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1

Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched

2008-07-01

2

Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched.

Thiryayi, W.A.; Thiryayi, S.A. [Department of Histopathology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Freemont, A.J. [Division of Regenerative Medicine, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tony.freemont@manchester.ac.uk

2008-07-15

3

Reactive changes of disc space and foreign body granuloma due to bone wax in lumbar spine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bone wax is a well-known agent used to prevent bleeding from the bone that can be used in different surgical procedures. Bone wax is a safe agent, but it may rarely lead to significant foreign body reactions. In this report, we present a patient who developed bone wax-related disc space foreign body granuloma following L4 total laminectomy, extremely rare complication.

Ozdemir Nail

2009-01-01

4

Bone changes from prostaglandin therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prostaglandin E therapy in infants causes periosteal elevation. Although the changes usually take 30-40 days to become visible, we have seen them as early as nine days. In 15 infants who had prostaglandin E therapy for over six days, three developed periosteal elevation. Three other cases are described in greater detail, with long-term follow-up in two in which the bone remodeled to normal. Gallium scan in one showed increased uptake in areas involved. The periosteal cloaking may mimic Caffey disease but the pattern of involvement is different, since the mandible, which is commonly affected in Caffey disease, is rarely involved in prostaglandin E therapy.

Poznanski, A.K.; Fernbach, S.K.; Berry, T.E.

1985-06-01

5

Bone changes from prostaglandin therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prostaglandin E therapy in infants causes periosteal elevation. Although the changes usually take 30-40 days to become visible, we have seen them as early as nine days. In 15 infants who had prostaglandin E therapy for over six days, three developed periosteal elevation. Three other cases are described in greater detail, with long-term follow-up in two in which the bone remodeled to normal. Gallium scan in one showed increased uptake in areas involved. The periosteal cloaking may mimic Caffey disease but the pattern of involvement is different, since the mandible, which is commonly affected in Caffey disease, is rarely involved in prostaglandin E therapy. (orig.)

1985-06-01

6

Bone marrow reconversion – imaging of physiological changes in bone marrow  

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Reconversion of bone marrow is a reverse process of natural replacement of red marrow by yellow marrow. The occurrence of reconversion can be misleading and challenging in interpretation of musculoskeletal system imaging. Changes of signal intensity in bone marrow are frequently observed in radiological routine and its diversity can cause a suspicion of pathologic findings. Therefore, the knowledge about distribution of red and yellow bone marrow depending on age, concomitant diseases and pre...

Ma?kiewicz, Agata; Dziedzic, Magdalena

2012-01-01

7

Bone changes in primary myogenic limb sarcomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of 55 patients with histologically varified primary myogenic limb sarcomas the authors observed 5 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and 2 with leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the limbs accompanied by bone changes. RMS was characterized by an infiltrative type of bone involvement by a tumor (inhomogeneous edge destruction of varying depth), and bone atrophy was noted in the zone of contact with a tumor in LMS

1986-01-01

8

Cosmos 1129 - Spaceflight and bone changes  

Science.gov (United States)

Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during spaceflight were determined to be a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, and a decreased trabecular bone volume and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

1980-01-01

9

Regional bone changes in deep soft tissue hemangiomas: radiographic and MR features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To evaluate changes in bone adjacent to deep soft tissue hemangiomas of the extremities. Design and patients. We retrospectively reviewed the plain films of 115 patients with histologically proven deep soft tissue hemangiomas of the extremities. The length and pattern of the bone changes were analyzed and correlated with the MRI examination (n=55) and surgical findings. Results. Plain film studies demonstrated reactive bone changes adjacent to the deep soft tissue hemangiomas in 24 (21%) patients and phleboliths in 23 (20%) patients. The results of plain film analysis revealed a wide spectrum of regional bone changes adjacent to the hemangiomas, including periosteal reactions (16%), regional osteopenia (1%), cortical erosion (3%), bony overgrowth (3%), coarsening of the trabeculae (5%), and a combination of the above changes (4%). The length of the reactive changes corresponded approximately to the size of the hemangioma in 70% and was longer than the largest dimension of the hemangioma in 30%. Of the 55 patients studied with MRI, 39 (71%) patients had normal bones and 16 (29%) had bone changes. Conclusion. Deep soft tissue hemangiomas may cause changes in adjacent bones. Familiarity with the pattern of reactive bone changes may help to avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

1998-04-01

10

Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the globa...

Pinder, Robert W.; Davidson, Eric A.; Goodale, Christine L.; Greaver, Tara L.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Liu, Lingli

2012-01-01

11

Age changes in human bone: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

Sharpe, W.D.

1977-12-03

12

Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

Andronache, Constantin

2014-05-01

13

Unusual radiological bone changes at the site of cutaneous tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though radiological bone changes have been usually reported with scrofuloderma, bone changes in association with other forms of cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) are uncommon. We describe bone changes at the site of 3 lesions of lupus vulgaris and 2 of scrofuloderma in 4 patients. Radiological examination of bones underlying cutaneous TB is recommended for complete evaluation of the spectrum of TB. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs

1994-02-01

14

Symptomatic bone langerhans cell histiocytosis treated at diagnosis or after reactivation with indomethacin alone.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the outcome of patients with symptomatic bone Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) treated with indomethacin alone, either at diagnosis or after reactivation (after recurrence with previous therapies). We evaluated the nonrandomized use of oral indomethacin (2 mg/kg/d) in patients with symptomatic single-system bone LCH. From 1997 to 2012, 38 sequential patients were treated for a median of 4 months. Criteria of nonactive disease (NAD) after initial treatment (8 wk) were: no pain, no soft tissue involvement, no increase of size, or no new bone lesions. Twenty-two patients were treated at diagnosis: 18 showed NAD after initial treatment (2 patients who had bone reactivations were retreated with indomethacin and remain with NAD). Three patients improved and they are with NAD after treatment with indomethacin, steroids, or radiotherapy. One patient developed progressive bone disease and he is with NAD after treatment with steroids and chemotherapy. Sixteen patients were treated after reactivation, and all were with NAD after initial treatment: 5 reactivated and 4 remain with NAD after retreatment with indomethacin. Toxicity was not significant. We conclude that indomethacin is a well tolerated and active drug in patients with symptomatic bone disease. The results support the concept that chemotherapy may not be necessary for limited bone disease. PMID:24977402

Braier, Jorge; Rosso, Diego; Pollono, Daniel; Rey, Guadalupe; Lagomarsino, Eduardo; Latella, Antonio; Zubizarreta, Pedro

2014-07-01

15

Changes in bone microstructure and toughness during the healing process of long bones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is of great importance to understand how bone defects regain the microstructure and mechanical function of bone and how the microstructure affects the mechanical function during the bone healing process. In the present study on long bone defects, we investigated the relationship between the recovery process of fracture toughness and biological apatite (BAp)/collagen (Col) alignment as an index of the bone microstructure to clarify the bone toughening mechanisms. A 5-mm defect introduced in the rabbit ulna was allowed to heal naturally and a three-point bending test was conducted on the regenerated site to assess bone toughness. The bone toughness was quite low at the early stage of bone regeneration but increased during the postoperative period. The change in toughness agreed well with the characteristics of the fracture surface morphology, which reflected the history of the crack propagation. SEM and microbeam X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the toughness was dominated by the degree and orientation of the preferred BAp/Col alignment, i.e. bundles aligned perpendicular to the crack propagation clearly contributed to the bone toughening owing to extra energy consumption for resistance to crack propagation. In conclusion, regenerated bone improves fracture toughness by reconstructing the preferred BAp/Col alignment along the bone longitudinal axis during the healing process of long bones.

Ishimoto, T; Nakano, T; Umakoshi, Y [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tabata, Y [Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

2009-05-01

16

Method for assessment of vascular reactivity in bone: in vitro studies on resistance arteries isolated from porcine cancellous bone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge about vascular regulation in bone is central to the understanding of both normal and pathological bone physiology. This article describes a new method for direct assessment of the reactivity of bone blood vessels. Resistance arteries (diameter approximately 250 microns) were isolated from epiphyseal cancellous bone (porcine femoral condyle). Arterial segments (2 mm long) were mounted as ring preparations on a myograph, and isometric force development was measured continuously. Fifty-nine vessels from 31 pigs were investigated. The active force development was maximal at 0.9 x L100 in nine of 12 investigated arteries (L100 corresponds to the circumference the vessel would have if relaxed and exposed to a luminal pressure of 100 mm Hg [13.3 kPa]). In all subsequent experiments, the vessels were stretched to 0.9 x L100. Noradrenaline (2 x 10(-8) to 10(-5) M) induced a concentration-dependent vasoconstriction; mean maximal tension development was 3.69 N/m. This force development would enable the arteries to contract against a pressure of more than 22 kPa (165 mm Hg), indicating preserved function of the media smooth muscle. Response to acetylcholine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) was observed in only two of 12 arteries. Bradykinin (10(-11) to 10(-6) M) induced a concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation in all vessels; the relaxation was endothelium-dependent, since no effect of bradykinin was detected after mechanical removal of the endothelium. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) induced a reproducible and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. The results demonstrate preserved function of both smooth muscle and endothelium in this preparation. The model allows pharmacological investigations of bone arteries under well defined conditions and enables studies on focal bone lesions and human bone tissue.

Lundgaard, A; Aalkjær, Christian

1996-01-01

17

MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2007-03-15

18

Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1{sup -/-} mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

Smietana, Michael J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Arruda, Ellen M. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Larkin, Lisa M., E-mail: llarkin@umich.edu [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)

2010-12-03

19

Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. ? Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. ? Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1-/- mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1-/- mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm2) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1-/- compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1-/- mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1-/- mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1-/- mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1-/- mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

2010-12-03

20

Bone mineral changes in primary hyperparathyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied 34 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in order to assess their bone mineral status, to determine its relationship to biochemical parameters (serum calcium and parathyroid hormone) and surgical status, and to determine the relationship between peripheral cortical bone and spinal trabecular bone in this disease. These patients were studied with radiogrammetry of the metacarpals, Norland-Cameron photon absorptiometry of the radius, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine, industrial radiography of the hands, and conventional radiography of the thoracolumbar spine. We also calculated a spinal fracture index from thoracolumbar spine films. We found that the appendicular measurements correlated well together, but less well with spinal QCT. The spinal fracture index correlated best with QCT (r = 0.55), although significant dispersion was noted. We found that, in general, these hyperparathyroid patients had statistically significant decrements in bone mineral content in both the appendicular and the axial portions of the skeleton. However, the decrement in the appendicular skeleton did not correlate well with that in the axial skeleton. Therefore we conclude that it is necessary to measure both peripheral and central bone mineral content in order to reliably assess the skeletal demineralizing effects of primary hyperparathyroidism in an individual patient. (orig.)

1986-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Morphometry of orthopantomographic mandibular bone changes during radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is generally considered that mineral loss in the bone must amount to 30 per cent or more before any changes become visible to the naked eye in conventional radiography of the skeleton. Early changes in the mandibular bone during radiation therapy are therefore difficult to detect. Abnormalities of the bone caused by irradiation are vascular and cellular in nature. Morphometry detects the changes earlier than conventional radiography. Nineteen patients with a malignant process in the oral cavity or the naso- or hypopharynx but with no evidence of metastases in the mandibular periosteum or bone marrow were given radiation therapy. They were investigated using morphometry together with orthopantomography. The investigation demonstrated a decrease in the number of trabeculae and an increase in the amount of marrow space and compact bone during irradiation. Thus it is possible to detect early radiographic changes by morphometry, but this method is more laborious than scintigraphy. The abnormalities of the mandibular bone were reversible, which signifies the recovery of bone after irradiation with therapeutic doses. (orig.)

1985-01-01

22

Age-related elemental change in bones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate age dependence of the bone element contents and structure, lumbar and femur from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen for their more susceptibility to fracture. These rats were divided into to 5 age groups: 1, 4, 7, 11 and 25 month-age, corresponding human beings from the young to the old. The elements contents were detected by external Proton Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) method was also applied to obtain information about calcium (Ca) and phosphor (P) structure. It was found that Ca content, Ca/P ratio, valance state of Ca and P and their coordinate structure remains unaltered with age variance, whereas the content of strontium (Sr) was significantly decreasing. Sr concentration may provide a new parameter for diagnosis of bone disorder.

Wang, C.; Eisa, M.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, W. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shen, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn; Mi, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, J.; Zhou, Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China)

2008-04-15

23

Reactivity change during samples oscillation at the RB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among other applications the RB zero power reactor is meant for measuring the nuclear properties of reactor materials by danger coefficient method and by reactor oscillator. This paper analyzes the influence of weight functions shape on the changes of reactor power during oscillation. A method analog to the deformation analysis with some modifications was applied. Unit reactivity change curve was obtained by numerical analysis on the ZUSE-23 computer with relevant experimental input data for a number of oscillation amplitudes

1964-06-01

24

Reactivity and structural change of coal char during steam gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is intended to clarify the relationship among the reactivity of coal char with steam, structural change in residual carbon, and ash behavior. Steam gasification of various coal chars and demineralized chars was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. After gasification, the reacted char was analyzed using laser raman spectroscope (LRS), and scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX) mapping. Results of SEM images and EDX-mappings revealed that novel parallel analysis of cross correlation between EDX-mapping and LRS-mapping was found to be very effective for the comprehensive evaluation of ash behavior and carbonaceous structure. As the gasification reaction proceeds, the reactivity of the char was varied; existence of Si and Al seemed to suffocate the char reactivity. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Yasushi Sekine; Kiyohiro Ishikawa; Eiichi Kikuchi; Masahiko Matsukata; Akemitsu Akimoto [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry

2006-01-01

25

Proactive and Reactive View Change for Fault Tolerant Byzantine Agreement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Dealing with arbitrary failures effectively, while reaching agreement, remains a major operational challenge in distributed transactions. In the contemporary literature, standard protocols such as Byzantine Fault Tolerant Distributed Commit and Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance handles the problem to a greater extent. However, the limitation with these protocols is that they incur increased message overhead as well as large latency. Approach: To improve the failure resiliency with minimum execution overhead, we propose two new protocols based on proactive view change and reactive view change. Also, both approaches have been analyzed and compared. Results: Our dynamic analysis reflects that, in a faulty scenario, the proactive approach is computationally more efficient with reduced latency as compared to reactive one. Conclusion/Recommendations: Moreover, unlike PBFT and BFTDC, our agreement protocol runs in two phases, which leads to reduced message overhead and total execution time.

Poonam Saini

2011-01-01

26

Detection of nanoscale structural changes in bone using random lasers  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that the unique characteristics of random lasing in bone can be used to assess nanoscale structural alterations as a mechanical or structural biosensor, given that bone is a partially disordered biological nanostructure. In this proof-of-concept study, we conduct photoluminescence experiments on cortical bone specimens that are loaded in tension under mechanical testing. The ultra-high sensitivity, the large detection area, and the simple detection scheme of random lasers allow us to detect prefailure damage in bone at very small strains before any microscale damage occurs. Random laser-based biosensors could potentially open a new possibility for highly sensitive detection of nanoscale structural and mechanical alterations prior to overt microscale changes in hard tissue and biomaterials.

Song, Qinghai; Xu, Zhengbin; Choi, Seung Ho; Sun, Xuanhao; Xiao, Shumin; Akkus, Ozan; Kim, Young L.

2010-01-01

27

The C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with long bone fractures and after arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between March 1991 and February 1992 serial serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured prospectively for three weeks in 57 consecutive patients with fractures of long bones, and also in 11 patients who had undergone primary total hip or knee arthroplasty. A semi-quantitative capillary floculation method was used for measuring the CRP level. The highest values were usually recorded 2-3 days after trauma or operation, and the CRP was nearly normal by three weeks. In the patients with long bone fractures the amplitude of CRP response was affected by the type of treatment. Lower values were observed in those patients treated conservatively than in those who underwent operation, but the profile of CRP response was similar, regardless of the type of treatment. The CRP response was also affected by the severity of the trauma in conservatively treated patients, but in those who underwent operation the CRP response was similar, regardless of the severity of the injury. In patients with primary total hip or knee arthroplasty the pattern of CRP response after operation was similar to that in the patients with long bone fractures who underwent surgical treatment. Awareness of the natural course of the CRP response after fracture and arthroplasty may help in the diagnosis of early post-traumatic and postoperative complications, especially infections. PMID:8340178

Yoon, S I; Lim, S S; Rha, J D; Kim, Y H; Kang, J S; Baek, G H; Yang, K H

1993-01-01

28

Seasonal variations in indices of bone formation precede appropriate bone mineral changes in normal men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 10 normal males aged 23-50 years measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase (s-AP) and the 24-h whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate (WBR), as indices of bone formation, and the fasting urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio (OHPr:Cr), as an index of bone resorption, were performed monthly from January 1983 to May 1984. Bone mineral content of the distal forearm (BMC) was measured in the middle of each quarter. From January to May BMC exhibited a reproducible, significant average increase of 2.5%, returning to baseline level between May and August. During the first quarter of both 1983 and 1984 a significant increase in s-AP and WBR was seen. Subsequently, during the second quarter of 1983, these variables fell below the mean of the year. Confirming their interrelationship, the deviations of s-AP and WBR were positively correlated throughout the study period (r = 0.51, P less than 0.05). Since the urinary OHPr:Cr ratio remained constant, the reported seasonal changes in bone mass of normal, adult males appear to result from primary changes in bone formation

1986-01-01

29

Radiodiagnosis of bone changes in diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of analysis of roentgenograms and scintigrams of hands and feet of 21 patients with diabetes mellitus are presented. Scintigraphy was carried out with "9"9"mTc-pyrophosphate. The examination was conducted with ON-110 gamma chamber. Changes in scintigrams are detected for 19 of 21 patients examined; 37 foci of pathologic buildup of radiopharmaceuticals are determined. Increased buildup of radiopharmaceuticals in the region of the focus isn't marked in roentgeograms for 48.6% of patients. For 51.4% of patients the results of both methods coincide. Scintigraphy with "9"9"mTc-pyrophosphates allows to refiny the degree of osteal changes propagation in diabetes mellitus as well as to detect them earlier than by the roentgenologic method

1986-01-01

30

Changes of trabecular bone under control of biologically mechanical mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a biological process of bone remodeling was considered as a closed loop feedback control system, which enables bone to optimize and renew itself over a lifetime. A novel idea of combining strain-adaptive and damage-induced remodeling algorithms at Basic Multicellular Unit (BMU) level was introduced. In order to make the outcomes get closer to clinical observation, the stochastic occurrence of microdamage was involved and a hypothesis that remodeling activation probability is related to the value of damage rate was assumed. Integrated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the changes of trabecular bone in morphology and material properties were simulated in the course of five years. The results suggest that deterioration and anisotropy of trabecluar bone are inevitable with natural aging, and that compression rather than tension can be applied to strengthen the ability of resistance to fracture. This investigation helps to gain more insight the mechanism of bone loss and identify improved treatment and prevention for osteoporosis or stress fracture.

Wang, C.; Zhang, C. Q.; Dong, X.; Wu, H.

2008-11-01

31

Reactive endplate marrow changes: a systematic morphologic and epidemiologic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the morphology and location of vertebral endplate changes, and to analyze their association with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). At 1.5 T (T1-weighted, T2-weighted/STIR) 100 lumbar spines were evaluated separately by three observers. The readers classified the endplate bone marrow abnormalities on sagittal MR images according to the definitions of Modic et al. Findings were localized by disc segment; whether in the upper and/or lower endplate; and within each endplate divided into 15 segments. Disc space narrowing, as well as disc desiccation, was also noted at each vertebral level. In addition, endplate changes were correlated with age, gender, and BMI (weight(kg)/height(m)2). A total of 15,000 data points were studied and 422 total changes recorded. A total of 99 vertebral levels were affected in 58 patients. Of these, 171 were of type I, 242 were of type II, and 9 were of type III. L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 vertebral levels were most commonly involved, having (142, 4.73%) and (116, 3.87%) changes respectively (P<0.0001). The upper and lower aspects of the endplate were affected similarly. Changes most frequently occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate (P<0.0001). Endplate marrow changes were associated with increasing age (P<0.0001) and, surprisingly, male gender (P<0.0001). Endplate changes were not associated with BMI. The fatty pattern was most common, with the sclerotic pattern being rare. Endplate marrow changes most often occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate, particularly at L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 levels. Modic changes occur more frequently with aging, evidence of their degenerative etiology. They were, however, not related to body habitus, but to weight and male gender. (orig.)

2005-03-01

32

Reactive endplate marrow changes: a systematic morphologic and epidemiologic evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the morphology and location of vertebral endplate changes, and to analyze their association with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). At 1.5 T (T1-weighted, T2-weighted/STIR) 100 lumbar spines were evaluated separately by three observers. The readers classified the endplate bone marrow abnormalities on sagittal MR images according to the definitions of Modic et al. Findings were localized by disc segment; whether in the upper and/or lower endplate; and within each endplate divided into 15 segments. Disc space narrowing, as well as disc desiccation, was also noted at each vertebral level. In addition, endplate changes were correlated with age, gender, and BMI (weight(kg)/height(m){sup 2}). A total of 15,000 data points were studied and 422 total changes recorded. A total of 99 vertebral levels were affected in 58 patients. Of these, 171 were of type I, 242 were of type II, and 9 were of type III. L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 vertebral levels were most commonly involved, having (142, 4.73%) and (116, 3.87%) changes respectively (P<0.0001). The upper and lower aspects of the endplate were affected similarly. Changes most frequently occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate (P<0.0001). Endplate marrow changes were associated with increasing age (P<0.0001) and, surprisingly, male gender (P<0.0001). Endplate changes were not associated with BMI. The fatty pattern was most common, with the sclerotic pattern being rare. Endplate marrow changes most often occurred at the anterior aspect of the endplate, particularly at L4 - L5 and L5 - S1 levels. Modic changes occur more frequently with aging, evidence of their degenerative etiology. They were, however, not related to body habitus, but to weight and male gender. (orig.)

Karchevsky, Michael [Hahnemann University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Carrino, John A.; Zoga, Adam; Montgomery, Douglas; Parker, Laurence [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States)

2005-03-01

33

Changes in bone structure and the muscle-bone unit in children with chronic kidney disease  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) on acquisition of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical dimensions is lacking. To address this issue we obtained tibia quantitative computed tomography scans from 103 patients age 5-21 years with CKD (26 on dialysis) at baseline and 12 months later. Gender, ethnicity, tibia length and/or age-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular and cortical BMD, cortical area, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and muscle area based on over 700 reference subjects. Muscle area, cortical area, and periosteal and endosteal Z-scores were significantly lower at baseline compared to the reference cohort. Cortical BMD, cortical area and periosteal Z-scores all exhibited a significant further decrease over 12 months. Higher parathyroid hormone levels were associated with significantly greater increases in trabecular BMD and decreases in cortical BMD in younger patients (significant interaction terms for trabecular BMD and cortical BMD). The estimated GFR was not associated with changes in BMD Z-scores independent of parathyroid hormone. Changes in muscle and cortical area were significantly and positively associated in control subjects but not in CKD patients. Thus, children and adolescents with CKD have progressive cortical bone deficits related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and potential impairment of the functional muscle-bone unit. Interventions are needed to enhance bone accrual in childhood-onset CKD.

Tsampalieros, Anne; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Wetzsteon, Rachel J; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S; Foster, Bethany J.; Foerster, Debbie L; Leonard, Mary B.

2014-01-01

34

Age-related changes in the biochemical properties of human cancellous bone collagen: relationship to bone strength  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The metabolism of bone collagen has received little attention in relation to age-related loss of bone mass and strength. The aim of the present study was to analyze bone collagen content and metabolism in human bone with respect to age. The material consisted of iliac crest bone biopsies from 94 individuals: 46 women (ages 18-96, mean age 60.8 years) and 48 men (ages 23-92, mean age 59.5 years). Excluded from the study were all individuals with known osteoporotic lumbar vertebral fractures and renal, hepatic, or malignant diseases. Prior to collagen analysis the biopsies were scanned in a pQCT scanner for density assessment and then tested biomechanically. The results showed a decline in apparent bone density with age (P <0.0001), a decline in maximum stress, Young's modulus, and energy absorption with age (P <0.001). Concomittantly, there was an age-related decline in the intrinsic collagen content with age (P <0.001). However, there were no biochemical modifications of the bone collagen during aging. There were no significant differences between women and men in the slopes of the regressions-curves. When multiple regression analyses were performed, only apparent bone density came out as a significant contributor in the correlation to biomechanical properties. Nevertheless, the decrease in bone collagen content with age might indicate an increase in the mineralization degree (probably due to decreased bone turnover) and thereby a change in material properties of bone. In conclusion, the present study has shown that loss of bone mass plays the major role in loss of bone strength. However, there is also a change in bone composition during normal aging, leading to a decrease in collagen content and an increase in the degree of mineralization. At this skeletal site, in a normal population there was no change in the biochemical properties of bone collagen.

Bailey, A J; Sims, T J

1999-01-01

35

Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.780.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images

2007-09-01

36

Change in surface morphology of polytetrafluoroethylene by reactive ion etching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was exposed to Ar, CF{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasmas using a reactive ion etching facility. After the exposure, the change in the surface morphology of PTFE was examined and characterization studies were performed for the etching rate, surface roughness, radical yields, chemical structures, water repellency and so on. The etching rates of Ar, CF{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasmas were 0.58, 7.2, 4.4 and 17 {mu}m/h, respectively. It was observed that needle-like nano-fiber structures on the surface were irregularly fabricated by the CF{sub 4} plasma. In addition, when the water repellency of exposed samples was evaluated by contact angle, they showed super-hydrophobic properties: contact angle over 150{sup o}.

Takahashi, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmhr_tkhs.d01@ruri.waseda.j [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yuki; Takasawa, Yuya; Gowa, Tomoko; Fukutake, Naoyuki [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Akihiro [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tagawa, Seiichi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2011-02-15

37

Suitability of texture features to assess changes in trabecular bone architecture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of texture features to assess changes in trabecular bone architecture as projected in radiographs. Micro-CT datasets of trabecular bone were processed to simulate different changes in architecture. Radiographs were simulated by projecting the 3D-bone structure. Texture features, based on mathematical morphology, determined on the simulated radiographs were able to detect structural changes in the trabecular bone.

Veenland, JF; Grashuis, JL

2002-01-01

38

Using the gradient of human cortical bone properties to determine age-related bone changes via ultrasonic guided waves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone fragility depends not only on bone mass but also on bone quality (structure and material). To accurately evaluate fracture risk or propose therapeutic treatment, clinicians need a criterion, which reflects the determinants of bone strength: geometry, structure and material. In human long bone, the changes due to aging, accentuated by osteoporosis are often revealed through the trabecularization of cortical bone, i.e., increased porosity of endosteal bone inducing a thinning of the cortex. Consequently, the intracortical porosity gradient corresponding to the spatial variation in porosity across the cortical thickness is representative of loss of mass, changes in geometry (thinning) and variations in structure (porosity). This article examines the gradient of material properties and its age-related evolution as a relevant parameter to assess bone geometry, structure and material. By applying a homogenization process, cortical bone can be considered as an anisotropic functionally graded material with variations in material properties. A semi-analytical method based on the sextic Stroh formalism is proposed to solve the wave equation in an anisotropic functionally graded waveguide for two geometries, a plate and a tube, without using a multilayered model to represent the structure. This method provides an analytical solution called the matricant and explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Our findings indicate that ultrasonic guided waves are sensitive to the age-related evolution of realistic gradients in human bone properties across the cortical thickness and have their place in a multimodal clinical protocol. PMID:22502890

Baron, Cécile

2012-06-01

39

Analysis of changes in bone cement damping factor and its effect on bone load  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the results of simulations and material-related investigations for bone cement used for alloplasty of hip joint. Mechanical properties of bone cements are of key importance for a successful surgery and further use of the joint as well as its behaviour during complex load which appears during patient’s walk.Design/methodology/approach: One of the methods of thermal analysis for polymeric materials has been used for investigations. DMTA method is based on the analysis of the signal (reaction from the deformed material under particular conditions, at the changeable ambient temperature as well as frequency and amplitude of vibrations. DMTA thermograms give information on change in storage modulus E’ and the mechanical loss factor tg?, which is responsible for dissipation of energy during deformation.Findings: During simulation investigations ADINA engineering environment has been used; it enabled, at the assumed boundary and initial conditions, to assess the stress which appears in individual cross-sections of the analysed bone and the implant fixed by means of bone cement. During the analysis the cross-sections have been presented and the values of the stress which appears in individual zones have been determined.Research limitations/implications: Due to high complexity, only the results of simulation software have been used, clinic trials will be possible not before thorough check and analysis of the obtained results.Practical implications: Practical application of the results of the investigations described in this paper will be possible after long and comprehensive clinical trials.Originality/value: Original value of this paper are the results of tests since such an analysis has never been conducted by scientific environment working on this subject.

P. Postawa

2007-07-01

40

Chronic radium intoxication: preliminary report of morphological and mineral changes in human bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations are presented on bone microradiograms from 44 radium patients. The data cover three basic categories of mineral changes: (1) increase in bone mineral resorption, (2) increase in bone mineral density and (3) increase in new bone tissue formation. The data show a trend of increasing amount of mineral change in all three categories as the cumulative rads, cumulative rad-years, and amount of radium intake increase

1982-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change producing ?-human chorionic gonadotropin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant cell tumor of bone is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm that is composed of sheets of neoplastic mononuclear cells interspersed amongst non-neoplastic, uniformly distributed, osteoclast-like giant cells. They represent approximately 4-5 % of primary bone tumors. Rarely, bone tumors have been noted to produce human chorionic gonadotropin, a finding most often reported in osteosarcoma. We present the case of a young woman who presented with a low-level human chorionic gonadotropin level which, after resection of her recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change, became undetectable in her blood. Furthermore, cells within the aneurysmal bone cyst component were immunohistochemically positive for ?-human chorionic gonadotropin. This is the first report of such a finding in the literature. PMID:24362936

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Katava, Gordana; Wenokor, Cornelia; Roche, Natalie; Beebe, Kathleen S

2014-06-01

42

Increase of bone marrow lymphocytes in systemic mastocytosis: reactive lymphocytosis or malignant lymphoma? Immunohistochemical and molecular findings on routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: To clarify the nature (reactive or neoplastic) of lesional, perifocally aggregated lymphocytes in bone marrow infiltrates of systemic mastocytosis (SM), the histopathology of which can resemble malignant lymphoma with focal bone marrow involvement, particularly low grade malignant B cell lymphoma of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma subtype, which frequently exhibits increased mast cell (MC) numbers. Methods: Thirteen cases of SM and three of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma with predominant focal bone marrow infiltration were investigated. Immunostaining of formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow specimens was performed using antibodies against CD2, CD5, CD20, CD23, and CD25; ? and ? immunoglobulin light chains; and MC markers chymase, tryptase, and CD117 (KIT). Monoclonal rearrangements of IgH and TCR? were studied using seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). c-kit point mutation Asp816-Val was detected by PNA mediated PCR clamping and hybridisation probes. Results: The lymphocytic clusters in SM contained nearly equal numbers of mature T and B cells, the latter with no coexpression of aberrant antigens, such as CD5 or CD23. Most MCs in SM cases constantly coexpressed tryptase, CD25, and CD117. No monoclonal rearrangements were seen for IgH or TCR?. In contrast, B cells from immunocytomas showed light chain restriction and monoclonal rearrangement for IgH, confirming their neoplastic nature. c-kit point mutation Asp816-Val was found in ten of 13 SM cases, but in none of the three immunocytomas. Conclusions: Focal accumulations of lymphocytes in the bone marrow of SM are reactive in nature and could be termed lymphocytosis. A diagnosis of SM-AHNMD/immunocytoma should not be made.

Horny, H-P; Lange, K; Sotlar, K; Valent, P

2003-01-01

43

Bone changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular prognathism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research was to study bone changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy through fractal analysis and measurement of mandibular cortical thickness. This study included twenty-two prognathic patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Panoramic radiographs of these patients were taken immediately before operation and at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. The fractal dimension was measured by the box-counting method in the region of interest centered on both the basal and interdental bones between the first and second mandibular molars. Measurements of mandibular cortical thickness were taken both in the area between the first and second mandibular molars and at the osteotomy site. Changes of fractal dimension and cortical thickness over four stages were statistically analyzed. The fractal dimension of the mandibular basal bone before surgery and after 1 month, 6 months and 12 months were 1.4099{+-}0.0657, 1.382{+-}0.0595, 1.2995{+-}0.0949, and 1.4166{+-}0.0676. respectively (Repeated-measures ANOVA, P<0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were noted in interdental fractal dimensions among the four stages. Mandibular cortical thickness between the first and second mandibular molars before operation and after 1 month, 6 months and 12 months was 3.74{+-}0.48 mm. 3.63{+-}0.47 mm. 3.41{+-}0.61 mm and 3.55{+-}0.66 mm (P<0.01), respectively. Mandibular cortical thickness at the osteotomy site at each of the four stages was 3.22{+-}0.44 mm, 2.87{+-}0.59 mm, 2.37{+-}0.61 mm and 2.64{+-}0.62 mm, respectively (P<0.001). This study suggests that the mandibular tissue continued decreasing for 6 months postoperatively and then increased over the subsequent 6 months.

Park, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Pusan National Univ. Collefe of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2006-12-15

44

Bone changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular prognathism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research was to study bone changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy through fractal analysis and measurement of mandibular cortical thickness. This study included twenty-two prognathic patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Panoramic radiographs of these patients were taken immediately before operation and at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. The fractal dimension was measured by the box-counting method in the region of interest centered on both the basal and interdental bones between the first and second mandibular molars. Measurements of mandibular cortical thickness were taken both in the area between the first and second mandibular molars and at the osteotomy site. Changes of fractal dimension and cortical thickness over four stages were statistically analyzed. The fractal dimension of the mandibular basal bone before surgery and after 1 month, 6 months and 12 months were 1.4099±0.0657, 1.382±0.0595, 1.2995±0.0949, and 1.4166±0.0676. respectively (Repeated-measures ANOVA, P<0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were noted in interdental fractal dimensions among the four stages. Mandibular cortical thickness between the first and second mandibular molars before operation and after 1 month, 6 months and 12 months was 3.74±0.48 mm. 3.63±0.47 mm. 3.41±0.61 mm and 3.55±0.66 mm (P<0.01), respectively. Mandibular cortical thickness at the osteotomy site at each of the four stages was 3.22±0.44 mm, 2.87±0.59 mm, 2.37±0.61 mm and 2.64±0.62 mm, respectively (P<0.001). This study suggests that the mandibular tissue continued decreasing for 6 months postoperatively and then increased over the subsequent 6 months

2006-12-01

45

Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow: frequent medium change method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: MSCs have been isolated from a variety of mammals by the plastic adherence method. However, this method can be problematic due to the unwanted growth of hematopoietic cells and non-MSCs. The potential of MSCs to differentiate along multiple lineages is the key to the identification of stem cell populations in the absence of molecular markers. In the present study, we describe a homogeneous population of MSCs from mouse bone marrow isolated using an improved plastic adherence method that employs frequent medium change (FMC at the initial hours of harvested bone marrow cell culture."n"nMethods: Balb/c mice were sacrificed and whole bone marrow cells were aspirated from the femur and tibia and then cultivated in six-well plates. After 3-4 hours of culture, old medium was removed and fresh medium was added. FMC was performed every eight hours over a 72 hour period. When primary cultures became nearly confluent, the first passage was performed. These cells were then used for further examination. To investigate their mesenchymal nature, the cells were allowed to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages and examined at each passage up to the tenth passage for surface antigens by flow cytometry."n"nResults: We achieved purified populations of fibroblast-like cells in the two weeks after culture initiation. The cells were capable of differentiating into osteocytes and adipocytes. Isolated MSCs were reactive to the CD44, Sca-1, and CD90 cell surface markers. MSCs were negative for hematopoietic surface markers such as CD34, CD11b, CD45, CD31, CD106, CD117 and CD135."n"nConclusions: This protocol provides an efficient isolation of homogeneous populations of MSCs from mouse bone marrow.

Soleimani M, Nadri S, Izadpanah R

2008-07-01

46

Differences in origin of reactive microglia in bone marrow chimeric mouse and rat after transient global ischemia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current understanding of microglial involvement in disease is influenced by the observation that recruited bone marrow (BM)-derived cells contribute to reactive microgliosis in BM-chimeric mice. In contrast, a similar phenomenon has not been reported for BM-chimeric rats. We investigated the recruitment and microglial transformation of BM-derived cells in radiation BM-chimeric mice and rats after transient global cerebral ischemia, which elicits a characteristic microglial reaction. Both species displayed microglial hyperplasia and rod cell transformation in the hippocampal CA1 region. In mice, a subpopulation of lesion-reactive microglia originated from transformed BM-derived cells. By contrast, no recruitment or microglial transformation of BM-derived cells was observed in BM-chimeric rats. These results suggest that reactive microglia in rats originate from resident microglia, whereas they have a mixed BM-derived and resident origin in mice, depending on the severity of ischemic tissue damage.

Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Deierborg, Tomas

2011-01-01

47

Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes after irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Signal changes of irradiated bone marrow are thought to represent fatty change. However, more recent studies have indicated that other factors may contribute to these signal changes. We performed animal studies to investigate magnetic resonance (MR) signal change factors in correlation with histologic findings. Forty-two male Wister rats were given single doses (3, 8, and 20 Gy) of irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) was performed using spin-echo technique. In the acute phase (days 1-3), the T1 time was prolonged, probably secondary to decreased cellularity and edema. After this phase, the irradiated marrow showed marked T1 and T2 shortening that correlated with hemorrhage. In the chronic phase (after day 10), fatty replacement, fibrosis, and regeneration were observed. T2 times were stable in spite of regeneration because of the susceptibility effect of hemosiderin. The MR signal changes of irradiated marrow reflect not only fatty replacement, but hemorrhage as well. 14 refs., 6 figs.

Sugimura, Hiroshi; Tamura, Shozo; Kihara, Yasushi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Kisanuki, Atsushi; Sumiyoshi, Akinobu (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

1994-01-01

48

Diagnostic usefulness and changing value during irradiation of bone metabolic markers for metastatic bone tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the efficacy of Pyridinoline-cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal propep tide of the type I procollagen (PICP), as bone metabolic markers (BMM) that reflect the effects of radiotherapy in patients with metastatic bone tumors (MBT). One-hundred eight patients who had had malignant tumors and been suspected of developing MBT were measured for ICTP and PICP. Ninety six patients with recognized MBT and 12 patients without MBT were evaluated for the diagnostic accuracy of MBT. Out of the 96 cases, 49 received radiotherapy and were measured for ICTP and PICP before and after the treatment. The 49 cases were divided into 25 cases (Com group) that had all of the MBT irradiated and 24 cases (InCom group) that could not have all sites irradiated. Increase ratios from before to after the radiotherapy were compared between ICTP and PICP. In the 96 patients with MBT, both ICTP and PICP were observed to be significantly high. Diagnostic accuracy was 81.5% for ICTP, and 61.6% for PICP. InCom group showed an increase in ICTP by about 25% while no significant change was observed in the Com group. BMM has diagnostic significance in patients with MBT. Performing radiotherapy to every osseous lesion results in a decline or leveling-off of ICTP. (author)

2007-12-01

49

Automatic quantification of changes in bone in serial MR images of joints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent innovations in drug therapies have made it highly desirable to obtain sensitive biomarkers of disease progression that can be used to quantify the performance of candidate disease modifying drugs. In order to measure potential image-based biomarkers of disease progression in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we present two different methods to automatically quantify changes in a bone in in-vivo serial magnetic resonance (MR) images from the model. Both methods are based on rigid and nonrigid image registration to perform the analysis. The first method uses segmentation propagation to delineate a bone from the serial MR images giving a global measure of temporal changes in bone volume. The second method uses rigid body registration to determine intensity change within a bone, and then maps these into a reference coordinate system using nonrigid registration. This gives a local measure of temporal changes in bone lesion volume. We detected significant temporal changes in local bone lesion volume in five out of eight identified candidate bone lesion regions, and significant difference in local bone lesion volume between male and female subjects in three out of eight candidate bone lesion regions. But the global bone volume was found to be fluctuating over time. Finally, we compare our findings with histology of the subjects and the manual segmentation of bone lesions. PMID:17167996

Leung, Kelvin K; Holden, Mark; Saeed, Nadeem; Brooks, Keith J; Buckton, Jacky B; Williams, Ann A; Campbell, Simon P; Changani, Kumar; Reid, David G; Zhao, Yong; Wilde, Mike; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V; Hill, Derek L G

2006-12-01

50

Aging mechanisms in bone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advancing age and loss of bone mass and strength are closely linked. Elevated osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoblast number characterize the age-related skeletal changes in humans and rodents. Similar to other tissues, oxidative stress increases in bone with age. This article reviews current knowledge on the effects of the aging process on bone and its cellular constituents, with particular emphasis on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FoxOs, sirtuins and the p53...

Almeida, Maria

2012-01-01

51

Quantifying Changes in the Spatial Structure of Trabecular Bone  

CERN Multimedia

We apply recently introduced measures of complexity for the structural quantfication of distal tibial bone. For the first time, we are able to investigate the temporal structural alteration of trabecular bone. Based on four patients, we show how bone may alter due to temporal immobilisation.

Marwan, Norbert; Felsenberg, Dieter; Saparin, Peter; Kurths, Jürgen

2010-01-01

52

Cortical and cancellous bone: age-related changes in morphologic features, fluid spaces, and calcium homeostasis in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in cortical and cancellous bone that occur with aging were studied by measuring morphologic and physiologic variables for both types of bone in dogs. The percentage area of cortical and cancellous bone, rate of bone formation, vascular volume, bone water, and volume of distribution of calcium tracer all showed statistically significant changes at the time of bone maturity. Canine cortical bone cell volume progressively decreased with advancing age, and cancellous bone cell volume significantly decreased between adult and old dogs. The volume of distribution technique can be used to determine the relative contributions of cortical and cancellous bone to the total body exchangeable calcium ion pool

1988-01-01

53

Immobilisation-induced changes in forearm bone quantity and quality: radiographic fourier image analysis vs bone densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Determinants of bone fracture risk include indices of bone 'quantity' such as bone mineral content (BMC, mineral mass per unit scanned bone length), plus 'environmental' (eg impact force) and 'quality' factors (Melton L.J. III et al, Bone and Min 2: 321, 1987). Bone 'quality' refers largely to the micro-geometry of bone (? 10-200?), but has been less well studied because of the need for bone slices from (invasive) bone biopsies. Such studies often compare the geometry of trabecular networks (eg trabecular bone volume, trabecular number) with clinical outcomes such as fracture rates. Another (invasive) approach is to examine the two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier transform (FT) of a high-resolution radiographic image of the bone slice, since structural information is in theory encoded in the 2-D spatial-frequency (?) spectrum. Additionally, the FT method can be applied to bone images obtained in-vivo, though superposition of information from the third dimension is a major confounding factor in their interpretation. Quantitative radiography of the ultradistal (UD) forearm permits determination of BMC (Price R et al; ACPSEM 6: 128- 137, 1983 and ACPSEM 11: 36-43, 1988), and (as a bonus) reveals a pattern (suitable for FT analysis) of the radiographic shadows of the 3-D trabecular network projected onto the image plane. Hemiplegia is associated with excessive bone loss in the paralysed (hemi) forearm, and is a model for the study of immobilisation osteoporosis. Thus, by comparing hemiplegia-induced changes in BMC and trabecular structure, derived from the same in vivo radiographic image, it is possible to compare directly the effects of disease on both bone quantity and quality, using the image of the non-paralysed (non-hemi) arm as a control. Seventy-four patients with hemiplegia of duration 3.6±3.6 (Mean±SD) years were studied cross-sectionally for radiographic BMC of their normal and paralysed UD forearms in AP view, each arm in duplicate. Methods (including water-immersion of the forearm, plus image calibration) and results of the bone densitometry study have been published (Prince RL et al, J Bone and Min Res, 3: 305-310, 1988). In the present study, the original radiographs from a subset of 30 patients (16M and 14F) were re-analysed by specifically-designed software (IMS). Radiographs were digitised and a square (128 x 128 pixels, 256 grey levels) was extracted centrally from the image of the UD radius, with its distal side perpendicular to the forearm long axis and lined up with the base of the ulnar styloid process, representing an area of 16x16 mm2 on the unmagnified image. Following thresholding using a value derived from sampling of the bone-free image, a 2-D FT was derived. It is reasonable to expect that there is (at least) a qualitative relationship between the sizes and orientations of the image elements identified by the FT and those of the trabeculae generating them by superposition. The general orientations (or sizes) of these periodic elements were analysed by dividing up the Fourier plane (described by polar coordinates ?, ?) into contiguous sectors (or annuli) and summing the normalised intensities within each sector (or annulus) (eg Lendaris GG et al, Proc IEEE 58: 198-216, 1970). Principal Components Analysis using all 8 annuli produced a complete separation of male and female non-hemi forearms, marked separation of male hemi and male non-hemi, and no separation in women. We conclude from this preliminary study that FT analysis of in-vivo forearm radiographs reveals gender dimorphism and detects immobilisation-induced changes in bone structure (ie 'quality') in males but not females. Thus the pattern of trabecular bone loss in males may differ from that of women, in a manner not discernible by conventional bone densitometry, which addresses bone 'quantity' only

1996-10-21

54

Calculation of reactivity changes due to bubble collapse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations based on Behrens' method indicate that a substantial increase in reactivity may accompany the collapse of a large number of small bubbles in an LMFBR core. More sophisticated transport approaches to this problem have encountered several difficulties: the large number of bubbles requires many mesh points; the desired effect can easily be masked by the movement of fuel to regions of greater (or lesser) importance; the reactivity is desired for a random distribution of spherical bubbles. This paper describes a transport approach to this problem which avoids the above difficulties by using the ''sub-group'' or ''probability table'' method

1977-06-17

55

Study of irradiated bone. Part II. Changes in Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone imaging was carried out in locally irradiated and control areas of New Zealand albino rabbits to determine the potential role of bone imaging in assessing the time course of radiation effects in bone and surrounding tissues. In vitro Tc-99m tissue assays, and serial radiographs, from the irradiated and contralateral limbs were obtained at regular intervals over the first 12 mo following irradiation for comparison with quantitative results from the camera studies. The autoradiographic localization of TcPPi was also studied in the x-irradiated and contralateral bones of the rabbits. The results show that TcPPi bone imaging is a sensitive in vivo indicator of early radiation effects upon vasculature and bone remodeling. The findings suggest that the quantitative bone-imaging technique may be useful in the evaluation of the effects of treatment modalities on the skeleton.

King, M.A.; Weber, D.A.; Casarett, G.W.; Burgener, F.A.; Corriveau, O.

1980-01-01

56

Early vascular changes in rabbit subchondral bone after repetitive impulsive loading.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sequence of vascular and bony changes that precedes experimental osteoarthrosis was observed in rabbits. The subchondral bone underlying the weight-bearing portion of the medial tibial condyle and the talocalcaneal joint were examined after two, three, and six weeks of 50-ms and 500-ms repetitive loading at 1 Hz for 40 minutes each day. Vascular alterations were evident in the subchondral bone of the talocalcaneal joint after three weeks of a 50-ms load regime. A 10% increase in bone mass and a significant increase in the number of small diameter vessels were observed after six weeks. No changes were observed in the tibial subchondral bone, consistent with the measured attenuation of load distal to this joint. No changes were observed in either tibial or calcaneal subchondral bone in the 500-ms load group. Impulsive loading promotes early vascular changes in subchondral bone, which are developed in response to both the magnitude and the rate of loading. PMID:3581578

Farkas, T; Boyd, R D; Schaffler, M B; Radin, E L; Burr, D B

1987-06-01

57

Changes in proximal femur bone properties following ovariectomy and their association with resistance to fracture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone strength depends on several material and structural properties, but findings concerning the best predictors of bone mechanical performance are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate how a broad set of bone properties in the proximal femur are influenced by age and hormonal status, and how these properties together determine bone strength. Twenty-five Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX, n = 13) or sham operated (SHAM, n = 12) at 5 months of age, and killed after 9 months. Another group of rats was killed at 5 months as baseline control (BSL, n = 7). At sacrifice, serum 17?-estradiol and bone turnover marker concentrations were determined in the serum. Both femurs were collected for assessment of trabecular microarchitecture, femoral neck geometry, radiographic absorptiometry, calcium and phosphate content, and biomechanical properties. While stiffness was mostly associated with proximal femur trabecular microarchitecture and mineralization degree, bone strength was mostly linked to bone size and femoral neck geometry, which predicted almost 50% of its variance. Despite the decrease in cortical and trabecular bone as well as in mineralization degree following estrogen loss, bone strength was not reduced in OVX animals compared to BSL or sham-operated rats. This was due to a change in femoral neck geometry as well as to an increase in femur size in OVX, which apparently compensated their lower bone volume and mineral content, thereby preserving bone strength. Estrogen loss leads to a deterioration of bone tissue quality, but bone strength was preserved at the expense of geometric adaptations. PMID:21938383

Fonseca, Hélder; Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Vaz, Mário; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Mota, Maria Paula; Duarte, José Alberto

2012-05-01

58

Hepcidin1 knockout mice display defects in bone microarchitecture and changes of bone formation markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron accumulation is a risk factor of osteoporosis; mechanisms leading to iron-related bone loss are not fully determined. We sought to better understand the effect of chronic iron accumulation on bone over the life span in a mouse model. Hepcidin1 knockout (Hepc1(-/-)) male mice and their littermate control wild type (WT) mice at 7 months old were used in this study. Serum iron and ferritin as well as iron contents in liver and femur were significantly increased in Hepc1(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. We found that Hepc1(-/-) mice had a phenotype of low bone mass and alteration of the bone microarchitecture, most likely caused by a decreased osteoblastic activity. Cell culture studies indicated that chronic iron accumulation decreased bone formation, probably by affecting bone morphogenetic protein signaling. PMID:24652331

Shen, Guang Si; Yang, Qing; Jian, Jing Long; Zhao, Guo Yang; Liu, Lu Lin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Huang, Xi; Xu, You Jia

2014-06-01

59

Comparison of MRI and pathology of periosteal change in experimental bone tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study MRI features and pathologic basis of various periosteal changes in rabbit VX2 bone tumor and to evaluate the role of MRI in the change of periosteum in bone tumor. Methods: Bone tumor models were induced by injection of VX2 carcinoma cell suspension into the medullary cavity of right tibias in 32 rabbits. Thirty-six positive contrast cases and 4 negative contrast cases were established. Serial plain films and MRI examinations were performed at an interval of 5 days following the implantation. Every 4 rabbits were sacrificed immediately after imaging. The findings of periosteal changes were compared between imaging features and pathologic results. Results: From the 5th to 15th day after implantation of VX2 carcinoma, periosteal edema was demonstrated in 32 tibias. On the 20th day, periosteal thickening was revealed in 19 tibias. On the 25th day, periosteal new bone with the thickened periosteum attaching to its outer surface was found in 12 tibias. On the 30th day, periosteal new bone with the thickened periosteum were elevated by the tumor in 11 tibias. On the 35th to 40th day, destruction of periosteal bone and periosteum were revealed. Conclusions: The progress of periosteal changes in rabbit VX2 bone tumor included periosteal edema, periosteal thickening, periosteal new bone, destruction of periosteal new bone and destmction of periosteum. Various periosteal changes could be demonstrated on MRI and MRI is useful in evaluating periosteal changes. (authors)

2008-02-01

60

Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs, especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP, have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

De Noirfontaine M.N.

2010-06-01

62

Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

Cherkaoui, K.; Courtial, M.; Dunstetter, F.; Khelidj, A.; Mounanga, P.; de Noirfontaine, M. N.

2010-06-01

63

Cardiovascular changes during vertebroplasty do not due to bone cement leakage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rather serious complication of vertebroplasty is caused by bone cement leakage into adjacent structure but recent research suggests that even without cement leakage during vertebroplasty, patients could also experience with cardiovascular changes sometimes. Cytotoxicity of bone cement, nervous reflex, fat embolism and alteration of intravertebral pressure may be responsible for these changes. (authors)

2006-06-01

64

Proliferative, reparative, and reactive benign bone lesions that may be confused diagnostically with true osseous neoplasms.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Diagnostic problems attending intraosseous and parosteal pseudoneoplastic lesions can be radiographic, or histological, or both. Proliferations in this category may contain cellular fibro-osseous or chondro-osseous tissues that are difficult to separate microscopically from those seen in various true neoplasms of the bones. This review considers the clinicopathologic features of fibrous dysplasia, benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, osteofibrous dysplasia, metaphyseal fibrous defect, giant-cell reparative granuloma, "brown tumor" of hyperparathyroidism, synovial chondrometaplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, tumefactive chronic osteomyelitis, proliferative Paget disease, and polyvinylpyrrolidone storage disease of bone.

Wick, Mark R

2014-01-01

65

Calculations of Changes in Reactivity during some regular periods of operation of JEN-1 MOD Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By a Point-Reactor model and Perturbation Theory, changes in reactivity during some regular operating periods of JEN-1 MOD Reactor have been calculated and compared with available measured values. they were in good agreement. Also changes in reactivity have been calculated during operations at higher power levels than the present one, concluding some practical consequences for the case of increasing the present power of this reactor. (Author)

1973-01-01

66

Primary hyperparathyroidism : changes in trabecular bone remodeling following surgical treatment--evaluated by histomorphometric methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iliac bone biopsies from 11 patients who underwent successful surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism were examined before and median 7 months after surgical treatment. Trabecular bone volume increased (p less than 0.05) and eroded (p less than 0.005) and osteoid covered surfaces decreased (p less than 0.005) in the postoperative period. Also, a decline in tetracycline labeled surfaces was noticed (p less than 0.02). Osteoid thickness, mineral appositional rate and mineralization lag time were unchanged. Bone formation rate at the level of the basic multicellular unit (BMU) was unaffected, but at the tissue level bone formation rate diminished (p less than 0.02). The surgical cure of primary hyperparathyroidism was found accompanied by a change in bone metabolism as the trabecular bone remodeling decreased from a high turnover to a low turnover state. The spongy bone mass increased after parathyroidectomy but the clinical significance of this finding was not clear.

Christiansen, Peer Michael; Steiniche, T

1990-01-01

67

An Assessment of Image Analysis of Longitudinal Bone Changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to assess the analyzing methods developed to detect clinically and quantitatively longitudinal bone changes. Through preliminary experiment, accuracy of Cu-Eq value conversion to the mass of HA was examined. For main experiment, 15 intraoral radiograms taken at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture in extracted sites of 3 cases were user. We took the radiograms with copper step wedge as test object and HA phantom. X -ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner into computer were digitized and analyzed by NH image program, the stability of the copper equivalent transformation and the usefulness of two analyzing methods by ROI and Reslice were examined. Obtained results as follows : 1. On the Cu equivalent images, the coefficient of variation in the measurement of Cu-Eq. value of ROI ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 and showed high reproducibility. 2. All results obtained by resliced contiguous images were coincident with those obtained from the assessment by ROI an d formation of plot profile. 3. On the stacked and resliced image at the line of interest, we could analyze directly and quantitatively the longitudinal changes at several portions by plot profile and qualitatively by surface plot. 4. Implant area showed marked resorption till 2 weeks after implantation and showed significant increase in Cu-Eq. value at 6th week (P<0.01) and periapical area showed increase in Cu-Eq. value at 6th week compared to after-operation's.

Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-15

68

An Assessment of Image Analysis of Longitudinal Bone Changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to assess the analyzing methods developed to detect clinically and quantitatively longitudinal bone changes. Through preliminary experiment, accuracy of Cu-Eq value conversion to the mass of HA was examined. For main experiment, 15 intraoral radiograms taken at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture in extracted sites of 3 cases were user. We took the radiograms with copper step wedge as test object and HA phantom. X -ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner into computer were digitized and analyzed by NH image program, the stability of the copper equivalent transformation and the usefulness of two analyzing methods by ROI and Reslice were examined. Obtained results as follows : 1. On the Cu equivalent images, the coefficient of variation in the measurement of Cu-Eq. value of ROI ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 and showed high reproducibility. 2. All results obtained by resliced contiguous images were coincident with those obtained from the assessment by ROI an d formation of plot profile. 3. On the stacked and resliced image at the line of interest, we could analyze directly and quantitatively the longitudinal changes at several portions by plot profile and qualitatively by surface plot. 4. Implant area showed marked resorption till 2 weeks after implantation and showed significant increase in Cu-Eq. value at 6th week (P<0.01) and periapical area showed increase in Cu-Eq. value at 6th week compared to after-operation's.

1997-02-01

69

Study of changes in antioxidant protective system activity in animal tissues in a bone defect model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work changes of the activity of antioxidant protective system in a bone defect model were studied by evaluation of endogenous tocopherols, antiradical activity, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. It has been shown that 1*0.5 sm shaft of femur defect model causes significant decrease of tissue antiradical activity values, the level of endogenous tocopherols, SOD and GPx in periosteum, bone marrow, liver and blood. This process occurs more drastically on the background of autoplastic substitution of the defect. In a bone defect the largest changes were observed in antiradical activity and GPx activity in periosteum and bone marrow. Analysis of obtained data unambiguously suggests the necessity of correction of tissue antioxidant activity disorders in bone defect for thye prevention of the lipid peroxidation that causes possible complications and reparative bone regeneration suppression

2008-01-01

70

Predicting Nonlinear Changes in Bone Mineral Density Over Time Using a Multiscale Systems Pharmacology Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mathematical model component that extends an existing physiologically based multiscale systems pharmacology model (MSPM) of calcium and bone homeostasis was developed, enabling prediction of nonlinear changes in lumbar spine bone mineral density (LSBMD). Data for denosumab, a monoclonal antibody osteoporosis treatment, dosed at several levels and regimens, was used for fitting the BMD component. Bone marker and LSBMD data extracted from the literature described on/off-treatment effects of d...

2012-01-01

71

Changes in bone mineral density in patients with Paget's disease treated with risedronate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES—To study changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Paget's disease of bone treated with risedronate.?METHODS—Whole body dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were carried out on 20 patients with Paget's disease treated with oral risedronate. DXA scanning was carried out at baseline and 11 months. Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) was measured. In addition, regions of interest were drawn around the skull, individual lumbar vertebrae, hemipelvis, f...

Patel, S.; Pearson, D.; Bhallah, A.; Maslanka, W.; White, D.; Hosking, D.

1997-01-01

72

Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome. (orig.)

1987-01-01

73

Glucocorticoid-Induced Changes in the Geometry of Osteoclast Resorption Cavities Affect Trabecular Bone Stiffness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities. Specifically, we found that in the presence of GC osteoclasts (OCs) cultured on bone slices make more trenchlike cavities, compared to rather round cavities in the absence of GCs, while the total eroded surface remained constant. For this study, we hypothesized that trenchlike cavities affect bone strength differently compared to round cavities. To test this hypothesis, we cultured OCs on bone slices in the presence and absence of GC and quantified their dimensions. These data were used to model the effects of OC resorption cavities on bone mechanical properties using a validated beam-shell finite element model of trabecular bone. We demonstrated that a change in the geometry of resorption cavities is sufficient toaffect bone competence. After correcting for the increased EV/BV with GCs, the difference to the control condition was no longer significant, indicating that the GC-induced increase in EV/BV, which is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures during GC treatment increases more than hip, forearm and other nonvertebral fractures.

Vanderoost, Jef; Søe, Kent

2012-01-01

74

Physical bone changes in carragheenin-induced arthritis evaluated by quantitative computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repeated non-invasive measurements were performed in dogs to trabecular bone density (TBD), low density bone area (LDBA), and high density bone area (HDBA) in chronic arthritis using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Unilateral chronic arthritis of the knee had been induced by weekly instillation of 2 ml carragheenin into the right knee joint for 12 weeks with the left knee serving as a control. CT scanning of the distal femoral condyles was performed in 12 mature dogs with chronic arthritis. Another 6 dogs underwent a longitudinal CT study starting immediately prior to induction of arthritis. Indentation test and histomorphometric analyses confirmed the bone density changes as measured by CT. (orig./GDG)

1991-01-01

75

Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose:To date,little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats.Methods:A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S or 32 weeks (32S, or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP consisting of 200 jumps per week (200J/w, given at 40 jumps per day (40J/d for 5 days per week (5d/w (8STP24E, followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 10J/d or 20J/d or 40J/d, for either 5d/w, or 3d/w, or 1d/w. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal telopeptideof type 1 collagen (1CTP concentrations, and tibial fat free dry weight were measured.Results: Tibial mass was significantly higher in 8STP than 8S. No changes were evident in serum markers of bone turnover parameters after 8STP. Significant increases in tibial mass were observed in rats that continued to exercise at workloads of 30J/w and above after 8STP. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations increase whereas serum 1CTP concentrations decrease in rats given workloads of 40J/w and above.Conclusions: It appears, an exercise load of 30J/w, i.e. 10J/d for 3d/w,was the minimum level of continuous exercise load that was required to maintain the 8STP-induced bone gains. In addition, significant increases in bone mass in young rats following 8STP might not always be reflected by changes in serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and 1CTP.

Foong Kiew Ooi

2012-12-01

76

Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

2012-03-01

77

Bone marrow changes on STIR MR images of asymptomatic feet and ankles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, pattern and size of bone marrow changes on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images of asymptomatic feet and ankles. In 78 asymptomatic volunteers (41 women, 37 men; median age 47 years; range 23-83 years) sagittal STIR MR images of hindfoot and midfoot were reviewed for various patterns of high signal changes in bone marrow. The size of these bone marrow changes was measured, and signal intensity was rated semi-quantitatively using a scale from 0 (=normal) to 10 (=fluid-like). Fifty percent (39/78) of all volunteers had at least one bone marrow change. Thirty-six percent (28/78) of all volunteers had edema-like changes, 26% (20/78) had necrosis-like changes, and 5% (4/78) had cyst-like changes. The long diameters of all changes varied between 4 mm and 16 mm (median 7.5 mm). The median signal intensity for all changes was 5.0 (range 1-10). Bone marrow changes on STIR MR images are commonly detected in asymptomatic feet and ankles. However, such changes tend to be small (<1 cm) or subtle. (orig.)

2007-12-01

78

Longitudinal changes in the height and location of bone bridge from autogenous iliac bone graft in patients with cleft lip and palate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Secondary alveolar bone graft has been widely used for the closure of maxillary bone defects in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP. However, the log-term stability of grafted bone in detail remains unclear. Purpose: To evaluate the nature of longitudinal changes in the grafted bone from autogenous iliac bone in patients with CLP for more than 2 years after the surgery. Methods and Subjects: The subjects were 124 CLP patients treated with iliac bone graft in Hiroshima University Hospital from 1997 to 2007. The height and location of the bone bridge was evaluated radiographically before and after surgery. Results: 1 Bone graft was performed at a mean age of 12.5 (±4.2 years old. The canines on the cleft side were not erupted at the surgery in 60.0%. All canines erupted except for the congenital missing and impacted ones (11.3% within 2 years after bone graft; 2 The height of the bone bridge was more than 11 mm in 71.8% of all patients 1 month after surgery. In addition, the location of bone bridge in 66.1% of all patients were clinically satisfactory. However, these rates decreased time-dependently owing to bone resorption after the bone graft. Conclusions: In conclusion, it is shown that autogenous bone graft produce a sufficient bone bridge in the jaw cleft area by the long-term evaluation of the changes in height and location of bone bridge, although some amount of time-dependent bone resorption is inevitable.

Nobuhiko Kawai

2013-03-01

79

Radiographic bone changes in multibacillary leprosy patients in Aburof mission clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leprosy is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease, caused by M. leprae. It is one of the most seriously disabling and economically important disease. In Sudan it affects about 20 thousands people. In this study 60 patients of MB leprosy were included. Historry and physical examination were carried out for each patient. BI was done for all patients and were subjected to x-ray investigations of the paranasal sinuses, hands and feet. 85%(51) of these patients were found to have radiographic changes in paranasal sinuses, 35 patients with mucosal thickening and 16 with diffuse opacified sinuses. 86.7% (52) of those patients were found to have radiographic bone changes in their hand and feet. 23.6% and 75.4% were found with specific and non-specific bone changes in their hands and feet respectively. A spectrum of radiographic bone changes was found in the hands and feet including; destruction, fractures, phalangeal resoption, distal phalangeal tapering, flexion deformities, osteoarthritic changes, charcot's joints, osteoporosis cystic bone changes and enlarged nutrient bone foramina. The majority of patients with radiographic changes in the paranasal sinsuses, hands and feet, were found to have long duration of the disease and more bacterial load. The disability in hands and feet is the major risk factor in bone affection in MB leprosy. (Author)

1996-01-01

80

Osseous changes in the foot bones in patients with arterial occlusion and simultaneous polyneuropathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article evaluates 26 cases with arterial occlusion and additional polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus or chronic alcohol addiction. For comparison, a group of 30 patients with arterial occlusion without neutrologically detectable polyneuropathy were also evaluated. It is pointed out that the osseous changes in the foot bone region are due to the additionally existing polyneuropathy and cannot be explained alone by an avascular bone necrosis in arterial vascular occlusion. Changes in the sense of an arthropathy occur in our group of patients even in case of unilateral arterial occlusion, these changes occurring bilaterally in the foot bones; after reconstruction measures in the arterial vascular system, these arthropathic changes in the foot bones continue to advance in case of persisting polyneuropathy. (orig.)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment. INTRODUCTION: The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD) changes after 24 months of teriparatide. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-month study at 95 centers in 10 countries in 758 postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis (nâ??=â??181 treatment-naïve) who had at least one post-baseline bone marker determination. Teriparatide (20 μg/day) was administered for up to 24 months. We measured procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) at baseline, 1 and 6 months, and change in BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck from baseline to 24 months. RESULTS: Significant increases in formation markers occurred after 1 month of teriparatide regardless of prior osteoporosis therapy. The absolute increase at 1 month was lower in previously treated versus treatment-naïve patients, but after 6 months all groups reached similar levels. PINP showed the best signal-to-noise ratio. Baseline PINP correlated positively and significantly with BMD response at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the long-term responsiveness of bone formation markers to teriparatide is notaffected in subjects previously treated with antiresorptive drugs.

Blumsohn, A; Marin, F

2011-01-01

82

Bone changes occurring spontaneously and caused by estrogen in early postmenopausal women: a local generalized phenomenon?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional values of bone mineral content and bone mineral density were calculated from total body dual photon absorptiometry scans of 52 early postmenopausal women treated with estrogen for one year and of 52 similar women treated with placebo. The six regions were head, arms, chest, spine, pelvis, and legs. In addition, bone mineral density of the spine was calculated by dual photon absorptiometry and bone mineral content of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry, using separate special purpose scanners. All regions were unchanged after one year of treatment with estrogen, excluding the lumbar spine, for which values rose. Values for all regions except the lumbar spine fell significantly in the placebo group. The rates of loss ranged from 2 to 8%, with no significant differences between the regions. It is concluded that loss of bone in the early menopause is a generalized phenomenon, affecting all parts of the skeleton. Furthermore, estrogen prophylaxis for loss of bone is effective in all parts of the skeleton. Finally, it is suggested that the measurement of bone mineral content in the forearm be used for clinical follow up of bone changes, as this method is superior to others in the ratio of change to precision

1986-10-01

83

Reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements in hector experimental techniques and results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The techniques used in making reactivity change measurements on HECTOR are described and discussed. Pile period measurements were used in the majority of oases, though the pile oscillator technique was used occasionally. These two methods are compared. Flux determinations were made in the vicinity of the fuel element samples using manganese foils, and the techniques used are described and an error assessment made. Results of both reactivity change and flux measurements on 1.2 in. diameter uranium and plutonium-uranium alloy fuel elements are presented, these measurements being carried out in a variety of graphite moderated lattices at temperatures up to 450 deg. C. (author)

1964-01-01

84

Optimizing the assessment of age-related changes in trabecular bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to develop an optimal procedure to determine age-related changes in trabecular bone. The investigations were based on two-dimensional images of the human vertebral trabecular bone specimens. The following indices of trabecular structure were considered: bone volume/total volume, star volume of the marrow cavity, Euler number and the probability of disconnection (straightforwardly connected with the number of separated parts of the network). To follow precisely the changes in the trabecular structure with age, a computer simulation model was used. Up to 35 years of physiological remodelling were simulated. The validation of the model calculations was based on a quantitative comparison with the data measured for older individuals. The simulations confirmed that the description of the age-related changes in the trabecular bone by means of the architectural parameter (star volume) constitutes a promising tool for subjects older than approximately 50 years. For individuals younger than approximately 50 years bone mineral density (bone volume/total volume) seems to be the best suited descriptor. The results suggest that the optimal diagnostic procedure is age-dependent and should not be limited to the bone mineral density measurement. The clinical usefulness of the procedure has been validated by examination of the CT images. PMID:12043819

Kubik, T; Pasowicz, M; Tabor, Z; Rokita, E

2002-05-01

85

Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E2 (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author)

1991-01-01

86

Comparative changes of morphology and lectin histochemistry characteristics of parathyroid glands and bone tissue.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was comparative analysis of guinea pig and human bone tissue due to postnatal changes of parathyroid glands morphology. The object of research were structural elements and cellular carbohydrate determinants of parathyroid glands and bone tissue with comparative characteristics of mineral exchange and parathyroid hormone levels. Were used morphometric, histochemistry, lectin histochemistry, biochemistry and immunology metods. Age- and sex-related morpho-functional and lectin histochemical peculiarities of parathyroid glands and bone tissue were investigated during postnatal ontogenesis in human and guinea pig. Correlations between DNA/RNA contents, nuclear volume of parathyrocytes, blood parathormone level with respect to Ca-, P-, and Mg- content in blood serum and bone tissue were estimated. We detected significant reduction of the width cortical layer and osseous trabecules, increased iliac bone mineralization, with simultaneous enhancement of nuclear volume and DNA/RNA content of parathyrocytes in females of groups III (aged 60-74 and IV (aged 75-90. We revealed age-related changes in lectin binding to cellular and stromal elements of parathyroid glands and bone tissue. The data extend our knowledge on the histochemical peculiarities of parathyroid glands and bone tissue during postnatal ontogenesis and under hyperparathyroidism, demonstrate possibilities of lectin application for selective labelling of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts.

Dzhura O.R.

2007-01-01

87

Ultrastructural changes of bone marrow cells exposed for xenogenous cerebrospinal fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the scientifical investigations xenogenous cerebrospinal fluid was considered as possible substance for theproduction of powerful adaptogen of biological origin. One of the representative research in these field demonstrates morphologicaland functional changes of bone marrow as the central hemopoetic and immune organ. The article shows the ultramicroscopicchanges of bone marrow cells after the xenogenous cerebrospinal fluid exposure in Vistar rats of differentage. It was revealed the activation of synthetic processes in bone marrow cells of the first three age groups and exhaustion ofactivating mechanisms in the fourth age group, that was manifested in swelling and destruction of mytochondria, vacuolisationof cytoplasm, invagination of caryolemma.

Shaymardanova L.R.

2010-01-01

88

Post-Irradiation Changes in the Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of bone-marrow elements, and in particular of cells in the early stages of their development, remains an attractive subject for radiosensitivity studies as well as for its diagnostic value in practice. We studied the changes in the bone marrow in experimental animals and in humans following external irradiation and after the application.of radioisotopes with different physical and metabolic properties. In the evaluation of groups of all species there is a constant type of the response characteristic for individual cells of the bone marrow

1967-07-01

89

Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling  

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OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system) was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used w...

Sun-Jong Kim; Jaeyoung Yoo; Young-Soo Kim; Sang-Wan Shin

2010-01-01

90

Asymmetry and activity-related change in selected bones of the human male skeleton.  

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Statistical analyses of measurements were used to evaluate congenital asymmetry and activity-related change in 100 pairs of humeri and 112 pairs of femora. Bone pairs in samples from the Nary Rose and an earlier medieval site in Norwich were subdivided into age categories and their archaeological groups for analysis. Internal bone dimensions were determined from radiographs and compared with those of a modern group of divers. Muscle insertions were ranked and femora...

Stirland, A. J.

1993-01-01

91

COLLAGEN MUTATION CAUSES CHANGES OF THE MICRODAMAGE MORPHOLOGY IN BONE OF AN OI MOUSE MODEL  

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Previous studies have postulated that ultrastructural changes may alter the pattern and capacity of microdamage accumulation in bone. Using an osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) mouse model, this study was performed to investigate the correlation of collagen mutation with the microdamage morphology and the associated brittleness of bone. In this study, femurs from mild OI and wild type mice were fatigued under four-point bending to create microdamage in the specimens. Then, the microdamage morpholo...

Dong, X. Neil; Zoghi, Mahyar; Ran, Qitao; Wang, Xiaodu

2010-01-01

92

Investigation of reactivity change and neutron noise due to random absorber vibrations. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perturbations of the neutron flux due to stochastically excited vibrations of absorbers have been investigated with the aid of a one-dimensional core model with N pointlike absorbers. It is shown that the increase of absorber efficiency due to vibrations may be understood as the spatial analog to the Doppler broadening and can be taken into account by appropriate corrections of the Galanin constants of the absorbers. The reactivity change can be estimated by means of reactivity coefficients and the r.m.s. values of the absorber vibrations. (author)

1983-01-01

93

Detection of chemical changes in bone after irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of laser for bone cutting can be more advantageous than the use of drill. However, for a safe clinical application, it is necessary to know the effects of laser irradiation on bone tissues. In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the molecular and compositional changes promoted by laser irradiation on bone tissue. Bone slabs were obtained from rabbit's tibia and analyzed using ATR-FTIR. After the initial analysis, the samples were irradiated using a pulsed Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780nm), and analyzed one more time. In order to verify changes due to laser irradiation, the area under phosphate (1300-900cm-1), amides (1680-1200cm-1), water (3600-2400cm-1), and carbonate (around 870cm-1 and between 1600-1300cm-1) bands were calculated, and normalized by phosphate band area (1300-900cm-1). It was observed that Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation promoted a significant decrease in the content of water and amides I and III at irradiated bone, evidencing that laser procedure caused an evaporation of the organic content and changed the collagen structure, suggesting that these changes may interfere with the healing process. In this way, these changes should be considered in a clinical application of laser irradiation in surgeries.

Benetti, Carolina; Santos, Moises O.; Rabelo, Jose S.; Ana, Patrícia A.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zezell, Denise M.

2011-02-01

94

Bone changes in patients with chronic uremia; Zmiany kostne w przewleklej mocznicy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray symptomatology of the bone changes in patients with chronic uremia is presented. Such changes have been noted in 7 out of 60 patients (9%). All of them appeared to have overgrowth parathyroid glands which were operated on. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs.

Heciak, J.; Grzesiakowska, U. [Swietokrzyskie Centrum Onkologii, Kielce (Poland)

1994-12-31

95

RA reactor reactivity changes before refurbishment - Task 3.08/02  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the the end of 1959, when the RA reactor started operation until January 1963 reactor was operated with the initial fuel batch of 56 fuel channels. After 310 MWd 68 fuel channels were added to the reactor core, and after further 357 MWd the core was filled up to the maximum of 88 fuel channels. Basic reactor parameters were systematically measured during two years of operation. This report covers the measurements concerned directly with the reactor operation: calibration of the control rods and their reactivity worths during operation, determining the total built-in reactivity excess and its change during burnup, determination of reactivity dependence on the temperature, xenon effect in the core

1963-12-01

96

Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

2000-08-01

97

Reactivating Memories during Sleep by Odors: Odor Specificity and Associated Changes in Sleep Oscillations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memories are reactivated during sleep. Re-exposure to olfactory cues during sleep triggers this reactivation and improves later recall performance. Here, we tested if the effects of odor-induced memory reactivations are odor-specific, that is, requiring the same odor during learning and subsequent sleep. We also tested whether odor-induced memory reactivation affects oscillatory EEG activity during sleep, as a putative mechanism underlying memory processing during sleep. Participants learned a visuospatial memory task under the presence of an odor. During subsequent SWS, the same odor, a different odor, or an odorless vehicle was presented. We found that odor re-exposure during sleep significantly improves memory only when the same odor was presented again, whereas exposure to a new odor or the odorless vehicle had no effect. The memory-enhancing effect of the congruent odor was accompanied by significant increases in frontal delta (1.5-4.5 Hz) and parietal fast spindle (13.0-15.0 Hz) power as well as by an increased negative-to-positive slope of the frontal slow oscillation. Our results indicate that odor-induced memory reactivations are odor specific and trigger changes in slow-wave and spindle power possibly reflecting a bottom-up influence of hippocampal memory replay on cortical slow oscillations as well as thalamo-cortical sleep spindles. PMID:24456392

Rihm, Julia S; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

2014-08-01

98

Measurements of bone cements implanted into rats using high-resolution X-ray CT. Time-dependency of form and volume change in bone cement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A micro-focus X-ray CT has been used for imaging the inner volume change of bone cement implanted into the body of a small animal in living condition. 3-D precise images of the bone cement materials, implanted into the thigh bones of rats, were obtained intermittently for one year using the CT system. The time-dependent 3-D form and volume changes of the bone cement were measured for the same rat continuously. During one year from implantation, the form of the implanted bone cement changed and a significant volume decrease was observed. It was shown that micro-focus X-ray CT was very effective for imaging in bio-research. (author)

2010-02-01

99

Changes in the peripheral blood and bone marrow from untreated advanced breast cancer patients that are associated with the establishment of bone metastases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone metastasis is an incurable complication of breast cancer affecting 70-80 % of advanced patients. It is a multistep process that includes tumour cell mobilisation, intravasation, survival in the circulation, extravasation, migration and proliferation in the bone marrow/bone. Although novel findings demonstrate the bone marrow microenvironment significance in bone metastatic progression, a majority of studies have focused on end-stage disease and little is known about how the pre-metastatic niche arises in the bone marrow/bone tissues. We demonstrated a significant increase in patients' peripheral blood plasma ability to induce transendothelial migration of MCF-7 cells compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, high RANKL, MIF and OPG levels in patients' peripheral blood could play a role in the intravasation, angiogenesis, survival and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of circulating tumour cells. Also, we observed a significant increase in patients' bone marrow plasma capacity to induce transendothelial migration of MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells compared with healthy volunteers. Furthermore, patients' bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could control the recruitment of tumour cells, modifying the MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cell migration. In addition, we found a significantly higher MDA-MB231 cell proliferation when we used patients' bone marrow plasma compared with healthy volunteers. Interestingly, PDGF-AB, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in patients' bone marrow were significantly higher than the values of healthy volunteers, suggesting that they could be involved in the cancer cell extravasation, bone resorption and cancer cell proliferation. We believe that these results can reveal new information about what alterations happen in the bone marrow of advanced breast cancer patients before bone colonisation, changes that create optimal soil for the metastatic cascade progression. PMID:24173696

Martinez, Leandro Marcelo; Vallone, Valeria Beatriz Fernández; Labovsky, Vivian; Choi, Hosoon; Hofer, Erica Leonor; Feldman, Leonardo; Bordenave, Raúl Horacio; Batagelj, Emilio; Dimase, Federico; Villafañe, Ana Rodriguez; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra

2014-02-01

100

Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells in irradiation bone marrow chimeras and neonatally tolerant mice. Evidence for intercellular transfer of Mlsa  

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Tolerance to Mlsa has been shown to be associated with clonal deletion of cells carrying TCR beta chain variable regions V beta 6 or V beta 8.1 in mice possessing I-E antigens. To evaluate the rules of tolerance induction to Mlsa we prepared irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressing Mlsa or Mlsb and I-E by different cell types. Deletion of V beta 6+, Mlsa-reactive T cells required the presence of Mlsa and I-E products either on bone marrow-derived cells or on irradiated recipient cells. Tol...

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The biochemical changes of bone collagen after high-dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our clinic, patients with malignant bone tumors have been treated by high-dose irradiation therapy, 10,000-20,000 rads, for primary lesions. In order to study the biochemical changes of normal bone around tumor tissue, especially bone collagen, after high-dose irradiation, the author performed the following experiments. The right knee joint of rabbits was irradiated with either 6,000, 10,000, or 15,000 rads by "6"0Co-? ray. The cortical bone of the right tibial metaphysis was used for analyses and compared with the left tibia of the same rabbit. These studies were followed for one year after the final irradiation. The calcium, phosphorous and collagen contents of irradiated bone were remarkably changed. These data indicate that collagen biosynthesis of irradiated bone was decreased and the calcification was disturbed. An increase in the amount of total soluble collagen and a decrease in the amount of hydroxylysine bound sugar were observed. The ratio of ? to ? chains of the collagen molecule was also changed by the irradiation. The amount of reducible cross-links per hydroxyproline residue was strikingly increased three months after the final irradiation. These changes were remarkable especially in the 10,000 and 15,000 rads irradiated group and found to be recovered approximately six months to one year after the final irradiation. These findings indicate that high-dose irradiation reduces the stability of bone collagen both with the destruction of sugar bonds of hydroxylysine residues and the replacement of matured collagen matrix to immatured one which contain mostly labile reducible cross-links. (author)

1980-01-01

102

Age-related changes in bone in the dog: calcium homeostasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To explore the changes in the relationship between skeletal and Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis with age, a study was made of 50 dogs divided into four age groups. The skeletal uptake of /sup 85/Sr decreased markedly with age, and the immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level increased. There was a significant correlation between iPTH value and the calculated short-term exchange of Ca in bone. Bone formation and bone resorption decreased with age except that in the oldest group of dogs the resorption increased. The authors suggest that in aging dogs the skeletal exchange of Ca falls to a very low level that decreases the immediate effect of PTH and thus leads to a chronic net increase in circulating PTH. Concomitant with this is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and, over a long time, loss of skeletal mass.

Williams, E.A.; Kelly, P.J.

1984-01-01

103

Reactivity meter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reactivity meter developed on the basis of inverse kinetics is described. It analyses the dynamic response of a reactor to change in impressed reactivity and provides voltage output signal directly indicating reactivity on a linear scale. This type of reactivity meter is suitable for incorporating in reactor safety channels, particularly for fast reactor assemblies. Reactivity tests have been carried out on Apsara reactor and data on delayed neutron groups, fine rod positions and measured reactivity are presented. (A.K.)

1976-12-23

104

Bone marrow changes after localized acute and fractionated x irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These studies were performed to compare the effects of single and fractionated localized irradiation doses to bone marrow on depletion and recovery of various hemopoietic cell lines. Mice received radiation to right thighs while the rest of the body was shielded. Single exposures ranged from 1000 to 10,000 rad and fractionated exposures ranged from total doses of 1000 to 6000 rad. Animals were sacrificed from 1 to 84 days after exposures. Stained sections of femurs were studied for total cellularity, megakaryocytes, immature cells (pro- and basophilic erythroblasts, myeloblasts, and promyelocytes), and lymphoid cells (lymphocytes and monocytes). In general, a dose-time-dependent response depletion pattern was seen for various cellular elements examined irrespective of the mode of radiation exposure. With fractionated schedules, all hemopoietic cell lines with the exception of megakaryocytes attained essentially control values by 12 weeks after the last radiation exposure irrespective of the total radiation dose. Megakaryocytes appeared to be less efficient in regenerating in and/or repopulating the exposed marrow. With single exposures, all hemopoietic cell lines examined failed to regenerate at radiation doses above 5000 rad

1980-01-01

105

Bone marrow changes after localized acute and fractionated x irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These studies were performed to compare the effects of single and fractionated localized irradiation doses to bone marrow on depletion and recovery of various hemopoietic cell lines. Mice received radiation to right thighs while the rest of the body was shielded. Single exposures ranged from 1000 to 10,000 rad and fractionated exposures ranged from total doses of 1000 to 6000 rad. Animals were sacrificed from 1 to 84 days after exposures. Stained sections of femurs were studied for total cellularity, megakaryocytes, immature cells (pro- and basophilic erythroblasts, myeloblasts, and promyelocytes), and lymphoid cells (lymphocytes and monocytes). In general, a dose-time-dependent response depletion pattern was seen for various cellular elements examined irrespective of the mode of radiation exposure. With fractionated schedules, all hemopoietic cell lines with the exception of megakaryocytes attained essentially control values by 12 weeks after the last radiation exposure irrespective of the total radiation dose. Megakaryocytes appeared to be less efficient in regenerating in and/or repopulating the exposed marrow. With single exposures, all hemopoietic cell lines examined failed to regenerate at radiation doses above 5000 rad.

El-Naggar, A.M.; Hanna, I.R.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

1980-10-01

106

Comparative imaging study for soft tissue changes in osteomyelitis and malignant bone tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of the imaging findings of soft tissue abnormality in the differential diagnosis between osteomyelitis and malignant bone tumor. Methods: The CT and MRI findings of soft tissue changes in 57 cases of osteomyelitis and 70 cases of malignant bone tumor were retrospectively defined,observed, recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: In 57 cases of osteomyelitis, 54 cases were examined with CT, and soft tissue swelling was presented in 52 cases (degree I in 19 cases, degree II in 16 cases, degree III in 17 cases). Abscess-like cysts in soft tissue occurred in 6 cases, masses in 5, air in 1, fat-fluid level in 1 and sinus tract in 1. Among 14 cases examined with MR imaging, soft tissue swelling was presented in all cases (degree I in 2 cases, degree II in 6 cases and degree III in 6 cases). Abscess-like cysts appeared in 3 cases and showed high signal in diffusion weighted imaging, mass in 1 and fat-fluid level in 1. Among 54 cases examined with CT in 70 cases of malignant bone tumor, soft tissue swelling was presented in 44 cases (degree I in 29 cases, degree II in 12 cases, degree III in 3 cases). Soft tissue masses appeared in 49 cases, bone shell and shell-like calcification in 16 cases, and neoplastic bone and neoplastic calcified cartilage within soft tissue mass in 25 cases. Among 49 cases examined with MR imaging, soft tissue swelling was presented in 46 cases (degree I in 21 cases, degree II in 17 cases and degree III in 8 cases), and soft tissue masses appeared in 43 cases. The degree of soft tissue swelling and the occurrence of abscess-like cyst, mass, bone shell or shell-liked calcification in the rim of mass, neoplastic bone or neoplastic calcified cartilage in masses showed significant difference (P<0.05) between osteomyelitis group and malignant bone tumor group on CT examination. The degree of Soft tissue swelling and the occurrence frequency of abscess-like cysts and mass were significantly different (P<0.05) between osteomyelitis group and malignant bone tumor group on MR examination. Conclusion: The degree of soft tissue swelling and the presence of mass were valuable for the differential diagnosis. Bone shell or shell-liked calcification in the rim of mass and neoplastic bone or neoplastic calcified cartilage were specific imaging signs of malignant bone tumor. Abscess-like cysts, soft tissue air, fat-fluid level and sinus tract were specific signs of osteomyelitis. (authors)

2007-04-01

107

Effect of microstructural changes on gasification reactivity of coal chars during low temperature gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to quantitatively investigate the effect of microstructural changes on gasification reactivity of coal chars. Pocahontas No. 3, Illinois No. 6, and Beulah-Zap coal char samples were gasified in 1% O{sub 2} at 500{sup o}C or 600{sup o}C up to 90% (daf) conversion, and their structure were observed under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). A quantitative structural analysis was done based on HRTEM images to obtain structural parameters such as number of stacks, layer size diameter, and their distributions using an image analysis algorithm. Effect of mineral matter on structural changes was also studied by carrying out gasification experiments with demineralized chars. The gasification reactivity of these chars was correlated with the structural parameters. 29 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Sharma, A.; Kadooka, H.; Kyotani, T.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

2002-02-01

108

An Investigation of the Efficacy of Cuttlefish Bone Powder in the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium and Isotherm Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Discharge of textile wastewater causes the reduction of sunlight penetration, interferes with the receiving waters ecology and damage the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the removal efficiency of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions by cuttlefish bone powder. Materials & Methods: This study was performed experimentally and in laboratory scale. In this research, the effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration and pH was evaluated. ...

Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mojtaba Momtaz; Mahboobeh Dehvari

2012-01-01

109

C-reactive protein genotype affects exercise training—induced changes in insulin sensitivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An etiologic role for chronic inflammation in the development of insulin resistance has been hypothesized. We determined whether the -732A/G and +219G/A C-reactive protein (CRP) gene variants affect insulin and glucose measures and whether these variants affect training-related changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose measures. Men and women 50 to 75 years old (n = 61) underwent baseline testing that included glucose tolerance, maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, CRP levels, and g...

Obisesan, Thomas O.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Ferrell, Robert E.; Phares, Dana A.; Mckenzie, Jennifer A.; Prior, Steven J.; Hagberg, James M.

2006-01-01

110

Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Materials and Methods Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). Conclusion It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

El Zuki, Mervet; Horner, Keith

2014-01-01

111

Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair.

Saarakkala, Simo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Etelae-Savo Hospital District, Mikkeli Central Hospital, Porrassalmenkatu 35-37, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Laasanen, Mikko S [Information Technology R and D Unit, Engineering Kuopio, Savonia Polytechnic, POB 1188, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, Jukka S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, Juha [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, POB 1777, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

2006-10-21

112

Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair.

Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Töyräs, Juha

2006-10-01

113

Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair

2006-10-21

114

Age-related changes in marmoset trabecular and cortical bone and response to alendronate therapy resemble human bone physiology and architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

In older humans, bone elongation ceases, periosteal expansion continues, and bone remodeling remains a dominant metabolic process. An appropriate animal model of type I and type II osteoporosis would be a species with sealed growth plates and persistence of bone remodeling. The rat is commonly used as a primary model, but due to delayed epiphyseal closure with continuous modeling and lack of Haversian remodeling, Food and Drug Administration guidelines recommend assessment of bone quality in an additional, non rodent, remodeling species. This study investigated the skeletal characteristics of senescent marmosets to evaluate their suitability as an osteoporosis model. Animals were randomized across three experimental groups; controls for both sexes and marmosets receiving alendronate for either 30 or 60 days (28 microg/kg, sc, twice per week). Outcome measures included serum chemistry and bone biomarkers, DEXA, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. Results showed that the adult marmoset skeleton has similar anatomical characteristics to the adult human, including the absence of growth plates, presence of Haversian system, and true remodeling of cancellous and cortical bone. Structural analyses of senescent marmoset cancellous bone demonstrated loss of trabecular mass and architecture similar to skeletal changes described for elderly men and women. Treatment with alendronate improved trabecular volume and number by reducing bone resorption, although bone formation was also reduced through coupling of bone remodeling. The common marmoset may provide a valuable model for research paradigms targeting human bone pathology and osteoporosis due to skeletal features that are similar to age-related changes and response to bisphosphonate therapy reported for humans. PMID:17610276

Bagi, Cedo M; Volberg, Marlo; Moalli, Maria; Shen, Victor; Olson, Ellen; Hanson, Nels; Berryman, Edwin; Andresen, Catharine J

2007-08-01

115

Age determines longitudinal changes in body composition better than menopausal and bone status: the OFELY study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term body composition (BC) changes and their determinants have been rarely explored. We aimed to evaluate BC changes in French women from the Os des Femmes de Lyon (OFELY) cohort and to explore several determinants of those changes. At baseline, premenopausal (PreM) women (n = 145) had lower fat body mass (FM) and greater lean body mass (LM), relative skeletal muscle mass index (RASM), and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) compared with untreated postmenopausal (PostM) women (n = 412). During a 6-year follow-up, LM and RASM did not change, whereas a significant increase of FM and a decrease of TBBMC were observed in PreM (n = 88) and PeriM women (n = 44; women who became PostM during the follow-up). In untreated PostM women, FM increased, whereas LM, RASM, and TBBMC decreased (p < 0.0001). Age was a significant determinant of the changes in BC. After controlling for age, menopausal status was still a significant determinant only for changes in TBBMC. FM, LM, RASM, and TBBMC were higher in women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) compared with women with osteopenia or osteoporosis (p < 0.0001), but after adjusting for age, changes of BC were not significantly different according to the bone status. After controlling for age and menopausal status, levels of P1NP in the highest quartile were associated with a greater decrease of LM and RASM compared with lower levels. In conclusion, BC changes in French women over a 6-year follow-up showed a high interindividual variability. Aging may be the most important determinant of changes in body composition, rather than menopausal and bone status. PMID:22095542

Sornay-Rendu, Elisabeth; Karras-Guillibert, Caroline; Munoz, Francoise; Claustrat, Bruno; Chapurlat, Roland D

2012-03-01

116

Age-related molecular genetic changes of murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are pluripotent cells, present in the bone marrow and other tissues that can differentiate into cells of all germ layers and may be involved in tissue maintenance and repair in adult organisms. Because of their plasticity and accessibility these cells are also prime candidates for regenerative medicine. The contribution of stem cell aging to organismal aging is under debate and one theory is that reparative processes deteriorate as a consequence of stem cell aging and/or decrease in number. Age has been linked with changes in osteogenic and adipogenic potential of MSCs. Results Here we report on changes in global gene expression of cultured MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of mice at ages 2, 8, and 26-months. Microarray analyses revealed significant changes in the expression of more than 8000 genes with stage-specific changes of multiple differentiation, cell cycle and growth factor genes. Key markers of adipogenesis including lipoprotein lipase, FABP4, and Itm2a displayed age-dependent declines. Expression of the master cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 and growth factors HGF and VEGF also declined significantly at 26 months. These changes were evident despite multiple cell divisions in vitro after bone marrow isolation. Conclusions The results suggest that MSCs are subject to molecular genetic changes during aging that are conserved during passage in culture. These changes may affect the physiological functions and the potential of autologous MSCs for stem cell therapy.

Webster Keith A

2010-04-01

117

[Clinical and physiological evaluation of bone changes among astronauts after long-term space flights  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the joint Russian/US studies of the effect of microgravity on bone tissues in 18 cosmonauts on return from 4.5- to 14.5-month long missions are presented. Dual-energy x-ray gamma-absorbtiometry (QDR-1000 W, Hologic, USA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and mineral content (BMC, g) in the whole body, the scalp including cervical vertebra, arms, ribs, sternal and lumbar regions of the spinal column, pelvis and legs. A clearly defined dependence of topography of changes upon the position of a skeletal segment in the gravity vector was established. The greatest BMD losses have been observed in the skeleton of the lower body, i.e. in pelvic bones (-11.99 +/- 1.22%), lumbar vertebra (-5.63 +/- 0.817%), and in proximal femur, particularly in the femoral neck (-8.17 +/- 1.24%). Bones of the upper skeleton were either unchanged (insignificant) or showed a positive trend. Overall changes in bone mass of the whole skeleton of male cosmonauts during the period of about 6 months on mission made up -1.41 +/- 0.406% and suggest the mean balance of calcium over flight equal to -227 +/- 62.8 mg/day. Reasoning is given to qualify these states of cosmonauts' bone tissues as local osteopenia. On the literature and results of authors' clinical evidence, discussed is availability of the densitometric data for predicting risk of trauma. A biological nature of the changes under observation is hypothesized.

Grigoriev, A. I.; Oganov, V. S.; Bakulin, A. V.; Poliakov, V. V.; Voronin, L. I.; Morgun, V. V.; Shnaider, V. S.; Murashko, L. V.; Novikov, V. E.; LeBlank, A.; Shakleford, L.; Schneider, V. S. (Principal Investigator); Leblanc, A. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

118

Degenerative changes at the lumbar spine-implications for bone mineral density measurement in elderly women.  

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Degenerative changes of the lumbar spine may lead to misinterpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and cause underdiagnosis of osteoporosis. This longitudinal study of 1,044 women, 75 years at inclusion and followed for 10 years, shows that identification of apparent degenerative changes on the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan can increase the proportion diagnosed. INTRODUCTION: In the elderly, degenerative manifestations in the lumbar spine may resul...

Tenne, Max; Mcguigan, Fiona; Besjakov, Jack; Gerdhem, Paul; A?kesson, Kristina

2013-01-01

119

Differential diagnosis of structural changes in the pubic bone in children and adolescents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structural changes in the pubic bone often are difficult to interpret. The radiologic appearance is very different. The differentiation between inflammatory and malignant processes is hardly to distinguish. We report of ten patients with osseous changes in the os pubic (4 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 osteosarcoma, 1 Morbus Hodgkin, 1 osteochondronecrosis, 2 osteochondritis, 1 subchronic osteomyelitis). Two patients with Ewing's sarcoma who were initially treated for osteomyelitis are described in detail. Differential diagnosis and previous literature are reviewed.

Appell, R.G.; Willich, E.

1983-02-01

120

Normal age-related changes in fluoride content of vertebral trabecular bone--relation to bone quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In several clinical osteoporosis studies, fluoride treatment has been shown to have a positive effect on bone mass but without a concomitant decrease in vertebral fracture rate. In contrast, some studies have shown that increases in spinal BMD are also paralleled by decreased vertebral fracture incidence. We have previously demonstrated, in a pig model, that 6-month treatment with fluoride increased bone mass but decreased bone quality. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether normal age-related fluoride accumulation in human bone per se influences bone quality. From 73 normal individuals, aged 20-91 years (36 females, 37 males) two trabecular bone cylinders were obtained from the central part of L3. Biomechanical competence, ash density, and fluoride content were assessed in one cylinder, and trabecular bone volume was determined in the other. The results showed an age-related decrease in bone mass for both men and women. Bone strength normalized for bone mass (bone quality also identical with bone material strength) also showed an age-related decrease in men and women. Bone fluoride concentration increased significantly in both sexes (range 463-4000 ppm). Multiple regression analyses disclosed that fluoride by itself had no influence on bone quality, in this study with a limited number of cases, when the influence of sex and age were taken into account. It is concluded that normal age-related accumulation of fluoride in vertebral trabecular bone does not seem to affect the quality of bone. Whether this is also the case during fluoride therapy has to be assessed.

Richards, A; Mosekilde, L

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone.

Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

2014-01-01

122

Histopathological change of the metastatic bone marrow. Response for radio- and combination chemotherapy at autopsy cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to determine the histopathologic therapeutic effects in metastatic bone marrow for various therapy in cancer patients. Autopsy cases at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, mainly cancer of breast, stomach, lung and prostate examined radiotherapy (28-60 Gy) and chemotherapy and/or endocrine chemotherapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate, tamoxifen). Histological evaluation of effects for radio-and chemotherapy have been criteria of UICC and criteria for the evaluation of the clinical and pathological effects by Japan Society for Cancer Therapy. The precise effects for various therapy is difficult to measure objectively in metastatic bone. Histopathologic changes of metastatic bone marrow for radiotherapy revealed decrease and degeneration of tumor cells - swelling, vacuoles of cytoplasm and nuclei, bizarre and giant multinucleated giant cells etc. Stromal reaction was found postnecrotic fresh and/or old granulation-fibrosis and hyalinization, woven bone formation and fatty marrow. Systemic therapy of breast cancer revealed stromal fibrosis and chondroid ossification more than other tumors and therapy. Morphological features of metastatic bone marrow at autopsy cases may be necessary from viewpoint of therapeutic effects. (author)

Moriwaki, Shousuke; Mandai, Kouichi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Saeki, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Syozo [Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)

2002-07-01

123

Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats. Here we have investigated how the development and progression of this leukaemia affect oxygenation, pH and proliferation of normal and leukaemic cells in vivo. Bone marrow pH was measured by a needle electrode. Nitroimidazol-theophylline (NITP) was used to identify hypoxic cells, and we applied bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to identify DNA replicating cells. The leukaemia progressed slowly until day 27 after which a rapid deterioration could be observed leading to severe changes over the following 5 d. In whole blood there was evidence of progressing metabolic acidosis. In bone marrow the fraction of leukaemic cells increased to > 90% and the pH dropped to about 6.5. The fraction of NITP+ cells increased to > 80% in bone marrow and to about 40% in blood. The fraction of BrdUrd+ cells was unchanged in blood, but decreased in bone marrow both for normal cells (from about 20% to 5%), and for leukaemic cells (from about 45% to 25%), evidently as a result of the severely changed microenvironment. In this study we have demonstrated in vivo the development of an acidic and hypoxic bone marrow hampering normal haemopoiesis during leukaemic growth. Our data support the notion of BNML as a valuable tool for studying leukaemogenesis.

Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O

1998-01-01

124

Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging  

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Hematological deficiencies increase with aging including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age, was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip ...

Tuljapurkar, Sonal R.; Mcguire, Timothy R.; Brusnahan, Susan K.; Jackson, John D.; Garvin, Kevin L.; Kessinger, Margaret A.; Lane, Judy T.; O’ Kane, Barbara J.; Sharp, John G.

2011-01-01

125

Labeling the human skeleton with 41Ca to assess changes in bone calcium metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone research is limited by the methods available for detecting changes in bone metabolism. While dual X-ray absorptiometry is rather insensitive, biochemical markers are subject to significant intra-individual variation. In the study presented here, we evaluated the isotopic labeling of bone using 41Ca, a long-lived radiotracer, as an alternative approach. After successful labeling of the skeleton, changes in the systematics of urinary 41Ca excretion are expected to directly reflect changes in bone Ca metabolism. A minute amount of 41Ca (100 nCi) was administered orally to 22 postmenopausal women. Kinetics of tracer excretion were assessed by monitoring changes in urinary 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios up to 700 days post-dosing using accelerator mass spectrometry and resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Isotopic labeling of the skeleton was evaluated by two different approaches: (i) urinary 41Ca data were fitted to an established function consisting of an exponential term and a power law term for each individual; (ii) 41Ca data were analyzed by population pharmacokinetic (NONMEM) analysis to identify a compartmental model that describes urinary 41Ca tracer kinetics. A linear three-compartment model with a central compartment and two sequential peripheral compartments was found to best fit the 41Ca data. Fits based on the use of the combined exponential/power law function describing urinary tracer excretion showed substantially higher deviations between predicted and measured values than fits based on the compartmental modeling approach. By establishing the urinary 41Ca excretion pattern using data points up to day 500 and extrapolating these curves up to day 700, it was found that the calculated 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios in urine were significantly lower than the observed 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios for both techniques. Compartmental analysis can overcome this limitation. By identifying relative changes in transfer rates between compartments in response to an intervention, inaccuracies in the underlying model cancel out. Changes in tracer distribution between compartments were modeled based on identified kinetic parameters. While changes in bone formation and resorption can, in principle, be assessed by monitoring urinary 41Ca excretion over the first few weeks post-dosing, assessment of an intervention effect is more reliable ?150 days post-dosing when excreted tracer originates mainly from bone. (orig.)

2006-11-01

126

Changes of bone turnover markers and serum PTH after night or morning administration of zoledronic acid in breast cancer patients with bone metastases  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent circadian rhythm of bone turnover in bone metastatic breast cancer suggests greater skeletal retention of bisphosphonates if administered in the night. We assessed differential effects of night vs morning administration of zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone turnover. Forty-four breast cancer patients with bone metastases were randomised to receive intravenous ZA (4?mg) at 1100 or 2300 hours every 28 days for four times. Urinary concentration N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX) and deoxypyridinolines, and serum C-telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX), bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured in the morning at baseline and after 4, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days. Urinary ZA concentration was also measured. Zoledronic acid caused significant decreases of NTX and CTX (P<0.001), without any difference in percent changes between night and morning arms. Bone ALP and osteocalcin were also significantly affected by ZA (P=0.001), without any difference between arms. Parathyroid hormone significantly increased in both the arms; PTH increase was lower in the night arm (P=0.001). From the second administration onwards, urinary ZA level was significantly higher in the night arm (P<0.01). Administration of ZA at two opposite phases of the circadian cycle causes similar changes of bone-turnover marker levels, but has differential effects on the level of serum PTH.

Generali, D; Dovio, A; Tampellini, M; Tucci, M; Tedoldi, S; Torta, M; Bonardi, S; Allevi, G; Aguggini, S; Milani, M; Harris, A L; Bottini, A; Dogliotti, L; Angeli, A; Berruti, A

2008-01-01

127

Evaluation of Bone Change by Digital Subtraction Radiography After Implantation of Tooth ash-plaster Mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the methods for the clinical evaluation of the longitudinal bone changes after implantation of tooth ash-plaster mixture into the defect area of human jaws. Tooth ash-plaster mixtures were implanted into the defects of 8 human jaws. 48 intraoral radiograms taken with copper step wedge as reference at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture were used. X-ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner were digitized and analyzed by NIH image program. Cu-equivalent values were measured at the implanted sites from the periodic digital images. Analysis was performed by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of resliced contiguous image. The obtained results by the two methods were compared with Cu-equivalent value changes. The average determination coefficient of Cu-equivalent equations was 0.9988 and the coefficient of variation of measured Cu values ranged from 0.08-0.10. The coefficient of variation of Cu-equivalent values measured at the areas of the mixture and the bone by the conversion equation ranged from 0.06-0.09. The analyzed results by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement were coincident with the changes of Cu-equivalent values. The surface plot of the resliced contiguous image showed the three dimensional view of the longitudinal bone changes on one image and also coincident with Cu-equivalent value changes after implantation. The bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of the resliced contiguous image was very effective and reasonable to analyze clinically and qualitatively the longitudinal bone change. These methods are expected to be applicable to the non-destructive test in other fields.

Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Kwang Won; Cho, Young Gon; Kim, Dong Kie; Choi, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University and Oral Biology Research Center, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1999-08-15

128

Evaluation of Bone Change by Digital Subtraction Radiography After Implantation of Tooth ash-plaster Mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the methods for the clinical evaluation of the longitudinal bone changes after implantation of tooth ash-plaster mixture into the defect area of human jaws. Tooth ash-plaster mixtures were implanted into the defects of 8 human jaws. 48 intraoral radiograms taken with copper step wedge as reference at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture were used. X-ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner were digitized and analyzed by NIH image program. Cu-equivalent values were measured at the implanted sites from the periodic digital images. Analysis was performed by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of resliced contiguous image. The obtained results by the two methods were compared with Cu-equivalent value changes. The average determination coefficient of Cu-equivalent equations was 0.9988 and the coefficient of variation of measured Cu values ranged from 0.08-0.10. The coefficient of variation of Cu-equivalent values measured at the areas of the mixture and the bone by the conversion equation ranged from 0.06-0.09. The analyzed results by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement were coincident with the changes of Cu-equivalent values. The surface plot of the resliced contiguous image showed the three dimensional view of the longitudinal bone changes on one image and also coincident with Cu-equivalent value changes after implantation. The bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of the resliced contiguous image was very effective and reasonable to analyze clinically and qualitatively the longitudinal bone change. These methods are expected to be applicable to the non-destructive test in other fields.

1999-08-01

129

Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

2009-01-01

130

Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

2013-09-01

131

Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2013-09-15

132

Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum : a controlled cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation

Møller, U K; við Streym, Susanna

2013-01-01

133

Adipokines and C-reactive protein in relation to bone mineralization in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD in obese children with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; and the association between BMD and serum adipokines, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Cases were 44 obese children with NAFLD. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with high hepatic fat fraction (? 5%. Other causes of chronic liver disease were ruled out. Controls were selected from obese children with normal levels of aminotransferases, and without MRI evidence of fatty liver as well as of other causes of chronic liver diseases. Controls were matched (1- to 1-basis with the cases on age, gender, pubertal stage and as closely as possible on body mass index-SD score. All participants underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests, and whole body (WB and lumbar spine (LS BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores were calculated using race and gender specific LMS curves. RESULTS: Obese children with NAFLD had a significantly lower LS BMD Z-score than those without NAFLD [mean, 0.55 (95%CI: 0.23-0.86 vs 1.29 (95%CI: 0.95-1.63; P < 0.01]. WB BMD Z-score was also decreased in obese children with NAFLD compared to obese children with no NAFLD, though borderline significance was observed [1.55 (95%CI: 1.23-1.87 vs 1.95 (95%CI: 1.67-2.10; P = 0.06]. Children with NAFLD had significantly higher HSCRP, lower adiponectin, but similar leptin levels. Thirty five of the 44 children with MRI-diagnosed NAFLD underwent liver biopsy. Among the children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 20 (57% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, while 15 (43% no NASH. Compared to children without NASH, those with NASH had a significantly lower LS BMD Z-score [mean, 0.27 (95%CI: -0.17-0.71 vs 0.75 (95%CI: 0.13-1.39; P < 0.05] as well as a significantly lower WB BMD Z-score [1.38 (95%CI: 0.89-1.17 vs 1.93 (95%CI: 1.32-2.36; P < 0.05]. In multiple regression analysis, NASH (standardized ? coefficient, -0.272; P < 0.01 and HSCRP (standardized ? coefficient, -0.192; P < 0.05 were significantly and independently associated with LS BMD Z-score. Similar results were obtained when NAFLD (instead of NASH was included in the model. WB BMD Z-scores were significantly and independently associated with NASH (standardized ? coefficient, -0.248; P < 0.05 and fat mass (standardized ? coefficient, -0.224; P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that NAFLD is associated with low BMD in obese children, and that systemic, low-grade inflammation may accelerate loss of bone mass in patients with NAFLD.

Lucia Pacifico

2013-01-01

134

Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

1993-01-01

135

Changes of lymphocyte subsets in leukemia patients who received allogenic bone marrow transplantation.  

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Proportional changes of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were monitored by two-color flow-cytometry in seven leukemia patients who had received allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Lymphocyte counts, and proportions of T and B-cells returned to normal ranges between the 2nd and 12th months after BMT. Activated T-cells prominently increased after BMT, and the values gradually returned toward normal. As to lymphocyte subsets, the proportions of CD 4+ cells had remained low,...

Komatsuda, Mitsumoto

1991-01-01

136

Bone marrow morphological changes in patients of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate  

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Background: Imatinib mesylate has shown promising results in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in all phases. This drug is an effective treatment for patients with CML in chronic phase as it induces hematological remission in nearly all patients and cytogenetic responses in many. The bone marrow changes produced by this drug are different from the treatment modalities used earlier in CML. Materials & Methods: We studied 80 patients of CML on treatment with Imatinib at dose...

Joshi S; Sunita P; Deshmukh C; Gujral S; Amre P; Nair C

2008-01-01

137

Pathomorphological changes of bone marrow adipocytes in process of steroid-associated osteonecrosis  

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Objective: The role of extravascular fat deposition in pathogenesis of steroid-associated osteonecrosis (ON) still remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the pathomorphological changes of bone marrow adipocytes over time in a rabbit ON model. Methods: Thirty-two adult rabbits were divided into control group (n=16) and steroid group (n=16). Rabbits in the steroid group were injected with venous lipopolysaccharide once and intramuscular methylprednisolone trice to induce ON. Rabbits in th...

Sheng, Hui; Sheng, Chun-jun; Cheng, Xiao-yun; Zhang, Ge; Lee, Kwong-man; Leung, Kwok-sui; Qu, Shen; Qin, Ling

2013-01-01

138

Differential diagnosis between chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma by temporal bone CT: focus on bone change and mass effect  

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In order to determine specific differences, we compared the temporal bone CT findings of chronic otitis media (COM) with and without cholesteatoma, focusing on bone change. Between 1997 and 1998, 82 patients (84 cases) underwent temporal bone CT and were shown to have COM, with or without cholesteatoma after mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. There were 36 cases of COM with cholesteatoma (26 patients, M:F =3D 11:15; age range, 16-61 (mean, 36,2) years), and 58 cases without chlesteatoma (56 patients, M:F =3D 25:31, age range, 15-61 (mean, 36.2) years). The findings of temporal bone CT were analysed at the point of bony changes including erosion and medial displacement of ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), erosion or destruction of the scutum, tegmen, facial canal, and lateral semicircular canal, and ballooning of the tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum. In addition, the soft tissue changes seen on temporal bone CT were analyzed at the site of lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space, perforation of the pars flaccida, tympanic membrane retraction, and tympanosclerosis. We retrospectively compared the findings of temporal bone CT with the surgical findings, and to assess statistical significance, the Chi-square test was used. Bone erosion or destruction was seen in 36.2% of COM cases without cholesteatoma, and in 96.2% of cases with cholesteatoma. Comparing COM with and without cholesteatoma, the erosion of ossicles including the malleus (81%, 24%), incus (88%, 14%), stapes (58%, 10%), scutum (88%, 10%), facial canal (8%, 0%), and lateral semicircular canal (8%, 0%), was more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05), with the exception of erosion of the tegmen (8%, 3%). Other bony changes including medial displacement of ossicles (27%, 3%), ballooning of tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum (96%, 16%), and the soft tissue changes including lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 14%) and perforation of the pars flaccida (35%, 9%) were more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05). Soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 72%), retraction of the tympanic membrane (19%, 9%), and tympanosclerosis (8%, 10%) were not however, important findings (p-value greater than 0.05). Bone erosion or destruction was seen in COM without cholesteatoma, but expansile bone erosion or destruction with mass effect suggested COM with cholesteatoma. These findings of temporal bone CT in COM demonstrate the existence and extent of combined cholesteatoma, and are therefore valuable. (author)

2000-01-01

139

Differential diagnosis between chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma by temporal bone CT: focus on bone change and mass effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to determine specific differences, we compared the temporal bone CT findings of chronic otitis media (COM) with and without cholesteatoma, focusing on bone change. Between 1997 and 1998, 82 patients (84 cases) underwent temporal bone CT and were shown to have COM, with or without cholesteatoma after mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. There were 36 cases of COM with cholesteatoma (26 patients, M:F =3D 11:15; age range, 16-61 (mean, 36,2) years), and 58 cases without chlesteatoma (56 patients, M:F =3D 25:31, age range, 15-61 (mean, 36.2) years). The findings of temporal bone CT were analysed at the point of bony changes including erosion and medial displacement of ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), erosion or destruction of the scutum, tegmen, facial canal, and lateral semicircular canal, and ballooning of the tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum. In addition, the soft tissue changes seen on temporal bone CT were analyzed at the site of lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space, perforation of the pars flaccida, tympanic membrane retraction, and tympanosclerosis. We retrospectively compared the findings of temporal bone CT with the surgical findings, and to assess statistical significance, the Chi-square test was used. Bone erosion or destruction was seen in 36.2% of COM cases without cholesteatoma, and in 96.2% of cases with cholesteatoma. Comparing COM with and without cholesteatoma, the erosion of ossicles including the malleus (81%, 24%), incus (88%, 14%), stapes (58%, 10%), scutum (88%, 10%), facial canal (8%, 0%), and lateral semicircular canal (8%, 0%), was more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05), with the exception of erosion of the tegmen (8%, 3%). Other bony changes including medial displacement of ossicles (27%, 3%), ballooning of tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum (96%, 16%), and the soft tissue changes including lateral bulging of soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 14%) and perforation of the pars flaccida (35%, 9%) were more common in COM with cholesteatoma (p-value less than 0.05). Soft tissue in Prussak's space (58%, 72%), retraction of the tympanic membrane (19%, 9%), and tympanosclerosis (8%, 10%) were not however, important findings (p-value greater than 0.05). Bone erosion or destruction was seen in COM without cholesteatoma, but expansile bone erosion or destruction with mass effect suggested COM with cholesteatoma. These findings of temporal bone CT in COM demonstrate the existence and extent of combined cholesteatoma, and are therefore valuable. (author)

Jung, Cheol Kyu; Park, Dong Woo; Seong, Jin Yong; Lee, Kak Soo; Park Choong Ki; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-01-01

140

C-Reactive Protein Concentration Predicts Change in Body Mass Index during Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Inflammation may constitute an underlying mechanism for increased risk of developing chronic diseases in later years, but few prospective studies have assessed the influence of low-grade inflammation on body weight gain, particularly among children in low- to middle-income settings with lower prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to investigate whether C-reactive protein (CRP), as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation, predicts changes in body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZ) during childhood. Methods A population-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Brazilian Amazon among children aged ?10 years in 2007, with follow-up visits in 2009 and 2012. Outcome was annual change in BAZ. As the main exposure of interest, CRP concentrations were divided into four categories, with values 5 years, children in the highest tertile of CRP 5 years.

Lourenco, Barbara H.; Cardoso, Marly A.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Experimental studies of blood flow and metabolism changes in ?-ray induced bone injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate regional blood flow (RBF) and metabolism changes in the short-and long-term after bone irradiation injury. Methods: The tibia of the rabbits on the right side was irradiated with 60Co ? ray at a dose of 30 Gy. The tibia on the other side was taken as the control. RBF measurement, perfusion imaging and delayed bone imaging were respectively performed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th and 52nd week after the irradiation. Results: The RBF of injured side gradually increased after irradiation, and reached as two times as the level of the control at the 3rd week, and approached to the similar values on both sides at the 6th week, and then became only 27.8% of the value of the control at the 52nd week, the differences of RBF between two sides at all phases were significant or very significant (P 0.05), the ROI counts markedly decreased at the 12th week and very significantly declined at the 52nd week on irradiated side. Conclusions: The study shows that the RBF increases and bone metabolism is activated at irradiated side in the earlier stage after irradiation, and both regional microcirculation and bone metabolism significantly decrease in the medium and late stage

2002-06-01

142

Hematologic and bone marrow changes in children with protein-energy malnutrition.  

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Background: All systems in an organism are affected by protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), but one of the worst affected is the hematopoietic system. Today PEM remains a very serious problem in developing countries. We examined the relationships between clinical features, hematological, and bone marrow changes with severe PEM from Turkey. Method: We evaluated 34 (11 females and 23 males) consecutive cases of severe PEM, with no underlying diseases aged 3-20 months. The clinical nutritional conditions of the patients were determined using the Wellcome-Trust PEM classification. Ten of the patients were in the Marasmic-Kwashiorkor (M-K) group, 10 were in the Kwashiorkor (KW) group, and 14 were in the Marasmic (M) group. Full blood count, protein, albumin, serum iron (SI), iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, complement-3 (C3), complement-4 (C4), and bone marrow were investigated in all groups. Results: Anemia was detected in 97% of patients. We determined serum iron levels were low in 67.6% of the patients, TS levels were low in 76.4% of the patients and ferritin levels were low in 20.5%. The level of vitamin B12 was normal in all patients. Bone marrow analysis showed erythroid series hypoplasia in 28.5% of patients in the M group, 50% in the KW group, and 30% in the M-K group. Marrow iron was absent in 58.8% of patients. Conclusion: The most common hematologic change in the children with PEM was anemia and major cause of anemia was iron deficiency in this study. Patients with severe PEM have normal Vit B12 and serum folate levels. Most of the patients with severe PEM had normal cellularity with megaloblastic and dysplastic changes in bone marrow due to the inadequate and imbalanced intake of protein and energy. PMID:23987917

Ozkale, Murat; Sipahi, Tansu

2014-05-01

143

Divergent Significance of Bone Mineral Density Changes in Aging Depending on Sites and Sex Revealed through Separate Analyses of Bone Mineral Content and Area  

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Bone mineral density (aBMD) is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC) divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck re...

Matsui, Yasumoto; Takemura, Marie; Harada, Atsushi; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

144

Changes of bone mineral density after cementless total hip arthroplasty with two different stems  

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Cementless total hip arthroplasty has achieved reliable long-term results since porous coatings were developed, but postoperative changes around the stem remain poorly documented. In this study, changes of the bone mineral density (BMD) were compared between two types of cementless stem. In group B (28 patients with 31 hips), a straight tapered stem with porous plasma spray coating on the proximal 1/4 was used, while group S (24 patients with 26 hips) was given a fluted, tri-slot stem with po...

Sano, Keiji; Ito, Kouji; Yamamoto, Kengo

2008-01-01

145

Cortical bone thickness can adapt locally to muscular loading while changing with age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical loading of muscle action is concentrated at muscle attachment sites; thus there may be a potential for site-specific variation in cortical bone thickness. Humeri from an early 20th-century Finnish (Helsinki) and two medieval English (Newcastle, Blackgate and York, Barbican) populations were subjected to pQCT scanning to calculate site-specific cross-sectional cortical bone area (CA) for four locations and to measure cortical thickness at muscle attachment sites and non-attachment sites. We found that CA at 80% of humerus length was significantly reduced compared to more distal cross-sections, which can be due to reduced stresses at the proximal shaft. The principal direction of loading at 80% humerus length was towards mediolateral plane, likely due to fixing the humerus close to the torso. At 35% the main direction of loading was towards anteroposterior plane, reflecting elbow flexing forces. The principal direction of loading varied between populations, sides and sexes at 50% humerus length due to preference between elbow and shoulder joint; thus this location might be useful when trying to infer differences in activity. These changes are likely due to overall shaft adaptation to forces acting at the humerus. In addition, we found a potential for site-specific variation in cortical thickness; cortical bone at muscle attachment sites was significantly thicker compared to non-attachment sites. Lastly, CA at 35% of humerus length and cortical thickness at non-attachment sites decreased with age. These results underline the importance of muscle loading for bone mass preservation as well as indicate that a site-specific variation of bone mass is possible. PMID:24028817

Niinimäki, S; Söderling, S; Junno, J-A; Finnilä, M; Niskanen, M

2013-12-01

146

The radiographic study of cortical changes of bone caused by jaw lesions  

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To investigate the diagnostic significance of cortical changes in the bone of diseased jaws utilizing computed tomography (CT). Computed tomographic images of 91 patients, consisting of 7 osteomyelitis, 46 cysts, 18 benign tumors, and 20 malignant tumors, were analyzed. The pattern of cortical expansion was classified into three types: no expansion (N), buccal or lingual expansion (B/L), and buccolingual expansion (B and L). The pattern of cortical destruction was classified into four types: no destruction (N), point destruction (PO), gross destruction (GR), and permeative destruction (PE). The pattern of periosteal reaction was classified into four types: parallel, irregular, spicule, and Codmans triangle. The relationship between the pattern of cortical bone changes and diseases of the jaws was assessed. When the pattern of cortical expansion was compared to diseases of the jaw, N-type was most prevalent in cases of osteomyelitis and malignant tumors, B/L-type with cysts, and BandL-types with benign tumors. Comparison between the pattern of cortical bone destruction with diseases of the jaw showed strong correlations between PO and PE-types to osteomyelitis, N-type with cysts, N and GR-types with benign tumors, and GR-type with malignant tumors. Finally, the relationship between the pattern of periosteal reaction to diseases of the jaw showed a strong correlation between parallel-type to osteomyelitis and spicule-type to malignant tumors. The pattern of cortical expansion and cortical destruction is useful in differentiating diseases of the jaws.

Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Hae [College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-06-15

147

Preleukemic change in the bone marrow of whole-body irradiated RFM/Up mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the whole-body irradiated mouse, various late effects of radiation are observed after the recovery from acute radiation injury. Some of these account for the familiar proneness of certain mouse strains to develop leukemias. The two experiments described below were designed to identify such preleukemic changes in blood-forming tissues and to find ways to manipulate them experimentally with the purpose of preventing leukemia. Preleukemic change of the bone marrow appears to be a mere quantitative departure from normal in a qualitatively non-malignant tissue. It entails increased proneness of immature cells to react with latent virus. The data, received are consistent with the assumption that this prononess is enhanced (or brought about) by removal of a controlling influence exerted by the mature cells over their precursors. Re-irradiation combined with intravenous bone marrow substitution offsets the leukemogenic influence of an earlier radiation exposure. The effect of re-irradiation on bone marrow displaying preleukemic lesions corroborates conclusions from earlier experiments on the nature of these lesions. (orig./MG)

1977-01-01

148

Bone Mineral Density Changes after Total Knee Replacement in Women Over the Age of 65  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There are few reports on bone mineral density (BMD) changes of axial bones after total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint and its results are controversial. The purpose of our study was to measure the BMD changes of hip and spine in patients receiving TKR due to severe OA and to identify clinical factors relating BMD changes. Methods Among 66 female patients above 65 years old who underwent TKR due to severe OA and checked preoperative BMD, 52 patients who checked 1 year follow up BMD were enrolled. We investigated the association of the BMD changes with bilaterality of operation, obesity, preoperative knee functional scores, bisphosphonate medication, and diagnosis of osteoporosis. Results We found no correlation between BMD changes and bilaterality of operation, obesity, preoperative knee functional scores and diagnosis of osteoporosis. Spine BMD increased in non-treatment and bisphosphonate treatment group but total hip BMD significantly increased in bisphosphonate treatment group. Conclusions Bisphosphonate treatment for 1 year prevents early reduction of hip BMD just after TKR regardless osteoporosis diagnosis. We considered that the bisphosphonate medication would be beneficial to prevention of later hip fracture in elderly patient receiving TKR due to severe OA of knee joints.

Won, Ye Yeon

2013-01-01

149

Energetic ion transport and concomitant change of the fusion reactivity during reconnection events in spherical tori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) reconnection events on the beam-plasma fusion reactivity and transport of the beam ions are studied. Based on the analysis of fusion reactivity changes induced by MHD events, the conclusion is drawn that the strong drops of the neutron yield during sawtooth crashes observed in the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are associated with both a particle redistribution inside the plasma and a loss of the beam ions. Mechanisms of the energetic ion transport during sawtooth crashes are analyzed, in particular, with the use of the resonance adiabatic invariant derived in this paper. A numerical simulation of the particle motion during a sawtooth crash in NSTX is done with the code OFSEF (orbit following in the sawtooth electromagnetic field) [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1325 (2000)] extended for a better description of the particle precession. It is shown that the motion of toroidally passing particles in NSTX can become stochastic under the influence of a crash. This stochasticity, as well as the motion along the resonance island, leads to the escape of some particles from the plasma

2004-11-01

150

On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as ''the code''). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed

1993-07-06

151

Energetic Ion Transport and Concomitant Change of the Fusion Reactivity during Reconnection Events in Spherical Tori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of MHD reconnection events on the beam-plasma fusion reactivity and transport of the beam ions are studied. Based on the analysis of fusion reactivity changes induced by MHD events, the conclusion is drawn that the strong drops of the neutron yield during sawtooth crashes observed in the National Spherical Torus experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are associated with both a particle redistribution inside the plasma and a loss of the beam ions. Mechanisms of the energetic ion transport during sawtooth crashes are analyzed, in particular, with the use of the resonance adiabatic invariant derived in this paper. A numerical simulation of the particle motion during a sawtooth crash in NSTX is done with the code OFSEF [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1325 (2000)] extended for a better description of the particle precession. It is shown that the motion of toroidally passing particles in NSTX can become stochastic under the influence of a crash. This stochasticity, as well as the motion along the resonance island, leads to the escape of some particles from the plasma.

Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

2004-07-06

152

Trans fatty acids, HDL-cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk - Effects of dietary changes on vascular reactivity  

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Intake of trans fatty acids increases the risk of coronary heart disease, even more so than saturated fatty acids. We wanted to investigate whether this higher risk was caused by the decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol by trans fatty acids. To do this, we studied the effect of diet-induced changes in HDL-cholesterol on vascular reactivity, a surrogate endpoint for coronary heart disease. Vascular reactivity was measured as flow-mediated vasodilation: ...

2001-01-01

153

Enhanced reactivity and related optical changes of Ag nanoparticles on amorphous Al2O3 supports  

Science.gov (United States)

Pairs of samples containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) of different dimensions have been produced under the same conditions but on different substrates, namely standard glass slides and a thin layer of amorphous aluminum oxide (a-Al2O3) on-glass. Upon storage in ambient conditions (air and room temperature) the color of samples changed and a blue-shift and damping of the surface plasmon resonance was observed. The changes are weaker for the samples on-glass and tend to saturate after 12 months. In contrast, the changes for the samples on a-Al2O3 appear to be still progressing after 25 months. While x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows a slight sulfurization and negligible oxidation of the Ag for the on-glass samples upon 25 months aging, it shows that Ag is strongly oxidized for the on a-Al2O3 samples and sulfurization is negligible. Both optical and chemical results are consistent with the production of a shell at the expense of a reduction of the metal core dimensions, the latter being responsible for the blue-shift and related to the small (<10 nm initial diameter) of the NPs. The enhanced reactivity of the Ag NPs on the a-Al2O3 supports goes along with specific morphological changes of the Ag NPs and the observation of nitrogen.

Peláez, R. J.; Castelo, A.; Afonso, C. N.; Borrás, A.; Espinós, J. P.; Riedel, S.; Leiderer, P.; Boneberg, J.

2013-09-01

154

MR tomography of bone marrow changes after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of MR standard imaging and short time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to assess changes in red bone marrow cellularity after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSCT). Results: STIR sequences demonstrated marked changes in signal intensity not only until the aplasia occurred but also during bone marrow repopulation. An increased signal intensity was observed after HDC in 13/15 patients (87%), followed by a decrease in signal intensity immediately after aplasia in 14/15 patients (93%). Signal intensity further changed parallel to marrow engraftment in 11/15 patients (73%). T2-TSE only showed clear changes during repopulation in 8/15 patients (53%). The individual course of the signal in T1-TSE was markedly inhomogeneous. Conclusions: STIR sequences show bone marrow edema during aplasia and marrow cellularity during reconstitution and are suitable for characterisation of red bone marrow after HDC and autologous PBSCT. (orig.)

1999-03-01

155

Post chemotherapy blood and bone marrow regenerative changes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia a prospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: This study was done to assess the Serial peripheral blood and bone marrow changes in patients of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on chemotherapy. Aims: To assess the therapy related serial bone marrow changes in patients of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Settings and Design: Prospective study, carried out in Lymphoma- Leukemia Lab, Department of Pathology, K.G.M.U from March 2011 to March 2012. A total of 60 cases were studied Materials and Methods: History, complete hemogram, bone marrow examination at pretherapy (Day-0), intratherapy (Day-14), and end of induction chemotherapy (Day-28) were done. Peripheral blood smears were evaluated at regular interval to assess clearance of blast cells. Statistical analysis used: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 statistical Analysis Software. The values were represented in Number (%) and Mean ± SD. The following Statistical formulas were used: Mean, standard deviation, Chi square test, Paired "t" test, Student 't' test, Level of significance P Results: Incidence of ALL-L1 (46.7%) and ALL-L2 (53.3%) was equal. ALL-L2 patients had poor survival.Day 0 (D-0) bone marrow was hypercellular with flooding of marrow by leukemic cells. High levels of tumor load at D'0' were associated with poor survival. 14 th day of Induction phase showed significant decrease in hemoglobin and TLC as compared to D '0' parameters. D28 showed marrow regeneration. Cellularity, Blast%, and Leukemic Index showed significant drop from day '0' to day 14 due to myelosupression, whereas regeneration reflected by increased cellularity as per day 28 marrow. Lymphocytosis (>20%) at end of induction chemotherapy had better survival and longer remission.Risk of mortality was directly proportional to blast clearance and was a major independent prognostic factor for achievement of complete remission. Conclusions: A bone marrow examination at the end of induction chemotherapy provides information whether patient has achieved remission with regeneration of cells or still has residual leukemia. If the patient is in remission, maintenance treatment is started and if not more intensive chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation may be embarked upon. PMID:24739836

Kushwaha, Rashmi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Aggrawal, Kamal; Nigam, Neha; Kumar, Archana

2014-01-01

156

Mechanisms involved in mycobacterial growth inhibition by gamma interferon-activated bone marrow macrophages: role of reactive nitrogen intermediates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages are able to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium bovis after stimulation with recombinant gamma interferon. This antimycobacterial activity was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a specific inhibitor of nitrite and nitrate synthesis from L-arginine. Furthermore, there was a complete lack of mycobacterial growth inhibition in a medium deficient in L-arginine. Nitrite is generated by gamma interferon-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages after infec...

Flesch, I. E.; Kaufmann, S. H.

1991-01-01

157

High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow of the foot and ankle in children: red marrow or traumatic changes?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-signal T2-weighted bone marrow changes can be found in both bone marrow edema and hematopoietic marrow and are often seen on pediatric MR images of the feet and ankle. To evaluate whether high-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow seen on pediatric MRI of feet and ankles represent residual hematopoietic marrow. A total of 402 bones in 41 pediatric MRI studies of feet and ankles (34 children, 1-18 years) were reviewed by two observers who were blinded to the patients' ages. The studies were reviewed for the presence of high-signal changes of the bone marrow on sagittal fluid-sensitive images. The frequency and location of these foci were correlated with the patients' ages. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow were seen in 45/402 bones (11%) and in 24/41 patients younger than 16 years (59%). The changes were most commonly located in the calcaneus (54%), followed by the talus (35%) and navicular bone (35%), invariably at the endosteal surface. In 16 ankles, such foci were seen in the feet but not in the distal tibia/fibula. Symmetric presence (two ankles) or absence (four ankles) of high-signal marrow were seen in six of seven patients with bilateral ankles. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow in pediatric feet and ankle MRIs have a symmetric, fairly consistent pattern and disappear after the age of 15 years. We believe that these high-signal areas are normal and represent residual hematopoietic marrow. (orig.)

Shabshin, Nogah [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [NYU/Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Carrino, John A. [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Keller, Marc S.; Grissom, Leslie E. [DuPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States)

2006-07-15

158

Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats  

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Purpose:To date,little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats.Methods:A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 jump...

2012-01-01

159

Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

Tallman, Tyler N.; Radel, Tracy E.; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Villa, Daniel L.; Smith, Brandon M. (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Radel, Ross F.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

2010-10-01

160

Factors Predicting Bone Mineral Density (BMD Changes in Young Women over A One-year Study:Changes in Body Weight and Bone Metabolic Markers during the Menstrual Cycle and Their Effects on BMD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, 26% of Japanese women in their twenties are under weight, and therefore at risk of developing various metabolic abnormalities due to an inadequate nutrient intake, which in turn affects the acquisition of a peak bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of menstrual cycle-related changes in body weight and bone metabolic marker levels on the BMD changes. The subjects were 42 women (19.6±0.8 years. The levels of osteocalcin (OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD, and E2 in the menstrual and ovulatory phases were measured. The associations between dependent variables (BMD changes/year in the lumbar spine, femur, femoral neck and explanatory variables (body weight changes/year, the levels of OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the correlations between the changes in bone metabolic markers and changes in BMD showed a correlation between the OC level in the menstrual phase and changes in the BMD of the entire femur, suggesting that a high OC level protects against BMD reduction, probably by promoting osteoblast activity, and that bone formation activity suppresses the decrease in BMD. These results suggest that, to predict BMD changes from bone metabolic markers in young women, it is necessary to measure OC levels in the menstrual phase.

Iida,Tadayuki

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery (Pro K)  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone loss is not only a well-documented effect of spaceflight on astronauts, but also a condition that affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures aimed at preventing bone loss during spaceflight have been proposed, and many have been evaluated to some degree. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have targeted dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during spaceflight. The "Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery" investigation ("Pro K") is one of the first inflight evaluations of a dietary countermeasure to lessen bone loss of astronauts. This protocol will test the hypothesis that the ratio of acid precursors to base precursors (specifically animal protein to potassium) in the diet can predict directional changes in bone mineral during spaceflight and recovery. The ratio of animal protein to potassium in the diet will be controlled for multiple short (4-day) periods before and during flight. Based on multiple sets of bed rest data, we hypothesize that a higher ratio of the intake of animal protein to the intake of potassium will yield higher concentrations of markers of bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during flight and during recovery from bone mineral loss after long-duration spaceflight.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Shackelford, L.; Heer, M.

2009-01-01

162

Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1, 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years apart. Results: In total, 134 (39% of the Study population) had a different SPT result at follow-up compared with baseline, based on a diagnostic criterion of 3 min for a positive test result 77 (22%) developed de novo sensitizations to I or more allergens, 45 (13%) had remission of 1 or more sensitizations, and 12 (4%) both gained and lost sensitizations. Female sex (odds ratio = 1.90 [1.02-3.57] P =.04) significantly predicted incidence of 1 or more sensitizations. Conclusions: Four of 10 adults with atopic disease will have changes in SPT status during a 3-year period, and most will gain new sensitizations. Women with atopic disease are at increased risk of developing new sensitizations compared with men Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11

Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.

2008-01-01

163

[Adult T-cell leukemia with cervical bone tumor showing immunophenotypic change].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 60-year-old man born in Miyazaki prefecture was admitted to our hospital complaining of skin rash in December 1989. On hematological examinations, leukocyte count was 14,200/microliters with 49% of abnormal lymphocytes showing lobulated nuclei. The surface marker study revealed their phenotype as CD4+8-. Anti human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) antibody and monoclonal integration of proviral DNA were positive. From the above results, he was diagnosed as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Abnormal lymphocytes gradually decreased without treatment after the first admission. In January, 1990, he began to complain of neck pain. Two months later he was readmitted because of paresis of extremities and disturbance of urination. Vertebral bone mass and a compressed spinal cord in the 4th cervic level were confirmed by MR imaging. He received a resection of tumor and an anterior fusion of vertebrae. The bone tumor was histologically diagnosed as malignant lymphoma, diffuse medium-size cell type and the infiltrating cells had their phenotype as CD4+8+. He was postoperatively treated with combination chemotherapies, but neurological abnormalities did not improve. He died of pneumonia on 35 days after the operation. A postmortem examination revealed extradural tumor formation with ATL cells. This case is considered to be rare in respect of both the disappearance of most peripheral abnormal lymphocytes without any treatments and the cervical bone tumor showing immunophenotypic change. PMID:1545518

Mori, N; Ogawa, R; Wake, A; Nagata, K; Sato, T; Tsukada, J; Nakata, K; Misago, M; Morimoto, I; Oda, S

1992-01-01

164

Changes in Cytokines of the Bone Microenvironment during Breast Cancer Metastasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is commonly accepted that cancer cells interact with host cells to create a microenvironment favoring malignant colonization. The complex bone microenvironment produces an ever changing array of cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we examined levels of MCP-1, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, VEGF, MIG, and eotaxin in femurs of athymic nude mice inoculated via intracardiac injection with MDA-MB-231GFP human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 BRMS1GFP, a metastasis suppressed variant, or PBS. Animals were euthanized (day 3, 11, 19, 27 after injection) to examine femoral cytokine levels at various stages of cancer cell colonization. The epiphysis contained significantly more cytokines than the diaphysis except for MIG which was similar throughout the bone. Variation among femurs was evident within all groups. By day 27, MCP-1, MIG, VEGF and eotaxin levels were significantly greater in femurs of cancer cell-inoculated mice. These pro-osteoclastic and angiogenic cytokines may manipulate the bone microenvironment to enhance cancer cell colonization

2012-01-01

165

Evaluation by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of changed bone density in metastatic bone sites as a consequence of systemic treatment.  

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Fourteen cancer patients with bone metastases from various primary malignancies were submitted to repeated dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan before and after systemic antineoplastic treatments. In the nine patients with lytic lesions the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) increased after chemotherapy + pamidronate in four (by +11.2%, +7.5%, +5.0% and +6.6%, respectively), decreased in four (by -19.9%, -8.1%, -7.5%, and -7.0%, respectively) and remained unchanged in one. BMD changes paralleled var...

Angeli, Alberto; Dogliotti, Luigi; Reimondo, Giuseppe Matteo; Berruti, Alfredo

2000-01-01

166

Changes in bone geometry and microarchitecture caused by intermittent administration of PTH. Comparison with those by exercise load  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been several studies showing that periodical intermittent medication with parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increases in cancellous bone mass. However, there have been almost no reports comparing the effects of periodical intermittent PTH medication on bone microarchitecture with changes caused by physiological stimulation such as exercise load. In this study, we compared the effects of these two interventions on the microarchitecturural deterioration of femoral cancellous bone associated with unloading, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and the effects of PTH administration and motion loading on improvement of the deteriorated structure. In the study, 32 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group without tail suspension (CON), a control recovery group after suspension (S+C), a suspension/PTH group (S+P), and a suspension/jumping exercise group (S+J). Periodical intermittent human PTH (1-34) was given periodically to the S+P group rats at a dose of 75 ?g/kg/day five times a week for five weeks, after two weeks of exercise with suspension of the tail. The rats in the S+J group performed 40 cm-high jumping 10 times/day five times a week for five weeks. After this conditioning, upon examination, bilateral femurs were removed and the right distal metaphysis was scanned using micro-CT to obtain images of the cancellous bone region of the femur. Based on the tomographic data, indices of cancellous bone microarchitecture was the index of trabecular bone structure were determined by using three-dimensional image analysis system. In addition, to examine the geometric properties of the diaphysis, mid-portion images of the bone shaft of the left femur were obtained by micro-CT, and then the mechanical bone strength of the left femur was determined by performing a three-point bending test. Compared to the S+C group, the S+P and S+J groups showed significantly higher bone volume, bone surface mass values, superficial bone area, bone volume fraction rates, fractal dimensions, connectivity density, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone number and degrees of anisotropy. They conversely showed significantly lower bone volume ratio values, trabecular bone separation, trabecular bone pattern factors, and structural model indices. However, the area values, thickness, and strength of femoral diaphysis cortical bone in the S+J group were significantly higher than those in the S+C group. The S+P group showed no significant difference other than cortical bone thickness. These data suggest that periodical intermittent medication with PTH could cause changes in the fine structure of the femoral metaphysic cancellous bone microarchitecture that are similar to changes caused by jumping exercise, but the effects of PTH seem to be small on the geometric properties and bone strength of the cortical bone. (author)

2010-01-01

167

Generalised morphoea with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and unusual bone changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 26-year-old male patient presented with multiple plaques on the limbs and trunk suggestive of morphoea. He also exhibited multiple, small, atrophic, hypopigmented macules on the left side of the trunk, the histopathology of which was consistent with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA. The patient developed large ulcers on the left leg and foot, and contractures with flexion deformity of the left ring and little fingers. This combination of generalised morphoea with LSA and unusual osteolytic bone changes is uncommon.

Prasad P

1995-01-01

168

Sequential Changes of Bone Metabolism in Normal and Delayed Union of the Spine  

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Time-dependent changes in bone markers in delayed or nonunion of vertebral fracture were compared with those of normal union. Thirty-three patients with a fresh vertebral fracture were enrolled. Urinary Type I collagen C-terminal telopeptide, pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, serum C-terminal telopeptide, and N-midportion of osteocalcin (OCN-mid) were determined at the time of hospital admission (within 24 hours after the fracture event in all cases) and at 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks thereaf...

2008-01-01

169

Changes of the radiological image of tuberculose of bones and joints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuberculosis of bones and joints still occurs in the Netherlands, although with a low incidence. Most patients in this country are natives of Mediterranean countries and of Surinam. The classical radiological image appears to be changing in that multiple lesions occur more often, lesions occur in localizations rare for tuberculosis in patients of Dutch origin, very large abscesses are formed and in case of vertebral tuberculosis, extensive sclerosis develops with early osseous bridging and complete or partial preservation of disc spaces. The findings in 12 personal patients are described. (Auth.)

1986-01-25

170

Changes in Cytokines of the Bone Microenvironment during Breast Cancer Metastasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is commonly accepted that cancer cells interact with host cells to create a microenvironment favoring malignant colonization. The complex bone microenvironment produces an ever changing array of cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we examined levels of MCP-1, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, VEGF, MIG, and eotaxin in femurs of athymic nude mice inoculated via intracardiac injection with MDA-MB-231GFP human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231BRMS1GFP, a metastasis suppressed variant, or PBS...

2012-01-01

171

Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland emissions add to this value. 7. If current patterns of N and water resource management continue, nitrogen loading to inland waters is expected to increase while the nitrogen retention efficiency within aquatic ecosystems will decline as a function of nitrogen saturation of biological demand. 8. Management that reduces N loss to the nation's water will reduce environmental and economic damage, reduce the risk to human health, and prevent the production of some N2O. Preventing the loss of N to aquatic systems is likely to be most effective at its point of origin. Reducing reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere, increasing N uptake efficiency of crops and greater N retention in soils, better animal management, and improved sewage treatment to remove N from urban waste waters will be increasingly important approaches for the provision of water resources and services in a warmer and highly populated world.

Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

2011-12-01

172

Efficient integration of stiff kinetics with phase change detection for reactive reservoir processes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose the use of implicit one-step Explicit Singly Diagonal Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) methods for integration of the stiff kinetics in reactive, compositional and thermal processes that are solved using operator-splitting type approaches. To facilitate the algorithmic development we construct a virtual kinetic cell model. The model serves both as a tool for the development and testing of tailored solvers as well as a testbed for studying the interactions between chemical kinetics and phase behavior. As case study, two chemical kinetics models with 6 and 14 components, respectively, are implemented for in situ combustion, a thermal oil recovery process. Through benchmark studies using the 14 component reaction model the new ESDIRK solvers are shown to improve computational speed when compared to the widely used multi-step BDF methods DASSL and LSODE. Phase changes are known to cause convergence problems for the integration method. We propose an algorithm for detection and location of phase changes based on discrete event system theory. Experiments show that the algorithm improves the robustness of the integration process near phase boundaries by lowering the number convergence and error test failures by more than 50% compared to direct integration without the new algorithm.

Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, Margot G.

2007-01-01

173

Secondary aneurysmal bone cystic change of the chondroblastoma, mistaken for a primary aneurysmal bone cyst in the patella.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. Curettage and autogenous bone graft was done. Microscopically, sheets of tumor cells were intermingled with some areas of eosinophilic chondroid matrix. The tumor cells showed oval-shaped nuclei with moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm. Several multinucleated giant cells and blood filled cystic cavities were observed. The final diagnosis was a chondroblastoma with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. At the post-operative 1.5-year follow-up, grafted bones were well incorporated radiographically and there were no recurrent evidence or any other abnormal symptoms. PMID:24639947

Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Hwa Sung

2014-03-01

174

Secondary Aneurysmal Bone Cystic Change of the Chondroblastoma, Mistaken for a Primary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in the Patella  

Science.gov (United States)

A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. Curettage and autogenous bone graft was done. Microscopically, sheets of tumor cells were intermingled with some areas of eosinophilic chondroid matrix. The tumor cells showed oval-shaped nuclei with moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm. Several multinucleated giant cells and blood filled cystic cavities were observed. The final diagnosis was a chondroblastoma with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. At the post-operative 1.5-year follow-up, grafted bones were well incorporated radiographically and there were no recurrent evidence or any other abnormal symptoms.

Chung, Jin Wha

2014-01-01

175

Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Climate change could increase the frequency with which plants experience abiotic stresses, leading to changes in their metabolic pathways. These stresses may induce the production of compounds that are structurally and biologically different from constitutive compounds. • We studied how warming and altered precipitation affected the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment, in Massachusetts, USA. • Warmer and drier climatic conditions led to higher concentrations of protective compounds, including flavonoids and cutin. The abundance and structure of leaf tannins also responded consistently to climatic treatments. Drought and warming in combination doubled the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed tannins with lower polymerization and a greater proportion of procyanidin units, which in turn reduced sequestration of tannins by litter fiber. Furthermore, because of the structural flexibility of these tannins, litter from this treatment exhibited five times more enzyme (?-glucosidase) complexation capacity on a per-weight basis. Warmer and wetter conditions decreased the amount of foliar condensed tannins. • Our finding that warming and drought result in the production of highly reactive tannins is novel, and highly relevant to climate change research as these tannins, by immobilizing microbial enzymes, could slow litter decomposition and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in a warmer, drier world. PMID:21371041

Tharayil, Nishanth; Suseela, Vidya; Triebwasser, Daniella J; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D; Dukes, Jeffrey S

2011-07-01

176

Assessing joint effusion and bone changes of the head of the mandible in MR images of symptomatic patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between degenerative bone changes of the head of the mandible and the presence of joint effusion (JE). This study was based on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports of 148 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 74 patients comp [...] laining of pain and/or dysfunction in the TMJ area. The mandible heads were surveyed for osteoarthritis characteristics, which were classified as osteophytosis, sclerosis or erosion. The presence of JE was checked whenever high signal intensity was observed in the articular space. The results evidenced the presence of bone changes in 30% of the sample. Osteophytes and erosions were the changes most commonly observed. JE was reported in 10% of TMJs. The results from the statistical tests revealed that bone changes in the head of the mandible are associated with the presence of JE.

Jefferson Xavier de, Oliveira; Jucely Aparecida da, Rosa; Marcelo Eduardo Pereira, Dutra; Karina Cecilia Panelli, Santos; Cibelle, Gil.

177

Connexin-43 prevents hematopoietic stem cell senescence through transfer of reactive oxygen species to bone marrow stromal cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) aging has become a concern in chemotherapy of older patients. Humoral and paracrine signals from the bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) control HSC activity during regenerative hematopoiesis. Connexin-43 (Cx43), a connexin constituent of gap junctions (GJs) is expressed in HSCs, down-regulated during differentiation, and postulated to be a self-renewal gene. Our studies, however, reveal that hematopoietic-specific Cx43 deficiency does not result...

2012-01-01

178

Analysis of the results of reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactivity change measurements have been carried out in the graphite-moderated reactor HECTOR on plutonium-uranium fuel elements with a low Pu240 content. The aim of the work was to develop a method in which measurements on small fuel samples (typically 18 in. long) could be used to check the validity of proposed methods of calculation for plutonium-bearing lattices. The experiments were carried out in a variety of lattices and demonstrated that, at a lattice pitch of 8.5 in. which was used for the majority of the measurements, the results were not significantly affected by the lattice environment. In particular, the results showed that it is not necessary to use plutonium-uranium fuel in the lattice surrounding the sample but that uranium fuel with similar properties is adequate. The accuracy obtained corresponded to an error of 0.5% in k? for a lattice containing the plutonium-uranium fuel. The results of the measurements were compared with the predictions of the TRACER method of lattice calculation. It was found that, at room temperature, there was no significant difference between the measured and calculated values of k? but that, at temperatures in the range 400-450 deg. C, the calculated value of k? was about 1 1/2% lower than the measured value. (author)

1964-01-01

179

Changes of the serum level of C-reactive protein after coronary angioplasty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the changes of C-reactive protein level (CRP) after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and its relation with clinical outcome after the operation. Methods: Serum levels of CRP in 47 patients with unstable angina pectoris were measured via immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), before and 48 h, 1 week after operation. Incidence of restenosis was observed within a 9 months follow-up and the CRP levels of the patients with restenosis were compared with those of the patients without restenosis, CRP levels before and 48 h after coronary angiography in 25 cases were used as the controls. Results: The mean CRP level at 48 h after PTCA operation was significantly higher than that before operation (P < 0.01), while no differences between those at 1 week before and after PTCA operation and no significant difference between those of before and after coronary angiography operation were observed. Clinical restenosis was confirmed in 13 patients in the followup period and their CRP levels at 48 h after operation were significantly higher than that in the patients without restenosis (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Serum CRP levels at 48 h after PTCA operation were significantly higher than that before operation and it correlated closely with the clinical outcome

2002-02-01

180

Histomorphometric analysis of the temporal bone after change of direction of force vector of mandible: an experimental study in rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at performing a histological evaluation of the response of temporal bone tissue to a change of direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the base of the skull. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult rabbits were assigned into four groups with two control and four experimental animals in each group. experimental animals underwent surgery, which resulted in a change of direction of the force vector on the right temporomandibular joint. Samples were collected after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days for histological analysis. RESULTS: In the two-way analysis of variance, the effect of group and time was statistically significant (p<0.001. Additionally, a statistically significant interaction between group and time was observed (p<0.001. Control animals showed normal growth and development of the temporal region. In the experimental group, the change in direction of the force vector of the mandible induced significant changes in the temporal bone, with a bone modeling process, which suggests growth of this cranial structure. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology used in this experiment allows us to conclude that the change in direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the skull base induces remodeling and modeling processes in the temporal bone. The resumption of normal oral functions after bone healing of the mandibular fracture appears to increase cell activation in the remodeling and modeling of the temporal bone structure. The observation of areas of temporal bone modeling shows the relevance of further investigation on the correlation between the joint structures and craniofacial growth and development.

Edela Puricelli

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Changes in Megakaryocytes in Cases of Thrombocytopenia: Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Thrombocytopenia (platelet counts less than 150,000/?l) is commonly encountered in various hematological disorders including myelodysplastic syndromes as well as various non-myelodysplastic hematological conditions. Aim: The present study was undertaken to calculate the prevalence of various conditions associated with thrombocytopenia and to record the megakaryocytic alterations in various cases of thrombocytopenia. Apart from this by means of statistical analysis it was tried to analyze whether a significant difference existed in megakaryocytic alteration noted in myelodysplastic versus non- myelodysplastic conditions. Materials and Methods: A prospective series of 60 bone marrow aspirations along with concomitant bone marrow biopsies was conducted in a tertiary care centre catering to both urban as well as rural population in north India. Statistical Analysis: The distribution of morphological changes in cases of non myelodysplastic conditions and myelodysplastic were compared using Chi-Square test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The commonest cause of thrombocytopenia for which bone marrow examination was sought was dimorphic anaemia (18 cases, 30%), followed by myelodysplastic syndrome (06 cases, 10%) which was followed equally by acute lymphocytic leukemia and blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Of all the non-MDS conditions apart from dimorphic anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and chronic myeloid leukemia (blast crisis); megakaryocytic dysplastic forms were not noted in any other condition. In cases of myelodysplasia; dysplastic forms, bare megakaryocytic nuclei, hypogranular forms and micromegakaryocytes were seen. Comparison between frequencies of normal, high and low number of nuclear lobes among MDS (n=9) and non MDS (n=68) conditions were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Further studies on the evaluation of megakaryocytic alteration and their contribution to thrombocytopenia can provide growing knowledge to the pathogenesis of numerous hematopoietic disorders that may identify broader clinical applications of the newer strategies to regulate platelet count and functioning.

Bhasin, Tejinder Singh; Sharma, Sonam; Manjari, Mridu; Mannan, Rahul; Kansal, Vandana; Chandey, Manish; Piplani, Sanjay

2013-01-01

182

Changes in megakaryocytes in cases of thrombocytopenia: bone marrow aspiration and biopsy analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Thrombocytopenia (platelet counts less than 150,000/?l) is commonly encountered in various hematological disorders including myelodysplastic syndromes as well as various non-myelodysplastic hematological conditions. Aim: The present study was undertaken to calculate the prevalence of various conditions associated with thrombocytopenia and to record the megakaryocytic alterations in various cases of thrombocytopenia. Apart from this by means of statistical analysis it was tried to analyze whether a significant difference existed in megakaryocytic alteration noted in myelodysplastic versus non- myelodysplastic conditions. Materials and Methods: A prospective series of 60 bone marrow aspirations along with concomitant bone marrow biopsies was conducted in a tertiary care centre catering to both urban as well as rural population in north India. Statistical Analysis: The distribution of morphological changes in cases of non myelodysplastic conditions and myelodysplastic were compared using Chi-Square test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The commonest cause of thrombocytopenia for which bone marrow examination was sought was dimorphic anaemia (18 cases, 30%), followed by myelodysplastic syndrome (06 cases, 10%) which was followed equally by acute lymphocytic leukemia and blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Of all the non-MDS conditions apart from dimorphic anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and chronic myeloid leukemia (blast crisis); megakaryocytic dysplastic forms were not noted in any other condition. In cases of myelodysplasia; dysplastic forms, bare megakaryocytic nuclei, hypogranular forms and micromegakaryocytes were seen. Comparison between frequencies of normal, high and low number of nuclear lobes among MDS (n=9) and non MDS (n=68) conditions were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Further studies on the evaluation of megakaryocytic alteration and their contribution to thrombocytopenia can provide growing knowledge to the pathogenesis of numerous hematopoietic disorders that may identify broader clinical applications of the newer strategies to regulate platelet count and functioning. PMID:23634399

Bhasin, Tejinder Singh; Sharma, Sonam; Manjari, Mridu; Mannan, Rahul; Kansal, Vandana; Chandey, Manish; Piplani, Sanjay

2013-03-01

183

Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells in irradiation bone marrow chimeras and neonatally tolerant mice. Evidence for intercellular transfer of Mlsa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tolerance to Mlsa has been shown to be associated with clonal deletion of cells carrying TCR beta chain variable regions V beta 6 or V beta 8.1 in mice possessing I-E antigens. To evaluate the rules of tolerance induction to Mlsa we prepared irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressing Mlsa or Mlsb and I-E by different cell types. Deletion of V beta 6+, Mlsa-reactive T cells required the presence of Mlsa and I-E products either on bone marrow-derived cells or on irradiated recipient cells. Tolerance was induced when Mlsa and I-E were expressed by distinct cells of the chimera. Also neonatally tolerized mice exhibited depletion of V beta 6+ cells after injection of I-E- Mlsa spleen cells (DBA/1) into newborn I-E+ Mlsb mice (BALB/c x B10.G)F1. These results suggest that the product of the Mlsa locus is soluble and/or may be transferred from cell to cell and bound to I-E antigens. The chimera experiments also showed that tolerance to Mlsa is H-2 allele independent, i.e., is apparently unrestricted. Differentiation of chimeric (H-2d/Mlsa x H-2q/Mlsb)F1 stem cells in either an H-2d or an H-2q thymus revealed that tolerance assessed by absence of V beta 6+ T cells is not dependent on the thymically determined restriction specificity of T cells

1989-08-01

184

Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells in irradiation bone marrow chimeras and neonatally tolerant mice. Evidence for intercellular transfer of Mlsa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tolerance to Mlsa has been shown to be associated with clonal deletion of cells carrying TCR beta chain variable regions V beta 6 or V beta 8.1 in mice possessing I-E antigens. To evaluate the rules of tolerance induction to Mlsa we prepared irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressing Mlsa or Mlsb and I-E by different cell types. Deletion of V beta 6+, Mlsa-reactive T cells required the presence of Mlsa and I-E products either on bone marrow-derived cells or on irradiated recipient cells. Tolerance was induced when Mlsa and I-E were expressed by distinct cells of the chimera. Also neonatally tolerized mice exhibited depletion of V beta 6+ cells after injection of I-E- Mlsa spleen cells (DBA/1) into newborn I-E+ Mlsb mice (BALB/c x B10.G)F1. These results suggest that the product of the Mlsa locus is soluble and/or may be transferred from cell to cell and bound to I-E antigens. The chimera experiments also showed that tolerance to Mlsa is H-2 allele independent, i.e., is apparently unrestricted. Differentiation of chimeric (H-2d/Mlsa x H-2q/Mlsb)F1 stem cells in either an H-2d or an H-2q thymus revealed that tolerance assessed by absence of V beta 6+ T cells is not dependent on the thymically determined restriction specificity of T cells.

Speiser, D.E.; Schneider, R.; Hengartner, H.; MacDonald, H.R.; Zinkernagel, R.M. (Univ. Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland))

1989-08-01

185

Viscoelastic and biological performance of low-modulus, reactive calcium phosphate-filled, degradable, polymeric bone adhesives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate addition on the mechanical, surface free energy, degradation and cell compatibility properties of poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate (PPGLDMA) thin films. Dry composites containing up to 70 wt.% filler were in a flexible rubber state at body temperature. Filler addition increased the initial strength and Young's modulus and reduced the elastic and permanent deformation under...

2012-01-01

186

Viscoelastic and biological performance of low-modulus, reactive calcium phosphate-filled, degradable, polymeric bone adhesives.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate addition on the mechanical, surface free energy, degradation and cell compatibility properties of poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate (PPGLDMA) thin films. Dry composites containing up to 70 wt.% filler were in a flexible rubber state at body temperature. Filler addition increased the initial strength and Young's modulus and reduced the elastic and permanent deformation under...

Abou Neel, E. A.; Salih, V.; Revell, P. A.; Young, A. M.

2012-01-01

187

Viscoelastic and biological performance of low-modulus, reactive calcium phosphate-filled, degradable, polymeric bone adhesives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate addition on the mechanical, surface free energy, degradation and cell compatibility properties of poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate (PPGLDMA) thin films. Dry composites containing up to 70 wt.% filler were in a flexible rubber state at body temperature. Filler addition increased the initial strength and Young’s modulus and reduced the elastic and permanent deformation und...

Abou Neel, Ensanya A.; Salih, Vehid; Revell, Peter A.; Young, Anne M.

2012-01-01

188

Factors Predicting Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Changes in Young Women over A One-year Study:Changes in Body Weight and Bone Metabolic Markers during the Menstrual Cycle and Their Effects on BMD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, 26% of Japanese women in their twenties are under weight, and therefore at risk of developing various metabolic abnormalities due to an inadequate nutrient intake, which in turn affects the acquisition of a peak bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of menstrual cycle-related changes in body weight and bone metabolic marker levels on the BMD changes. The subjects were 42 women (19.6±0.8 years). The levels of osteocalcin (OC), BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD,...

Iida, Tadayuki; Chikamura, Chiho; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Aoi, Satomi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Harada, Toshihide; Katada, Kazuhiro; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

2012-01-01

189

99mTc HMDP bone scanning in generalised nodal osteoarthritis. II. The four hour bone scan image predicts radiographic change.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 14 patients with generalised nodal osteoarthritis a four hour bone scan image was found to predict the changes that occur on the radiograph at follow up between three and five years later. The scan abnormality appeared to precede the development of radiographic signs, and joints abnormal on scintigraphy showed most progression. Normal joints and joints abnormal on x ray alone showed little progression, and those that did subsequently alter became abnormal on scan. Scanning may provide a se...

Hutton, C. W.; Higgs, E. R.; Jackson, P. C.; Watt, I.; Dieppe, P. A.

1986-01-01

190

Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate changes in BMD and BC during and following a pregnancy. METHODS: We measured BMD and BC in 153 women planning pregnancy (nâ??=â??92 conceived), once in each trimester during pregnancy and 15, 129, and 280 days postpartum. Moreover, BMD was measured 19 months postpartum (nâ??=â??31). Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. RESULTS: Compared with controls, BMD decreased significantly during pregnancy by 1.8â??±â??0.5% at the lumbar spine, 3.2â??±â??0.5% at the total hip, 2.4â??±â??0.3% at the whole body, and 4.2â??±â??0.7% at the ultra distal forearm. Postpartum, BMD decreased further with an effect of breastfeeding. At 9 months postpartum, women who had breastfed for

Møller, U K; Við Streym, S

2012-01-01

191

Studies of the hemopoietic microenvironments. V. Changes in murine splenic and bone marrow glycosaminoglycans during post irradiation hemopoietic regeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the amount of sulphated and unsulphated glycosaminoglycans in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice were followed up to 11 days after irradiation. One day after irradiation, a sharp decrease in the amount of glycosaminoglycans was observed. In the absence of hemopoietic cells, the remaining stromal elements of spleen and bone marrow underwent subsequently marked changes in the amount of the sulphated and unsulphated components of the glycosaminoglycans in both organs. Reconstitution of irradiated mice with bone marrow cells affected the pattern of changes in the amount of glycosaminoglycans. Although no linear correlation could be observed between the amount of glycosaminoglycans and the number of hemopoietic cells present in the hemopoietic organs, these results suggest an interaction between hemopoietic cells and stromal cells in the hemopoietic organs with regard to the glycosaminoglycan metabolism.

Noordegraaf, E.M.; Erkens-Versluis, E.A.; Ploemacher, R.E.

1981-04-01

192

Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

Yassaei S

2007-01-01

193

Changes of porous poly(?-caprolactone) bone grafts resulted from e-beam sterilization process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important mechanical feature of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) foams applied in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold, has been investigated as a function of irradiation dose. Radiation is proposed for the sterilization of the polymer before the implantation. Polycaprolactone scaffold foams were obtained by combination of compression molding and particulate leaching techniques. The porogen was changed in the range 74-96 w% and the irradiation dose was varied from 25 to 150 kGy. Our results show that yield strength is not a function of radiation dose, but is rather influenced by the porosity, while the critical strain is mainly dependent on the dose. All these together mean that the modulus of the elasticity of PCL foams is dependent on both the porosity and the dose

2007-08-01

194

Reactivity changes in hybrid thermal-fast reactor systems during fast core flooding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new space-dependent kinetic model in adiabatic approximation with local feedback reactivity parameters for reactivity determination in the coupled systems is proposed in this thesis. It is applied in the accident calculation of the 'HERBE' fast-thermal reactor system and compared to usual point kinetics model with core-averaged parameters. Advantages of the new model - more realistic picture of the reactor kinetics and dynamics during local large reactivity perturbation, under the same heat transfer conditions, are underlined. Calculated reactivity parameters of the new model are verified in the experiments performed at the 'HERBE' coupled core. The model has shown that the 'HERBE' safety system can shutdown reactor safely and fast even in the case of highly set power trip and even under conditions of big partial failure of the reactor safety system (author)

1994-01-01

195

Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age. The numbers of SP stem cells in BM as well as plasma IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels decreased in correlation with increased BM fat. IL-6 had no relationship to changes in marrow fat. These data suggest that increased BM fat may be associated with a decreased number of SP stem cells and IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels with aging. These data further raise a more general question as to the role of adipose cells in the regulation of tissue stem cells. PMID:21923862

Tuljapurkar, Sonal R; McGuire, Timothy R; Brusnahan, Susan K; Jackson, John D; Garvin, Kevin L; Kessinger, Margaret A; Lane, Judy T; O' Kane, Barbara J; Sharp, John G

2011-11-01

196

Significance of changes of serum osteocalcin levels in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic bone diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the significance of serum osteocalcin changes in healthy subjects and pathological conditions. Methods: The levels of S-BGP were measured with RIA in 270 normal subjects of different age groups (every 10 yrs as an age group), 60 patients with carebrovascular disease (CVD) and 85 patients with metabolic bone disease. Results: (1) The mean value of S-BGP in umbilical blood was 19.3 +- 16.8 ?g/L (n = 89), in 3 day sold newborn infant was 7.4 +- 2.3 ?g/L (n = 22), in healthy subjects (from 11 to 60 yrs, average age 39 yrs) was 5.2 +- 1.35 ?g/L (n = 100), 5.3 +- 1.4 ?g/L (n = 47) in males and 5.1 +- 1.34 ?g/L (n = 53) in females. In old healthy subjects the mean value was 3.9 +- 1.48 ?g/L (n = 30). The level of S-BGP was negatively correlated with the age significantly (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). (2) The mean levels of S-BGP in 85 patients with metabolic bone disease were: 21.7 +- 20.46 ?g/L in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 55, age from 21 to 60 yrs, average 37 yrs), being significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01); 2.6 +- 0.99 ?g/L in patients with NIDDM (n 30, from 60 to 79 yrs, average age 69 yrs), being significantly higher than in the old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). (3) In 60 patients with CVD (from 60 to 80 yrs, average age 66 yrs) the mean valve was 2.2 +- 1.1 ?g/L in cerebral infarction (n = 30) and 2.5 +- 1.2 ?g/L in cerebral hemorrhage (n = 30), both significantly higher than in old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: RIA of S-BGP is an important means for detecting changes of bone metabolism in normal and pathological condition

2002-02-01

197

Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2011-08-10

198

Calcium phosphate crystal forms in human jaw bones of changed osteoporotic structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Calcium phosphates are chemical compounds that can be found in various forms within nature, as well as in human jaws and bones. The aim of this study was to assess the structure of solid chemical compounds which form the structure of normal and osteoporotic jaw-bones. Materials and Methods. The jaw-bones taken from human cadavers were used in the study. Crystalographic forms of calcium phosphate, in the samples of human jaw-bone, were determined using X-ray diffraction technique. The experimental bone samples originated from osteoporotic jaw-bone of cadavers while control samples were taken from dentate jaw-bones of non-osteoporotic cadavers. Results. The results of this study showed that hydroxyapatite was the only phase determined in control non-osteoporotic bone samples. In experimental (osteoporotic bone samples, the same phase was registered, as well as calcium monophosphate and hydrated calcium phosphate, registered as increments of values on ? axis. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite was the only compound detected in normal bone while osteoporotic bone contained others crystallographic forms of calcium phosphates.

Pošti? Sr?an D.

2011-01-01

199

Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplastic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders (Seed et al., 1977). In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modification of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. The more prominent of these changes include the following. (i) In developing aplastic anemia: severe vascular sinus and parenchymal cord compression, and focally degenerate endosteal surfaces. (ii) In developing myelofibrosis: hyperplasia of endosteal and reticular stomal elements. (iii) In developing leukemia: hypertrophy of reticular and endothelial elements in the initial restructuring of the stromal matrix and the subsequent aberrant hemopoietic repopulation of the initially depleted stromal matrix. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points

1981-01-01

200

Relative uptake of sup(99m)Tc-diphosphate and temporal changes of uptake in bone diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative regional measurements of the distribution of a bone seeking radiopharmaceutical is performed easily together with a bone scan using a scintillation camera. Comparative measurements of regional radioactivities yield a ratio of relative uptake. The time change of such a relative uptake ratio is obtained by repeating the regional comparison measurement after a 4-8 weeks interval. The time change of the relative uptake ratio was found to be a clinically useful parameter in the follow-up of skeletal diseases. A decrease in the relative uptake ratio was found with healing fractures, with receding osteomyelitis and during radiation therapy of bone metastases; and increase was observed with spreading metastases, developing osteomyelitis, developing pseudarthrosis, and in the beginning of normal fracture healing. (orig.)

1977-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. PMID:24009085

Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

2014-07-01

202

Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal(®) Consta(®)-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as "osteodystrophy" were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®)-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown. PMID:22595365

de Waal, Eric J; Roosen, Wendy; Vinken, Petra; Vandenberghe, John; Sterkens, Patrick; Lammens, Lieve

2012-09-28

203

Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal® Consta®-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as “osteodystrophy” were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.

2012-09-28

204

Radiographic bone level changes of implant-supported restorations in edentulous and partially dentate patients: 5-year results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To evaluate and compare crestal bone level changes and peri-implant status of implant-supported reconstructions in edentulous and partially dentate patients after a minimum of 5 years of loading. Materials and Methods: All patients who received a self-tapping implant with a microstructured surface during the years 2003 and 2004 at the Department of Prosthodontics, University of Bern, were included in this study. The implant restorations comprised fixed and removable prostheses for partially and completely edentulous patients. Radiographs were taken immediately after surgery, at impression making, and 1 and 5 years after loading. Crestal bone level (BIC) was measured from the implant shoulder to the first bone contact, and changes were calculated over time (?BIC). The associations between pocket depth, bleeding on probing (BOP), and ?BIC were assessed. Results: Sixty-one implants were placed in 20 patients (mean age, 62 ± 7 years). At the 5-year follow-up, 19 patients with 58 implants were available. Implant survival was 98.4% (one early failure; one patient died). The average ?BIC between surgery and 5-year follow-up was 1.5 ± 0.9 mm and 1.1 ± 0.6 mm for edentulous and partially dentate patients, respectively. Most bone resorption (50%, 0.7 mm) occurred during the first 3 months (osseointegration) and within the first year of loading (21%, 0.3 mm). Mean annual bone loss during the 5 years of loading was BOP; the frequency was significantly higher in women. None of the variables were significantly associated with crestal bone loss. Conclusion: Crestal bone loss after 5 years was within the normal range, without a significant difference between edentulous and partially dentate patients. In the short term, this implant system can be used successfully for various prosthetic indications. PMID:25032770

Gholami, Hadi; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Kessler-Liechti, Gerda; Katsoulis, Joannis

2014-01-01

205

Graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. III. Functional pre-T cells in the bone marrow of graft-versus-host-reactive mice displaying T cell immunodeficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were performed to determine whether pre-T cells develop normally in the bone marrow of mice displaying thymic dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency as a consequence of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction. GVH reactions were induced in CBAxAF1 mice by the injection of A strain lymphoid cells. To test for the presence of pre-T cells in GVH-reactive mice, bone marrow from GVH-reactive mice (GVHBM) was injected into irradiated syngeneic F1 mice and 30-40 days later thymic morphology and function were studied. Morphology studies showed nearly normal thymic architectural restoration; moreover, such glands contained normal numbers of Thy-1-positive cells. Functional pre-T cells were evaluated by transferring thymocytes from the irradiated GVHBM-reconstituted mice into T-cell-deprived mice. These thymocytes reconstituted allograft reactivity, T helper cell function and Con A and PHA mitogen responses of T-cell-deprived mice. These results suggest that the pre-T cell population in the bone marrow is not affected by the GVH reaction. Therefore, the T cell immunodeficiency associated with the GVH reaction is not due to a deficiency of pre-T cells in the bone marrow but is more likely associated with GVH-induced thymic dysplasia

1986-01-01

206

Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric correction and density compensation could abbreviate the standardized intraoral radiographic technique prepared for subtraction. (author)

2002-12-01

207

Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 changes bone mesostructure, mineral element levels and turnover markers in rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to elucidate whether inhalation particulate matter 10 (PM10 of coal dust changes mesostructure, bone mineral elements, and turnover markers of rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; one non-inhaled group and three coal dust exposed groups (concentration 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/m3/h/day for 28 days. Femur mesostructure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Bone mineral elements was assayed by X-ray fluorescence. Osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen were analyzed by ELISA. ANOVA test was used to analyze the difference level of all markers. Results: Mesostructure of non-inhaled rats presented rod like trabeculae with honey comb appearance and minimal hole. Disregular integrity of trabeculae and reduction of trabecular integrity, increasing porocity were found at coal dust exposed groups. The level of osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen were significantly lower in coal dust exposed groups compared to control group. The levels of phosphorus and nickel were significantly lower in coal dust exposed groups compared to control group. Conclusion: The present study reported that sub-chronic inhalation of coal dust PM10 changes bone mesostructure, phosporus and nickel levels in bone, and bone turnover markers of rats’ femur. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 153-158

Bambang Setiawan

2013-04-01

208

Signal changes of bone marrow in MRI under long-term treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors  

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Purpose: Recurrent infections in patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type lb resulting from an associated neutropenia are frequently treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in bone marrow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients. Material and Methods: The distal femoral and tibial bones of six patients with GSD lb were evaluated by MRI. Four of these patients were treated with G-CSF for at least 3.9 to a maximum of 8.2 years (mean 5.8 years). The imaging sequences encompassed spin-echo as well as short-time inversion recovery sequences. 4 of the 6 patients had bone marrow aspirations. Results: The patients who had undergone therapy with G-CSF showed a marked increase in signal strength in STIR sequences which encompassed the entire medullar cavity. In T1-weighted images these areas were hypointense. Biopsies obtained from these patients showed a bone marrow hypercellularity. The patients without G-CSF therapy showed the same signal intensity changes but with a more discrete and localized pattern in the metaphyseal cavities. Conclusion: In subjects with GSD lb, an increased myelopoetic activity of the bone marrow which is intensified under long-term treatment with G-CSF can be demonstrated by MRI. (orig.)

2001-02-01

209

Paracrine interactions between LNCaP prostate cancer cells and bioengineered bone in 3D in vitro culture reflect molecular changes during bone metastasis.  

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As microenvironmental factors such as three-dimensionality and cell-matrix interactions are increasingly being acknowledged by cancer biologists, more complex 3D in vitro models are being developed to study tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To better understand the pathophysiology of bone metastasis, we have established and validated a 3D indirect co-culture model to investigate the paracrine interactions between prostate cancer (PCa) cells and human osteoblasts. Co-culture of the human PCa, LNCaP cells embedded within polyethylene glycol hydrogels with human osteoblasts in the form of a tissue engineered bone construct (TEB), resulted in reduced proliferation of LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells in both monoculture and co-culture were responsive to the androgen analog, R1881, as indicated by an increase in the expression (mRNA and/or protein induction) of androgen-regulated genes including prostate specific antigen and fatty acid synthase. Microarray gene expression analysis further revealed an up-regulation of bone markers and other genes associated with skeletal and vasculature development and a significant activation of transforming growth factor ?1 downstream genes in LNCaP cells after co-culture with TEB. LNCaP cells co-cultured with TEB also unexpectedly showed similar changes in classical androgen-responsive genes under androgen-deprived conditions not seen in LNCaP monocultures. The molecular changes of LNCaP cells after co-culturing with TEBs suggest that osteoblasts exert a paracrine effect that may promote osteomimicry and modulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Taken together, we have presented a novel 3D in vitro model that allows the study of cellular and molecular changes occurring in PCa cells and osteoblasts that are relevant to metastatic colonization of bone. This unique in vitro model could also facilitate cancer biologists to dissect specific biological hypotheses via extensive genomic or proteomic assessments to further our understanding of the PCa-bone crosstalk. PMID:24530694

Sieh, Shirly; Taubenberger, Anna V; Lehman, Melanie L; Clements, Judith A; Nelson, Colleen C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

2014-06-01

210

Traumatic changes of the base of skull and facial bones in computerized tomography  

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During emergency CT examination, impression fractures of the skull, fractures of the base or of facial bones may be diagnosed in addition to possible traumatic intracranial manifestations. If the fractures extend to the base of the skull or to the facial bones, a possible involvement of foraminae, orbitae or nasal sinuses may be recognized. The extent of dislocation of loose bone fragments may be visualized without special conventional X-rays.

Kuckein, D.

1982-11-01

211

Changes in jaw dimensions and bone density in patients with osteoporosis  

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Introduction Osteopenia and osteoporosis reduce the density and mass of jaw bones. Aim The aim of this study was to present the methods of radiographic analysis in patients with osteoporosis prior to restorative treatment. Method 127 panoramic radiographs (Kodak, USA) and 39 retroalveolar radiographs (KD 58-R 30×40 mm, USA) were used for the analysis of density (DT II 05 densitometer, England) and dimensions of jaw bones with respect to segments corresponding to bone layers. Results The resu...

Pošti? Sr?an D.

2009-01-01

212

Localized osteoarticular change due to joint immobilization; biomechanical test and bone densitometry in rat's hind limb model.  

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Bone change induced by knee immobilization was assessed on dissected femurs and tibias to clarify the influences upon the mechanical properties and their demands. Fifty-eight Wistar-Imamichi male rats (11-12 weeks old, body weight 350-450 g) were subjected to knee joint immobilization (150 degrees flexed position) on one side while the opposite side served as a control. Animals were killed in seven groups at time intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 weeks. The hind leg was extirpated and prepared for (1) biomechanical analysis by the indentation method at the articular surfaces of the femoral condyle and head and at the subchondral bone of the proximal tibia, and for (2) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the distal metaphysis of the femur. The biomechanical parameters measured induced dynamic stiffness and phase lag derived from forced oscillation (preload 3 N, cyclic load 2 N and 11 Hz, 35 Hz), and bone mineral density was analyzed. These were compared between the immobilized side and control side, and among the seven time groups. The biomechanical results showed an early change of osteocartilaginous properties at the femoral condyle, a late response at the tibial subchondral bone, and no change at the femoral head. The measurement of bone mineral density revealed that a very sensitive reaction started within 1-2 weeks. This study provides objective data demonstrating that disuse or lack of mechanical stress greatly affects the remodeling activity for homeostasis of joints, and dramatically impairs normal bone mineral density next to the immobilized joint in young animals. PMID:9061166

Akai, M; Shirasaki, Y; Tateishi, T; Yasuoka, S

1997-01-01

213

Changes in hyperfrontality of cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity with age  

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We evaluated the topographic distributions of regional cerebral blood flow in 51 normal subjects (mean age 41 years) by the xenon-133 inhalation technique. Forty-five of these subjects were divided by age into young normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years), middle-aged normals 30-50 years old (mean age 40 years), and elderly normals greater than 50 years old (mean age 62 years); there were 15 subjects in each group. The distributions of vascular CO2 reactivity to hypocapnia were also evaluated in 20 of the normal subjects (mean age 34 years), including 11 younger normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years) and nine older (middle-aged or elderly) normals greater than or equal to 30 years old (mean age 45 years). The hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow observed in the young and middle-aged normals was not observed in the elderly normals. The hyperfrontal distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was absent in the older normals. In addition, the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was disturbed in the older normals. The data show a hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow in normal subjects that diminishes during the fifth and sixth decades, along with a distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity in younger normal subjects that is not homogeneous throughout the frontoparietal regions.

Tsuda, Y.; Hartmann, A. (Neurological Univ. Clinic, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1989-12-01

214

Changes in hyperfrontality of cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity with age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the topographic distributions of regional cerebral blood flow in 51 normal subjects (mean age 41 years) by the xenon-133 inhalation technique. Forty-five of these subjects were divided by age into young normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years), middle-aged normals 30-50 years old (mean age 40 years), and elderly normals greater than 50 years old (mean age 62 years); there were 15 subjects in each group. The distributions of vascular CO2 reactivity to hypocapnia were also evaluated in 20 of the normal subjects (mean age 34 years), including 11 younger normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years) and nine older (middle-aged or elderly) normals greater than or equal to 30 years old (mean age 45 years). The hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow observed in the young and middle-aged normals was not observed in the elderly normals. The hyperfrontal distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was absent in the older normals. In addition, the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was disturbed in the older normals. The data show a hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow in normal subjects that diminishes during the fifth and sixth decades, along with a distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity in younger normal subjects that is not homogeneous throughout the frontoparietal regions

1989-01-01

215

Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 changes bone mesostructure, mineral element levels and turnover markers in rats  

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Objective: This study aimed to elucidate whether inhalation particulate matter 10 (PM10) of coal dust changes mesostructure, bone mineral elements, and turnover markers of rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; one non-inhaled group and three coal dust exposed groups (concentration 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/m3/h/day for 28 days). Femur mesostructure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Bone mineral elements was assayed by X-ray fluorescence. O...

2013-01-01

216

Relationship between bone mineral density changes with denosumab treatment and risk reduction for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures  

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Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric bone mineral density (DXA BMD) is a strong predictor of fracture risk in untreated patients. However, previous patient-level studies suggest that BMD changes explain little of the fracture risk reduction observed with osteoporosis treatment. We investigated the relevance of DXA BMD changes as a predictor for fracture risk reduction using data from the FREEDOM trial, which randomly assigned placebo or denosumab 60 mg every 6 months to 7808 women aged 60 to 90 ...

2012-01-01

217

Histomorphometric analysis of the temporal bone after change of direction of force vector of mandible: an experimental study in rabbits  

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OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at performing a histological evaluation of the response of temporal bone tissue to a change of direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the base of the skull. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult rabbits were assigned into four groups with two control and four experimental animals in each group. experimental animals underwent surgery, which resulted in a change of direction of the force vector on the right temporomandibular joint. Samples were co...

Edela Puricelli; Deise Ponzoni; Jéssica Cerioli Munaretto; Adriana Corsetti; Mauro Gomes Trein Leite

2012-01-01

218

Bone Mineral Changes and Cardiovascular Effects among Female Athletes with Chronic Menstrual Dysfunction  

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Full Text Available

Purpose: Oligo/amenorrhea, as a part of the Female Athlete Triad has adverse effects on the athlete’s bone mineral density (BMD and cardiovascular system. Hypoestrogenism, due to suppression of hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA as a result of energy imbalance, is the possible cause of the Triad. This study was designed based on following up and reassessment of elite female athletes who were diagnosed as menstrual dysfunction about two years ago.

Methods: This study was conducted in three phase sections: 1 Reassess the pattern of menstrual cycle among athletes who reported menstrual dysfunction about two years ago; 2 Bone mineral density was measured twice in the same machine and same center with a two-year interval; 3 The laboratory data including blood glucose, lipid profile and inflammatory markers was assessed in phase 3.

Results: BMD of athletes did not change significantly after 25.5 months of oligomenorrhea P (spine = 0.2, P (femur=0.9. Mean of all cardiovascular factors was in the normal range except for high density lipoprotein (HDL which was 49.28 (SD=9.18, however, most of the athletes had abnormalities in their lipid profile. Inverse relationship between the increase in the BMD of spine and total cholesterol (r =-0.49, P=0.04, Apolipoprotein A (r = -0.51 P=0.04, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL (r =-0.66, P=0.009. Also correlation between BMD of spine and HbA1C (r =-0.70, P=0.003 were significant.

Conclusion: Findings of this study show that negative changes in BMD and cardiovascular biomarkers of female athletes with functional hypothalamic menstrual dysfunction could occur if proper therapeutic intervention (including increase in calorie intake, decrease in exercise load or hormonal replacement will not consider.

Elham Dadgostar

2012-03-01

219

Bone marrow transplantation controlling hormonal and structural changes in radiation exposed pregnant mice and their developing embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascending doses of whole body gamma irradiation delivered at different gestational stages of mouse exposed to 1 and 2 Gy gamma rays fractionated at 1 Gy installments and possible curative role of bone marrow transplantation has been studied. The results confirmed the impairment of the levels of the two maternal hormones 17 estradiol and progesterone besides histopathological changes in the skin, heart and skeleton at different embryonic stages. 17 Beta estradiol level was not changed significantly in mice treated with 1 Gy and fractionated 2 Gy. Bone marrow treatment remarkably restored its level. Animals subjected to the dose level 1 Gy exhibited a slight decrease in the progesterone level while a significant drop in the hormone level was noticed upon irradiation at 2 Gy. Bone marrow transplantation provided little repair for the hormone. Treatment with bone marrow transplantation, was effective in alleviating the histopathological changes due to the lower dose (One Gy), yet it had less pronounced recovery of defects produced by the higher irradiation dose

2001-01-01

220

Changes of nuclear factor-?B(NF-?B) in cultured bone marrow stromal cells after 60Co ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the changes in bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment after exposure to ?-radiation. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)was used. Results: The nuclear translocation was found in cultured bone marrow stromal cells after 60Co ?-irradiation with immunohistochemistry. The expression of NF-?B in the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the level of protein was elevated after exposure to 60Co ?-rays at the dose of 8.0Gy with the uses of immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activities of NF-?B in the BMSCs increased significantly after exposure to ?-radiation by using EMSA. The activity peak was at 4 hours after irradiation. Conclusion: The results suggest that the activation of NF-?B in the BMSCs by irradiation might be involved in the protection of BMSCs and in the recovery of hematopoiesis after ?-irradiation

2000-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bone and hormonal changes induced by skeletal unloading in the mature male rat  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether the rat hindlimb elevation model can be used to study the effects of spaceflight and loss of gravitational loading on bone in the adult animal, and to examine the effects of age on bone responsiveness to mechanical loading, we studied 6-mo-old rats subjected to hindlimb elevation for up to 5 wk. Loss of weight bearing in the adult induced a mild hypercalcemia, diminished serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased vertebral bone mass, and blunted the otherwise normal increase in femoral mass associated with bone maturation. Unloading decreased osteoblast numbers and reduced periosteal and cancellous bone formation but had no effect on bone resorption. Mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate decreased during unloading. Our results demonstrate the utility of the adult rat hindlimb elevation model as a means of simulating the loss of gravitational loading on the skeleton, and they show that the effects of nonweight bearing are prolonged and have a greater relative effect on bone formation in the adult than in the young growing animal.

Dehority, W.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Curren, T.; Kostenuik, P. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Shen, Y.; Rabkin, B.; Bouraoui, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

1999-01-01

222

Protective effects of Etlingera elatior extract on lead acetate-induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in bone marrow of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several environmental toxins with toxic effects to the bone marrow have been identified. Pathology associated with lead intoxication is due to the cellular damage mediated by free radicals. In the current study, we examined the effect of Etlingera elatior extract on lead-induced changes in the oxidative biomarkers and histology of bone marrow of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 500 ppm lead acetate in their drinking water for 14 days. E. elatior extract was treated orally (100mg/kg body weight) in combination with, or after lead acetate treatment. The results showed that there was a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, protein carbonyl content and a significant decrease in total antioxidants, super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione--S-transferase in bone marrow after lead acetate exposure. Treatment with E. elatior decreased lipid hydroperoxides and protein carbonyl contents and significantly increased total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Treatments with E. elatior extract also reduced, lead-induced histopathological damage in bone marrow. In conclusion, these data suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect, and it protects the lead acetate-induced bone marrow oxidative damage in rats. PMID:20600524

Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Jackie, Tan; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Pasupathi, Thanikachalam

2010-10-01

223

Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy ?-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

1994-04-01

224

Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results  

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Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

A Shirani

2010-06-01

225

Changes of the intensity of morphogenetic process in the bone skeleton under lowering of gravitational loading  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of long skeleton bones and reconstruction of bone structures in ontogenesis during adaptive remodeling are performed due to a combination of the bone apposition and bone resorption processes. With the use of radioactive markers of specific biosyntheses -3H- thymidine and 3H-glycine we studied the dynamics and peculiarities of these processes under modeling microgravity conditions by unloading the hind limbs of young white rats (tail suspension method) during 28 days. The radionuclides were administered in a single dose at the end of the experiment and the biomaterial was taken 1, 24, 48, 120 and 192 h. after injection. In histoautographs the counts were made of a nuclei labeling index (3H-thymidine), of the number of silver grains over the cells and in the forming bone matrix in growth and remodeling zones of the femoral bone (3H-glycine). The tendency for a reduction of a labeling index in the 3H-thymidine-labeled osteogenic cells in the periost and endost has been established. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. 3H-glycine is assimilated by osteogenic cells 30 min after the radionuclide injection and following 24 h. it is already incorporated into the forming bone matrix. As a result an appositional bone addition by 192 h. the silver grains are registered in the bone matrix as "labeling lines". A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia, particulary in the periost. At the same time the resorption and remodeling bone zones reveal regions of an intensive 3H-glycine uptake after 1 and 24 h. We associate this latter fact with an activation of collagen proteins in the differentiating fibroblasts (instead of osteoblasts) in these locations. This is confirmed by our previous electron microscopic investigations. The study has been performed of the dynamics and intensity of the nuclei labeling of the osteoclasts both in the control and experiment. Our findings obtained show that a continuous support unloading influences the morphogenetic processes in long bones, lowering a bone mass increase and necessitating readaptation during subsequent renewal of support functions.

Vasilievna Rodionova, Natalia; Zolotova-Haidamaka, Nadezhda

226

Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction  

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The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric correction and density compensation could abbreviate the standardized intraoral radiographic technique prepared for subtraction. (author)

Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Shigenobu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Dental Science; Tanaka, Takemasa [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dental Hospital

2002-12-01

227

Pulmonary function changes in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term pulmonary function changes in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), to assess their clinical significance, and to identify factors influencing these changes. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were evaluated before and after BMT in 111 adult patients undergoing BMT between 1985 and 1991. Forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity (DLCO), and total lung capacity (TLC) were evaluated. One hundred and three patients (92.8%) received total body irradiation (TBI) to a total dose of 14 Gy in nine equal fractions. The lung dose was restricted to 1, FVC, and TLC were lower than pre transplant values (p 1 did not fall significantly in patients without acute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier than in patients without post transplant pulmonary infection. Recovery of FVC, TLC, and DLCO was also delayed in patients with acute and chronic GVHD and post transplant pulmonary infection. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between a higher radiation dose to the lungs, and decreased FVC at 2 years (p = 0.01). Progressive obstructive pulmonary disease was not observed. Conclusions: An initial decline in PFTs with subsequent recovery was observed. Factors associated with delayed recovery and incomplete recovery of PFTs were GVHD, post transplant pulmonary infection, and higher radiation dose to the lungs. The conditioning regimen used at Medical College of Wisconsin, including relatively high TBI doses with partial transmission pulmonary shielding, appears to be well tolerated by the lungs in long-term survivors. No progressive decline in PFTs or symptomatic decline in pulmonary function was observed during the time interval studied

1996-08-01

228

Filling a cervical spine cage with local autograft: change of bone density and assessment of bony fusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, it remains debatable whether cervical spine fusion cages should be filled with any kind of bone or bone substitute. Using a bone substitute would produce additional costs, using an autologous bone graft from the iliac crest would make the use of the cage at least questionable. As an alternative, cortical and subcortical bone from the anterior osteophytes of the segment in which the disc has been removed could be used to fill the cage: higher costs and complications at the iliac crest could both be avoided and the cage could be filled. However, the fate of these bone chips made from the anterior osteophytes is unclear as well as whether fusion will occur using this technique. The objective of the current study was to investigate possible changes in the bone density of this local autograft in the cage within the first 12 months after surgery by means of computed tomography. A second objective was to assess segmental bony fusion using this technique. 21 patients, suffering from degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine, were included into this prospective study. They all underwent anterior decompression, cage insertion and plate stabilisation. The cage (Rabea, Signus Medizintechnik, Alzenau, Germany), was filled with bone chips made from the anterior osteophytes of the segment that underwent discectomy. On the third day after surgery as well as three, six and 12 months after surgery, an axial computed tomography scan through the cage was taken and density within the apertures of the cage was measured in a standardised manner. Flexion-extension lateral radiographs were taken to investigate segmental fusion. Statistical significance was assumed to be at a 95 % level of significance. 23 cages were implanted. The mean value of the bone density obtained by computed tomography was 505 (+/- 119) HU on day three, 635 (+/- 156) HU after three months, 769 (+/- 162) HU after six months, and 814 (+/- 198) after 12 months. There was a significant difference when the values after 12 months were compared to those obtained after three days (p < 0.001) and after three months (p = 0.004). Bony fusion was seen in 21 out of 23 segments (91.3 %) after 12 months. It may be concluded that this technique could be an alternative to the current treatment options. PMID:16518745

Pitzen, T; Kiefer, R; München, D; Barbier, D; Reith, W; Steudel, W I

2006-02-01

229

Changes in gene expression associated with the bone anabolic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor in aged ovariectomized rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulates bone formation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in gene expression for bone matrix proteins, growth factors, and cytokines associated with the stimulatory effects of bFGF on bone formation in aged ovariectomized (ovx) rats. At 3 months of age, female Sprague-Dawley rats were sham-operated (sham) or ovariectomized (ovx), then maintained untreated for 1 year. At 15 months of age, baseline (BSL) sham and ovx rats were killed. All other rats received daily intravenous injections of bFGF (200 microg/kg) or vehicle (veh) for 14 days. Lumbar vertebrae were processed for quantitative bone histomorphometry or molecular analyses. Ovariectomy decreased vertebral cancellous bone volume by approximately 33% and increased most indices of bone turnover. Treatment of aged ovx rats with bFGF for only 14 days significantly increased cancellous bone volume compared with vehicle treatment of ovx rats, but this variable remained lower than in sham + veh rats. Osteoid volume, osteoblast surface, and osteoid surface were markedly increased, and osteoclast surface was significantly decreased in ovx + bFGF rats compared with sham + veh and ovx + veh rats. Northern analyses revealed that mRNA levels for osteocalcin and type I collagen, relative to 18S RNA, were significantly higher in ovx + bFGF rats than in ovx + veh rats by a factor of >10. RNase protection assays revealed that insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) mRNA levels, relative to L32 housekeeping gene, were also significantly higher, by nearly a factor of 3, in ovx + bFGF rats than in ovx + veh rats. Treatment of ovx rats with bFGF did not appear to affect message levels for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). These in vivo results suggest that bFGF treatment upregulates gene expression for IGF-I, which may mediate, at least in part, the increased gene expression for bone matrix proteins and the bone anabolic effects of bFGF in aged ovx rats. PMID:12110427

Power, R A; Iwaniec, U T; Wronski, T J

2002-07-01

230

Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5microg/g creatinine (microg/g crea) and BCd was above 10microg/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5microg/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10microg/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10microg/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women. PMID:19616207

Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Guoying; Jin, Taiyi; Akesson, Agneta; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lei, Lijian; Weng, Shifang; Liang, Yihuai

2009-10-01

231

Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 ?g/g creatinine (?g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 ?g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 ?g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 ?g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 ?g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

2009-10-01

232

Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Akesson, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergdahl, Ingvar A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Shifang [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Liang, Yihuai [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

2009-10-15

233

Changes in jaw dimensions and bone density in patients with osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Osteopenia and osteoporosis reduce the density and mass of jaw bones. Aim The aim of this study was to present the methods of radiographic analysis in patients with osteoporosis prior to restorative treatment. Method 127 panoramic radiographs (Kodak, USA and 39 retroalveolar radiographs (KD 58-R 30×40 mm, USA were used for the analysis of density (DT II 05 densitometer, England and dimensions of jaw bones with respect to segments corresponding to bone layers. Results The results of this study indicated statistically significant differences in bone density (p<0.05 and p<0.01 in patients with osteopenia. Bone density was significantly reduced (p<0.01 and p<0.001 in osteoporotic patients, when compared to controls. Significant reductions of edentulous ridges in osteoporotic patients women X=23.05 mm (kV=30.72% and X=22.85 mm (kV=28.81%, and men X=28.83 (kV=8.55% as well as X=25.36 (kV=11.43%, were observed. Conclusion Bone density of the upper and lower jaw is reduced in osteoporotic patients. At the very beginning of restorative prosthodontic therapy of osteoporotic patients, retroalveolar radiographs and panoramic radiographs should be obtained. Reference lines should be assigned, contours of the alveolar and edentulous ridges on radiographs should be analysed and bone density assessed.

Pošti? Sr?an D.

2009-01-01

234

Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles : histomorphometry of rib cortical bone.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bone loss associated with estrogen depletion is well documented in cancellous bone but less well characterized in cortical bone. The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized or sham-operated dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Just prior to each postoperative biopsy, tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential rib biopsies provided a means to follow the ovariectomy response over time and to compare each animal against its own baseline. Though ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at 1 month after surgery, a transient increase in cortical bone formation occurred thereafter, with a sixfold increase over that of sham-operated dogs at 4 months (P < 0.001) and a return to near control levels at 8.5 months. Cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. These data demonstrate for the first time that rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in aged female dogs.

Wilson, A. K.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Utah; Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals

1998-03-01

235

Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

2009-12-15

236

MRI signal changes of the bone marrow in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy: correlation with clinical parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the prevalence, imaging appearance, and clinical significance, of bone marrow MR signal changes in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome. Twenty-eight HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 12 HIV-negative controls underwent MRI of the legs. Whole-body MRI, SPECT/CT, and a complete radiographic skeletal survey were obtained in subjects with signal changes in bone marrow. MRI and clinical evaluations were reviewed 6 months after baseline to determine changes after switching from thymidine analogs (TA) to tenofovir-DF (TDF). MRI results correlated with clinical parameters. We observed foci of a serous-like pattern (low signal and no enhancement on T1-weighted, high signal on T2-weighted images) in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%) and an intermediate signal on T1-weighted images in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%). Serous-like lesions were located in the lower limbs and scattered in the talus, calcaneus, femurs, and humeral bones; they showed slight uptake on SPECT bone scans and were normal on CT and radiographs. Patients with serous-like lesions had significantly lower peripheral and total fat at baseline than other groups (P < 0.05). No changes at 6 months were observed on MRI, and the serous-like lesion group showed good peripheral fat recovery after changing drug treatment. A serous-like MRI pattern is observed in the peripheral skeletons of HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, which correlates with peripheral lipoatrophy, and should not be misdiagnosed as malignant or infectious diseases. Although the MR lesions did not improve after switching the treatment, there was evidence of lipoatrophy recovery. (orig.)

Garcia, Ana I.; Tomas, Xavier; Pomes, Jaume; Amo, Montserrat del [Hospital Clinic, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Milinkovic, Ana; Perez, Inaki; Mallolas, Josep [IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Department of Infectious Diseases, Barcelona (Spain); Rios, Jose [Hospital Clinic, Department of Biostatistics, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi [Hospital Clinic, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

237

The effect of purified compared with nonpurified diet on bone changes induced by hindlimb suspension of female rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the bone changes induced by unloading in rats fed different diets, because space flight studies use a semipurified diet, whereas space flight simulation studies typically use nonpurified diets. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet or a standard nonpurified diet and kept ambulatory or subjected to unloading by hindlimb suspension (HLS) for 38 days. Bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical strength, and factors related to the diet that affect bone (i.e., urinary calcium excretion, estradiol, and corticosterone) were measured. Average food intakes (grams per day) differed for diets, but caloric intake (kilocalories per day) and the final body masses of treatment groups were similar. The HLS-induced decrease in femoral BMC was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-8.6%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-11.4%). The HLS-induced decrease in femoral mechanical strength was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-24%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-31%). However, bone lengths were decreased (P rats fed a nonpurified diet compared with a purified diet. Plasma estradiol levels were lower (P rats fed a nonpurified diet. Plasma estradiol was related to femoral BMC (r = 0.85, P rats fed a nonpurified diet than those fed a purified AIN-93G diet, which is consistent with the higher level of calcium in the nonpurified diet. Urinary corticosterone levels were higher (P rats fed a nonpurified diet than rats fed the AIN-93G diet. Although the osteopenia induced by unloading was similar in both diet groups, there were differences in longitudinal bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol levels, and urinary corticosterone levels. Results indicate that the type of standard diet used is an important factor to consider when measuring bone end points.

Tou, Janet C L.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

2005-01-01

238

Late-onset persistent retinal microvascular changes after bone marrow transplantation: 3-year follow-up  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of persistent retinopathy after bone marrow transplantation in the absence of radiation therapy. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 42 year-old man developed bilateral visual loss 15 months after receiving a bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia. The patient was treated with a high dose of cyclosporin A and oral corticosteroids. No radiation therapy was given. Late-onset, multiple, bilateral cotton-wool spots developed 15 months after the bone marrow transplantation and still persist. After three years other cotton-wool spots arose in the absence of any immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusions: Bone marrow transplantation microvasculopathy of the retina may be related to certain combinations of chemotherapy drugs or immunosuppression itself and may persist in the absence of these immunosuppressive drugs.

Muccioli Cristina

2002-01-01

239

The development of the analysis models for the reactivity change and the withdraw force by the thermo-mechanical behavior of the assembly ducts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermo-mechanical analysis of the assembly ducts for Fast Reactor are mainly performed to evaluate the change of reactivity, the force at pads on core assemblies, the withdrawal force at refueling, the loading and refueling deviation of assembly ducts, and the bowing modes for control assembly. In this paper, the model for the evaluation of reactivity change trends as well as that of the withdraw force were developed and inserted into NUBOW2D-KMOD. The sensitivity analyses results of NUBOW2D-KMOD were compared with those of CRAMP code, and the gap size between pads was also derived to keep the negative reactivity trends.

Lee, B. W.; Lee, D. W.; Kwon, M. H.; Kim, Y. I. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2002-05-01

240

Structural changes in femoral bone tissue of rats after subchronic peroral exposure to selenium  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The role of selenium (Se) on bone microarchitecture is still poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the macroscopic and microscopic structures of femoral bone tissue in adult male rats after subchronic peroral administration of Se. Methods Twenty one-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups. In the first group (Se group) young males were exposed to 5 mg Na2SeO3/L in drinking water, for 90 days. Ten one-month-old males without Se administration served as a control group. At the end of the experiment, macroscopic and microscopic structures of the femurs were analysed using analytical scales, sliding instrument, and polarized light microscopy. Results The body weight, femoral length and cortical bone thickness were significantly decreased in Se group rats. These rats also displayed different microstructure in the middle part of the femur, both in medial and lateral views, where vascular canals expanded into the central area of the bone while, in control rats, these canals occurred only near the endosteal surfaces. Additionally, a smaller number of primary and secondary osteons was identified in Se group rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant increases for area, perimeter, maximum and minimum diameters of primary osteons’ vascular canals but significant reductions for all measured variables of Haversian canals and secondary osteons. Conclusions Se negatively affected the macroscopic and microscopic structures of femoral bone tissue in adult male rats. The results contribute to the knowledge on damaging impact of Se on bone.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Changes in hemopoiesis of dying and surviving mice after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mice received doses of 3 Gy of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays total body irradiation at four-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy. After each dose per fraction half of the animals were injected with 10{sup 6} bone marrow cells. At four- and nine-day intervals evaluations were made of the blood count, bone marrow and spleen cellularities, and spleen mass. In animals subjected only to irradiation the damage of hemopoietic organs was becoming deeper until the end of observation; the majority of these mice died by nine days after the irradiation with the last dose per fraction (by 37 days of the experiment). The authors consider anemia as the main cause of their death. All of the mice that were given bone marrow injections survived; nine days after the last dose of irradiation the mean cellularities of their bone marrows and spleens were 76.8% and 112.3% of the unirradiated controls respectively. In general, regeneration of erythropoiesis was quite successful, the number of thrombocytes was positively influenced, and the number of leukocytes nearly unchanged in bone marrow recipients when compared with the only irradiated mice. We observed two periods of maximum and one of minimum bone marrow and spleen regeneration, which were not synchronized. These results deny an unrepairable damage to the hemopoietic microenvironment in conditions of our experiment. This paper follows up with our preceding work describing results of an experiment which ended on day 24. (orig.).

Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Hofer, M.; Karpfel, Z. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav (Germany, F.R.))

1990-02-01

242

Morphological Changes in the Bone Marrow of the Dogs with Visceral Leishmaniasis  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the most frequent lesions in the bone marrow of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Thirty-three dogs sacrificed at the Zoonosis Control Center of Araçatuba, a municipality endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), were used. The animals were classified as asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic groups. At the necropsy, bone marrow samples were collected from the femur, fixed, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The lesion intensity was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The parasite load was determined using immunohistochemistry. The most important lesions consisted of multifocal to diffuse granulomas, megakaryocytic dysplasia, and medullary aplasia. There were no statistical differences between the three clinical groups regarding parasite load and lesion intensity. Asymptomatic dogs also presented high parasitism in the bone marrow as dogs with clinical signs of VL. It was concluded that, regardless of clinical group, the bone marrow is a site for multiplication of Leishmania chagasi. Possibly, the bone marrow dysplasia may arise from the presence of many parasitized and activated macrophages in this organ. Consequently, it affects the profile of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and systemic circulation.

Jacintho, Ana Paula Prudente; Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Munari, Danisio Prado; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

2014-01-01

243

Changes in lymphocyte reactivity to modulatory factors following low dose ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) potentiated the proliferative activity of splenic and thymic lymphocytes in response to Con A in concentrations above 1 and 10 nM, respectively, while CS showed a biphasic effect, stimulating proliferation at concentrations below 0.1 nM and suppressing proliferation at concentrations above 10 nM. Combination of CS with E, NE or both in an ineffective concentration of each (0.1 nM) showed stimulatory effects on the proliferative response of both splenic and thymic lymphocytes to Con A. Whole-body irradiation (WBI) of mice with 75 mGy increased the reactivity of splenic and thymic lymphocytes to Con A. It is reported for the first time in the present paper that the proliferative reactivity of splenic and thymic lymphocytes from low dose irradiated mice could be further increased in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of CS and E as well as suboptimal concentrations of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and A23187. These findings may have significance in elucidation of the mechanism of immunologic stimulation after low dose WBI

1994-02-01

244

Semiautomated three-dimensional segmentation software to quantify carpal bone volume changes on wrist CT scans for arthritis assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapid progression of joint destruction is an indication of poor prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Computed tomography (CT) has the potential to serve as a gold standard for joint imaging since it provides high resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of bone structure. The authors have developed a method to quantify erosion volume changes on wrist CT scans. In this article they present a description and validation of the methodology using multiple scans of a hand phantom and fi...

Duryea, J.; Magalnick, M.; Alli, S.; Yao, L.; Wilson, M.; Goldbach-mansky, R.

2008-01-01

245

Mathematical model for time-dependent kinetic changes of blood cell counts in bone marrow form of acute radiation syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model used for describing the time dependent kinetic changes of blood cell counts in bone marrow form of acute radiation syndrome is presented. The data of blood cell counts can be fitted into a curve equation and more than 10 parameters can be derived for quantitative analysis. The extent of radiation injury can be estimated by these parameters. A programme was designed for application of this mathematical model to analysis of blood cell counts with an IBM-PC microcomputer

1992-08-01

246

Bone mineral density changes of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty. A randomised study with the use of porous tantalum metaphyseal cones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomised study using conventional method or "Trabecular Metal Cone" (TM Cone) (Zimmer inc., Warsaw, USA) for reconstruction of bone loss of the proximal tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal tibia.

Jensen, Claus L; Petersen, Michael Mygind

2012-01-01

247

Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OHD and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. Methods We measured cord serum 25(OHD levels, bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and their changes over 3 months of life with 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplementation. Results Cord serum 25(OHD was significantly lower in Hispanic than non-Hispanic Caucasian infants (16.4 ± 6.5 ng/mL, n = 27, vs 22.3 ± 9.4 n = 22, p = 0.013. Among 38 infants who completed a 3 month vitamin D supplementation intervention, provision of 400 IU/day of vitamin D increased final 25(OHD to a higher level in non-Hispanic Caucasian compared to Hispanic infants. There was no significant relationship between cord serum 25(OHD and BMC or BMD in the first week of life (n = 49 or after 3 months of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion Low cord 25(OHD levels are seen in Hispanic infants, but their functional significance is uncertain related to bone health in a southern US setting. Daily vitamin D intake of 400 IU during the first months of life appears adequate to increase serum 25(OHD and support BMC increases despite low initial 25(OHD levels in some infants. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00697294

Abrams Steven A

2012-01-01

248

Bone marrow derived cells and reactive oxygen species in hypertrophy of contralateral kidney of transient unilateral renal ischemia-induced mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal mass reduction, such as unilateral nephrectomy induces a compensatory hypertrophy of remaining renal mass in response to overload induced by reduction of functional renal parenchyma. In our recent study, we observed that the recovery of ischemic injured kidney following transient unilateral renal ischemia took longer time than that following transient bilateral renal ischemia, indicating that non-damaged kidney may affect the damaged kidney and vice versa. Here, we investigated whether transient and partial renal parenchymal injury by transient unilateral renal ischemia (UI) results in the hypertrophy of its contralateral kidney (CLK) and reactive oxygen species is associated with the hypertrophy. Thirty minutes of UI resulted in gradual increase in CLK weight over time. UI increased superoxide formation, but not lipid peroxidation in the CLK. After UI, a significant increase in the number of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-expressing cells and the level of Nox2 expression in the CLK was observed. In parallel with the increases in Nox2-expressing cells in CLKs, infiltration of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) increased in CLK. Treatments with Mn(III) Tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic) and apocynin (a putative NADPH oxidase inhibitor) inhibited UI-induced hypertrophy of CLK along with reduction in Nox2-positive cell, BMDC, amount of Nox2 expression and superoxide formation. In conclusion, transient and partial renal mass reduction by UI resulted in the hypertrophy of CLK through increased ROS formation by infiltrated cells into the interstitium of CLK. PMID:22512329

Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Kim, Jinu; Na, Yeon Kyung; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Kwon Moo

2012-07-01

249

Microarray analysis of changes in bone cell gene expression early after cadmium gavage in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed an in vivo model for cadmium-induced bone loss in which mice excrete bone mineral in feces beginning 8 h after cadmium gavage. Female mice of three strains [CF1, MTN (metallothionein-wild-type), and MT1,2KO (MT1,2-deficient)] were placed on a low-calcium diet for 2 weeks. Each mouse was gavaged with 200 ?g Cd or vehicle only. Fecal calcium was monitored daily for 9 days, beginning 4 days before cadmium gavage, to document the bone response. For CF1 mice, bones were taken from four groups: +/- Cd, 2 h after Cd and +/- Cd, 4 h after Cd. MTN and MT1,2KO strains had two groups each: +/-Cd, 4 h after Cd. PolyA+ RNA preparations from marrow-free shafts of femura and tibiae of each +/- Cd pair were submitted to Incyte Genomics for microarray analysis. Fecal Ca results showed that bone calcium excreted after cadmium differed for the three mouse strains: CF1, 0.24 ± 0.08 mg; MTN, 0.92 ± 0.22 mg; and MT1,2KO, 1.7 ± 0.4 mg. Gene array results showed that nearly all arrayed genes were unaffected by cadmium. However, MT1 and MT2 had Cd+/Cd- expression ratios >1 in all four groups, while all ratios for MT3 were essentially 1, showing specificity. Both probes for MAPK 14 (p38 MAPK) had expression ratios >1, while no other MAPK responded to cadmium. Vacuolar proton pump ATPase and integrin alpha v (osteoclast genes), transferrin receptor, and src-like adaptor protein genes were stimulated by Cd; other src-related genes were unaffected. Genes for bone formation, stress response, growth factors, and signaling molecules showed little or no response to cadmium. Results support the hypothesis that Cd stimulates bone demineralization via a p38 MAPK pathway involving osteoclast activation

2003-09-15

250

Changes of bone turnover markers and serum PTH after night or morning administration of zoledronic acid in breast cancer patients with bone metastases.  

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Persistent circadian rhythm of bone turnover in bone metastatic breast cancer suggests greater skeletal retention of bisphosphonates if administered in the night. We assessed differential effects of night vs morning administration of zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone turnover. Forty-four breast cancer patients with bone metastases were randomised to receive intravenous ZA (4?mg) at 1100 or 2300 hours every 28 days for four times. Urinary concentration N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX) and d...

2008-01-01

251

[Ultrastructural analysis of reactive changes in the exo- and endocrine epithelium of embryonal pancreas in organ cultures].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the work was to study reactive changes of endocrine and exocrine epithelii of the rat embryonic pancreas in organic culturation. The culturation was carried out at 34 degrees C and in the nutritional mixture of the following composition: medium 199--70%, cattle serum--20%, chicken embryo extract--10%, glucose--400 mg/100 ml, vitamin "C"--7 mg/100 ml, benzilpenicillin--50 U/ml. Three series of experiments were carried out with cultivation of the pancreatic gland of 18, 19 and 20-day-old embryos for 4--28 days. The electronograms obtained demonstrate a certain difference in reactivity, cytophysiology and differentiation of exocrine and endocrine epithelium under the conditions of organic cultivation. During the process, endocrine epithelium undergoes primary differentiation, secondary cytodifferentiation and, further, degenerative changes and necrosis develop. B-cells of the insular apparatus grow and function better than the exogenous epithelium. On the 28th day of cultivation, the embryonic pancreas of 19-day-old embryo demonstrates certain signs of synthesis and B-granule formation. In B-cells cytoplasm, granules of different stages of secrete formation are revealed. PMID:365145

Gerlovin, E Sh; Kasumova, Z P; Obidina, M Iu

1978-10-01

252

Cytogenetical changes and their relation to survival of bone marrow hemopoietic cells during continuous irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequency of aberrant cells in the bone marrow of mice continuously irradiated with dose rates 0.05 Gy/day and 0.50 Gy/day was studied. The increase in aberrant cell values was not in proportion with the accumulated doses and their level was influenced mainly by the irradiation period in the dose range 0.5 to 5 Gy. The most significant reduction in the lymphocyte number and to some extent the granuloid cells number in the bone marrow occurred for dose rate 0.50 Gy/day. At the same time the frequency of aberrant cells in the bone marrow increased to 15 to 20%. Possible mechanisms indluencing the different response of cells to irradiation are discussed. (author)

1982-01-01

253

Nanoscale changes in collagen are reflected in physical and mechanical properties of bone at the microscale in diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes detrimentally affects the musculoskeletal system by stiffening the collagen matrix due to increased advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this study, tibiae and tendon from Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) rats were compared to Sprague-Dawley derived controls (CD) using Atomic Force Microscopy. ZDSD and CD tibiae were compared using Raman Spectroscopy and Reference Point Indentation (RPI). ZDSD bone had a significantly different distribution of collagen D-spacing than CD (p=0.015; ZDSD n=294 fibrils; CD n=274 fibrils) which was more variable and shifted to higher values. This shift between ZDSD and CD D-spacing distribution was more pronounced in tendon (pwag p=0.047; n=5 per group) despite lower bone mineral density (aBMD) and ash fraction indicating diabetes may preferentially reduce the Raman signature of collagen. Decreased indentation distance increase (p=0.010) and creep indentation distance (p=0.040) measured by RPI (n=9 per group) in ZDSD rats suggest a matrix more resistant to indentation under the high stresses associated with RPI at this length scale. There were significant correlations between Raman and RPI measurements in the ZDSD population (n=18 locations) but not the CD population (n=16 locations) indicating that while RPI is relatively unaffected by biological noise, it is sensitive to disease-induced compositional changes. In conclusion, diabetes in the ZDSD rat causes changes to the nanoscale morphology of collagen that result in compositional and mechanical effects in bone at the microscale. PMID:24269519

Hammond, Max A; Gallant, Maxime A; Burr, David B; Wallace, Joseph M

2014-03-01

254

Denosumab and Changes in Bone Turnover Markers During Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

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Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increases fracture risk, decreases bone mineral density, and increases bone turnover markers (BTMs) including serum type 1 C-telopeptide (sCTX), tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and procollagen-1 N-terminal telopeptide (P1NP). In a pre-specified exploratory analysis of a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 3 years) vs. placebo (1468 p...

2011-01-01

255

Characterization of dynamic changes in vascular reactivity following treatment with carmustine in Sprague-Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carmustine, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), is a highly effective anti-cancer drug and bone marrow suppressant agent in humans and animals. Pilot studies demonstrated that BCNU induced a time- and dose-dependent supersensitivity to norepinephrine (NE) in rat caudal arteries after a single dose. The studies presented in this thesis were performed to determine the mechanism for this supersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of BCNU (25 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 0. On day 7 a proximal section of caudal artery was doubly cannulated and perfused intraluminally with Krebs bicarbonate physiological buffer. These studies demonstrated that the supersensitivity induced by BCNU treatment was pre-junctional. Denervation of caudal arteries with 6-hydroxydopamine led to a significant decrease in the EC50 for NE in caudal arteries from control rats but not BCNU treated rats. The EC50 for NE in control-denervated arterial segments was not statistically different from BCNU-denervated or BCNU-nondenervated segments. Metabolism of [3H] NE to its 5 primary metabolites, as determined by thin layer chromatography, and uptake of [3H] NE were significantly lower in caudal arteries taken from BCNU treated rats. These data demonstrate that a pre-junctional mechanism was responsible for vascular supersensitivity to NE after BCNU treatment in caudal arteries from Sprague-

1985-01-01

256

X-ray evaluation of changes occurring in the bone under the influence of Gentamicin-Septopal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of several-year experience it was acknowledged that in treatment of chronic blood-derived and traumatic inflammations of bones the introduction of chains of Septopal to treatment was an obvious progress. The changes occurring in the bones of the patients for whom Septopal was left for good in the marrow cavity under the influence of antibiotic were evaluated. The observation included 89 patients for whom X-ray examinations were made many times in various intervals. Initially the chains of antibiotic were surrounded with a thin layer of connective tissue, and after several new-generating osseous tissue grow into them. In none of the observed cases any reaction indicating recoil of the carrier of the antibiotic was noticed. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

1992-01-01

257

Evaluation of spinal bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure by CT and MR imaging with pathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), bone mineral density (BMD) and T1 relaxation times were measured with CT and MR imaging and the results were correlated to histology. Excised lumbar vertebrae from 25 autopsy cases of CRF (18 males and 7 females), including 12 cases in which the patients had been receiving hemodialysis were examined. BMD and T1 relaxation times values were associated with specific histologic findings for cellularity, trabeculae, and peritrabecular fibrosis. Three vertebrae with low BMD showed incresed hematopoietic marrow content, a finding not observed in primary osteoporosis. The vertebrae with osteosclerosis showed prolonged T1 relaxation time, which was due to increased amount of hematopoietic marrow, and the presence of thickened or many small irregular trabeculae or perirabecular fibrosis. (orig.)

1994-05-01

258

Reactivity of hydroxyl radicals with neonicotinoid insecticides: mechanism and changes in toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reactivity of hydroxyl radicals (HO ) towards three neonicotonoid insecticides, namely imidacloprid, thiacloprid and acetamiprid was investigated. These radicals were generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) solutions. Flash photolysis experiments were used to determine the rate constants of 5.5 x 10(10) M(-1)s(-1), 6 x 10(10) M(-1)s(-1), and 7.5 x 10(10) M(-1)s(-1), for the reactions of HO with acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiacloprid, respectively. Continuous irradiation experiments in the absence and presence of H(2)O(2) allowed the identification and toxicity evaluation of the primary photo- and oxidation products of the insecticides. In all cases, the less toxic 6-chloronicotinic acid was found to be the major product at higher degrees of oxidation. The results reported here indicate that the half life of the insecticides due to their reaction with HO radicals in natural aquatic reservoirs may vary between 5 h and 19 days, and therefore the hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation may be a significant abiotic elimination route. However, elimination of the insecticide under such conditions might not improve the quality of the contaminated water, as the primary products of degradation still show considerable toxicity to Vibrio fischeri assays. PMID:19582278

Dell'arciprete, María L; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Sanz, Antonio Arques; Vicente, Rafael; Amat, Ana M; Furlong, Jorge P; Mártire, Daniel O; Gonzalez, Mónica C

2009-07-01

259

Electrical and structural changes in the near surface of reactively ion etched InP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near-surface (?1000 A) modification in the net carrier concentration in n-type InP (n=6x1015--1.5x1017 cm-3) was observed after reactive ion etching (RIE) in Cl-based (CCl2F2/O2) or organic-based (C2H6/H2) discharges. The carrier loss is slightly more pronounced in the latter case, due possibly to the creation of deep level, compensating acceptors at greater depths as a result of implantation of the light hydrogen ions. Near-complete recovery of the initial carrier density occurs after annealing at 500 degree C for 30 s. Structural disorder is detected by ion channeling to depths of ?400 A after C2H6/H2 RIE with a self-bias of 380 V. This disorder shows significant recovery after 400 degree C, 30 s annealing. Current-voltage measurements on Au Schottky diodes showed ohmic behavior after etching of the InP in a C2H6/H2 discharge, due to the nonstoichiometric surface remaining after RIE. Diodes fabricated on CCl2F2/O2 etched material show only a slight increase in reverse current compared to unetched control samples

1989-10-16

260

Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. PMID:24689513

Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Age-related changes in skull uptake on bone scintigraphy: a quantitative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: '' Hot skull '', or diffuse increased activity of bone seeking radiotracers, is frequently seen in the bone scans of some patients, especially elderly women. This finding has been attributed to enhanced bone metabolism in old age. Material and Methods: We semi-quantitatively studied 342 normal bone scans (161 male and 181 female within the age range 12 to 82 years). We divided the patients into 7 age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 and above. The geometric means of the anterior and posterior background corrected skull and mid-femoral ROI values were used for calculation of the skull to femoral ratio (SFR). Results: The skull to femoral ratio was significantly higher in female patients in the age groups 30-39 and above. In females, the five upper age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 and above) had significantly higher SFR than the lower age groups. In males, the two upper age groups (60-69, 70 and above) had significantly higher SFR than the lower age groups. The findings in males were not concordant with the previous studies addressing this issue, which could be explained by different bone mineral density in the Iranian population. Conclusion: Our data showed that 'hot skull' is not necessarily an abnormal finding, especially in elderly women. We suggest that every nuclear medicine department uses its own normal values and reference samples for quantitative evaluation, due to ethnic or socio-economical variations. (authors)

2008-01-01

262

Physeal Change after Tuberculous Osteomyelitis of the Long Bone in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the long bone in children is often neglected,and established transphyseal bone lesions are common. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these patients.Methods: Between January 1990 and December 2008, 19 patients (10 boys and 9 girlswith sustained tuberculous osteomyelitis of the long bone accompanied byphyseal involvement were treated at our institute. The average age was 23.8months (range, 10-58 months. All patients received surgical treatment andantituberculosis therapy for at least 6 months. The final radiographic andfunctional results were analyzed.Results: All patients were followed up for an average of 61.8 months (range, 14-123months. The most common site of infection was the distal femur (8 patients,42.1%, followed by the proximal tibia (5 patients, 26.3% and the distaltibia (3 patients, 15.8%. Most of the lesions were osteolytic, round to oval inshape, and showed marginal sclerosis. Some lesions were expanding or multiloculated.The periosteal reaction was minimal. Even in cases with extensivesurgical curettage through the physis, the growth plate maintained itsfunction and gradually remodeled. Clinical symptoms improved within 4-6weeks. All bone lesions decreased in size in 3-6 months. Further, physeal barformation was observed, but the extent was minimal. All transphyseal lesionshealed gradually over a period of several years. Good remodeling of skeletallesions was noted.Conclusions: The diagnosis of tuberculous osteomyelitis of the long bone should be consideredin every child with unexplained chronic limb pain or swollen limbs.The lesions are usually located in the metaphysis and easily cross the growthplate to the epiphysis. Surgical debridement is beneficial in both diagnosisand treatment. In patients with growth plate involvement, careful surgicaldebridement is recommended to eradicate infection since the risk of permanentphyseal damage is minimal. The physis can heal gradually, and fullrange of motion of the adjacent joints can be maintained.

Hsuan-Kai Kao

2010-08-01

263

TCDD decreases ATP levels and increases reactive oxygen production through changes in mitochondrial F F1-ATP synthase and ubiquinone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitochondria generate ATP and participate in signal transduction and cellular pathology and/or cell death. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) decreases hepatic ATP levels and generates mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage, which is exacerbated by increasing mitochondrial glutathione redox state and by inner membrane hyperpolarization. This study identifies mitochondrial targets of TCDD that initiate and sustain reactive oxygen production and decreased ATP levels. One week after treating mice with TCDD, liver ubiquinone (Q) levels were significantly decreased, while rates of succinoxidase and Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities were increased. However, the expected increase in Q reduction state following TCDD treatment did not occur; instead, Q was more oxidized. These results could be explained by an ATP synthase defect, a premise supported by the unusual finding that TCDD lowers ATP/O ratios without concomitant changes in respiratory control ratios. Such results suggest either a futile cycle in ATP synthesis, or hydrolysis of newly synthesized ATP prior to release. The TCDD-mediated decrease in Q, concomitant with an increase in respiration, increases complex 3 redox cycling. This acts in concert with glutathione to increase membrane potential and reactive oxygen production. The proposed defect in ATP synthase explains both the greater respiratory rates and the lower tissue ATP levels

2006-12-15

264

Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420{degrees}C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs.

Inazumi, T.; Bell, G.E.C.; Kenik, E.A.; Kiuchi, K.

1993-01-01

265

Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420[degrees]C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs.

Inazumi, T.; Bell, G.E.C.; Kenik, E.A.; Kiuchi, K.

1993-01-01

266

MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor.

Pierre-Jerome, Claude, E-mail: cpierr3@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Reyes, Emmanuel J.; Moncayo, Valeria; Chen, Zhengjia Nelson; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States)

2012-10-15

267

MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor

2012-10-01

268

Reactivity measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital reactivity meter, realized as an off-line Fortran program, the input to which is a record of 500 consecutive values of n(tsub(i)) obtained by on-line program on CDC 1700 from the linear power channel of the TRIGA reactor, has been tested at low powers at which the reactor fuel temperature feedback reactivity is negligible. Calibration of the meter by the regulating rod, the reactivity of which has been determined by the assymptotic reactor period, shows that the absolute error is below 1,6% for reactivities up to 1 $. The accuracy of the reactivity meter is proportional to the square of the product of the sampling interval and the period at which the neutron density changes. So the relative error of the reactivity remains at all operational states below 0.2% at 1 second sampling intervals and even at 3 seconds sampling it does not rises above 2.0%. The meter is useful for measurements of control rod drops into the reactor at sampling intervals of 0.1 sec. The meter sensitivity is 0.5 c/s at 1 sec sampling

269

Cu(GlyGlyHis) effects on MCF7 cells: copper uptake, reactive oxygen species generation and membrane topography changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated levels of copper have been detected in various types of human cancer cells, such as breast cancer cells, and a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the action and influence of copper on tumor progress. In this work, we found that stimulating the proliferation of mammary epithelial MCF7 cells with the high-redox-potential copper complex Cu (GlyGlyHis) is associated with the copper-induced intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induces lipid peroxidation and causes increased roughness of external cell membranes, which leads to the formation of larger cell domes. The results presented herein provide new insights into the molecular link between copper and the proliferation of breast cancer cells and, consequently, into the mechanism by which changes in redox balance and ROS accumulation regulates cell membrane roughness. PMID:23022694

Matias, Andreza C; Villa dos Santos, Nathália; Chelegão, Rodrigo; Nomura, Cassiana S; Fiorito, Pablo A; Cerchiaro, Giselle

2012-11-01

270

Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have higher bone mineral density (BMD but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S. DM was ascertained by self-report. BMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at least one follow-up visit at the hip (N=6624 and calcaneus (N=6700 and, on a subset of women, at the spine (N=396 and distal radius (N=306. Annualized percent change in BMD was compared by DM status, using random effects models. Of 6,867 women with at least one follow-up DXA scan, 409 had DM at baseline. Mean age was 70.8 (SD 4.7 years. Baseline BMD was higher in women with DM at all measured sites. In models adjusted for age and clinic, women with prevalent DM lost bone more rapidly than those without DM at the femoral neck (-0.96% vs. -0.59% per year, p < 0.001, total hip (-0.98% vs. -0.70% per year, p<0.001, calcaneus (-1.64% vs. -1.40% per year, p=0.005, and spine (-0.33% vs. +0.33% per year, p=0.033, but not at the distal radius (-0.97% vs. -0.90% per year, p=0.91. These findings suggest that despite higher baseline BMD, older women with DM experience more rapid bone loss than those without DM at the hip, spine and calcaneus, but not the radius. Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM.

AnnV.Schwartz

2013-05-01

271

The effect of purified compared with nonpurified diet on bone changes induced by hindlimb suspension of female rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the bone changes induced by unloading in rats fed different diets, because space flight studies use a semipurified diet, whereas space flight simulation studies typically use nonpurified diets. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet or a standard nonpurified diet and kept ambulatory or subjected to unloading by hindlimb suspension (HLS) for 38 days. Bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical strength, and factors related to the diet that affect bone (i.e., urinary calcium excretion, estradiol, and corticosterone) were measured. Average food intakes (grams per day) differed for diets, but caloric intake (kilocalories per day) and the final body masses of treatment groups were similar. The HLS-induced decrease in femoral BMC was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-8.6%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-11.4%). The HLS-induced decrease in femoral mechanical strength was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-24%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-31%). However, bone lengths were decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet compared with a purified diet. Plasma estradiol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the HLS/AIN-93G group but similar in the HLS and ambulatory rats fed a nonpurified diet. Plasma estradiol was related to femoral BMC (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). Urinary calcium excretion was higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than those fed a purified AIN-93G diet, which is consistent with the higher level of calcium in the nonpurified diet. Urinary corticosterone levels were higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than rats fed the AIN-93G diet. Although the osteopenia induced by unloading was similar in both diet groups, there were differences in longitudinal bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol levels, and urinary corticosterone levels. Results indicate that the type of standard diet used is an important factor to consider when measuring bone end points.

Tou, Janet C L.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

2005-01-01

272

Changes of bone mineral density and related parameters in patients of hyperthyroidism before and after 131I therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the changes of bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after 131I therapy. Methods: The serum levels of TT3, TT4, sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH), bone gla protein (BGP), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) of 58 patients with hyperthyroidism were measured and also the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the forearm, lumbar (L2-L4) and femur was obtained by dual photon X-ray before and after 131I therapy. Results: 1) Both BMD between the patients treated after 6 months, and before treatment, also the BMD between various 131I treated group and no response group had significant differences (P3 level before therapy was positively correlative to the serum BGP (r=0.4113, t=2.9896, P3 and CT/PTH radio (r=0.3613, t=2.6836, P131I therapy (authors)

2005-08-01

273

Differential gene expression of bone anabolic factors and trabecular bone architectural changes in the proximal femoral shaft of primary hip osteoarthritis patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have shown a generalised increase in bone mass in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Using molecular histomorphometry, this study examined the in vivo expression of mRNA encoding bone anabolic factors and collagen type I genes (COL1A1, COL1A2) in human OA and non-OA bone. Bone samples were obtained from the intertrochanteric (IT) region of the proximal femur, a skeletal site distal to the active site of disease, from individuals with hip OA at joint replacement surgery and fr...

2006-01-01

274

Age-related molecular genetic changes of murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

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Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are pluripotent cells, present in the bone marrow and other tissues that can differentiate into cells of all germ layers and may be involved in tissue maintenance and repair in adult organisms. Because of their plasticity and accessibility these cells are also prime candidates for regenerative medicine. The contribution of stem cell aging to organismal aging is under debate and one theory is that reparative processes deteriorat...

2010-01-01

275

Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow: frequent medium change method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground: MSCs have been isolated from a variety of mammals by the plastic adherence method. However, this method can be problematic due to the unwanted growth of hematopoietic cells and non-MSCs. The potential of MSCs to differentiate along multiple lineages is the key to the identification of stem cell populations in the absence of molecular markers. In the present study, we describe a homogeneous population of MSCs from mouse bone marrow isolated using an improved plastic adherenc...

Soleimani M, Nadri S.

2008-01-01

276

Arsenic induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by reactive oxygen species generation rather than glutathione depletion in Chang human hepatocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to evaluate the possible involvement of mitochondrial pathway in NaAsO{sub 2}-induced apoptosis and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the apoptotic effect in Chang human hepatocytes. The MTT assay demonstrated that sodium arsenite (NaAsO{sub 2}) treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. NaAsO{sub 2} treatment (0-30{mu}M) was also found to induce phosphatidylserine externalization, a hallmark of apoptosis; to disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}); to cause the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and to trigger cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a dose-dependent manner. All these changes were accompanied with the enhanced generation of intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA). Increase of intracellular GSH also coincided unexpectedly. Moreover, the extracellular addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) effectively reduced the generation of ROS and MDA, and rescued the cells from NaAsO{sub 2} induced apoptosis and related alteration of mitochondria. These data suggest that the arsenic-induced cell apoptosis occurs though the mitochondrial pathway, and is mostly dependent on generation of ROS rather than GSH depletion in Chang human hepatocytes. (orig.)

Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huihui; Xue, Peng; Li, Xin; Li, Bing; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang (China)

2009-10-15

277

Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

2011-01-01

278

Reactivation in post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis: ultrasonographic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe the ultrasound (US) features of reactivation in post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Twelve patients with clinical suspicion of reactivation of chronic osteomyelitis, secondary to trauma, surgery, and who were investigated with US were selected for the study. The following US features were assessed: periosseous fluid collection, bone changes (periosteal reactions, cortical irregularity, callus, sequestrum and cloaca) and soft-tissue changes (cellulitis and sinus tracts). US findings were correlated with plain radiography (n = 11), computed tomography (n = 3) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2). US detected fluid collections in all patients (12 periosseous and 3 in soft tissues), bone changes in 10 and sinus tracts and cellulitis in 5 patients each. Bone changes detected were cortical irregularity (n = 10), discontinuity of cortex (n = 7), sequestrum (n = 2), callus (n = 2), periosteal reaction (n = 1) and cloaca (n = 1). Cellulitis was seen in 5 patients and sinus tracts in 5. Reactivation was confirmed at surgery in all patients. US is a reliable noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of reactivation of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis in adults. (author)

Venkatesh, S.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, National Univ. Hospital (Singapore); Riederer, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Sainte Foy, Quebec (Canada); Chhem, R.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Cardinal, E. [Dept. of Diagnostic, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hospital St. Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wang, S.C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, National Univ. Hospital (Singapore)

2003-06-01

279

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation

1981-01-01

280

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

1981-07-01

282

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

1981-07-01

283

3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of muscle mass and the improved quality of the muscle tissue was observed and measured on whole muscle volume. The 3-dimensional approach proposed in this work allows the geometrical changes in denervated muscle to be measured. Central lines in rectus femoris are calculated during the treatment and the relative curvature indexes are used to quantify differences between data sets. The result shows a correlation between degeneration status and changes in shape; the differences in curvature between control and denervated muscle diminish with the growth. Furthermore, bone mineral density is measured on the femur to monitor the structural changes induced by the current flow and to evaluate the effect on the patella bone density due to the quadriceps contraction. Though the evidences aren’t yet statistically relevant a kind of structural change in the femur is measured as secondary effect from the muscle stimulation. Beside, the force applied on the patella through the elicited contraction seems also to have a beneficial effect on bone density. Indeed the mineral loss in the patella is remarkably slowed down.

Paolo Gargiulo

2011-03-01

284

Diffusion in Bone Tissue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to prevent or modify the processes of bone degeneration the modeling and remodeling of bone tissue must be better understood. In this thesis it is assumed that the primary condition leading to bone growth is a change of the chemical environment caused by transport of matter resulting from stress driven diffusion. The change in the chemical environment may consist of changes in the concentration of different substances stimulating, for example, bone ...

Lindberg, Gustav

2013-01-01

285

Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on November 4; one week earlier of the largest seismic event registered during this volcanic crisis on November 11 (M = 4.6). This observed physico-chemical changes in the ground water system might be explained as a result of the changes on the strain/stress field due to the seismic activity enhancing mixing of water bodies with different conductivities.

Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

2012-04-01

286

HLA Alleles Association with Changes in Bone Mineral Density in HIV-1-Infected Adults Changing Treatment to Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There are limited data regarding the influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms on reduced bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD in HIV-infected adults changing their existing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC) in the STEAL study. Methods Lumbar spine and right hip BMD were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). HLA genotypes at the 2-digit level were classified into class I and II supertypes. Student's t-tests were used to test the association between HLA supertypes and changes in hip and spine BMD over 96 weeks for the whole cohort and stratified by randomised groups. The relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD was also assessed in the subgroup of participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at study entry. Results Class II supertypes were mainly associated with hip BMD change. Overall, compared to participants not carrying HLA-DQ3, participants expressing DQ3 had less bone loss over 96 weeks at both the hip and spine (hip: 0.003 vs. ?0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.002 to 0.017, p?=?0.016; spine: 0.006 vs. ?0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.023, p?=?0.041). In participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at baseline and randomised to TDF-FTC, DQ3 was significantly associated with less bone loss compared with those not carrying DQ3 (hip: 0.001 vs. ?0.032 g/cm2; diff 0.033; 95%CI 0.017 to 0.049; p<0.001; spine: 0.007 vs. ?0.023 g/cm2; diff 0.035; 95%CI 0.014 to 0.056; p?=?0.001). Conclusions In this cohort of HIV-infected adults, there was an association between bone status and HLA supertypes, particularly HLA-DQ3. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192634

Haskelberg, Hila; Cordery, Damien V.; Amin, Janaki; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Cooper, David A.; Emery, Sean

2014-01-01

287

Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios: a radiographic study in minipigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The objective of the present study was to learn about the volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone from the iliac crest or the mandible in different ratios in minipigs. Material and methods: Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 minipigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, and (E) 100% Bio-Oss. The autogenous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and expressed as mean percentage with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean volume of the graft was reduced by (A) 65% (95% CI: 60-70%), (B) 38% (95% CI: 35-41%), (C) 23% (95% CI: 21-25%), (D) 16% (95% CI: 12-21%), and (E) 6% (95% CI: 4-8%). The volumetric reduction was significantly influenced by the ratio of Bio-Oss and autogenous bone (P

Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren

2012-01-01

288

Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios : a radiographic study in minipigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The objective of the present study was to learn about the volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone from the iliac crest or the mandible in different ratios in minipigs. Material and methods: Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 minipigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, and (E) 100% Bio-Oss. The autogenous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and expressed as mean percentage with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean volume of the graft was reduced by (A) 65% (95% CI: 60-70%), (B) 38% (95% CI: 35-41%), (C) 23% (95% CI: 21-25%), (D) 16% (95% CI: 12-21%), and (E) 6% (95% CI: 4-8%). The volumetric reduction was significantly influenced by the ratio of Bio-Oss and autogenous bone (P

Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren

2012-01-01

289

Differential protein expression in Colletotrichum acutatum: changes associated with reactive oxygen species and nitrogen starvation implicated in pathogenicity on strawberry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cellular outcome of changes in nitrogen availability in the context of development and early stages of pathogenicity was studied by quantitative analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of Colletotrichum acutatum infecting strawberry. Significant alterations occurred in the abundance of proteins synthesized during appressorium formation under nitrogen-limiting conditions compared with a complete nutrient supply. Proteins that were up- or down-regulated were involved in energy metabolism, nitrogen and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, response to stress and reactive oxygen scavenging. Members belonging to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger machinery, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, were up-regulated at the appressorium formation stage, as well as under nitrogen-limiting conditions relative to growth with a complete nutrient supply, whereas abundance of bifunctional catalase was up-regulated predominantly at the appressorium formation stage. Fungal ROS were detected within germinating conidia during host pre-penetration, penetration and colonization stages, accompanied by plant ROS, which were abundant in the apoplastic space. Application of exogenous antioxidants quenched ROS production and reduced the frequency of appressorium formation. Up-regulation in metabolic activity was detected during appressorium formation and nutrient deficiency compared with growth under complete nutrient supply. Enhanced levels of proteins related to the glyoxylate cycle and lipid metabolism (malate dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase) were observed at the appressorium formation stage, in contrast to down-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase. The present study demonstrates that appressoria formation processes, occurring under nutritional deprivation, are accompanied by metabolic shifts, and that ROS production is an early fungal response that may modulate initial stages of pathogen development. PMID:18705850

Brown, Sigal Horowitz; Yarden, Oded; Gollop, Natan; Chen, Songbi; Zveibil, Aida; Belausov, Eduard; Freeman, Stanley

2008-03-01

290

Changes in salivary hormones, immunoglobulin A, and C-reactive protein in response to ultra-endurance exercises.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the exercise duration on the changes in salivary stress markers in response to ultra-endurance exercises. The study was developed in 2 ultra-endurance exercise tests: the Ultra-trail Serra de Tramuntana (UTST), a 104 km ultra-marathon competition (n = 64) and the 25 km Cabrera Open Water Race (COWR) (n = 43). Participants in the COWR completed the 25 km at a constant pace of 3 km/h (3K group) or 2.5 km /h (2.5K group). Saliva samples were taken before and after the exercises. Salivary flow rate as well as cortisol, testosterone, C-reactive protein (CRP), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were measured. Salivary flow rate decreased after the UTST but increased after the COWR. The UTST induced significant increases in cortisol and CRP levels and decreases in testosterone and IgA levels. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between the time the athletes took to complete the exercise and the changes in salivary cortisol. After the COWR, higher increases in salivary cortisol levels were observed in the 3K group than in the 2.5K group. A significant effect of exercise decreasing testosterone and IgA levels was observed in both groups. No changes in the CRP levels were observed during the COWR. In conclusion, shorter times to complete the ultra-endurance exercise were associated with higher increases in cortisol. However, no relationships were found between the time to complete the exercises and the changes in testosterone, CRP, and IgA levels. PMID:24766238

Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Moreno, Carlos; Martínez, Pau; Aguilo, Antoni

2014-05-01

291

The burning of low reactive coal of changing quality in furnaces of power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Systematic quality losses in coal, for example the increase in ballast and increase in moisture content, increases operational difficulties in the burning of coal (the complexity of unloading coal and fuel supply, a decrease in the productivity of a mill, slagging, the wear and the drift of the surface, the disturbance of the stable burning, and a deterioration in the yield of the liquid slag), which leads to a decrease in the reliable and economical operation of boilers, a decrease in the loading, and sometimes in the stopping of the boilers. The reliable and economical operation with the burning of coal of a changing quality can be insured in conditions of a complex solution to the problem of enriching the fuel in the place of its extraction; modernization of the fuel boilers and supplemntary equipment; and process measures. Balance tests are presented of the TPP-210A boiler operated on a mixture of solid and liquid fuel. With the burning of the coal of a deteriorated quality, the stable operation of the furnace is insured by means of adding gas of furnace fuel oil to the coal. Presentation is made of the dependency of the effect of the quality of fuel and the furnace fuel oil (gas), and the effect of the quality of the coal on the losses of heat with a mechanical incomplete burning of the fuel.

Shnitser, I.N.; Plaksin, O.T.; Solov' ev, L.K.; Vasil' ev, O.L.

1981-01-01

292

Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT imaging using 3D reformations (3DR with shaded surface display (SSD and maximum intensity projection (MIP in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ. Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374 was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

2009-06-01

293

Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT) imaging using 3D reformations (3DR) with shaded surface display (SSD) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared fin [...] dings with multiplanar reformation (MPR) images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ). Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374) was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

Marília Gerhardt de, Oliveira; Luciano Engelmann, Morais; Daniela Nascimento, Silva; Helena Willhelm de, Oliveira; Cláiton, Heitz; Lêonilson, Gaião.

294

Correlation between radiological, scintigraphic and histological changes in bone in rabbits following irradiation with single and fractionated doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the left hind legs of eight rabbits were irradiated with 1,750 rad in a single dose or with 4,650 rad divided over a period of three weeks. These animals, as well as four who had not been irradiated, were examined periodically radiologically and with 99mTechnetium pyrophosphate scintigrams during one year. No difference could be detected between the results of the single and fractionated doses. Scintigraphically there was a biphasic increase in uptake, the first peak co-inciding with the irradiation and of vascular origin, whereas the second peak occured at four months and was due to a change in bone metabolism. At the end of a year uptake in the irradiated limb was slightly reduced. The earliest radiological changes were found after six months, at the end of the second scintigraphic peak; they consisted of coarsening and blurring of the trabeculae, non-homogeneous spotty mineralisation and endosteal scalloping. Six animals developed a radiation-induced bone sarcoma, first demonstrated either by scintigraphy or radiology depending on its histology. The value of combining radiological and scintigraphic examinations for the early detection of post-radiation abnormalities is stressed. (orig.)

1979-01-01

295

Histomorphometric analysis of the temporal bone after change of direction of force vector of mandible: an experimental study in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at performing a histological evaluation of the response of temporal bone tissue to a change of direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the base of the skull. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult rabbits were assigned into four groups with two control a [...] nd four experimental animals in each group. experimental animals underwent surgery, which resulted in a change of direction of the force vector on the right temporomandibular joint. Samples were collected after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days for histological analysis. RESULTS: In the two-way analysis of variance, the effect of group and time was statistically significant (p

Puricelli, Edela; Ponzoni, Deise; Munaretto, Jéssica Cerioli; Corsetti, Adriana; Leite, Mauro Gomes Trein.

296

Reactive Kripke semantics  

CERN Document Server

This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

Gabbay, Dov M

2013-01-01

297

Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic bone cancer pain is thought to be partly due to central sensitization. Although murine models of bone cancer pain revealed significant neurochemical changes in the spinal cord, it is not known whether this produces functional alterations in spinal sensory synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined excitatory synaptic responses evoked in substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices of adult mice bearing bone cancer, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques. Results Mice at 14 to 21 days after sarcoma implantation into the femur exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of the ipsilateral hind paw, as well as showing spontaneous and movement evoked pain-related behaviors. SG neurons exhibited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The amplitudes of spontaneous EPSCs were significantly larger in cancer-bearing than control mice without any changes in passive membrane properties of SG neurons. In the presence of TTX, the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in SG neurons was increased in cancer-bearing mice and this was observed for cells sampled across a wide range of lumbar segmental levels. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by focal stimulation were also enhanced in cancer-bearing mice. Dorsal root stimulation elicited mono- and/or polysynaptic EPSCs that were caused by the activation of A? and/or C afferent fibers in SG neurons from both groups of animals. The number of cells receiving monosynaptic inputs from A? and C fibers was not different between the two groups. However, the amplitude of the monosynaptic C fiber-evoked EPSCs and the number of SG neurons receiving polysynaptic inputs from A? and C fibers were increased in cancer-bearing mice. Conclusions These results show that spinal synaptic transmission mediated through A? and C fibers is enhanced in the SG across a wide area of lumbar levels following sarcoma implantation in the femur. This widespread spinal sensitization may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the development of chronic bone cancer pain.

Uta Daisuke

2010-07-01

298

Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses  

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Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, (B10----AKR), against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of (B10----AKR) chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype.

Iwabuchi, K.; Ogasawara, K.; Ogasawara, M.; Yasumizu, R.; Noguchi, M.; Geng, L.; Fujita, M.; Good, R.A.; Onoe, K.

1987-01-01

299

The influence of a reflector on the reactivity change of a collapsing fuel-bubble mixture in a melted fast breeder reactor core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident with core meltdown in a sodium-cooled fast breeder is considered. In the course of the accident, steel bubbles collapse in the fuel-steel mixture, changing neutron leakage, and therefore also reactivity. Whereas previous investigations considered unreflected systems only, the present work considers the influence of the reflector. Chapters I and II are introductory. In Chapter III the reactivity change from collapsing bubbles is treated by a one-group diffusion theory. The resulting equations are evaluated in Chapter IV for a hypothetical reactor core. A comparison with available Monte Carlo calculation shows satisfactory agreement. The influence of the reflector on reactivity is considered as a function of bubble radius and core dimensions and discussed. (G.Q.)

1983-01-01

300

Bone Grafts  

Science.gov (United States)

A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

 
 
 
 
301

Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders  

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Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author)

1994-12-01

302

Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders  

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Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author).

Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

1994-12-01

303

Influence of two changes in the composition of an acrylic bone cement on its handling, thermal, physical, and mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a contribution to the growing body of work on the influence of changes in the composition of an acrylic bone cement on various properties of the curing and cured material. The focus is on one commercially-available acrylic bone cement brand, Surgical Simplex P, and three variants of it and a series of properties, namely, setting time, maximum exotherm temperature, activation energy and frequency factor for the polymerization reaction, diffusion coefficient for the uptake of phosphate buffered saline, at 37 degrees C, ultimate compressive strength (UCS), plane-strain fracture toughness, fatigue life (under fully-reversed tension-compression stress), hardness (H) and elastic modulus (both determined using quasi-static nanoindentation), and the variation of the storage and loss moduli with frequency of the applied force in a dynamic nanoindentation test. It was found that (a) a 68% reduction in the volume of the activator, N,N dimethyl-4-toluidine, relative to the total volume of the liquid monomer (the amounts of all the constituents in the powder and of the hydroquinone in the liquid monomer remaining unchanged) led to, for example, a significant decrease in the rate of the polymerization reaction, at 37 degrees C (c') and a significant increase in H; and (b) the elimination of the pre-polymerized poly (methyl methacrylate) beads in the powder (the amounts of all the other powder constituents and those of the liquid monomer remaining unchanged) led to, for example, a significant drop in c' and a significant increase in UCS. Thus, these findings suggest a strategy for optimizing the composition of an acrylic bone cement. PMID:17483892

Lewis, G; Xu, J; Madigan, S; Towler, M R

2007-08-01

304

Micro-architectural changes in cancellous bone differ in female and male C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet-induced low bone mineral density.  

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The relationship between fat and bone mass at distinct trabecular and cortical skeletal compartments in a high-fat diet (HFD) model was studied. For this, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups of eight animals each. Two groups, each of males and females, received a standard chow diet while the remaining other two groups received the HFD for a period of 10 weeks. Male mice on the HFD were heavier and gained more weight (15·8 %; P<  0·05) v. those on the control diet or when compared with the female rats fed the HFD. We observed an increased lipid profile in both males and females, with significantly higher lipid levels (about 20-25 %; P< 0·01) in males. However, glucose intolerance was more pronounced in females than males on the HFD (about 30 %; P< 0·05). The micro-architectural assessment of bones showed that compared with female mice on the HFD, male mice on the HFD showed more deterioration at the trabecular region. This was corroborated by plasma osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTx) levels confirming greater loss in males (about 20 %; P< 0·01). In both sexes cortical bone parameters and strength remained unchanged after 10 weeks of HFD treatment. The direct effect of the HFD on bone at the messenger RNA level in progenitor cells isolated from femoral bone marrow was a significantly increased expression of adipogenic marker genes v. osteogenic genes. Overall, the present data indicate that obesity induced by a HFD aggravates bone loss in the cancellous bone compartment, with a greater loss in males than females, although 10 weeks of HFD treatment did not alter cortical bone mass and strength in both males and females. PMID:24506951

Gautam, Jyoti; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Khedgikar, Vikram; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Singh, Ravi Shankar; Singh, Divya; Tiwari, Swasti; Trivedi, Ritu

2014-05-28

305

Changing patterns of AIDS: impact on the indications and diagnostic yield of bone marrow biopsies  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english After the advent of HAART, the clinical course of HIV infection has dramatically improved. Therefore, it seems appropriate to reevaluate the performance of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) as a diagnostic tool. The aim of the present study was to compare the reasons for performing a BMB and its diagnostic y [...] ield in HIV-patients before and after HAART. A total of 165 BMB specimens obtained from HIV-infected patients receiving care at the Hospital of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in two different periods (1986-1994 and 1999-2004) were analysed. The main reason for BMB examination in the first period was fever (88%), which decreased in the second period (57%, p

José Carlos, Morais; Marcel, Machado; Irene, Biasoli; Paulo Feijó, Barroso; Cristiane, Milito; Nelson, Spector.

306

Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 ±6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P?0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CTTOTFEM and CTTROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by volumetric QCT may be suggested

2005-05-01

307

Role of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the changes in cerebrovascular reactivity following hemorrhagic hypotension and retransfusion.  

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We studied the involvement of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the changes in cerebrovascular reactivity following hemorrhagic hypotension and retransfusion. Feline middle cerebral arteries were prepared from control animals killed under anesthesia and from anesthetised animals subjected to hemorrhagic hypotension (stepwise bleeding to 90, 70, and 50 mmHg, maintained for 20 min at each level) followed by retransfusion (20 min). Two-mm-long vessel segments were suspended in organ chambers containing Krebs-Henseleit solution (37 degrees C, gassed with 95% O2-5% CO2) for isometric force measurements. Contractions to noradrenaline (norepinephrine), relaxations to acetylcholine, ATP, adenosine, and SIN-1, a nitric oxide donor compound, were compared in the vessels of the control and hemorrhage-subjected animals. Contractile responses to noradrenaline were significantly enhanced after hemorrhage, whereas relaxations to acetylcholine, ATP, and adenosine were significantly reduced. Relaxations to SIN-1, however, remained unchanged. L-Arginine did not cause relaxations in control vessels but relaxed the arteries after hemorrhage and retransfusion. To clarify the involvement of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in these alterations, we studied the effect of exogenous application of L-arginine, the precursor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), a competitive antagonist of the EDRF-producing enzyme on the vascular responses in vitro. Similar to the effect of hypotension and retransfusion, NOLA enhanced the noradrenaline-induced contractions and inhibited the acetylcholine-induced and purinoceptor-mediated relaxations in the control arteries. In the control vessels in vitro, L-arginine treatment did not modify any contractile or relaxant response. At the same time, in vitro L-arginine treatment inhibited the hemorrhagic hypotension-induced enhancement of the contractions to noradrenaline and restored the diminished relaxations to acetylcholine (but not to ATP or adenosine). In the vessels after hemorrhage, NOLA neither further enhanced the already markedly enhanced noradrenaline-induced contractions nor further inhibited the relaxations caused by ATP and adenosine. In the case of acetylcholine, however, NOLA caused a further inhibition of the relaxations. The effect of in vivo L-Arg infusion (30 mg/kg initial bolus and 10 mg/kg/min infusion) during hemorrhagic hypotension and retransfusion on the in vitro vascular reactivity was similar to that of the in vitro L-arginine treatment. The present study demonstrates that even short-lasting hemorrhagic hypotension combined with retransfusion markedly inhibits nitric oxide-mediated, agonist-induced endothelium-dependent cerebrovascular responses. In vivo or in vitro L-arginine treatment is able to restore normal responses to some agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1446389

Szabó, C; Csáki, C; Benyó, Z; Reivich, M; Kovách, A G

1992-08-01

308

Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance  

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Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to ...

Yassaei S; Mm, Soroush

2007-01-01

309

Transcriptional changes in bone marrow stromal cells of patients with heart failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is proposed that patients with heart failure may have not only myocardial dysfunction, but also a reduced regenerative capacity of stem cells. However, very little is known about bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) characteristics in heart failure and its comorbidities (obesity and/or diabetes). We hypothesized that metabolic alterations associated with the latter will be reflected in altered expression of key genes related to angiogenesis, inflammation, and tissue remodeling in patient-derived BMSCs. We found that BMSCs of heart failure patients with lower body mass index have enhanced expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. In particular, body mass indexMMP2, MMP14, uPA), and regulatory molecules (CTGF, ITG?5, SMAD7, SNAIL1). In contrast, these transcript levels did not differ significantly between BMSCs from obese heart failure patients and healthy subjects. Comorbidities (including obesity and diabetes) are known to play role in heart failure progression rate and outcome of the disease. We thus suggest that key molecular targets identified in this study should become the target of the subsequent focused studies. In the future, these targets may find some use in the clinical setting. PMID:24626177

Minullina, Izida R; Alexeyeva, Nina P; Anisimov, Sergey V; Puzanov, Maxim V; Kozlova, Svetlana N; Sviryaev, Yurii V; Zaritskey, Andrey Yu; Shlyakhto, Eugeniy V

2014-05-01

310

A Bayesian path analysis to estimate causal effects of bazedoxifene acetate on incidence of vertebral fractures, either directly or through non-linear changes in bone mass density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims: Bone mass density values have been related with risk of vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. However, bone mass density is not perfectly accurate in predicting risk of fracture, which decreases its usefulness as a surrogate in clinical trials. We propose a modeling framework with three interconnected parts to improve the evaluation of bone mass density accuracy in forecasting fractures after treatment.Methods: The modeling framework includes: (1) a piecewise regression to describe non-linear temporal BMD changes more accurately than crude percent changes, (2) a structural equation model to analyze interdependencies among vertebral fractures and their potential risk factors in preference to regression techniques that consider only directional associations, and (3) a counterfactual causal interpretation of the direct and indirect relationships between treatment and occurrence of vertebral fractures. We apply the methods to BMD repeated measurements from a study of the effect of bazedoxifene acetate on incident vertebral fractures in three different geographical regions.Results: We made four observations: (1) bone mass density changes varied largely across participants, (2) baseline age and body mass index influenced baseline bone mass density that, in turn, had an effect on prevalent fractures, (3) direct and/or indirect effects of bazedoxifene acetate on incident fractures were different across regions, and (4) estimates of indirect effects were sensible to the presence of post-treatment unmeasured confounders. In one region, around 40% of the bazedoxifene acetate effect on the occurrence of fracture is explained by its effect on bone mass density. Under the counterfactual approach, these 40% represent the average difference in the occurrence of fracture observed for untreated individuals when their bone mass density values are set at the value under bazedoxifene acetate versus under placebo.Conclusions: Computational methods are available to evaluate and interpret the surrogacytic capability of a biomarker of a primary outcome. PMID:22967963

Detilleux, J; Reginster, J-Y; Chines, A; Bruyère, O

2012-09-11

311

Development of degenerative changes in the wrist with nonunion oh the scaphoid bone  

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Full Text Available In patients with symptomatic scaphoid nonunion there was an increased evidence of progressive osteoarthrosis expressed as instability of the wrist1,2; it is defined as a scapholunate angle more than 70 degrees or a radiolunate angle of more than 10 degrees. We tried to determine the factors of risk and prognostic indicators of degenerative arthritis. In this study 40 patients with painful nonunion of the scaphoid were analyzed. Duration of nonunion was not in correlation with development of osteoarthritic changes (p=0,644; p>0,05. Progressive degenerative changes correlated well with radiolunate angle (p=0,398; p<0,05, kapitolunate angle (p=0,381; p<0,05 and carpal index (p=0,392; p<0,05. The average values of intercarpal angles increased with progression of osteoarthritic changes. There was a statistically strong correlation between location of fracture in proximal third and presence of degenerative changes (p=0,341; p<0,01. Intensity of arthritic changes showed no statistically significant correlation regarding untreated fractures (p=0,665; p>0,05. We recommend that a scaphoid nonunion associated with carpal instability should be operated before degenerative changes develop.

Leši? Aleksandar

2005-01-01

312

Histological and radiological changes in cranial bone in the presence of bone wax / Alterações histológicas e radiológicas no osso craniano na presença de cera de osso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Quantificar a formação óssea da região da calvaria de ratos Wistar submetidos à craniotomia com a utilização de cera de osso como agente hemostático. MÉTODOS: Cirurgia para realizar um defeito ósseo craniano bilateral, simétrico (área: 18 mm²) e com espessura total foi realizado em oito an [...] imais. O lado direito do crânio permaneceu aberto e as extremidades do defeito ósseo do lado esquerdo foram recobertas com cera de osso. O crânio foi submetido à avaliação radiológica imediatamente após a cirurgia e 12 semanas após a cirurgia com a utilização de tomografia computadorizada. As áreas dos defeitos ósseos foram medidas através de imagens tridimensionais e utilizando o programa de computador Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD). RESULTADOS: A quantidade média de formação óssea no lado esquerdo e direito foi respectivamente de 4.85 mm² e 8.16 mm². Diferença estatisticamente significante foi observada entre o lado direito e esquerdo. CONCLUSÕES: A cera de osso diminuiu significativamente a formação óssea nos defeitos ósseos em modelo animal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of bone formation in the calvarial region of Wistar rats after craniotomy using bone wax as a haemostatic agent. METHODS: Surgery to produce bilateral, symmetric, full-thickness cranial defects (area: 18 mm²) was performed in eight animals. The right side of the crani [...] um remained open and the edges of the left side osseous defect was covered with bone wax. Calvaria were imaged immediately after surgery and 12 weeks postoperatively by computerized tomography. The areas of the bone defects were measured in three-dimensional images using Magics 13.0 (Materialise-Belgic, software CAD). RESULTS: The average amount of bone formation on the left and right side respectively was 4.85 mm² and 8.16 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation on the left and right sides were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Bone wax significantly diminishes the rate of bone formation in calvarial defects in a rat model.

Cassio Eduardo, Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz Albino de, Almeida; Gustavo, Paschoal; Daniela Franco, Bueno; Luiz Carlos, Vulcano; Maria Rita, Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo, Alonso.

313

Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study  

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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low-back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes and LBP at 14 months follow-up (n = 37) were invited to participate in this subsequent antibiotic trial but five did not meet the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: 29 patients completed the treatment, as three patients dropped out due to severe diarrhoea. At the end of treatment and at long-term follow-up (mean 10.8 months) there was both clinically important and statistically significant (p

Albert, HB; Manniche, C

2008-01-01

314

Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density / Enfermedad hepática alcohólica y alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La osteoporosis y la osteopenia son alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) que se desarrollan frecuentemente en la enfermedad hepática crónica (EHC). Dichas alteraciones han sido estudiadas predominantemente en la enfermedad colestásica crónica y en la cirrosis hepática. El consumo de alcoho [...] l es un factor de riesgo independiente para la aparición de osteoporosis, cuya prevalencia estimada en pacientes con enfermedad hepática por alcohol (EHA) varía entre un 5 % y un 40 %. La pérdida de DMO en la EHA se produce por un disbalance entre formación y resorción ósea. Su etiopatogenia es multifactorial y comprende la toxicidad del alcohol sobre el hueso, las alteraciones endocrinológicas y nutricionales secundarias al alcoholismo y el déficit de osteocalcina, vitamina D e IGF-1, entre otras. El diagnóstico de las alteraciones de la DMO en la EHA se basa en su medición mediante densitometría ósea. El tratamiento incluye el abandono del alcohol y medidas generales de tipo nutricional, abandono del tabaco y ejercicio físico. La suplementación con calcio y vitamina D se recomienda en todos los pacientes con EHA y osteoporosis. Los bisfosfonatos son los principales fármacos para el tratamiento específico de esta entidad. Otras alternativas son el raloxifeno, el tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo y la calcitonina. La presente revisión abordará los aspectos más relevantes para el manejo clínico de las alteraciones de la DMO en el contexto de la EHA, incluyendo su prevalencia, etiopatogenia y diagnóstico. Por otra parte, se efectuará una revisión del tratamiento de la osteoporosis en la EHC en general, incidiendo en los aspectos específicos relacionados con la pérdida de masa ósea en la EHA. Abstract in english Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD). These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk facto [...] r for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

López-Larramona, Germán; Lucendo, Alfredo J.; González-Delgado, Laura.

315

Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman microspectroscopy was used to examine the biochemical composition and molecular structure of extracellular matrix in spongy and subchondral bone collected from patients with clinical and radiological evidence of idiopathic osteoarthritis of the hip and from patients who underwent a femoral neck fracture, as a result of trauma, without previous clinical and radiological evidence of osteoarthritis. The objectives of the study were to determine the levels of mineralization, carbonate accumulation and collagen quality in bone tissue. The subchondral bone from osteoarthritis patients in comparison with control subject is less mineralized due to a decrease in the hydroxyapatite concentration. However, the extent of carbonate accumulation in the apatite crystal lattice increases, most likely due to deficient mineralization. The alpha helix to random coil band area ratio reveals that collagen matrix in subchondral bone is more ordered in osteoarthritis disease. The hydroxyapatite to collagen, carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite and alpha helix to random coil band area ratios are not significantly changed in the differently loaded sites of femoral head. The significant differences also are not visible in mineral and organic constituents' content in spongy bone beneath the subchondral bone in osteoarthritis disease.

Buchwald, Tomasz; Niciejewski, Krzysztof; Kozielski, Marek; Szybowicz, Miros?aw; Siatkowski, Marcin; Krauss, Hanna

2012-01-01

316

Anorexia nervosa and bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

2014-06-01

317

Bone Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bone disease can make bones easy to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or ...

318

Bone tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

1988-01-01

319

Bone tumors  

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This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease.

Unni, K.K. (Dept. of Pathology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN (US))

1988-01-01

320

Antibiotic treatment in patients with low back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n=166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes and LBP at 14 months follow-up (n=37) were invited to participate in this subsequent antibiotic trial but five did not meet the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients completed the treatment, as three patients dropped out due to severe diarrhoea. At the end of treatment and at long-term follow-up (mean 10.8 months) there was both a clinically important and statistically significant (p< 0.001) improvement in all OUTCOME MEASURES: LBP intensity, number of days with pain, disease- and patient-specific function, and global perceived effect. CONCLUSIONS: In this uncontrolled trial, the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment was large in a group of patients with Modic changes suffering from persistent LBP following a disc herniation. These results provide tentative support for a hypothesis that bacterial infection may play a role in LBP with Modic changes and indicate the need for randomised controlled trials to test this hypothesis.

Albert, Hanne B.; Manniche, Claus

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Analysis of trabecular bone architectural changes induced by osteoarthritis in rabbit femur using 3D active shape model and digital topology  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease, which causes the cartilage between the bone joints to wear away, leading to pain and stiffness. Currently, progression of OA is monitored by measuring joint space width using x-ray or cartilage volume using MRI. However, OA affects all periarticular tissues, including cartilage and bone. It has been shown previously that in animal models of OA, trabecular bone (TB) architecture is particularly affected. Furthermore, relative changes in architecture are dependent on the depth of the TB region with respect to the bone surface and main direction of load on the bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for accurately evaluating 3D architectural changes induced by OA in TB. Determining the TB test domain that represents the same anatomic region across different animals is crucial for studying disease etiology, progression and response to therapy. It also represents a major technical challenge in analyzing architectural changes. Here, we solve this problem using a new active shape model (ASM)-based approach. A new and effective semi-automatic landmark selection approach has been developed for rabbit distal femur surface that can easily be adopted for many other anatomical regions. It has been observed that, on average, a trained operator can complete the user interaction part of landmark specification process in less than 15 minutes for each bone data set. Digital topological analysis and fuzzy distance transform derived parameters are used for quantifying TB architecture. The method has been applied on micro-CT data of excised rabbit femur joints from anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) (n = 6) and sham (n = 9) operated groups collected at two and two-to-eight week post-surgery, respectively. An ASM of the rabbit right distal femur has been generated from the sham group micro-CT data. The results suggest that, in conjunction with ASM, digital topological parameters are suitable for analyzing architectural changes induced by OA.

Saha, P. K.; Rajapakse, C. S.; Williams, D. S.; Duong, L.; Coimbra, A.

2007-03-01

322

Age-related changes in the hemodynamics of the femoral head as evaluated by early phase of bone scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The femoral head is reported to be in a markedly hypoemic state as compared with other tissues even under normal conditions, and it is therefore necessary to understand its hemodynamics to investigate the pathogenesis of hip disorders. It is known that aspects of intraosseous hemodynamics including blood flow and blood pool can be evaluated soon after radioisotope administration. In this study, hemodynamic changes in the femoral head according to gender and age were examined by investigating accumulation of radioisotope in the tissue during the early phase of bone scintigraphy. The subjects of this study consisted of 58 joints of 31 men and 75 joints of 41 women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 87 years (average age: 67.9 years). Images of bone scintigraphy were obtained for 15 to 20 minutes at 5 minutes and at 3 hours after radioisotope administration. The ratio of accumulation in the femoral head to that in the diaphysis (head-to-diaphysis ratio, HD ratio) was calculated. HD ratios obtained 15-20 minutes later ranged from 0.01 to 7.35 (1.88±0.91, mean±SD). HD ratios decreased with age, and a significant inverse correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.27 (p=0.001). The HD ratio among men was 0.01-3.57 (1.66±0.71), while that among women was 0.53-7.35 (2.05±1.01), and a significant difference was observed in HD ratio between men and women (p=0.02). There was a significant difference in HD ratios between men and women in their teens to forties (p=0.03), while no significant differences was observed in the other age groups. HD ratios obtained 3 hours later ranged from 0.44 to 6.32 (1.95±0.79, mean±SD), and no significant correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.14. The present study demonstrated that blood flow and blood pool of the femoral head decrease with aging particularly in women. This hemodynamic deterioration of the femoral head caused by aging may have an effect on the onset and progression of hip disorders by influencing bone metabolism. (author)

2006-01-01

323

DYNAMICS OF RAT’S BONE TISSUE MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES INFLUENCED BY THE LOW DOSES OF RADIATION AND THEIR FURTHER CORRECTION BY THE «CALCIUM - GLUCONATE» MEDICATION  

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Full Text Available This article is devoted to study the changes of the rat’s bone tissue of different age groups influenced by the radiation low doses. It is proved that application of «calcium - gluconate» provides significant decrease of osteoporosis especially at a young age, while the progression of osteoporosis is slowed down in the old rats.

Markevych O. V.

2013-07-01

324

Progressive changes in chromatin structure and DNA damage response signals in bone marrow and peripheral blood during myelomagenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular pathways implicated in multiple myeloma (MM) development are rather unknown. We studied epigenetic and DNA damage response (DDR) signals at selected model loci (N-ras, p53, d-globin) in bone marrow plasma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n=20), smoldering/asymptomatic MM (SMM; n=29) and MM (n=18), as well as in healthy control-derived PBMCs (n=20). In both tissues analyzed, a progressive, significant increase in the looseness of local chromatin structure, gene expression levels and DNA repair efficiency from MGUS to SMM and finally to MM was observed (all PSMM and lowest in MM patients (all P<0.0103). Interestingly, for all endpoints analyzed, a strong correlation between plasma cells and corresponding PBMCs was observed (all P<0.0003). We conclude that progressive changes in chromatin structure, transcriptional activity and DDR pathways during myelomagenesis occur in malignant plasma cells and that these changes are also reflected in PBMCs. PMID:24089038

Gkotzamanidou, M; Terpos, E; Bamia, C; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Sfikakis, P P; Dimopoulos, M A; Souliotis, V L

2014-05-01

325

Small Animal Bone Biomechanics  

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Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small anima...

2008-01-01

326

Eating disorders and bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

2013-01-01

327

The change of reactivity effect in the IBR-2 pulsed reactor related to burn-up in the period from 1982 to 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the analysis of the IBR-2 reactor operation within 1982-2006 one derived the dependence of the reactivity change on the energy generation. The extra effects caused probably by the fuel compaction and by the structural change of the reactor core material apart from the burnup effect are shown to be operating at the reactor operation initial stage. In the course of time the mentioned effects reduce and approach zero. Upon 40000 MW h one observes just the effect of the burnup, and starting from this moment the reactivity reduces linearly with kB factor. One derived formula to calculate the energy generation factor at any moment of the reactor operation

2008-03-01

328

Bone marrow scintigraphy and MR tomography in malignant lymphoma: Comparison with results of histology. Knochenmarksszintigraphie und Kernspintomographie bei malignen Lymphomen: Vergleich mit histologischen Ergebnissen  

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One hundred and seven patients with malignant Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were examined by bone marrow scintigraphy, MRI of bone marrow and bone marrow biopsy to detect bone marrow infiltration. The findings of bone marrow imaging and biopsy were classified as normal (grade 0), suggesting reactive changes of bone marrow (grade 1) or suspicious for infiltration (grade 2). About half of all results of biopsy and imaging methods agreed completely. There was a difference of two steps in the classification in only 2 cases (MRI) and 5 cases (scintigraphy). In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia false negative findings by both bone marrow imaging techniques were frequent. Although a positive biopsy result must be accepted as proof of bone marrow infiltration, our results indicate that a negative biopsy does not exclude tumor involvement. In all 4 patients with infiltration suspected on MRI or scintigraphy results but with normal findings or reactive changes in the first blind biopsy, blind rebiopsy or guided rebiopsy confirmed the results of the imaging methods. In both patients evaluated at autopsy the preceding MRI and scintigraphy results were confirmed completely, although in both of these patients antemortem biopsy had indicated different findings. Based upon these observations, bone marrow scintigraphy and MRI should be routinely included in the staging of malignant lymphoma as an adjunct to blind bone marrow biopsy in the complete evaluation of bone marrow status. (orig./MG).

Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Zankovich, R.; Diehl, V. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik 1)

1989-10-01

329

Clinical application of changes of serum cytokines and hypersensitive C-reactive protein in patients with coronary heart disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study clinical application of the changes of serum cytokines and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: The levels of interleukin-1?(IL-1?), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-8(IL-8), hs-CRP (with high-sensitive enzyme immunoassay) and tumor necrosis factor ?(TNF-?) (with radioimmunoassay) in blood serum were determined in 124 patients with coronary heart disease (including 41 patients with stable angina pectoris (SA), 38 patients with unstable angina (USA) and 45 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)) and 54 normal controls, and then comparatively analysed all the data. Results: The levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in 124 patients with coronary heart disease were significantly higher than those in 54 normal controls (tIL-1?=3.145, tIL-6=3.627, tIL-8=3.054, tTNF-?=3.301, PIL-1?= 1.431, tIL-6= 1.587, tIL-8= 1.745, tTNF-?=1.461, P>0.05). The levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in 38 patients with USA and in 45 patients with AMI were significantly higher than those of in 54 normal controls (USA: tIL-1?=2.871, tIL-6=2.748, tIL-8=2.687, tTNF-?=3.145, PIL-1?=2.776, tIL-6=2.874, tIL-8=2.689, tTNF-?=3.212, PSA=2.617, PUSA=3.018, PAMI=3.189, P<0.01). The levels of IL-1?, IL-6,IL-8, TNF-? and hs-CRP had increasing tendency follow up the severity degree of patients with SA or USA or AMI and the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and hs-CRP in patients with AMI were highest in 124 patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: In the diagnosis of the patients with SA, USA and AMI, the determination of the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and hs-CRP in blood serum were important index, and they were references for cardiovascular happened. (authors)

2010-09-01

330

Bone fragility: current reviews and clinical features  

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Bone strength is determined by a number of important factors, including bone mass and bone shape. A reduction in bone strength is clearly related to fracture. Bone fragility results from a reduction in bone mass and density. If there is a reduction in the connectivity of bone and impact from a mechanical load occurs, bone will fracture. Rather than considering bone fragility as being the result of a reduced amount of bone, we recognize that bone fragility is the result of changes in the mater...

Tranquilli Leali, Paolo; Doria, Carlo; Zachos, Alexandros; Ruggiu, Adriano; Milia, Fabio; Barca, Francesca

2009-01-01

331

Longitudinal change in femorotibial cartilage thickness and subchondral bone plate area in male and female adolescent vs. mature athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about changes in human cartilage thickness and subchondral bone plate area (tAB) during growth. The objective of this study was to explore longitudinal change in femorotibial cartilage thickness and tAB in adolescent athletes, and to compare these data with those of mature former athletes. Twenty young (baseline age 16.0±0.6 years) and 20 mature (46.3±4.7 years) volleyball athletes were studied (10 men and 10 women in each group). Magnetic resonance images were acquired at baseline and at year 2-follow-up, and longitudinal changes in cartilage thickness and tAB were determined quantitatively after segmentation. The yearly increase in total femorotibial cartilage thickness was 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.5; 2.1%) in young men and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.7; 2.2%) in young women; the gain in tAB was 0.4% (95% CI: -0.1; 0.8%) and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2; 1.2%), respectively (no significant difference between sexes). The cartilage thickness increase was greatest in the medial femur, and was not significantly associated with the variability in tAB growth (r=-0.19). Mature athletes showed smaller gains in tAB, and lost >1% of femorotibial cartilage per annum, with the greatest loss observed in the lateral tibia. In conclusion, we find an increase in cartilage thickness (and some in tAB) in young athletes toward the end of adolescence. This increase appeared somewhat greater in women than men, but the differences between both sexes did not reach statistical significance. Mature (former) athletes displayed high rates of (lateral) femorotibial cartilage loss, potentially due to a high prevalence of knee injuries. PMID:24439995

Eckstein, Felix; Boeth, Heide; Diederichs, Gerd; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hudelmaier, Martin; Cotofana, Sebastian; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Duda, Georg

2014-05-01

332

System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone  

Science.gov (United States)

Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

2011-01-01

333

Changes in the stiffness of the human tibial cartilage-bone complex in early-stage osteoarthrosis  

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Cylindrical human tibial cartilage-bone unit specimens were removed from 9 early-stage medial osteoarthrotic (OA) tibiae (mean age 74 years) and 10 normal age-matched tibiae (mean age 73 years). These specimens were divided into 4 groups: OA, lateral comparison, medial age-matched, and lateral age-matched and were tested to 0.5% bone strain with a novel technique to obtain the stiffnesses of both cartilage and bone simultaneously. We found a pronounced reduction in the stiffnesses of OA cartilage and subchondral bone when compared with the medial age-matched group. OA cartilage was significantly thinner than that of the lateral comparison and the medial age-matched control groups. However, this reduction in thickness was not correlated with the reduction in stiffness for OA cartilage. The stiffnesses did not correlate between OA cartilage and bone, whereas the stiffness relationships between cartilage and bone remained significant in the three control groups. Our findings suggest that both cartilage and bone in early-stage OA are mechanically inferior to normal, and that OA cartilage and bone have lost their unit function to mechanical loading.

Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M

1998-01-01

334

Age-related changes in the 3D hierarchical structure of rat tibia cortical bone characterized by high-resolution micro-CT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional hierarchical structure of female Sprague-Dawley rat tibia cortical bone was characterized as a function of age (3, 12, 32, 42, 60, and 72 wk) using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography. At the whole bone level, 3-wk samples exhibited statistically significant differences in a mean total tissue volume, mean cortical bone volume, mean cortical bone volume density, mean periosteal perimeter, and mean cortical thickness (P lacuna number density and a lacuna volume density, and all lacunae element-based parameters displayed no dependence on age across age. In addition, at the microstructural level, the cannular indexes were reported separately for anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral anatomic regions. From 3 to 32 wk of age, there existed significantly fewer canals per volume of bone in the medial region of the tibia vs. other cross-sectional quadrants. Although there were changes with age, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean canal volume, mean canal diameter, and mean canal length between the four anatomic regions. PMID:23329820

Jast, John; Jasiuk, Iwona

2013-04-01

335

Effects of broiler breeder-feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on eggshell properties and progeny bone development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract 1. The effects of diet type, feeding programme and fast- or slow-feed allocation in fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens on eggshell properties and broiler progeny bone development were investigated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment. 2. The birds were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets during rearing and production and on a fast- or slow-feed allocation programme from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space (FS) either remained similar or was increased. 3. Eggs produced at 33 weeks were incubated, eggshell conductance (G) was determined and a sample of 14 chicks from each treatment combination was taken to obtain bone traits at hatching. 4. Diet type did not influence G, yolk-free body weight (BW), residual yolk weight or relative asymmetry (RA) of any bilateral traits of leg bones of hatchlings. However, breeder diet type was involved on two-way and three-way interaction effects on progeny leg bone traits. 5. Breeders feed restricted according to the slow-feeding programme laid eggs with greater G compared to those managed with the fast-feeding programme, but there was no effect of feeding programme on progeny bone traits at hatching. 6. Eggs from breeders given more FS at photostimulation had greater G than those from breeders provided with similar FS. Maternal FS change did not influence hatchling yolk-free BW; however, breeders given more FS produced progeny with heavier tibias and shanks and longer femurs compared with those provided with similar FS, but only when breeders were fed on maize. Moreover, increased maternal FS at photostimulation was associated with an increased RA of femur length in the progeny. 7. It was concluded that breeder FS change at photostimulation influenced eggshell conductance and consistently affected bone development of the broiler progeny. PMID:24814245

Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Pérez Serrano, M; Brake, J

2014-06-01

336

1. modification of the proliferative capacity of transplanted bone marrow colony forming units by changes in the host environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulation of the proliferation of transplanted colony forming units (CFUs) was investigated in lethally irradiated mice, pretreated by methods known to accelerate hemopoietic recovery after sublethal irradiation. Prospective recipients were exposed to either hypoxia, vinblastine or priming irradiation and at different intervals thereafter lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow. Repopulation of CFUs was determined by counting the number of splenic colonies in primary recipients or by retransplantation. Regeneration of grafted CFUs was greatly accelerated and their self-renewal capacity increased in mice grafted within 2 days after hypoxia. Also the number of splenic colonies formed by grafted syngeneic CFUs as well as by C57B1 parent CFUs growing in BC3F1 hosts was significantly increased. The effect was not dependent on the seeding efficiency of CFUs and apparently resulted from hypoxia induced changes in the hosts' physiological environment. Proliferative capacity of grafted CFUs increased remarkably in hosts receiving vinblastine 2 or 4 days prior to irradiation. Priming irradiation given 6 days before main irradiation accelerated, given 2 days before impaired regeneration of CFUs. The increased rate of regeneration was not related to the cellularity of hemopoietic organs at the time of transplantation. The growth of CFUs in diffusion chambers implanted into posthypoxic mice was only slightly improved which does indicate that the accelerated regeneration of CFUs in posthypoxic mice is mainly due to the changes in the hemopoietic microenvironment. A short conditioning of transplanted CFUs by host factor(s) was sufficient to improve regeneration. The results might suggest that the speed of hemopoietic regeneration depends on the number of CFUs being induced to proliferate shortly after irradiation, rather than on the absolute numbers of CFUs available to the organism. (author)

1974-01-01

337

Age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone mineral status: A quantitative CT study in lumbar vertebrae  

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To investigate the age and sex dependence of the bone mineral status of human lumbar vertebrae with special regard to differences between cortical and trabecular bone. The study group comprised 125 normal Japanese healthy volunteers (54 males and 71 females), and was subdivided into adult male and female groups (subjects younger than 40 years), intermediate male and female groups (ages ranging between 41 and 64 years) and old male and female groups (subjects older than 65 years). The cortical bone mineral status was estimated using a single-energy quantitative CT (SE-QCT) technique, whereas trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated using a dual-energy (DE-QCT) technique. A considerable gender difference in the age-related cortical bone status was found. There was a significant reduction of the mean values of the cortical volume and BMD in the old female group compared with those obtained in the old male group. The results suggest that in men, cortical and trabecular bone volume decrease very little with age. In women, cortical volume and BMD and trabecular BMD decrease with age while trabecular bone volume does not. The study showed that all variables had higher values in men than in women and that the difference increased with age.

Tanno, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Horiuchi, T. [GE Yokogawa Medical Systems (Japan). CT Engineering Division; Nakajima, I.; Maeda, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Igarashi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedics; Yamada, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

2000-01-01

338

Diabetes and Change in Bone Mineral Density at the Hip, Calcaneus, Spine, and Radius in Older Women  

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Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have higher bone mineral density (BMD) but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women ?65?years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S...

Schwartz, Ann V.; Ewing, Susan K.; Porzig, Anne M.; Mcculloch, Charles E.; Resnick, Helaine E.; Hillier, Teresa A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Black, Dennis M.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Cummings, Steven R.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

2013-01-01

339

Changes in magnetic resonance bone marrow angiogenesis on day 7 after induction chemotherapy can predict outcome of acute myeloid leukemia  

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Recently, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to be a non-invasive technique that provides global and functional imaging of bone marrow angiogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia.

Hou, Hsin-an; Shih, Tiffany Ting-fang; Liu, Chieh-yu; Chen, Bang-bin; Tang, Jih-luh; Yao, Ming; Huang, Shang-yi; Chou, Wen-chien; Hsu, Chao-yu; Tien, Hwei-fang

2010-01-01

340

Magnesium status and bone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bone abnormalities have repeatedly been reported in animals experimentally depleted of Mg and, less frequently, in conditions associated with hypermagnesemia. Effects of Mg depletion include reduced bone growth and maturation, brittleness and reduced breaking strength, increased bone density, and morphologic changes suggesting resistance to bone resorption. Which abnormalities occur or predominate apparently depends on the length and severity of Mg depletion, the age and species being depleted and other dietary constituents such as the level of Ca. A number of processes that control the formation and maintenance of bone are known to depend on Mg. As an activator of adenylate cyclase, Mg is required for secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as end organ response to PTH. In Mg depleted individuals with hypocalcemia and reduced plasma PTH levels, Mg repletion rapidly increases plasma PTH and, more gradually, restores plasma Ca. Two additional functions of Mg probably influence bone development and structure: the role of Mg in cellular growth and development, and modulation of bone mineralization. Increasing Mg concentrations retard hydroxyapatite (HAP) formation and crystallinity. Magnesium deficient bone is more resistant to dissolution than normal bone. Bone in individuals with hypermagnesemia has been reported to show less than normal crystallinity. At present there is little well founded evidence linking bone disease in human subjects to low Mg status or chronic hypermagnesemia. Either condition could influence bone metabolism on theoretical grounds and should provide fruitful avenues for research.

Schwartz, R.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Persistence of back pain symptoms after pregnancy and bone mineral density changes as measured by quantitative ultrasound - a two year longitudinal follow up study  

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Abstract Background Previous research has shown a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. This loss has been correlated to the occurrence of back pain symptoms during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether persistence of back pain symptoms 2 years after pregnancy could be associated with BMD changes as measured by quantitative USG of the os calcis. Methods A cohort of patients who reported significant back pain symptoms durin...

Wk, To William; Wn, Wong Margaret

2011-01-01

342

Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone  

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Abstract Background Ultrasound (US) has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US) exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy voluntee...

Härdig Bjarne; Carlson Jonas; Roijer Anders

2008-01-01

343

Generalised linear morphoea with bone cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bone changes in morphoea are well recognised. However bone cyst in morphoea has been reported only once in the past. We describe a second case of bone syst associated with generalised linear morphoea.

Prasad PVS

1990-01-01

344

Calculations of Changes in Reactivity during some regular periods of operation of JEN-1 MOD Reactor; Calculo de vairaciones de reactividad en algunos periodos regulares de operacion del reactor JEN-1 Mod.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By a Point-Reactor model and Perturbation Theory, changes in reactivity during some regular operating periods of JEN-1 MOD Reactor have been calculated and compared with available measured values. they were in good agreement. Also changes in reactivity have been calculated during operations at higher power levels than the present one, concluding some practical consequences for the case of increasing the present power of this reactor. (Author)

Alcala Ruiz, F.

1973-07-01

345

Bone X-Ray (Radiography)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

346

Reactive arthritis  

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Reactive arthritis is a rare complication of certain infections. The similar features and HLA associations with the seronegative arthropathies have raised the possibility that the latter may be forms of reactive arthritis. This review describes the clinical and epidemiological features, and the recent advances in our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of reactive arthritis.

Hind, C. R. K.

1982-01-01

347

Changes in bone micro-architecture and biomechanical properties in the th3 thalassemia mouse are associated with decreased bone turnover and occur during the period of bone accrual  

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Osteoporosis and fractures occur frequently in patients with beta thalassemias, a group of congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by decreased synthesis of the beta chain of hemoglobin. In this study, we determined the bone abnormalities of the th3 thalassemia mouse, generated by deletion of the mouse beta chain genes. The heterozygote th3/+ mouse has moderate anemia, and serves as a model of beta thalassemia intermedia (TI), which represents the mild thalassemia phenotype. The th3/th3 mo...

2010-01-01

348

Microarray gene expression profiling of osteoarthritic bone suggests altered bone remodelling, WNT and transforming growth factor-?/bone morphogenic protein signalling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by alterations to subchondral bone as well as articular cartilage. Changes to bone in OA have also been identified at sites distal to the affected joint, which include increased bone volume fraction and reduced bone mineralization. Altered bone remodelling has been proposed to underlie these bone changes in OA. To investigate the molecular basis for these changes, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of bone obtained at autopsy from individual...

Hopwood, Blair; Tsykin, Anna; Findlay, David M.; Fazzalari, Nicola L.

2007-01-01

349

BN600 reactivity definition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

2000-04-01

350

Changes of basic bone turnover parameters in short-term and long-term patients with spinal cord injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bone mineral density (BMD), the cross- links (PYD, DPD and NTx) and the bone specific alcaline phosphatase (BAP) was investigated in a cross-sectional study in 62 male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), n = 28 short-term (0–1 year after SCI) and n = 34 long-term SCI patients (> 5 years after SCI). Knowledge about this parameters are necessary to find an adequate therapy for this special kind of osteoporosis. Immobilisation osteoporosis in SCI patients is a well-known problem...

Reiter, Andreas Ludwig; Volk, Andreas; Vollmar, Jens; Fromm, Bernd; Gerner, Hans Juergen

2007-01-01

351

A histomorphometric and scanning electron microscopy study of human condylar cartilage and bone tissue changes in relation to age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To determine the possibility for adaptive growth in human condyles, quantifying the thickness of fibrocartilage and the constitution of cells with potential activity, the trabecular bone volume, and the structural parameter: marrow space star volume in a larger sample of human autopsy condyles. EXPERIMENTAL SETTING AND DESIGN: A histomorphometric and scanning electron microscopic analysis of cartilage characteristics and bone remodelling activity. The Departments of Orthodontics and Cell Biology at Aarhus University, Denmark. An autopsy sample of condyles from 20 individuals, 18-31 years of age. Correlation analyses between ages and all parameters were conducted.

Paulsen, H U; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

1999-01-01

352

Blood and bone marrow findings in tuberculosis in adults -A cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India. Hematolgical changes have been studied with variable results. Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of blood and bone marrow changes in tuberculosis. Methods: The peripheral blood and bone marrow changes were evaluated in hundred adult patients with tuberculosis, admitted at District Hospital, Belgaum and KLES Hospital and MRC were. Results: The peripheral blood findings seen were anemia, raised ESR, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, leucopenia, thrombocytosis and thrombocytope-nia. The bone marrow changes seen were hypercellularity , myeloid hyperplasia , erythroid hyperplasia with megaloblastic changes and reactive plasmacytosis. Another interesting finding in bonemarrow was presence of granulomas which were seen in 5% of cases of which 1 case showed positivity for acid fast bacilli on Zeihl –Neelsen stain. Conclusion: The varied hematological findings observed in tuberculosis should prompt us to consider tuberculosis as one of the differential diagnosis in patients with hematological findings.

S.R. Dafale

2012-10-01

353

Heterogeneity of reactive astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astrocytes respond to injury and disease in the central nervous system (CNS) with a process referred to as reactive astrogliosis. Recent progress demonstrates that reactive astrogliosis is not a simple all-or-none phenomenon, but is a finely gradated continuum of changes that range from reversible alterations in gene expression and cell hypertrophy, to scar formation with permanent tissue rearrangement. There is now compelling evidence that reactive astrocytes exhibit a substantial potential for heterogeneity at multiple levels, including gene expression, cell morphology, topography (distance from lesions), CNS regions, local (among neighboring cells), cell signaling and cell function. Structural and functional changes are regulated in reactive astrocytes by many different potential signaling events that occur in a context dependent manner. It is noteworthy that different stimuli of astrocyte reactivity can lead to similar degrees of GFAP upregulation while causing substantially different changes in transcriptome profiles and cell function. Thus, it is not possible to equate simple and uniform measures such as cell hypertrophy and upregulation of GFAP expression with a single, uniform concept of astrocyte reactivity. Instead, it is necessary to recognize the considerable potential for heterogeneity and determine the functional implications of astrocyte reactivity in a context specific manner as regulated by specific signaling events. PMID:24361547

Anderson, Mark A; Ao, Yan; Sofroniew, Michael V

2014-04-17

354

Analogue-digital conversion in order to evaluate long-term changes in uptake of isotopes in bone scintigraphy of secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analogue-digital conversion was developed, thereby allowing the incorporation of whole-body bone scintigrams, obtained by a gamma camera, into digital data via the video camera and then allowing the processing of the incorporated digital data. Using the new method, 18 hemodialysis patients, who were voluntarily selected from those who had undergone bone scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for secondary hyperparathyroidism, were examined to determine serial changes in tracer uptake. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 6. 3 years (immediately up to 25.2 years). The tracer count ratio of the central part of the skull to the lower part of the sternum correlated most well with C-PTH. The analogue-digital conversion was found to yield a slightly higher value for the above-mentioned ratio than the original data; however, there was a good correlation between the analogue-digital conversion and original data. (N.K.).

Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

1994-11-01

355

Development of the maxillo-mandibular first molars and developmental changes in the alveolar bone morphology. Three-dimensional observation by X-ray CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the development of the maxillo-mandibular first molars and accompanying developmental changes in the alveolar bone morphology during the period from the intra-jaw bone stage to the completion stage of tooth eruption, dry skulls were three-dimensionally observed using X-ray CT. The specimens were 34 dry skulls composed of 17 skulls in the deciduous dentition period (dental age IIA) and 17 skulls in the first half of the mixed dentition period (dental age IIC, IIIA). The following results were obtained: By observing the horizontally sectioned images, the maxillary first molars approached the area on the deciduous dentition line from the palatal side, during the period from the deciduous dentition period to the first half of the mixed dentition period. The mandibular first molars approached the area on the deciduous dentition line from the buccal side. By observing the vertically sectioned images, development of the maxillary alveolar bone was higher than that of the mandibular alveolar bone during the period from the deciduous dentition period to the first half of the mixed dentition period. Although differences in the development of the alveolar bone between the maxilla and mandible were noted in the deciduous dentition period, the size of the maxilla was similar to that of the mandible in the first half of the mixed dentition period. Furthermore, positional changes in the buccal direction were marked in the maxillary first molars, which were located on the buccal side of the mandibular teeth in the first half of the mixed dentition period. Observation of the vertically sectioned images also showed that the inclination angle of the coronal axis of the first molars was large in both the maxilla and mandible in the first half of the mixed dentition period, which was marked in the mandible in particular. These results showed that in the first half of the mixed dentition period, in which the early occlusion of the first molars is established, development of the maxillo-mandibular alveolar bones gradually becomes harmonized, and occlusion occurs by the inclination of the maxillo-mandibular tooth axis. (author)

2005-09-01

356

Chronic axial compression of the mouse tail segment induces MRI bone marrow edema changes that correlate with increased marrow vasculature and cellularity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bone marrow edema (BME) has been found to be helpful in the diagnosis of back pain attributed to degenerative disk disease (DDD) and spondyloarthropathy (SA), but its interpretation is limited by a lack of knowledge of its nature and natural history. We assessed effects of compressive forces to mouse tail segments of WT and TNF-Tg mice with SA, via contrast enhanced-MRI and histology. Normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) of uninstrumented WT vertebrae significantly decrease, threefold (p < 0.01) from 8 to 12 weeks of age, while the NMCE of TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated. Compressive loading (6x body weight) increased NMCE twofold (p < 0.02) within 2 weeks in WT tails, which was equal to 6x loaded TNF-Tg tails within 4 weeks. Histology confirmed degenerative changes and that load-induced NMCE corresponded to increased vascular sinus tissue (35 +/- 3% vs. 19 +/- 3%; p < 0.01) and cellularity (4,235 +/- 886 vs.1,468 +/- 320 cells/mm(2); p < 0.01) for the loaded versus unloaded WT, respectively. However, micro-computed tomography (CT) analyses failed to detect significant load-induced changes to bone. While the bone marrow of loaded WT and TNF-Tg vertebrae were similar, histology demonstrated mild cellular infiltrate and increased osteoclastic resorption in the WT tails versus severe inflammatory-erosive arthritis in TNF-Tg joints. Significant (p < 0.05) decreases in cortical and trabecular bone volume in uninstrumented TNF-Tg versus WT vertebrae were confirmed by micro-CT. Thus, chronic load-induced DDD causes BME signals in vertebrae similar to those observed from SA, and both DDD and SA signals correlate with a conversion from yellow to red marrow, with increased vascularity. PMID:20187115

Papuga, M Owen; Proulx, Steven T; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T; Dougherty, Paul E; Hilton, Matthew J; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M

2010-09-01

357

Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract

2003-05-01

358

Metabolic changes after MRgFUS treatment of a bone metastasis using PET/CT: A case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (Insightec ExAblate 2000 system) in a clinical case of a pelvic bone metastasis, accessible to the ultrasonic beam. Multiple 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations allowed to follow the metabolic and morphological modification of the cancerous lesion.

Candiano, Giuliana; Russo, Giorgio; Stefano, Alessandro; Marino, Lorenza; Ganguzza, Francesca; Vaccari, Arturo; Tripoli, Vincenzo; Galluzzo, Anna; Pulizzi, Sabina; Messana, Domenico; Borasi, Giovanni; Messa, Cristina; Gilardi, Maria Carla

2012-11-01

359

Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

2012-01-01

360

Torsional force applied to the tibia of living lambs in an attempt to change the bone rotational axis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of torsional force on the rotational axis of living lamb tibias. METHODS: An external fixator device was designed to apply rotation to the tibias of lambs. Once a week, the bone distal extremity was rotated 2º. After achieving ~20º of internal rotation [...] , the turning was discontinued and the device was maintained in situ for one month and euthanasia occurred in group A (n=10) after this. In group B (n=9) euthanasia occurred three months after removing the device. Computed tomography scans evaluated the rotational angle; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessed the bone mineral density, and conventional and polarized light microscopy studied the bone microstructure. RESULTS: In group A, the mean angle of the external rotation in the control tibias was 24º and 8º in the twisted tibias (p<0.0001); in group B, the angle was 23º (control) and 7º (twisted, p<0.0001), with no differences between groups A and B (p=0.9567). The BMD increased in the twisted tibias in group A (p<0.0001) and in group B (p=0.0023), with no between-group differences (p>0.05). Microscopically, the twisted tibias showed asymmetrical subperiosteal bone deposition on the lateral cortex surface. CONCLUSION: Gradual torsion applied to the immature tibia significantly modified its rotational axis.

Volpon, Jose Batista; Falcai, Mauricio Jose; Moro, Carlos Alberto; Leal, Daniel Mendes.

2014-03-01