing interaction of the tumor and host tissue, extension, edema and reactive zone. (author)

  18. Vascular tumors of bone: Imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify radiological features of malignant vascular tumors of bone, which can be used to avoid erroneously diagnosing metastases based on radiological multifocality, and histological epitheloid phenotype. Materials and methods: From the databases of the Bologna and Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumors, 63 patients with a histological diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor of bone were retrieved. Epidemiological and imaging characteristics were recorded on a case record form. Results: In 63 patients, 185 lesions were detected by radiographs (61 patients) and/or CT (30 patients) and/or MRI (19 patients). Multifocality was observed in 25 patients (40%), in these patients most lesions were located in the femur. Typically lesions were well-defined, osteolytic, had a geographically pattern of destruction and were also located in the femur. Most lesions showed cortical destruction (118 lesions). No periosteal reaction was seen in most cases (121 lesions). In 13 of 39 patients (33%) tumor extension was more advanced and/or (additional) lesions (29 lesions; 17%) were visible on MRI and CT. In 20 cases (51%) cortex destruction was better shown on CT or MRI. In six patients (15%) periosteal reaction was only seen on MRI or CT and not on radiographs. In 16 (41%) cases soft tissue extension was only seen on MRI or CT, and not on radiographs. Extensive reactive changes on T2-weighted images were seen in 11 patients (58%). Conclusion: When single, or regional multifocal sion: When single, or regional multifocal osteolytic, well-marginated lesions with cortical destruction are seen, in the femur, and with marked reactive soft tissue changes on MRI, a diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor should trigger the use of additional immunohistochemistry to confirm the vascular nature of the tumor. Clinical relevance statement: Because of epithelioid phenotype at histology, radiological signs are key in entertaining a diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor of bone which should trigger the use of appropriate immunohistochemical stainings.

  19. Vascular tumors of bone: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaat, Marieke [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vanel, Daniel [Department of Radiology and Pathology, Instituto Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kroon, Herman M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Verbeke, Sofie L.J. [Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Alberghini, Marco [Department of Pathology, Instituto Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bovee, Judith V.M.G. [Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, Johan L., E-mail: J.L.Bloem@LUMC.nl [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To identify radiological features of malignant vascular tumors of bone, which can be used to avoid erroneously diagnosing metastases based on radiological multifocality, and histological epitheloid phenotype. Materials and methods: From the databases of the Bologna and Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumors, 63 patients with a histological diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor of bone were retrieved. Epidemiological and imaging characteristics were recorded on a case record form. Results: In 63 patients, 185 lesions were detected by radiographs (61 patients) and/or CT (30 patients) and/or MRI (19 patients). Multifocality was observed in 25 patients (40%), in these patients most lesions were located in the femur. Typically lesions were well-defined, osteolytic, had a geographically pattern of destruction and were also located in the femur. Most lesions showed cortical destruction (118 lesions). No periosteal reaction was seen in most cases (121 lesions). In 13 of 39 patients (33%) tumor extension was more advanced and/or (additional) lesions (29 lesions; 17%) were visible on MRI and CT. In 20 cases (51%) cortex destruction was better shown on CT or MRI. In six patients (15%) periosteal reaction was only seen on MRI or CT and not on radiographs. In 16 (41%) cases soft tissue extension was only seen on MRI or CT, and not on radiographs. Extensive reactive changes on T2-weighted images were seen in 11 patients (58%). Conclusion: When single, or regional multifocal osteolytic, well-marginated lesions with cortical destruction are seen, in the femur, and with marked reactive soft tissue changes on MRI, a diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor should trigger the use of additional immunohistochemistry to confirm the vascular nature of the tumor. Clinical relevance statement: Because of epithelioid phenotype at histology, radiological signs are key in entertaining a diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor of bone which should trigger the use of appropriate immunohistochemical stainings.

  20. BN600 reactivity definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  1. Probing physical and chemical changes in cortical bone due to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes by solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Donghua; Taylor, Amanda; Rendina, Beth; Smith, Brenda

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species.

  2. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.gov.b, E-mail: lucianam@ital.gov.b [Food Technology Institute (ITAL), SP (Brazil). Meat Technology Center

    2011-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and {alpha}-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h{sup -1}) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s{sup -1}). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and {alpha}-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  3. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or problems with the rate of bone growth or rebuilding NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  4. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  5. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu., E-mail: blandinsky@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  6. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  7. Juvenile ossifying fibroma with aneurysamal bone cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Vikram Simha; Reddy, K Rajeev Kumar; Prakash, A Ravi; Rajinikanth; Vidhyadhari, Pavani

    2014-10-01

    The fibro osseous lesions of the jaws represent a diverse group of entities that are characterized by replacement of normal bone by a fibrous connective tissue matrix, with in which varying amounts of osteoid, immature and mature bone and in some instances, cementum like material are deposited. Fibro osseous lesions of the jaws include developmental (hamartomatous) lesions, reactive or dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a unique fibro osseous neoplasm. It has 2 histopathological variants (1) Trabecular juvenile ossifying fibroma (TrJOF) and (2) Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma (PsJOF) with TrJOF affecting the jaws of children. Only 20% of the patients are over 15 years of age. JOF is more common in maxilla than mandible. Origin in extragnathic locations is extremely rare. It presents as an asymptomatic progressive, rapid expansion of jaws. Radiographically, tumour is well circumscribed, along with lack of continuity with adjacent bone, cortical expansion & perforation. Histopathologically it consists of a cell rich fibrous stroma with bundles of cellular osteoid and bone trabeculae without osteoblastic rimming, and aggregates of giant cells. It has a recurrence rate of 30-58%. Long standing lesions shows cystic changes. Aneurysmal bone cyst is the most common complication. Here we present a case report of 16 yr old female patient with clinical, radiographic & histopathological features of Trabecular JOF with Aneurysmal bone cyst. PMID:25478458

  8. Bone health in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton undergoes rapid change with respect to growth, modeling and remodeling processes in adolescence. Consequently, the effects of factors that affect bone health positively or negatively can be greater. Between 40% and 60% of, peak bone mass which serves as the bone bank for life, is accrued during adolescence. Lifetime risk of osteoporosis and fracture may be increased if optimal peak bone mass cannot be reached.Accrual of peak bone mass is affected by unmodifiable intrinsic factors and less important extrinsic factors. Higher body mass index and body fat and lower dietary calcium intake increase fracture risk in healthy adolescents. Bone mass was found to be 5% to 10% lower in adolescents with fracture than their peers. Adequate nutrition in amount and composition and life style factors are important for skeletal health. While diets rich in saturated fats and refined sugars and lower in protein may be detrimental to bone health, optimal quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex carbohydrates may be beneficial to bone health. Dietary calcium and vitamin D are key factors in promoting bone health and preventing bone loss. Phosphorus and magnesium as well as other elements and especially vitamin C and K have been shown to play important roles in bone health. While weight bearing regular exercise and a healthy bodyweight are beneficial to bone health, alcohol consumption and smoking contribute to poor bone health. Adolescence may serve as a period of opportunity for reduction of the incidence of osteoporosis in adulthood through implication of effective intervention strategies. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 54-8

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia during and after chemotherapy. Changes in T1 relaxation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Grundtvig SØrensen, P

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with acute leukemia were examined at the time of diagnosis with MR imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the hemopoietic bone marrow. A 1.5 T whole body magnetic resonance scanner was used. Twenty of the patients had follow-up examinations in relation to chemotherapy. Bone marrow biopsies from the posterior iliac crest were obtained within a short time interval of all MR examinations. At the time of diagnosis, T1 relaxation times were increased significantly in all the leukemic patients, compared with 24 age-matched controls. A decrease in T1 relaxation time towards or into the normal range was observed in 10 patients who obtained remission. The T1 relaxation time remained prolonged in 6 patients who failed to obtain remission during chemotherapy. Four patients, who obtained remission with concomitant decrease of T1 values towards or into the normal range, also showed prolongation of T1 relaxation time in relation to leukemic relapse. The results indicate that changes observed in T1 relaxation times of the hemopoietic bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia reflect changes in disease activity, and, that serial measurements of T1 values may provide clinically useful information with the possibility for identification of residual disease in regions inaccessible for biopsy.

  10. Development of the maxillo-mandibular first molars and developmental changes in the alveolar bone morphology. Three-dimensional observation by X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the development of the maxillo-mandibular first molars and accompanying developmental changes in the alveolar bone morphology during the period from the intra-jaw bone stage to the completion stage of tooth eruption, dry skulls were three-dimensionally observed using X-ray CT. The specimens were 34 dry skulls composed of 17 skulls in the deciduous dentition period (dental age IIA) and 17 skulls in the first half of the mixed dentition period (dental age IIC, IIIA). The following results were obtained: By observing the horizontally sectioned images, the maxillary first molars approached the area on the deciduous dentition line from the palatal side, during the period from the deciduous dentition period to the first half of the mixed dentition period. The mandibular first molars approached the area on the deciduous dentition line from the buccal side. By observing the vertically sectioned images, development of the maxillary alveolar bone was higher than that of the mandibular alveolar bone during the period from the deciduous dentition period to the first half of the mixed dentition period. Although differences in the development of the alveolar bone between the maxilla and mandible were noted in the deciduous dentition period, the size of the maxilla was similar to that of the mandible in the first half of the mixed dentition period. Furthermore, positional changes in the buccal direction were marked in the maxillary first molars, which were located on llary first molars, which were located on the buccal side of the mandibular teeth in the first half of the mixed dentition period. Observation of the vertically sectioned images also showed that the inclination angle of the coronal axis of the first molars was large in both the maxilla and mandible in the first half of the mixed dentition period, which was marked in the mandible in particular. These results showed that in the first half of the mixed dentition period, in which the early occlusion of the first molars is established, development of the maxillo-mandibular alveolar bones gradually becomes harmonized, and occlusion occurs by the inclination of the maxillo-mandibular tooth axis. (author)

  11. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assay provide more sensitive and specific assays

  12. Incidence and clinical importance of chronic reactive periostal new formations of bone in the cervical region in patients with varying neurological symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    81 patients classed into three groups with clinical evidence of neurological symptoms and posttraumatic pain of the cervical spine and the incidence of degenerative disorders were studied noninvasively via CT scanning. In about half of the patients with nerve-root symptomatology as well as with signs of involvement of long tracts, narrowing of the foramen intervertebrale, respectively of the spinal tract, was seen, attributable to degenerative osseous apposition with excellent clinical segmental and (according to radicular symptoms) side correlation. In contrast to these results the group of patients with posttraumatic clinical symptoms showed almost 50% less preexisting degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Hypertrophic changes of the processus articulares with narrowing of the spinal canal occurred in 14% and were therefore of minor clinical significance. (orig./GDG)

  13. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Genotype and 1-year data on changes in physical activity, serum CRP and IL-6 were available for 390 overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The rs1800629 SNP in TNF interacted with the 1-year change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in CRP among those who had high (?3 mg/L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change in serum IL-6 was found. In conclusion, the rs1800629 SNP in the TNF gene may modify the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on serum levels of CRP.

  14. Hyaluronan protects against cartilage damage by decreasing stiffness and changing3-D microarchitecture of subchondral bone in guinea pig primary osteoarthrosis : Ming Ding, Carl C. Danielsen and Ivan Hvid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    Introduction: Hyaluronan (HA) is a biologic material, and a major component of synovial fluid. HA has received increasing interest as a potential agent of therapeutic intervention in osteoarthrosis (OA). High molecular weight HA has been shown to reduce arthritic lesions in experimental animal models of articular cartilage injury. It is not known whether HA has any effect on the underlying subchondral bone tissues, e.g. three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture, density, collagen and mineral. The aims of the current study were to investigate the effects of high molecular weight HA (1.5x106 Daltons) intra-articular injection on subchondral bone tissues.   Methods: Fifty-six male guinea pigs (6.5 months of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups studied in a short-term and a long-term experimental period (Fig. 1). In the short-term study: HA-I group received intra-articular injection of HA 0.4 mg/kg/week for 5 weeks in both knee joints; the control group received vehicle. In the long-term study: HA-II received 0.4mg/kg/week intra-articular injection for additional 5 weeks; HA-III received no more injection; and the control group received vehicle. After the injection periods the guinea pigs were left untreated until sacrifice (9 and 12 months of age), the left tibiae were harvested and micro-CT scanned to quantify 3-D microarchitecture of subchondral bone plate, cancellous bone and cortical bone, followed by mechanical testing and collagen and mineral determination.   Results: The HA-treated groups had almost normal cartilage, whereas the control groups had typical OA-related cartilage degradation. In the short-term study, compared with the control group, HA-injection resulted in a significantly decreased subchondral plate volume fraction and plate thickness. HA-treated cancellous bone had significantly lower bone volume fraction, and typical rod-like structure. In the long-term study, these latter changes were more pronounced, with an additionally significant decrease in connectivity and bone surfacedensity (Fig. 2). In the short-term study, HA-treated cortical bone had significantly greater volume fraction, and surface density. In the long-term study, both HA groups had greater volume fraction and cortical thickness. HA groups had greater bone mineral concentration and mineral density, lower collagen to mineral ratio, and preserved the mechanical properties of cancellous bone. The effects of HA on cartilage and subchondral bone were maintained when HA treatment was discontinued (Table 1).   Discussion: The current study has investigated the effects of HA on the properties of subchondral bone tissues in a primary guinea pig OA model. Significant positive effects of high molecular weight HA on the articular cartilage and subchondral bone tissues were seen. HA protects against OA-related cartilage degradation to almost normal level, and effectively changes the subchondral bone tissue microarchitecture, collagen and mineral content and density without altering the mechanical properties of cancellousbone. The most striking features are the microarchitectural changes in the subchondral cancellous bone that lead to lower bone density and markedly rod-like structure, and thus reducing cartilage stress during impact loading. Still, the subchondral bone has a greater mineral concentration, and a lower collagen to mineral ratio, and thus preserves the mechanical properties of cancellous bone. Our results also suggest that short-term high molecular HA administration is sufficient to maintain the effects of HA, since there are no significant difference in the properties between the continuous and the discontinuous HA groups. These findings are in favor of Radin’s hypothesis that increased subchondral density leads to cartilage damage, and that subchondral bone sclerosis may actually precede cartilage degeneration and loss.                    We conclude that HA protects against cartilage degeneration through decreasing subchondral bone density and thickness, changing trabecular structure toward rod-like, asthat

  15. Bone scanning after muscle-pedicle bone graft for femoral neck fracture, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy was performed on patients who received muscle-pedicle bone graft. In each of the bone head and the bone graft, a time-activity curve was obtained. In this muscle-pedicle bone graft, active revascularization and marked osteogenesis, which suggested rapid bone repairing, were observed. The bone scintigraphy was considered to be useful in observing the result of bone grafts, blood circulation, and time of bone fusion, and of value for early detection of secondary changes. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  17. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  18. Torsional force applied to the tibia of living lambs in an attempt to change the bone rotational axis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose Batista, Volpon; Mauricio Jose, Falcai; Carlos Alberto, Moro; Daniel Mendes, Leal.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of torsional force on the rotational axis of living lamb tibias. METHODS: An external fixator device was designed to apply rotation to the tibias of lambs. Once a week, the bone distal extremity was rotated 2º. After achieving ~20º of internal rotation, the turn [...] ing was discontinued and the device was maintained in situ for one month and euthanasia occurred in group A (n=10) after this. In group B (n=9) euthanasia occurred three months after removing the device. Computed tomography scans evaluated the rotational angle; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessed the bone mineral density, and conventional and polarized light microscopy studied the bone microstructure. RESULTS: In group A, the mean angle of the external rotation in the control tibias was 24º and 8º in the twisted tibias (p0.05). Microscopically, the twisted tibias showed asymmetrical subperiosteal bone deposition on the lateral cortex surface. CONCLUSION: Gradual torsion applied to the immature tibia significantly modified its rotational axis.

  19. Ultrastructural evidence that motility changes caused by variations in ATP, Mg(2+) , and ADP correlate to conformational changes in reactivated bull sperm axonemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesich, Kathleen A; de Pinho, Tania G; Dang, Loan; Lindemann, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    We report the results of an ultrastructural study of Triton X-100-extracted, Mg-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-reactivated bull sperm. We utilized a rapid fixation method to look for differences in the flagellar apparatus that correlate to the state of motility of reactivated sperm models. In a companion article, we examined the motility characteristics induced in bull sperm models by varying the concentration ratio of ATP and Mg(2+) and the stabilizing effect of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) on coordinated beating. Based on the results of that report, we selected four dissimilar states that appeared to represent extremes. One reactivation condition produces vigorous motility similar to live sperm, another produces large amplitude, low frequency beating while the remaining two conditions produce small amplitude vibrations of the flagellum with little coordinated beating. Morphometric analysis of transmission electron micrographs of sperm from these four treatment conditions revealed statistically significant differences between the samples in regard to axoneme diameter, inter-microtubule doublet spacing, and outer dense fiber (ODF) spacing. Our results show that Mg(2+) decreases the axoneme diameter and reduces interdoublet spacing, while ATP, uncomplexed with Mg(2+) , had the opposite effect. We also provide supporting evidence that this may be due to Mg(2+) increasing, and ATP decreasing, the interdoublet adhesion of dynein. We also found that 4 mM ADP significantly increases the separation between the ODFs and the space between the ODFs and the central axoneme within the middle piece. We present a hypothetical explanation that is consistent with our results to explain how ATP, ADP, and Mg(2+) act to regulate the beat cycle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25430605

  20. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limitations of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray ... ultrasound are sometimes used to screen for low bone mass. In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to ...

  1. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  2. Monitor for scram reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To monitor the scram reactivity during power operation by measuring the reactor power before and after the insertion of control rods and the control rod insertion ratio to calculate an indication value for the scram reactivity and comparing the calculated value with a reference design value. Constitution: The reactor power before and after the insertion of the control rod and the control rod insertion ratio, as well as the change in time are measured by a signal measuring device. The reactivity of the control rod is determined by a reactivity calculation device from the output above measured and the physical constant for the nuclear reaction stored in a memory and the reference J sub(x) for the monitor of the scram reactivity is further calculated by a calculation device from the above reactivity and the control rod insertion ratio. The monitoring reference J sub(x)sup(0) relative to the reference design curve set by a setter and the reference J sub(x) measured and calculated as above are compared in a judging device. It is judged and displayed that the scram reactivity upon power operation satisfies the design standard if J sub(x) >= J sub(x)sup(0) and does not satisfy the design standard if J sub(x) < J sub(x)sup(0). (Yoshino, Y.)

  3. Are Bone and Muscle Changes from POWER PE, an 8-month In-school Jumping Intervention, Maintained at Three Years?

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Benjamin K.; Beck, Belinda R.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine if the musculoskeletal benefits of a twice-weekly, school-based, jumping regime in healthy adolescent boys and girls were maintained three years later. Subjects of the original POWER PE trial (n?=?99) were contacted and asked to undergo retesting three years after cessation of the intervention. All original measures were completed including: sitting height, standing height, weight, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), whole body, hip and spine bone mi...

  4. Bone marrow changes in beta-thalassemia major: quantitative MR imaging findings and correlation with iron stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Radiology Department, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Maris, Thomas G. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion General Hospital, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the MR imaging features of bone marrow in beta-thalassemia major and investigate their relation to ferritin, liver and spleen siderosis. Spinal bone marrow was prospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 40 transfused beta-thalassemic patients and 15 controls using T1-w, Pd, T2*-w Gradient Echo (GRE) and T1-w turbo Spin Echo (TSE) sequences. Signal intensity (SI) ratios of liver, spleen and bone marrow to paraspinous muscles (L/M, S/M, B/M respectively) and the respective T2 relaxation rates (1/T2) were calculated. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Bone marrow hypointensity in at least T2*-w GRE sequence was noted in 29/40 (72.5%) patients. Eleven/40 patients exhibited normal B/M on all MR sequences. Five/40 patients had normal B/M and low L/M. B/M correlated with L/M in T1-w TSE sequence only (r = 0.471, p = 0.05). B/M correlated with S/M and mean ferritin values in all sequences (r > 0.489, p < 0.01 and r > - 0.496, p < 0.03 respectively). Marrow 1/T2 did not correlate with ferritin values or liver and spleen 1/T2. B/M in transfused beta-thalassemic patients is related to splenic siderosis and ferritin levels. Although marrow is usually hypointense, it may occasionally display normal SI coexisting with liver hypointensity, a pattern typical of primary hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  5. Bone marrow changes in beta-thalassemia major: quantitative MR imaging findings and correlation with iron stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to describe the MR imaging features of bone marrow in beta-thalassemia major and investigate their relation to ferritin, liver and spleen siderosis. Spinal bone marrow was prospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 40 transfused beta-thalassemic patients and 15 controls using T1-w, Pd, T2*-w Gradient Echo (GRE) and T1-w turbo Spin Echo (TSE) sequences. Signal intensity (SI) ratios of liver, spleen and bone marrow to paraspinous muscles (L/M, S/M, B/M respectively) and the respective T2 relaxation rates (1/T2) were calculated. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Bone marrow hypointensity in at least T2*-w GRE sequence was noted in 29/40 (72.5%) patients. Eleven/40 patients exhibited normal B/M on all MR sequences. Five/40 patients had normal B/M and low L/M. B/M correlated with L/M in T1-w TSE sequence only (r = 0.471, p = 0.05). B/M correlated with S/M and mean ferritin values in all sequences (r > 0.489, p - 0.496, p < 0.03 respectively). Marrow 1/T2 did not correlate with ferritin values or liver and spleen 1/T2. B/M in transfused beta-thalassemic patients is related to splenic siderosis and ferritin levels. Although marrow is usually hypointense, it may occasionally display normal SI coexisting with liver hypointensity, a pattern typical of primary hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  6. Measuring vascular reactivity with breath-holds after stroke: A method to aid interpretation of group-level BOLD signal changes in longitudinal fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Wise, Richard J S; Leech, Robert; Murphy, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely used technique to map brain function, and to monitor its recovery after stroke. Since stroke has a vascular etiology, the neurovascular coupling between cerebral blood flow and neural activity may be altered, resulting in uncertainties when interpreting longitudinal BOLD signal changes. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a recently validated breath-hold task in patients with stroke, both to assess group level changes in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and to determine if alterations in regional CVR over time will adversely affect interpretation of task-related BOLD signal changes. Three methods of analyzing the breath-hold data were evaluated. The CVR measures were compared over healthy tissue, infarcted tissue and the peri-infarct tissue, both sub-acutely (?2 weeks) and chronically (?4 months). In this cohort, a lack of CVR differences in healthy tissue between the patients and controls indicates that any group level BOLD signal change observed in these regions over time is unlikely to be related to vascular alterations. CVR was reduced in the peri-infarct tissue but remained unchanged over time. Therefore, although a lack of activation in this region compared with the controls may be confounded by a reduced CVR, longitudinal group-level BOLD changes may be more confidently attributed to neural activity changes in this cohort. By including this breath-hold-based CVR assessment protocol in future studies of stroke recovery, researchers can be more assured that longitudinal changes in BOLD signal reflect true alterations in neural activity. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1755-1771, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25727648

  7. Entropy and chemical change. 1: Characterization of product (and reactant) energy distributions in reactive molecular collisions: Information and enthropy deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.; Levine, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Optimal means of characterizing the distribution of product energy states resulting from reactive collisions of molecules with restricted distributions of initial states are considered, along with those for characterizing the particular reactant state distribution which yields a given set of product states at a specified total energy. It is suggested to represent the energy-dependence of global-type results in the form of square-faced bar plots, and of data for specific-type experiments as triangular-faced prismatic plots. The essential parameters defining the internal state distribution are isolated, and the information content of such a distribution is put on a quantitative basis. The relationship between the information content, the surprisal, and the entropy of the continuous distribution is established. The concept of an entropy deficiency, which characterizes the specificity of product state formation, is suggested as a useful measure of the deviance from statistical behavior. The degradation of information by experimental averaging is considered, leading to bounds on the entropy deficiency.

  8. Mechanisms of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and soluble CD40L blood concentration changes after coronary stent implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Merino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathway linking inflammation and thrombosis has been extensively studied. Experimental data support that arterial thrombosis also induces a detectable inflammatory response, which in turn, activates prothrombotic pathways closing a vicious circle that interconnects inflammation and thrombosis. Aim: We designed this study to investigate the causes of inflammatory markers increase after coronary angioplasty. Methods: We analyzed the interrelationship of thrombotic and inflammatory markers and the effect of blocking thrombus formation on the inflammatory response in 50 patients undergoing high thrombotic risk coronary angioplasty. The relationship of platelet number to soluble CD40 Ligand, Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein blood levels was studied. Half of the study population was treated with standard antithrombotic drugs and the other half with the standard therapy plus platelet GP IIb-IIIa receptor inhibitor Eptifibatide. Results: There was a clear correlation between basal platelet count and sCD40L basal levels, post-angioplasty sCD40L increase and post-angioplasty IL-6 levels and post-angioplasty IL-6 levels with post-angioplasty CRP levels. Postangioplasty CRP, IL-6 and sCD40L blood levels were influenced by GP IIb-IIIa treatment in patients with angiographic thrombus. Conclusion: Platelet aggregation induces a proinflammatory response which is blocked by a GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor agent, particularly in patients with patent angiographic thrombus.

  9. SKG arthritis as a model for evaluating therapies in rheumatoid arthritis with special focus on bone changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Lindgaard, Lisa Mejlvang

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to further characterize the SKG model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its potential for studying intervention treatments, with special focus on bone targeting therapies. Three individual studies were conducted, using a total of 71 SKG mice, comparing arthritis induction with mannan versus zymosan A, female versus male mice, and the effect of dexamethasone intervention treatment initiated at different time points after arthritis induction. Hind paws were embedded undecalcified in methyl methacrylate, and sections were stained with Masson-Goldner trichrome. Areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) of the femora was determined with pDXA. RNA was extracted from the hind paws followed by the quantification by reverse transcriptase PCR. SKG mice stimulated with mannan presented a higher arthritis score than mice stimulated with zymosan A. Female SKG mice developed a more severe arthritis than male SKG mice. Dexamethasone inhibited arthritis clinically as well as histologically when the treatment was initiatedprophylactically or within the first week of arthritis. Femoral aBMD was lower in animals with arthritis than in control animals. The RANKL RNA expression was elevated in arthritic mice, whereas OPG RNA expression was unchanged. The results suggest mannan as arthritis inductor and female instead of male mice in experiments as well as an optimal time window for the initiation of treatment. Systemic bone loss as well as local up regulation of RANKL was present early in SKG arthritis. These results demonstrate that SKG arthritis is a suitable new model for evaluating therapies in RA.

  10. Especies reactivas de oxígeno y su efecto sobre la actividad de las células óseas / Reactive oxygen species on bone cells activity / Espécies reativas de oxigênio e seu efeito na atividade das células ósseas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clarisa, Marotte; Susana Noemí, Zeni.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitocôndrias geram espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) que cumprem uma grande variedade de processos celulares; se produzidas em excesso são responsáveis pelo estresse oxidativo e por múltiplos processos patológicos, incluindo a osteoporose. Os fatores de transcrição FoxO 1.3 e 4 funcionam como molé [...] culas sensoras de ERO transformando o sinal de estresse oxidativo na indução de mecanismos de proteção ou sinais apoptóticos. A insulina e os fatores de crescimento insulínicos (IGFs) regulam em forma negativa Foxos em mamíferos. As ERO estão envolvidos na remodelação óssea através do seu efeito nos osteoblastos e osteoclastos. Os Foxos controlam a ação de ERO na osteoblastogênese e na osteoclastogênese. Com a idade, o aumento do estresse oxidativo acelera a adipogênese à custa de osteoblastogênese; ao mesmo tempo que aumentam a oxidação de ácidos graxos gerando compostos pró-oxidantes que incrementam o estresse oxidativo. Além disso, a queda estrogênica acelera a osteoclastogênese por via genômica ou não genômica. Devido à importância de FoxOs e ERO na fisiologia óssea e durante o envelhecimento, esclarecer os eventos celulares e passos moleculares envolvidos no controle do estresse oxidativo seria vital para a compreensão da regulação da osteoporose relacionada com a idade. Abstract in spanish Las mitocondrias generan especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO) que cumplen con una multiplicidad de procesos celulares; cuando se producen en exceso son responsables del estrés oxidativo y de múltiples procesos patológicos, incluyendo osteoporosis. Los factores de transcripción FoxO 1, 3 y 4 actúan co [...] mo moléculas sensoras de ERO convirtiendo la señal de estrés oxidativo en la inducción de mecanismos de protección o señales apoptóticas. La insulina y los factores de crecimiento insulínicos (IGFs) regulan negativamente a FoxOs en mamíferos. Las ERO están involucradas en el remodelamiento óseo a través del efecto que ejercen sobre osteoblastos y osteoclastos. Los FoxOs controlan la acción de ERO sobre la osteoblastogénesis y la osteoclastogénesis. Con la edad, el aumento del estrés oxidativo acelera la adipogénesis a expensas de la osteoblastogénesis, al mismo tiempo que aumenta la oxidación de ácidos grasos generando compuestos pro-oxidantes que incrementan el estrés oxidativo. Asimismo, la caída estrogénica acelera la osteoclastogénesis por vía genómica o no genómica. Dada la importancia de FoxOs y ERO en la fisiología ósea y durante el envejecimiento, clarificar los eventos celulares y pasos moleculares involucrados en el control del estrés oxidativo sería vital para entender la regulación de la osteoporosis relacionada a la edad. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in oxidative stress, and they are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria. ROS are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. FoxOs transcription factors are activated in oxi [...] dative stress responses and participate in the regulation of cellular functions, including cell cycle arrest, cell death, and protection from stress stimuli. FoxO activity is inhibited by growth factors and the insulin signaling pathways. They play a fundamental role in skeletal homeostasis by exerting both ROS céludependent and independent effects on bone cells. FoxOs modulate osteoblastogenesis and attenuate osteoclastogenesis through both cell autonomous and indirect mechanisms. With aging there is an inevitable increment in oxidative stress that accelerates adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblastogenesis. There is also an increment in lipid oxidation to form pro-oxidant products that enhance oxidative stress generation. In addition, the estrogen withdrawal accelerates osteoclastogenesis. Given the importance of both FoxOs and ROS in aging and bone biology, understanding the cellular events and molecular pathways that are controlled by FoxOs during aging may be vital to

  11. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  12. Reactive Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ehlers, Rüdiger; 10.4204/EPTCS.54.13

    2011-01-01

    The distinction between safety and liveness properties is a fundamental classification with immediate implications on the feasibility and complexity of various monitoring, model checking, and synthesis problems. In this paper, we revisit the notion of safety for reactive systems, i.e., for systems whose behavior is characterized by the interplay of uncontrolled environment inputs and controlled system outputs. We show that reactive safety is a strictly larger class of properties than standard safety. We provide algorithms for checking if a property, given as a temporal formula or as a word or tree automaton, is a reactive safety property and for translating such properties into safety automata. Based on this construction, the standard verification and synthesis algorithms for safety properties immediately extend to the larger class of reactive safety.

  13. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal area, or lesion , seen on x-ray , bone scan, CT or MRI distinguish bone tumor from other conditions, such an infection distinguish ... so that the physician can easily reach the bone that is to be sampled. A belt ... procedure. A limited CT scan will be performed to confirm the location to ...

  14. Reactive ion etching of Si2Sb2Te5 in CF4/Ar plasma for a nonvolatile phase-change memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is one of the best candidates for next generation nonvolatile memory, and phase change Si2Sb2Te5 material is expected to be a promising material for PCRAM. In the fabrication of phase change random access memories, the etching process is a critical step. In this paper, the etching characteristics of Si2Sb2Te5 films were studied with a CF4/Ar gas mixture using a reactive ion etching system. We observed a monotonic decrease in etch rate with decreasing CF4 concentration, meanwhile, Ar concentration went up and smoother etched surfaces were obtained. It proves that CF4 determines the etch rate while Ar plays an important role in defining the smoothness of the etched surface and sidewall edge acuity. Compared with Ge2Sb2Te5, it is found that Si2Sb2Te5 has a greater etch rate. Etching characteristics of Si2Sb2Te5 as a function of power and pressure were also studied. The smoothest surfaces and most vertical sidewalls were achieved using a CF4/Ar gas mixture ratio of 10/40, a background pressure of 40 mTorr, and power of 200 W. (semiconductor technology)

  15. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Mastocytosis: reactive or neoplastic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, S M; Horny, H P; Ruck, P; Kämmerer, U; Geiselhart, A; Handgretinger, R; Griesser, H; Menke, D M; Kaiserling, E

    1997-01-01

    Mast cells are now known to derive from CD34+ haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. However, it has not yet been established whether the various types of mastocytosis, which involve tumour-like proliferation of mast cells, are true neoplastic disorders or reactive/hyperplastic conditions. In this study, tissue specimens (five bone marrow, two spleen, one skin) from female patients with histologically confirmed mastocytosis were investigated with a recently developed polymerase chain reaction assay for the determination of clonality of female cells using the human androgen receptor gene (HU-MARA). Mast cells purified to near homogeneity from hysterectomy specimens served as a control. The findings in bone marrow and skin either were not reproducible, or indicated polyclonality. However, both spleen specimens exhibited monoclonality. In addition, DNA analysis by flow cytometry was performed and revealed a diploid chromosome content with proliferation indices of under 8% in all the specimens. This is the first molecular biological study to indicate that mastocytosis is indeed neoplastic in nature. Images PMID:9378823

  17. Mastocytosis: reactive or neoplastic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, S M; Horny, H P; Ruck, P; Kämmerer, U; Geiselhart, A; Handgretinger, R; Griesser, H; Menke, D M; Kaiserling, E

    1997-06-01

    Mast cells are now known to derive from CD34+ haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. However, it has not yet been established whether the various types of mastocytosis, which involve tumour-like proliferation of mast cells, are true neoplastic disorders or reactive/hyperplastic conditions. In this study, tissue specimens (five bone marrow, two spleen, one skin) from female patients with histologically confirmed mastocytosis were investigated with a recently developed polymerase chain reaction assay for the determination of clonality of female cells using the human androgen receptor gene (HU-MARA). Mast cells purified to near homogeneity from hysterectomy specimens served as a control. The findings in bone marrow and skin either were not reproducible, or indicated polyclonality. However, both spleen specimens exhibited monoclonality. In addition, DNA analysis by flow cytometry was performed and revealed a diploid chromosome content with proliferation indices of under 8% in all the specimens. This is the first molecular biological study to indicate that mastocytosis is indeed neoplastic in nature. PMID:9378823

  18. EGFR ligand switch in late stage prostate cancer contributes to changes in cell signaling and bone remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Dehaan, A. M.; Wolters, N. M.; Keller, E. T.; Ignatoski, K. M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastasis occurs frequently in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients; however, it is not known why this happens. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand EGF is available to early stage PCa; whereas, TGF-? is available when PCa metastasizes. Since the microenvironment of metastases has been shown to play a role in the survival of the tumor, we examined whether the ligands had effects on cell survival and proliferation in early and late PCa. We used LNCaP cells as a model of...

  19. Bone marrow scintigraphy in Paget's disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with 20 lesions of Paget's disease of bone were studied with bone marrow scintigraphy (colloid), bone tissue scintigraphy and radiography. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed normal or incrased colloid uptake in 15 of 20 pagetic lesions, and decreased uptake in 4. Bone tissue scintigraphy showed increased metabolic activity in all lesions and was useful in detecting polyostotic disease as well as the extent of the lesions. Conventional radiography most often showed the typical appearance of Paget's disease, but the changes observed were sometimes difficult to differentiate from malignant disease. However, a preserved or increased reticuloendothelial function in the pagetic lesion contradicts metastatic disease as a differential diagnosis. Bone marrow scintigraphy with radiocolloid is a valuable method in the analysis of Paget's disease of bone. (orig.)

  20. Bone scintigraphy in bone metastases due to prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP were compared with bone radiography and biochemical data including total acid phosphatase (T. ACP), prostatic acid phosphatase (P. ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 35 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Bone metastases were diagnosed in 20 of 35 cases (57 %) by scintigraphy. The common sites of metastases were the pelvic bones, ribs, lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. In vertebrae, metastases were mainly distributed in the lower level. The most frequent radiographic change due to metastases was the osteoblastic type. On follow-up studies, there was a relatively good agreement in the results of bone scintigraphy and radiography. However, there was a good number of cases showing discrepancy between either scintigraphy or radiography and laboratory data. Bone scintigraphy seems to be the most contributory in monitoring bone metastases from prostatic cancer. (author)

  1. Sequential changes of thymocyte surface antigens with presence or absence of graft-vs-host reaction following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. [Mice; /sup 137/Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoe, K.; Fernandes, G.; Shen, F.-W.; Good, R.A.

    1982-04-01

    Lethally irradiated AKR mice were reconstituted with C57BL/6 bone marrow cells. Though the allogeneic marrow transplantation protected AKR recipients from acute irradiation deaths, the mice given unmanipulated marrow developed severe GVHR disease, and 80% died within 50 days. The thymus and spleen from the recipient mice, following recovery of body weight between the 10th and 20th days, gradually involuted and became miniscule after Day 30. Thymocytes from recipients were found to be entirely of donor cell type by Day 15. Thereafter, however, as the graft versus host reaction (GVHR) develoed, changes in sensitivity of the thymocytes to four different alloantisera directed toward donor histocompatibility antigens (H-2/sub b/, Thy 1.2, Lyt 1.2, and Lyt 2.2) were observed and these changes were associated with changes in antigen expression or quantity of Thy 1 antigens on the thymocytes. A different pattern of changes was observed in antigen expression on thymocytes in mice given B6 marrow cells that had been pretreated with anti-Thy 1 serum which prevented initiation of graft-vs-host disease and in the mice which received marrow not so treated and which regularly led to graft-vs-host disease. By contrast, the amount of H-2 antigen on the thymocytes from chimeras with or without GVHR was elevated equally. The mechanisms of these changes are discussed.

  2. Bone metabolism in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss: independent effects of weight change, insulin-like growth factor-1 and oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents with eating disorders (ED) are at risk of developing osteoporosis if weight is not recovered. Previous investigations do not separate the effects of weight change per se from those of concomitant hormonal changes. In this investigation serum osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and oestradiol were measured at assessment of 498 girls with ED and during weight gain of 59 girls. At assessment, OC concentrations were associated independently with weight (change), IGF-1 and oestradiol. Low weight, a high rate of weight loss and the hormone concentrations were associated with low OC. Low weight and high rate of weight loss were associated with high CTX concentrations but there were no associations independent of weight (change) with the hormones. During weight recovery, OC and CTX were independently and positively associated with weight, weight gain, IGF-1 and oestradiol. Bone metabolism markers are related to weight change independently of IGF-1 and oestradiol during both weight loss and weight gain. During weight gain, when pubertal development and growth are resumed there is an additional independent positive association between the markers and IGF-1 and oestradiol. These relationships are strongest in premenarcheal girls. PMID:25164606

  3. Complex cytogenetic findings in the bone marrow of a chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu?çe Bulakba?? Balc?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by splenomegaly, myeloid metaplasia and reactive bone marrow fibrosis. Karyotype analysis of the bone marrow is an integral part of the diagnosis, especially as a discriminative tool in ruling out reactive conditions. The frequency of clonal cytogenetic anomalies in this disease is the highest among its group, varying between 30 and 75%. Among these, trisomy 1q, 20q-, 13q- and +8 are the most common aberrations. Here we report a 66-year-old male patient whose bone marrow biopsy revealed signs of chronic myeloproliferative changes and dysmegakaryopoiesis. He was administered hydroxyurea treatment, splenic radiotherapy and multiple transfusions. The patient worsened in the following months and the second bone marrow biopsy revealed myelofibrosis. Cytogenetic analysis of this bone marrow sample revealed a complex karyotype reported to be 46,XY,del(9(q22q34,t(8;17;21(q22;q21;q22[23]/46,XY[2], with a previously undefined three-way translocation and deletion in chromosome 9. The patient died shortly thereafter.

  4. Nanoscale compositional changes and modification of the surface reactivity of Pt{sub 3}Co/C nanoparticles during proton-exchange membrane fuel cell operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubau, L. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble Universite, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Maillard, F., E-mail: frederic.maillard@lepmi.grenoble-inp.f [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble Universite, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble Universite, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Andre, J.; Rossinot, E. [Axane, 2 rue de Clemenciere, BP 15, 38360 Sassenage (France)

    2010-12-30

    This study bridges the structure/composition of Pt-Co/C nanoparticles with their surface reactivity and their electrocatalytic activity. We show that Pt{sub 3}Co/C nanoparticles are not stable during PEMFC operation (H{sub 2}/air; j = 0.6 A cm{sup -2}, T = 70 {sup o}C) but suffer compositional changes at the nanoscale. In the first hours of operation, the dissolution of Co atoms at their surface yields to the formation of a Pt-enriched shell covering a Pt-Co alloy core ('Pt-skeleton') and increases the affinity of the surface to oxygenated and hydrogenated species. This structure does not ensure stability in PEMFC conditions but is rather a first step towards the formation of 'Pt-shell/Pt-Co alloy core' structures with depleted Co content. In these operating conditions, the Pt-Co/C specific activity for the ORR varies linearly with the fraction of Co alloyed to Pt present in the core and is severely depreciated (ca. -50%) after 1124 h of operation. This is attributed to: (i) the decrease of both the strain and the ligand effect of Co atoms contained in the core (ii) the changes in the surface structure of the electrocatalyst (formation of a multilayer-thick Pt shell) and (iii) the relaxation of the Pt surface atoms.

  5. Nanoscale compositional changes and modification of the surface reactivity of Pt3Co/C nanoparticles during proton-exchange membrane fuel cell operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study bridges the structure/composition of Pt-Co/C nanoparticles with their surface reactivity and their electrocatalytic activity. We show that Pt3Co/C nanoparticles are not stable during PEMFC operation (H2/air; j = 0.6 A cm-2, T = 70 oC) but suffer compositional changes at the nanoscale. In the first hours of operation, the dissolution of Co atoms at their surface yields to the formation of a Pt-enriched shell covering a Pt-Co alloy core ('Pt-skeleton') and increases the affinity of the surface to oxygenated and hydrogenated species. This structure does not ensure stability in PEMFC conditions but is rather a first step towards the formation of 'Pt-shell/Pt-Co alloy core' structures with depleted Co content. In these operating conditions, the Pt-Co/C specific activity for the ORR varies linearly with the fraction of Co alloyed to Pt present in the core and is severely depreciated (ca. -50%) after 1124 h of operation. This is attributed to: (i) the decrease of both the strain and the ligand effect of Co atoms contained in the core (ii) the changes in the surface structure of the electrocatalyst (formation of a multilayer-thick Pt shell) and (iii) the relaxation of the Pt surface atoms.

  6. Radionuclide and hybrid bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath (eds.) [Guy' s and St. Thomas' NHS Trust Foundation, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Van der Wall, Hans [Concord Nuclear Imaging, Concord West, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2012-07-01

    Presents up-to-date and comprehensive information on the use of bone scans and hybrid imaging techniques in a variety of settings, including benign disease, primary bone tumors, and metastases. Discusses the merits of different radiopharmaceuticals. Compares bone scintigraphy with conventional radiological methods. Includes sections on the basic science and pediatric bone scintigraphy. The accurate identification of pathology in the skeleton is an extremely important goal, and the great strength of the radionuclide bone scan is its ability to identify functional change before structural change occurs. Over the years, the indications for bone scan have evolved to include benign disorders as well as malignancies. Further striking developments include the emergence of PET and of new tracers that offer enhanced capabilities, such as {sup 18}F-fluoride. The most dramatic advance, however, has been the development of hybrid imaging systems that combine the strengths of different modalities.

  7. Bone marrow investigation with technetium-99m microcolloid and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with malignant myelolympho-proliferative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 63 patients with primary extramedullary malignant lymphoma or plasmacytoma, a study was performed in order to evaluate bone marrow involvement. All patients underwent a 99mTc microcolloid bone marrow whole body imaging (scintigraphy), using a gamma camera interfaced with a computer, followed by nuclear magnetic resonance bone marrow imaging (MRI), (1.5 Tesla). MR images were made of the lumbosacral region, the pelvic region, both femoral and other parts of the skeleton, according to focal lesions in the scintigraphy. A posterior iliac crest bone marrow biopsy was used as a standard reference. In the present study, both scintigraphy and MRI showed a disseminated or focal involvement or a combination of both. In 53 of the 63 patients (84%) the results were in accordance. Pathological MR signals or pathological findings in scintigraphy did not always correspond to tumorous bone marrow involvement, and were shown to reflect reactive changes in the central part of the skeleton in combination with a periphery radionuclide extension interpreted as a periphery compensatory hematopoetic proliferation. The negative predictive value of scintigraphy and MRI was 92% and 100%, respectively. When combining the results of both examinations, the positive predictive value increased from 49% to 58%, if the bone marrow biopsy is accepted as gold standard. The results indicate that bone marrow investigation performed simultaneously using scintigraphy and MRI is superior bothsing scintigraphy and MRI is superior both to the use of either of the methods alone and to the traditional iliac crest bone marrow biopsy. (orig.)

  8. Bone marrow investigation with technetium-99m microcolloid and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with malignant myelolympho-proliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widding, A.; Smolorz, J.; Linden, A.; Schicha, H.; Franke, M.; Diehl, V.

    1989-05-01

    In 63 patients with primary extramedullary malignant lymphoma or plasmacytoma, a study was performed in order to evaluate bone marrow involvement. All patients underwent a /sup 99m/Tc microcolloid bone marrow whole body imaging (scintigraphy), using a gamma camera interfaced with a computer, followed by nuclear magnetic resonance bone marrow imaging (MRI), (1.5 Tesla). MR images were made of the lumbosacral region, the pelvic region, both femoral and other parts of the skeleton, according to focal lesions in the scintigraphy. A posterior iliac crest bone marrow biopsy was used as a standard reference. In the present study, both scintigraphy and MRI showed a disseminated or focal involvement or a combination of both. In 53 of the 63 patients (84%) the results were in accordance. Pathological MR signals or pathological findings in scintigraphy did not always correspond to tumorous bone marrow involvement, and were shown to reflect reactive changes in the central part of the skeleton in combination with a periphery radionuclide extension interpreted as a periphery compensatory hematopoetic proliferation. The negative predictive value of scintigraphy and MRI was 92% and 100%, respectively. When combining the results of both examinations, the positive predictive value increased from 49% to 58%, if the bone marrow biopsy is accepted as gold standard. The results indicate that bone marrow investigation performed simultaneously using scintigraphy and MRI is superior both to the use of either of the methods alone and to the traditional iliac crest bone marrow biopsy.

  9. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  10. Reactivity and reaction rate ratio changes with moderator voidage in a light water high converter reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral reaction rate ratios and other k? related parameters have been measured in the first three cores of the experimental program on light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) test lattices in the PROTEUS reactor. The reference tight-pitch lattice consisted of two rod types, with an average fissile-plutonium enrichment of 6% and a fuel/moderator ratio of 2.0. The moderators were H2O, Dowtherm (simulating an H2O voidage of 42.5%), and air (100% void). Comparisons of the measured parameters have been made with calculational results based mainly on the use of two separate codes and their associated data libraries, namely, WIMS-D and EPRI-CPM. A reconstruction of individual components of the k-infinity void coefficient has been carried out on the basis of the measured changes with voidage of the various reaction rate ratios, as well as of k-infinity itself. The subsequent more detailed comparisons between experiment and calculation should provide a useful basis for resolving the conflicting calculational results that have been reported in the past for the void coefficient characteristics of LWHCRs. (author)

  11. Scintigraphy of aneurysmal bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigrams with Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals of 25 aneurysmal bone cysts showed abnormal activity in every case. In 22 cases, the activity was correlated with the true pathologic extent of the lesions; only three exhibited a false-positive extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor margins. Sixteen scintigrams (64%) revealed increased uptake, chiefly around the periphery of the lesions, with less activity in their centers. This feature could not be explained simply by the cystic nature of the lesions, since aneurysmal bone cysts may contain considerable fibrous tissue septa containing trabeculae of reactive new bone. However, there was no correlation between any specific anatomic or histologic pattern and the intensity and pattern of abnormal scintigraphic activity

  12. Patterns of localization of sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate and tetracycline in bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of a study on mechanism of sup(99m)Tc-phosphoric acid compounds accumulation, regions where sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or tetracycline accumulated were compared in 5 patients with primary bone tumors (one with osteosarcoma, one with malignant fibrous histocytoma, one with osteochondroma, and two with chondrosarcoma). In accordance with regions where tetracycline accumulated, much sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulated in neoplastic bone, calcified and ossified cartilage, and reactive new bone around bone tumors. It was concluded from above-mentioned results and mechanism of tetracycline accumulation that much sup(99m)Tc-MDP penetrated well and accumulated in reactive new bone around bone tumors probably because in reactive new bone around bone tumors, the size of hydroxyapatite was small, the density of matrix of bone was low, and surface area of hydroxyapatite crystal was very wide. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. MRI of the wrist and finger joints in inflammatory joint diseases at 1-year interval: MRI features to predict bone erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of MRI determined synovial volumes and bone marrow oedema to predict progressions in bone erosions after 1 year in patients with different types of inflammatory joint diseases. Eighty-four patients underwent MRI, laboratory and clinical examination at baseline and 1 year later. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and finger joints was performed in 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis less than 3 years (group 1) who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, 18 patients with reactive arthritis or psoriatic arthritis (group 2), 22 patients with more than 3 years duration of rheumatoid arthritis, who fulfilled the ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (group 3), and 20 patients with arthralgia (group 4). The volume of the synovial membrane was outlined manually before and after gadodiamide injection on the T1-weighted sequences in the finger joints. Bones with marrow oedema were summed up in the wrist and fingers on short-tau inversion recovery sequences. These MRI features was compared with the number of bone erosions 1 year later. The MR images were scored independently under masked conditions. The synovial volumes in the finger joints assessed on pre-contrast images was highly predictive of bone erosions 1 year later in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (groups 1 and 3). The strongest individual predictor of bone erosions at 1-year follow-up was bone marrow oedema, if prar follow-up was bone marrow oedema, if present at the wrist at baseline. Bone erosions on baseline MRI were in few cases reversible at follow-up MRI. The total synovial volume in the finger joints, and the presence of bone oedema in the wrist bones, seems to be predictive for the number of bone erosions 1 year later and may be used in screening. The importance of very early bone changes on MRI and the importance of the reversibility of these findings remain to be clarified. (orig.)

  14. Skeletal imaging in metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of skeletal imaging in the detection of bone abnormalities has been evaluated in 38 patients with various types of metabolic disease. Twenty-six patients had primary hyperparathyroidism, 6 pseudohypoparathyroidism, 3 hypoparathyroidism, and 3 osteomalacia. Total-body bone images were obtained with a scintillation camera 2 to 3 h after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of 99Tcsup(m)-labelled pyrophosphate. The results are correlated with bone X-ray and bone mineral changes as measured by the Norland-Cameron densitometry technique. Of 32 patients who had both bone X-ray and bone image studies, 20 showed bone changes in the image study and 19 in the X-ray studies. The bone X-ray study showed typical changes of primary hyperparathyroidism in only 2 of 26 patients. Bone image changes were found mainly in the distal appendicular skeleton of the hands, forearms, legs, feet and mandible. Of 30 patients who had both bone image study and bone mineral estimation, 18 showed abnormalities in the image study and 14 had low mineral (calcium) at the distal end of the radius of the non-dominant arm. The plasma clearance of 99Tcsup(m)-pyrophosphate was relatively increased in primary hyperparathyroidism in comparison with the controls. It is concluded that bone imaging is a very sensitive test to detect skeletal changes associated with metabolic disease. (author)

  15. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  16. Epigenetic changes in bone marrow progenitor cells influence the inflammatory phenotype and alter wound healing in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katherine A; Joshi, Amrita; Carson, William F; Schaller, Matthew; Allen, Ronald; Mukerjee, Sumanta; Kittan, Nico; Feldman, Eva L; Henke, Peter K; Hogaboam, Cory; Burant, Charles F; Kunkel, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    Classically activated (M1) macrophages are known to play a role in the development of chronic inflammation associated with impaired wound healing in type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the mechanism responsible for the dominant proinflammatory (M1) macrophage phenotype in T2D wounds is unknown. Since epigenetic enzymes can direct macrophage phenotypes, we assessed the role of histone methylation in bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells in the programming of macrophages toward a proinflammatory phenotype. We have found that a repressive histone methylation mark, H3K27me3, is decreased at the promoter of the IL-12 gene in BM progenitors and this epigenetic signature is passed down to wound macrophages in a murine model of glucose intolerance (diet-induced obese). These epigenetically "preprogrammed" macrophages result in poised macrophages in peripheral tissue and negatively impact wound repair. We found that in diabetic conditions the H3K27 demethylase Jmjd3 drives IL-12 production in macrophages and that IL-12 production can be modulated by inhibiting Jmjd3. Using human T2D tissue and murine models, we have identified a previously unrecognized mechanism by which macrophages are programmed toward a proinflammatory phenotype, establishing a pattern of unrestrained inflammation associated with nonhealing wounds. Hence, histone demethylase inhibitor-based therapy may represent a novel treatment option for diabetic wounds. PMID:25368099

  17. Radioisotope bone scanning in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of radionuclide activity in the living equine skeleton, using bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals and a hand-held radiation detector, is reported. Pathological changes in bone can be detected and subsequent development monitored. The availability and use of this diagnostic technique in equine practice is discussed