WorldWideScience
1

Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched

2

On the molecular and endocrine mechanisms of postradiation changes in reactivity of bone tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state of the production system of a specific hormone factor of controlling calciOm metabolism-calcitonin as well as metabolism and physicochemical, properties of collagenous matrix of bone tissue in irradiated rats of different ages, was studied. It is established that under 400 rad total X-ray irradiation there are the following considerable disturbances in albuminous matrix of bone tissue changes of the intensity of catabolic and anabolic processes as well as structural-molecular organization of collagen and its ripening. The degree and character of these disturbances depend on the age of irradiated animals and dynamics of radiation injury. Under ionizing radiation of a sublethal dose compensatory-adaptive reactions develop on the level of the hormonal control of bone metabolism for the conservation of the buffer homeostatic function of the bone system in maintaining calcium homeostasis. These mechanisms are disturbed at most at the preadolescent age

3

Bone changes in leprosy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.)

4

Bone changes in endometrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

5

Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints  

Science.gov (United States)

... bones called vertebrae. Between each bone is a gel-like cushion (called a disk). The middle of ... OF CHANGES Bones become more brittle and may break more easily. Overall height decreases, mainly because of ...

6

Periarticular Bone Changes in Osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Osteoarthritis (OA) can be considered an organ failure with pathological aspects in cartilage, bone, ligaments, and synovium. Altogether, these tissue changes can result in pain and immobilization—a failure of the joint. It is well regarded that OA is a complex multifactorial disease with many risk factors and different etiological pathways that all lead to an apparently similar end stage. Bony changes are clearly observed in advanced OA. However, little understandin...

Weinans, H. H.

2012-01-01

7

Bone marrow reconversion – imaging of physiological changes in bone marrow  

OpenAIRE

Reconversion of bone marrow is a reverse process of natural replacement of red marrow by yellow marrow. The occurrence of reconversion can be misleading and challenging in interpretation of musculoskeletal system imaging. Changes of signal intensity in bone marrow are frequently observed in radiological routine and its diversity can cause a suspicion of pathologic findings. Therefore, the knowledge about distribution of red and yellow bone marrow depending on age, concomitant diseases and pre...

Ma?kiewicz, Agata; Dziedzic, Magdalena

2012-01-01

8

Bone marrow changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma 79 MRI bone marrow examinations and 48 bone marrow scintigraphies were recorded before or following radioiodine therapy, to study the extent of bone marrow expansion. The results of both methods were the same. In 34/79 investigations normal findings were seen, in 18 the bone marrow expanded to the middle third and in 26 to the distal third of the femur. One patient showed bone marrow expansion to the tibia. These results were compared with the following data: Histology of tumor, TNM-staging, time passed since thyroidectomy, accumulated doses of radioiodine therapy, results of 131I scintigraphy, hematological changes, thyroglobulin level, age and sex. No significant correlations were found between these and the bone marrow imaging results. Bone marrow changes in patients before radioiodine therapy were similar to those in patients treated with up to 48 GBq 131I. Blind biopsy of the posterior iliac crest in five patients showed slightly pathological reactive changes. In only 2/17 follow-up studies an increase of bone marrow expansion was seen. In 8 patients localized findings indicating malignant infiltration were observed. In 4/8 patients metastases of thyroid carcinoma were known or confirmed by pathological radioiodine uptake and in 2/8 metastatic involvement was assumed because of an increased thyroglobulin level. (orig.)

9

Changing measures to evaluate changing bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis is a silent, progressive disease affecting millions of Americans, costing $23.5 billion annually (). Fragility fractures, painful and costly sequelae of osteoporosis, are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated partially because of limited assessment measures. Currently, bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the surrogate marker of bone health () but has shortcomings predicting fragility fractures. Bone turnover markers and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are promising techniques for earlier, more accurate assessment of bone physiology and structure. Bone turnover markers reflect the dynamic nature of living bone (), thus providing a more comprehensive picture of bone health. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may hold predictive power in determining fast and slow bone mineral density losers (). The use of these tools may assist with diagnosis of osteoporosis, allowing earlier determination of the effectiveness of prescribed therapies to improve bone health. PMID:25607615

Fitton, Lori; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Wilson, Denise

2015-01-01

10

Regional bone changes in deep soft tissue hemangiomas: radiographic and MR features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To evaluate changes in bone adjacent to deep soft tissue hemangiomas of the extremities. Design and patients. We retrospectively reviewed the plain films of 115 patients with histologically proven deep soft tissue hemangiomas of the extremities. The length and pattern of the bone changes were analyzed and correlated with the MRI examination (n=55) and surgical findings. Results. Plain film studies demonstrated reactive bone changes adjacent to the deep soft tissue hemangiomas in 24 (21%) patients and phleboliths in 23 (20%) patients. The results of plain film analysis revealed a wide spectrum of regional bone changes adjacent to the hemangiomas, including periosteal reactions (16%), regional osteopenia (1%), cortical erosion (3%), bony overgrowth (3%), coarsening of the trabeculae (5%), and a combination of the above changes (4%). The length of the reactive changes corresponded approximately to the size of the hemangioma in 70% and was longer than the largest dimension of the hemangioma in 30%. Of the 55 patients studied with MRI, 39 (71%) patients had normal bones and 16 (29%) had bone changes. Conclusion. Deep soft tissue hemangiomas may cause changes in adjacent bones. Familiarity with the pattern of reactive bone changes may help to avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

11

Age changes in human bone: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

Sharpe, W.D.

1977-12-03

12

Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen  

OpenAIRE

Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the globa...

Pinder, Robert W.; Davidson, Eric A.; Goodale, Christine L.; Greaver, Tara L.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Liu, Lingli

2012-01-01

13

Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

Andronache, Constantin

2014-05-01

14

MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow  

OpenAIRE

MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculat...

Daldrup-link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

15

[Idiopathic myelofibrosis. Radiological aspects of bone changes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by skeletal lesions (30 to 70% of cases). We considered 49 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis treated between 1972 and 1986 at the Institutes of Hematology and Radiotherapy, University of Bologna. Only 19 of these patients underwent roentgenographic skeletal surveys, associated with whole body bone scintigraphy in 4 cases, and with CT in 1 case. The most common bone change, as seen in 12 patients, was osteosclerosis, following two distinct patterns: pure, and mixed. Other types of bone involvement (osteoporosis and pure osteolysis) were seen in 2 cases only; in 5 patients radiological skeletal examinations did not show meaningful lesions. Conventional radiology is hardly ever conclusive in the diagnosis of idiopathic myelofibrosis. This is due partly to the often moderate degree of bone involvement, partly to the scanty specificity of the findings. However, a careful examination of the plain roentgenographs, completed when possible by other more recent imaging techniques, may be very important towards a more precise definition of the disease and, in some cases, for a correct diagnosis. PMID:3375471

Sciascia, R; Albisinni, U; Tondi, L

1988-04-01

16

Unusual radiological bone changes at the site of cutaneous tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though radiological bone changes have been usually reported with scrofuloderma, bone changes in association with other forms of cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) are uncommon. We describe bone changes at the site of 3 lesions of lupus vulgaris and 2 of scrofuloderma in 4 patients. Radiological examination of bones underlying cutaneous TB is recommended for complete evaluation of the spectrum of TB. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs

17

Radiographic study of bone changes on TMJ arthrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structures from 1256 radiographs of 314 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral projection and orthopantomography. The interrelations of the bone changes and clinical symptoms were examined. Also, the positional relationships of condylar head, articular fossa and articular eminence in the mouth open and closed state were observed in the patients with bone changes. The results were as follows; 1. The most frequent bone change in the TMJ arthrosis was eburnation of cortical bone (35.64%) of total cases. Then came bone surface erosion and localized radiolucency (26.18%), marginal proliferation (9.7%) and flattening of articular surface (9.58%) in that order. 2. The most frequent site of bone change was articular eminence (41.70%). The came condylar head (21.09%) and articular fossa (20.73%) in that order. 3. In the patients with bone changes, their clinical symptoms were pain (51.55%), clicking sound during mandibular movement (37.71%) and limited mandibular movement (10.73%). In the patients complaining pain, their radiographs showed eburnation of cortical bone (30.68%), bone surface erosion and localized radiolucency (27.45%) and flattening in the (30.68%), bone surface erosion and localized radiolucency (27.45%) and flattening of articular surface (10.68%). 4. The condylar positional changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes were as follows: in the mouh bone changes were as follows: in the mouth closed state, there were the widening of joint space in 624 cases (50.00%), the narrowing of joint space in 543 cases (43.47%) and bone on bone relationships in 82 cases (6.57%). In the mouth open state, there were forward positioning of the condyle in 332 cases (28.55%), limitation of movement in 332 cases (28.55%), bone on bone relationships in 248 cases (21.31%) and downward positioning of condyle in 217 cases (18.66%). Bone on bone relationships in 248 cases (21.32%) and downward positioning of condyle in 217 cases (18.66%). 5. In the TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 1249 cases of abnormal condylar position in the mouth closed state and 1163 cases of abnormal condylar position in the mouth open state could be interpreted. so, for the radiographic interpretation of TMJ arthrosis, the reading of condylar positional changes as well as that of bond changes should be preformed and their interrelations should be profoundly considered.

18

Changes in bone microstructure and toughness during the healing process of long bones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is of great importance to understand how bone defects regain the microstructure and mechanical function of bone and how the microstructure affects the mechanical function during the bone healing process. In the present study on long bone defects, we investigated the relationship between the recovery process of fracture toughness and biological apatite (BAp)/collagen (Col) alignment as an index of the bone microstructure to clarify the bone toughening mechanisms. A 5-mm defect introduced in the rabbit ulna was allowed to heal naturally and a three-point bending test was conducted on the regenerated site to assess bone toughness. The bone toughness was quite low at the early stage of bone regeneration but increased during the postoperative period. The change in toughness agreed well with the characteristics of the fracture surface morphology, which reflected the history of the crack propagation. SEM and microbeam X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the toughness was dominated by the degree and orientation of the preferred BAp/Col alignment, i.e. bundles aligned perpendicular to the crack propagation clearly contributed to the bone toughening owing to extra energy consumption for resistance to crack propagation. In conclusion, regenerated bone improves fracture toughness by reconstructing the preferred BAp/Col alignment along the bone longitudinal axis during the healing process of long bones.

19

Method for assessment of vascular reactivity in bone: in vitro studies on resistance arteries isolated from porcine cancellous bone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge about vascular regulation in bone is central to the understanding of both normal and pathological bone physiology. This article describes a new method for direct assessment of the reactivity of bone blood vessels. Resistance arteries (diameter approximately 250 microns) were isolated from epiphyseal cancellous bone (porcine femoral condyle). Arterial segments (2 mm long) were mounted as ring preparations on a myograph, and isometric force development was measured continuously. Fifty-nine vessels from 31 pigs were investigated. The active force development was maximal at 0.9 x L100 in nine of 12 investigated arteries (L100 corresponds to the circumference the vessel would have if relaxed and exposed to a luminal pressure of 100 mm Hg [13.3 kPa]). In all subsequent experiments, the vessels were stretched to 0.9 x L100. Noradrenaline (2 x 10(-8) to 10(-5) M) induced a concentration-dependent vasoconstriction; mean maximal tension development was 3.69 N/m. This force development would enable the arteries to contract against a pressure of more than 22 kPa (165 mm Hg), indicating preserved function of the media smooth muscle. Response to acetylcholine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) was observed in only two of 12 arteries. Bradykinin (10(-11) to 10(-6) M) induced a concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation in all vessels; the relaxation was endothelium-dependent, since no effect of bradykinin was detected after mechanical removal of the endothelium. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) induced a reproducible and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. The results demonstrate preserved function of both smooth muscle and endothelium in this preparation. The model allows pharmacological investigations of bone arteries under well defined conditions and enables studies on focal bone lesions and human bone tissue.

Lundgaard, A; Aalkjær, Christian

1996-01-01

20

Calculation of research reactor RA power at uncontrolled reactivity changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety analysis of research reactor RA involves also the calculation of reactor power at uncontrolled reactivity changes. The corresponding computer code, based on Point Kinetics Model has been made. The short review of method applied for solving kinetic equations is given and several examples illustrating the reactor behaviour at various reactivity changes are presented. The results already obtained are giving rather rough picture of reactor behaviour in considered situations. This is the consequence of using simplified feed back and reactor cooling models, as well as temperature reactivity coefficients, which do not correspond to the actual reactor RA structure (which is now only partly fulfilled with 80% enriched uranium fuel). (author)

21

Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1{sup -/-} mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

Smietana, Michael J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Arruda, Ellen M. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Larkin, Lisa M., E-mail: llarkin@umich.edu [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)

2010-12-03

22

Nonspecific suppressor T cells cause decreased mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity in bone marrow transplant patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decreased reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was observed in patients within 1 yr after allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Suppressor activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from transplant patients was studied by adding these cells as modulator cells to a bidirectional MLC with cells from normal individuals. PBMC from transplant patients markedly suppressed MLC reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppressor activity was present in cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. Treatment of modulator cells with monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens (OKT8, OKIa1) and complement completely abolished suppression of MLC. Suppressor activity was unaffected by 30 Gy irradiation. Suppressor activity declined gradually after transplantation and was inversely correlated with MLC reactivity of each patient at a significant level (p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that OKT8+ Ia+ radioresistant suppressor T cells play a role in the development of decreased MLC reactivity observed during the early post-transplant period

23

Injectable reactive biocomposites for bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Craniofacial injuries can result from trauma, tumor ablation, or infection and may require multiple surgical revisions. To address the challenges associated with treating craniofacial bone defects, an ideal material should have the ability to fit complex defects (i.e. be conformable), provide temporary protection to the brain until the bone heals, and enhance tissue regeneration with the delivery of biologics. In this study, we evaluated the ability of injectable lysine-derived polyurethane (PUR)/allograft biocomposites to promote bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects. The biocomposites exhibited favorable injectability, characterized by a low yield stress to initiate flow of the material and a high initial viscosity to minimize the adverse phenomena of extravasation and filter pressing. After injection, the materials cured within 10–12 min to form a tough, elastomeric solid that maintained mechanical integrity during the healing process. When injected into a critical-size calvarial defect in rabbits, the biocomposites supported ingrowth of new bone. The addition of 80 µg mL?1 recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) enhanced new bone formation in the interior of the defect, as well as bridging of the defect with new bone. These observations suggest that injectable reactive PUR/allograft biocomposites are a promising approach for healing calvarial defects by providing both mechanical stability as well as local delivery stability as well as local delivery of rhBMP-2. (paper)

24

Increase of bone marrow lymphocytes in systemic mastocytosis: reactive lymphocytosis or malignant lymphoma? Immunohistochemical and molecular findings on routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens  

OpenAIRE

Aims: To clarify the nature (reactive or neoplastic) of lesional, perifocally aggregated lymphocytes in bone marrow infiltrates of systemic mastocytosis (SM), the histopathology of which can resemble malignant lymphoma with focal bone marrow involvement, particularly low grade malignant B cell lymphoma of lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma subtype, which frequently exhibits increased mast cell (MC) numbers.

Horny, H-p; Lange, K.; Sotlar, K.; Valent, P.

2003-01-01

25

Bone and joint changes following electrical burn: plain radiographic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the plain radiographic findings of bone and joint changes following electrical burn. This study involved 19 patients with 27 bone and joints regions which had suffered electrical injury. The most common input and output sites were, respectively, the hand(7/14) and foot (6/10). Three other sites were involved. Four cases involved osteomyelitis, and in four, amputation was performed. We observed bone and joint changes, changes following osteomyelitis and changes in the amputation stump. We analyzed the difference between input and output changes, and when this was interesting, the average time of onset was assessed. In bone and joint changes following electrical burn, the most frequent radiographic finding was joint contracture(n=3D16). Other findings included osteolysis(n=3D8), articular abnormalites (n=3D6), periostitis(n=3D5), fracture(n=3D5), acro-osteolysis(n=3D2), and heterotopic bone formation(n=3D2). In cases involving osteomyelitis(n=3D4), aggravation of underlying bone changes was noted. In electrical burn, various changes were noted in bone and joints, and input injury was more severe than that of output.=20.

Kim, Uk Jung; Lee, Eil Seong; Shim, Ya Seong; Kim, Seon Bok; Lee, Shin Ho; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-10-01

26

Bone and joint changes following electrical burn: plain radiographic findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the plain radiographic findings of bone and joint changes following electrical burn. This study involved 19 patients with 27 bone and joints regions which had suffered electrical injury. The most common input and output sites were, respectively, the hand(7/14) and foot (6/10). Three other sites were involved. Four cases involved osteomyelitis, and in four, amputation was performed. We observed bone and joint changes, changes following osteomyelitis and changes in the amputation stump. We analyzed the difference between input and output changes, and when this was interesting, the average time of onset was assessed. In bone and joint changes following electrical burn, the most frequent radiographic finding was joint contracture(n=3D16). Other findings included osteolysis(n=3D8), articular abnormalites (n=3D6), periostitis(n=3D5), fracture(n=3D5), acro-osteolysis(n=3D2), and heterotopic bone formation(n=3D2). In cases involving osteomyelitis(n=3D4), aggravation of underlying bone changes was noted. In electrical burn, various changes were noted in bone and joints, and input injury was more severe than that of output.=20

27

Strain-induced optical changes in demineralized bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone "stress-whitens," becoming visibly white during mechanical loading, immediately prior to failure. Stress-whitening is known to make materials tougher by dissipating mechanical energy. A greater understanding of stress-whitening, both an optical and mechanical phenomenon, may help explain age-related increases in fracture risk that occur without changes in bone mineralization. In this work, we directly measure the optical properties of demineralized bone as a function of deformation and immersing fluid (with different hydrogen-bonding potentials, water, and ethanol). The change in refractive index of demineralized bone was linear: with deformation and not applied force. Changes in refractive index were likely due to pushing low-refractive-index fluid out of specimens and secondarily due to changes in the refractive index of the collagenous phase. Results were consistent with stress-whitening of demineralized bone previously observed. In ethanol, the refractive index values were lower and less sensitive to deformation compared with deionized water, corroborating the sensitivity to fluid hydration. Differences in refractive index were consistent with structural changes in the collagenous phase such as densification that may also occur under mechanical loading. Understanding bone quality, particularly stress-whitening investigated here, may lead to new therapeutic targets and noninvasive methods to assess bone quality. PMID:24604533

Hardisty, Michael R; Kienle, Daniel F; Kuhl, Tonya L; Stover, Susan M; Fyhrie, David P

2014-03-01

28

Changes in bone marrow cellularity after nonuniform irradiation of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The change in the total number of nucleated bone marrow cells in the femur and humerus of unevenly irradiated rats was studied, revealing that the cellularity changes, depending on the dose, have exponential character. The radiation pathology in uneven irradiation is characterized by abatement of the bone-marrow syndrome, at the expense of preservation of a reserve of intact hemopietic cells, having the ability to migrate and to repopulate the damaged parts of the body. (author)

29

Changes of bone scintigraphy and CT scan in metastatic bone tumors after radiotherapy with Co-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes of bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) and CT scan after irradiation were discussed with 28 lesions in 22 cases of metastatic bone tumor. Methods: 1) Co-60 irradiation: 200 rad/day x 5 times in a week and 5,000 - 6,000 rad in total dose were prearranged for radiotherapy. 2) Bone scintigraphy was taken by PHO/GAMMA LFOV 3 hours after the injection of Tc-99m-MDP with 10 mCi. 3) CT scan was performed by EMI-scanner CT 5005/12 and Ca concentration was calculated from EMI units. Results: 1) In bone scintigraphy, many of lesions treated with prearranged dose in total showed decreased or unchanged accumulation after irradiation, but in Ca concentration by CT, the lesions treated with a break showed increased concentration and the lesions continuously treated or given up showed no tendency. 2) The osteolytic lesions in CT images had no tendency to change their findings of bone scintigraphy but their Ca concentration measured by CT image was decreased after irradiation. 3) Changes of bone scintigraphy and CT image were not shown a clear correlation but there was a tendency as follows: In cases of decreased abnormal accumulation in postirradiative bone scintigraphy, Ca concentration of the lesion was increase, and in cases with increased accumulation, Ca concentration was decreased. (author)

30

In-vitro studies of change in edge detection with changes in bone density  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires edge detection software to identify the skeletal regions for quantitation of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). As bone mass decreases, the detection of bone edges becomes more difficult and this potentially could cause errors in DXA estimations of areal BMD or BMC. To address this issue, we have used an in-vitro model to study the effects of 'bone loss' on calculated bone area, BMD and BMC. Multiple vertebral phantoms, of equal cross-sectional area but incrementally decreased areal BMD, were constructed using calcium sulphate hemihydrate. The weight of each phantom vertebra, measured accurately using an electronic balance, was used as an index of its true 'bone mass equivalent' (BME). The phantoms were scanned and analysed in the lumbar spine mode using a Lunar DPX-L (L) and Hologic QDR-1000 (H). The changes in BME were compared to changes in measured area, BMC and areal BMD. The results demonstrate that, in an in-vitro model, as bone mass decreases, measured bone area and consequently BMC will decrease as the edge detection algorithms have greater difficulty in detecting the true edges. In conclusion, in an in-vitro model, the DXA edge detection algorithms will underestimate bone area as bone mass decreases. This has potential implications for monitoring changes in bone mass in vivo

31

Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum) (Sm) during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and als [...] o in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

José Ignacio, Aguirre; María Soledad, Gomar; Silvio, Igal; María Alejandra, Quiroga; Enrique Leo, Portiansky; Eduardo Juan, Gimeno.

2005-03-01

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Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum (Sm during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and also in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

José Ignacio Aguirre

2005-03-01

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Age-related changes in mouse bone permeability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The determination of lacunar-canalicular permeability is essential for understanding local fluid flow in bone, which may indicate how bone senses changes in the mechanical environment to regulate mechano-adaptation. The estimates of lacunar-canalicular permeability found in the literature vary by up to eight orders of magnitude, and age-related permeability changes have not been measured in non-osteonal mouse bone. The objective of this study is to use a poroelastic approach based on nanoindentation data to characterize lacunar-canalicular permeability in murine bone as a function of age. Nine wild type C57BL/6 mice of different ages (2, 7 and 12 months) were used. Three tibiae from each age group were embedded in epoxy resin, cut in half and indented in the longitudinal direction in the mid-cortex using two spherical fluid indenter tips (R=238 ?m and 500 ?m). Results suggest that the lacunar-canalicular intrinsic permeability of mouse bone decreases from 2 to 7 months, with no significant changes from 7 to 12 months. The large indenter tip imposed larger contact sizes and sampled larger ranges of permeabilities, particularly for the old bone. This age-related difference in the distribution was not seen for indents with the smaller radius tip. We conclude that the small tip effectively measured lacunar-canalicular permeability, while larger tip indents were influenced by vascular permeability. Exploring the age-related changes in permeability of bone measured by nanoindentation will lead to a better understanding of the role of fluid flow in mechano-transduction. This understanding may help indicate alterations in bone adaptation and remodeling. PMID:24433671

Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Oyen, Michelle L; Shefelbine, Sandra J

2014-03-21

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MRI spectrum of bone changes in the diabetic foot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purposes: (1) To assess the prevalence of bone marrow changes in the diabetic foot and (2) to discuss the clinical significance of these changes. Methods: 85 patients with radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) foot examinations were selected. Inclusion criteria were clinical diagnosis of diabetes and bone changes on radiographs and MRI. The material was selected from the image storage (PACS) system. We searched for vascular (infarct and necrosis), traumatic (bruise and occult fractures), destruction and debris, dislocation, osteochondritis, osteomyelitis. Five patients had bilateral examinations. A total of 90 feet were evaluated. Results: From 90 feet, 17 (18.9%) presented with vascular changes, from them, 11 feet had infarct and 6 feet had necrosis. Twenty (22.2%) feet had traumatic changes; of them, 10 (50%) had edema on MRI. Five (25%) cases had occult fracture on MRI; and 5 (25%) had visible fracture on both X-ray and MRI. Bone destruction was detected in 8 (8.9%) feet. Bony debris was visualized in three of them. Bone dislocation was visualized in 11 (12.2%) feet. There was evidence of osteochondritis in twenty-four (26.7%) feet. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in ten (11.1%) feet. Conclusion: Diabetic foot is a challenge for both clinicians and radiologists due to its complexity. The bone derangements inherent to the diabetic foot can be evaluated with high accuracy with MRI.

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Bone mass changes during pregnancy and lactation in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined bone mass changes in the total, axial, and appendicular skeleton as well as in the different subareas of femur and tibia in rats fed on a normal calcium diet. A total of 16 virgin Wistar rats, approximately 5 months of age (270+/-30 g), were assigned to two groups of eight rats each. One group was mated and, for each pregnant rat, a nonpregnant control rat was studied simultaneously. Weaning was performed when the pups reached 38+/-3 g body weight. At the beginning (t = 0), on the first day postpartum (t = 22 days), and at weaning (t = 45 days), total skeleton bone mineral content (BMC), area, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in vivo under anesthesia. Body weight increased significantly during pregnancy (p pattern was observed between groups during the 23 days of lactation. While the skeleton continued to grow in the control group (BMC and area increased), the total skeleton of lactating rats showed no change in area (size), small decreases in BMC, and a significant decrease in BMD (p trabecular component showed the greater average differences in BMD at the time of weaning (proximal tibia -19.9%, distal femur -12.6%, spine -10.9%) (p bone predominates (distal tibia -5%, middle tibia -5.2%). Our experimental results demonstrated the usefulness of DXA in vivo to visualize changes in BMD during the reproductive cycle of the rat. Moreover, the data confirm that normal pregnancy in the rat appears to exert little influence on bone, whereas lactation induces significant bone loss, mainly in the areas of predominant trabecular bone. PMID:10593413

Zeni, S N; Di Gregorio, S; Mautalen, C

1999-12-01

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Bone marrow changes after radiotherapy: assessment by MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a new approach in the morphologic evaluation of the bone marrow. Physiologic and pathologic changes can be assessed with very high sensitivity. Radiotherapy induces acute depletion of the hematopoietic bone marrow, resulting in fatty degeneration. With MRI it is possible to evaluate the changes during irradiation and it also discloses the long-term fatty degeneration after radiotherapy. The irradiated bone marrow mostly exhibits a homogeneous hyperintense pattern of T1-weighted images. This allows clear recognition of the former target volumes. Our quantitative studies based on chemical shift imaging data reveal a lack of recovery of hematopoiesis after radiotherapy with 30 Gy or more. These results are independent of patients' age and of the interval after radiotherapy. (orig.)

37

Radiodiagnosis of bone changes in diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of analysis of roentgenograms and scintigrams of hands and feet of 21 patients with diabetes mellitus are presented. Scintigraphy was carried out with 99mTc-pyrophosphate. The examination was conducted with ON-110 gamma chamber. Changes in scintigrams are detected for 19 of 21 patients examined; 37 foci of pathologic buildup of radiopharmaceuticals are determined. Increased buildup of radiopharmaceuticals in the region of the focus isn't marked in roentgeograms for 48.6% of patients. For 51.4% of patients the results of both methods coincide. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-pyrophosphates allows to refiny the degree of osteal changes propagation in diabetes mellitus as well as to detect them earlier than by the roentgenologic method

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Precision of bone densitometry measurements: When is change true change and does it vary across bone density values?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The precision error of the bone densitometer is used to interpret significant change in bone mineral density (BMD) in serial studies. The precision error can be expressed as standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV). The aims of this study are to determine the precision error over a range of BMD values and to demonstrate the application of the precision error in clinical practice. A bone phantom was used consisting of a perspex block with eight compartments containing varying amounts of hydroxyapatite powder to simulate a range of bone densities. The block was scanned 21 times and manual regions placed over each compartment to measure the BMD in each compartment. There were no significant differences in the variances or SD for all eight compartments, that is, over the range of BMD normally encountered in clinical practice. However, the calculated CV show a progressive fall in values as the BMD rises. Therefore, the SD should be used to calculate significant BMD change. In a practise with quality control procedures in place to detect calibration drift and with appropriately trained personnel, a change of approximately 0.05 g/cm2 is generally regarded as being a significant change at a 95% confidence level. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

39

Development of Voltage Reactive Power Control Considering Load Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern power system has become large and complex networks, which require more flexible system operation. Voltage and reactive power control (VQC) that transports more electric powers especially maintaining voltages within range of constraints is expected to become more important for a high-performance system operation. In this paper, we propose a new technique of VQC considering load change with a short-term load forecasting and an optimal control by a new Meta-heuristics technique with combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Tabu Search (TS).

Shimone, Takaaki; Yatsubo, Osamu; Ishigame, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tsuguto

40

Clinical study of bone changes after parathyroidectomy among patients maintained by hemodialysis. Radiographic changes of alveolar bone and lamina dura using dental films and bone scintigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirteen patients maintained by hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism were mainly studied using Tc 99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and lamina dura index (LDI) which was judged by dental films. After parathyroidectomy (PTX), the most prominent change appeared on the calvaria, maxilla, and mandible in scintigrams. Intensity of Tc 99m-MDP accumulation was represented by using a quantitative method of bone-to-soft tissue uptake ratio (4 hr-B/St ratio). 4 hr-B/St ratio gradually decreased and became normal within one and a half years after PTX. The accumulation of Tc 99m-MDP on the calvaria may reveal the status of bone metabolism in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Also, LDIes gradually decreased during 4 through 6 months after PTX. However it was considered that these indexes might need a long term to return to normal range. We couldn't differenciate which method was superior in the diagnostic value for detecting early skeletal changes between roentogenograms and bone scintigraphy as a indicator of post-PTX bone improvement. However, bone scintigraphy should be added to conventional examinations for following the courses of patients that underwent PTX because this procedure has many other advantages. (author).

Manita, Kyouichi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Mataga, Izumi; Kato, Joji

1989-03-01

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Bone Densitometric changes after bone marrow transplantation in 63 patients with leukemia and lymphoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Background: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is the treatment of choice for many patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Long-term complications such as osteoporosis should be considered, because it is directly associated with the morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to assess the bone mineral density after allogenic or autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with leukemia or lymphoma.Methods: We prospectively investigated 63 patients undergoing BMT for acute and chronic leukemia and lymphoma. At the end of the study, a total of 28 patients were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured prior BMT, and 6 and 12 months after BMT. Osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (ICTP were assessed. Serum concentration of calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, PTH and sex hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were also measured.Results: There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of the femoral neck six months after BMT (p<0.001, 1.01±0.13g/cm² prior to BMT and 0.96±0.13 g/cm² at six months, but no considerable changes were seen in lumbar vertebrae. Bone loss between the 6th and 12th months was not observed. The levels of ICTP and phosphorus increased significantly by the 12th month (p=0.04. The level of calcium was higher at the 6th month (p=0.002 but the level of vitamin D and PTH decreased by the end of the study (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively and the average of osteocalcin did not increase significantly. In women, the level of estradiol decreased by the 6th month (p=0.01, but the testosterone changes were not significant.Conclusion: The risk of bone loss in both allogeneic and autologous BMT is higher in the femoral neck than the lumbar vertebrae, occurring mainly in the first six months after BMT. Preventive and clinical procedures should be considered.

Esfahani A

2007-09-01

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Age-Related Changes in Bone Remodelling and Structure in Men: Histomorphometric Studies  

OpenAIRE

Histomorphometric studies of the age-related changes in bone remodelling and structure in men are relatively sparse and mainly limited to the iliac crest. The available data indicate that loss of trabecular bone is predominantly due to decreased formation at the level of individual bone remodelling units and that an increase in remodelling rate does not play a major role. The main structural consequence of the changes in bone remodelling is trabecular thinning. In cortical bone, an age-relate...

Juliet Compston

2011-01-01

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The skeletal site-differential changes in bone mineral density following bone marrow transplantation: 3-year prospective study.  

OpenAIRE

Loss of bone mass is usually detected after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during the early post-transplant period. However, little is known about the long-term effects of BMT on bone metabolism. We have prospectively investigated 11 patients undergoing BMT. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured before BMT, and 1, 2, and 3 yr after BMT. Serum markers of bone turnover were serially measured before BMT and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 yr after BMT. The mean change in the lumba...

Lee, Won Young; Kang, Moo Il; Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Eun Sook; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Sun Woo; Kim, Choon Choo

2002-01-01

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Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.78{sub 0}.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images.

Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Hyung Seop; Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

2007-09-15

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Molecular-scale characterization of uranium sorption by bone apatite materials for a permeable reactive barrier demonstration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium binding to bone charcoal and bone meal apatite materials was investigated using U L(III)-edge EXAFS spectroscopy and synchrotron source XRD measurements of laboratory batch preparations in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Pelletized bone char apatite recovered from a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at Fry Canyon, UT, was also studied. EXAFS analyses indicate that U(VI) sorption in the absence of dissolved carbonate occurred by surface complexation of U(VI) for sorbed concentrations uranyl phosphate phases did not form, which is consistent with monodentate coordination of uranyl by phosphate groups in the apatite surface. At sorbed concentrations > or = 5500 microg U(VI)/g in the absence of dissolved carbonate, formation of the uranyl phosphate solid phase, chernikovite, was observed. The presence of dissolved carbonate (4.8 mM total) suppressed the formation of chernikovite, which was not detected even with sorbed U(VI) up to 12,300 microg U(VI)/g in batch samples of bone meal, bone charcoal, and reagent-grade hydroxyapatite. EXAFS spectra of bone char samples recovered from the Fry Canyon PRB were comparable to laboratory samples in the presence of dissolved carbonate where U(VI) sorption occurred by surface complexation. Our findings demonstrate that uranium uptake by bone apatite will probably occur by surface complexation instead of precipitation of uranyl phosphate phases under the groundwater conditions found at many U-contaminated sites. PMID:14594373

Fuller, C C; Bargar, J R; Davis, J A

2003-10-15

46

Change in surface morphology of polytetrafluoroethylene by reactive ion etching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was exposed to Ar, CF4, N2 and O2 plasmas using a reactive ion etching facility. After the exposure, the change in the surface morphology of PTFE was examined and characterization studies were performed for the etching rate, surface roughness, radical yields, chemical structures, water repellency and so on. The etching rates of Ar, CF4, N2 and O2 plasmas were 0.58, 7.2, 4.4 and 17 ?m/h, respectively. It was observed that needle-like nano-fiber structures on the surface were irregularly fabricated by the CF4 plasma. In addition, when the water repellency of exposed samples was evaluated by contact angle, they showed super-hydrophobic properties: contact angle over 150o.

47

Change in surface morphology of polytetrafluoroethylene by reactive ion etching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was exposed to Ar, CF{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasmas using a reactive ion etching facility. After the exposure, the change in the surface morphology of PTFE was examined and characterization studies were performed for the etching rate, surface roughness, radical yields, chemical structures, water repellency and so on. The etching rates of Ar, CF{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasmas were 0.58, 7.2, 4.4 and 17 {mu}m/h, respectively. It was observed that needle-like nano-fiber structures on the surface were irregularly fabricated by the CF{sub 4} plasma. In addition, when the water repellency of exposed samples was evaluated by contact angle, they showed super-hydrophobic properties: contact angle over 150{sup o}.

Takahashi, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmhr_tkhs.d01@ruri.waseda.j [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yuki; Takasawa, Yuya; Gowa, Tomoko; Fukutake, Naoyuki [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Akihiro [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tagawa, Seiichi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2011-02-15

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Changes of Elastic Constants and Anisotropy Patterns in Trabecular Bone During Disuse-Induced Bone Loss Assessed by Poroelastic Ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the approach most widely used to examine bone loss is the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, bone loss due to immobilization creates changes in bone microarchitecture, which in turn are related to changes in bone mechanical function and competence to resist fracture. Unfortunately, the relationship between microarchitecture and mechanical function within the framework of immobilization and antiresorptive therapy has not being fully investigated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in trabecular bone in the real-world situations of a rapidly evolving osteoporosis (disuse), both with and without antiresorptive treatment. We evaluated the structure-function relationship in trabecular bone after bone loss (disuse-induced osteoporosis) and bisphosphonate treatment (antiresorptive therapy using risedronate) in canine trabecular bone using ?CT and ultrasound wave propagation. Microstructure values determined from ?CT images were used into the anisotropic poroelastic model of wave propagation in order to compute the apparent elastic constants (EC) and elastic anisotropy pattern of bone. Immobilization resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV), while risedronate treatment combined with immobilization exhibited a lesser reduction in Tb.Th and BV/TV, suggesting that risedronate treatment decelerates bone loss, but it was unable to fully stop it. Risedronate treatment also increased the tissue mineral density (TMD), which when combined with the decrease in Tb.Th and BV/TV may explain the lack of significant differences in vBMD in both immobilization and risedronate treated groups. Interestingly, changes in apparent EC were much stronger in the superior-inferior (SI) direction than in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) anatomical directions, producing changes in elastic anisotropy patterns. When data were pooled together, vBMD was able to explain 58% of ultrasound measurements variability, a poroelastic wave propagation analytical model (i.e., BMD modulated by fabric directionality) was able to predict 81% of experimental wave velocity variability, and also explained 91% of apparent EC and changes in elastic anisotropy patterns. Overall, measurements of vBMD were unable to distinguish changes in apparent EC due to immobilization or risedronate treatment. However, anisotropic poroelastic ultrasound (PEUS) wave propagation was able to distinguish functional changes in apparent EC and elastic anisotropy patterns due to immobilization and antiresorptive therapy, providing an enhanced discrimination of anisotropic bone loss and the structure-function relationship in immobilized and risedronate-treated bone, beyond vBMD. PMID:25412022

Cardoso, Luis; Schaffler, Mitchell B

2015-01-01

49

Analysis of changes in bone cement damping factor and its effect on bone load  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents the results of simulations and material-related investigations for bone cement used for alloplasty of hip joint. Mechanical properties of bone cements are of key importance for a successful surgery and further use of the joint as well as its behaviour during complex load which appears during patient’s walk.Design/methodology/approach: One of the methods of thermal analysis for polymeric materials has been used for investigations. DMTA method is based on the analysis of the signal (reaction from the deformed material under particular conditions, at the changeable ambient temperature as well as frequency and amplitude of vibrations. DMTA thermograms give information on change in storage modulus E’ and the mechanical loss factor tg?, which is responsible for dissipation of energy during deformation.Findings: During simulation investigations ADINA engineering environment has been used; it enabled, at the assumed boundary and initial conditions, to assess the stress which appears in individual cross-sections of the analysed bone and the implant fixed by means of bone cement. During the analysis the cross-sections have been presented and the values of the stress which appears in individual zones have been determined.Research limitations/implications: Due to high complexity, only the results of simulation software have been used, clinic trials will be possible not before thorough check and analysis of the obtained results.Practical implications: Practical application of the results of the investigations described in this paper will be possible after long and comprehensive clinical trials.Originality/value: Original value of this paper are the results of tests since such an analysis has never been conducted by scientific environment working on this subject.

P. Postawa

2007-07-01

50

Simple bone cyst: radiologic changes after injection of steroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate radiographic changes and clinical effects after the injection of steroid injection into simple bone cyst. We analyzed plain radiographic and CT findings after the injection of steroid (methylprednisolone acetate, MPA) into simple bone cyst. Twelve patients were involved; eight were males and four were females, and their ages ranged from 6 to 41 years. They were treated from one to seven times with an intracystic injection of MPA, 80-200mgs per injection. All patients were evaluated by plain film, and four by CT, and the mean follow-up period was 20 months. Postinjection plain radiographic findings were as follows: increased internal radiodensity (n=3D10), smaller cyst (n=3D8), cortical thickening (n=3D7), and radiodensity of double ring pattern (n=3D4). CT findings were as follows: increased internal attenuation (n=3D4), smaller cyst (n=3D4) and radiodensity of double ring pattern along the cyst wall (n=3D4). All patients improved clinically and radiologically, especially those with radiodensity of double ring pattern. The injection of steroid into simple bone cyst is an effective treatment. A new radiographic finding after injetion is radiodensity of double ring pattern along the cyst wall, and we believe that this indicates progression of the healing process

51

Simple bone cyst: radiologic changes after injection of steroid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate radiographic changes and clinical effects after the injection of steroid injection into simple bone cyst. We analyzed plain radiographic and CT findings after the injection of steroid (methylprednisolone acetate, MPA) into simple bone cyst. Twelve patients were involved; eight were males and four were females, and their ages ranged from 6 to 41 years. They were treated from one to seven times with an intracystic injection of MPA, 80-200mgs per injection. All patients were evaluated by plain film, and four by CT, and the mean follow-up period was 20 months. Postinjection plain radiographic findings were as follows: increased internal radiodensity (n=3D10), smaller cyst (n=3D8), cortical thickening (n=3D7), and radiodensity of double ring pattern (n=3D4). CT findings were as follows: increased internal attenuation (n=3D4), smaller cyst (n=3D4) and radiodensity of double ring pattern along the cyst wall (n=3D4). All patients improved clinically and radiologically, especially those with radiodensity of double ring pattern. The injection of steroid into simple bone cyst is an effective treatment. A new radiographic finding after injetion is radiodensity of double ring pattern along the cyst wall, and we believe that this indicates progression of the healing process.

Kim, Keon Woo; Suh, Kyung Jin; Park, Il Hyung [Kyungpook National Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

1997-09-01

52

Changes in concentrations of bone markers in patients with osseous metastatic renal cell carcinoma during zoledronic acid therapy  

OpenAIRE

In the case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the diagnosis “bone metastases” means that a complete cure is highly unlikely. Bone metastases often determine the form of therapy, quality of life and time of death. During the process of bone formation and bone resorption specific substances are produced, which can later be used as bone markers in the serum. Changes in bone metabolism may be reflected by the concentration of these specific bone markers in the blood. Until now, bone scintigraphy...

Geisler, Kerstin

2012-01-01

53

Lectin histochemistry of human bone marrow: investigation of trephine biopsy specimens in normal and reactive states and neoplastic disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lectin binding pattern of bone marrow cells in normal and reactive states and in various neoplastic disorders was investigated using trephine biopsy specimens taken from the iliac crest. The tissue samples were routinely processed (fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax) and subjected to mild decalcification with EDTA. The following results were obtained. (1) More than half of the 23 fluoresceinated lectins used reacted with normal blood cells and/or their neoplastic derivatives. Inhibition tests with the appropriate sugars confirmed the specificity of binding for the majority, but not all, of the lectins. (2) WGA, Con A, PSA, STA and RCA60 and RCA120 produced a particularly intense reaction with normal, reactive and neoplastic myeloid cells. Erythroblasts exhibited weak staining in a few cases by a few lectins (WGA producing the strongest staining), while megakaryocytes nearly always remained unstained. Neoplastic lymphoid cells in various lymphoproliferative disorders and plasmacytoma cells generally reacted with the same lectins as the myeloid cells. (3) Since neoplastic myeloid cells in various myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders exhibited a lectin binding pattern similar to that of myeloid cells in normal and reactive bone marrow, it is unlikely that lectin histochemistry of the bone marrow will prove of great value in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disorders. PMID:1783564

Schumacher, U; Horny, H P; Welsch, U; Kaiserling, E

1991-05-01

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Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change producing ?-human chorionic gonadotropin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant cell tumor of bone is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm that is composed of sheets of neoplastic mononuclear cells interspersed amongst non-neoplastic, uniformly distributed, osteoclast-like giant cells. They represent approximately 4-5% of primary bone tumors. Rarely, bone tumors have been noted to produce human chorionic gonadotropin, a finding most often reported in osteosarcoma. We present the case of a young woman who presented with a low-level human chorionic gonadotropin level which, after resection of her recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change, became undetectable in her blood. Furthermore, cells within the aneurysmal bone cyst component were immunohistochemically positive for ?-human chorionic gonadotropin. This is the first report of such a finding in the literature. PMID:24362936

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Katava, Gordana; Wenokor, Cornelia; Roche, Natalie; Beebe, Kathleen S

2014-06-01

55

Chronic radium intoxication: preliminary report of morphological and mineral changes in human bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations are presented on bone microradiograms from 44 radium patients. The data cover three basic categories of mineral changes: (1) increase in bone mineral resorption, (2) increase in bone mineral density and (3) increase in new bone tissue formation. The data show a trend of increasing amount of mineral change in all three categories as the cumulative rads, cumulative rad-years, and amount of radium intake increase

56

Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes  

OpenAIRE

The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densi...

Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

2012-01-01

57

Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Oncology, Tokyo (Japan); Nozawa, Kumiko [Saitama Children' s Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Kitoh, Hiroshi [Nagoya University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

2009-01-15

58

Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)splasia. (orig.)

59

Morphological changes of autoclaved autogenic bone implantation and autoclaved autogenic bone supplernented with allogenic demineralized bone matrix in rat parietal bone  

OpenAIRE

The healing process of resected, autoclaved (121 7,20 minutes) and re-implanted bone in the rat parietal bone was compared with that of autoclaved bone that was supplemented with allogenic bone matrix (AAA-bone), using a scanning electron microscope and a light microscope. In the implant without AAA-bone, bone union and replacement of the autoclaved bone was seen at 2 weeks after implantation. There was no evidence of any inflammatory reaction around the au...

Young, T. Q.; Matsuda, Mikio; Takekawa, M.; Ohtsubo, S.; Tsuyama, K.; Kita, S.

1996-01-01

60

Sclerostin levels and changes in bone metabolism after bariatric surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The role of sclerostin as a key regulator of bone formation remains unknown after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Objectives: Evaluation of sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) serum levels after surgery and correlations with bone turnover markers (P1NP, CTX), parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and areal bone mineral density (BMD), changes at total body, lumbar spine and total hip. Design and Setting: A prospective observational single-center two-arm study in premenopausal women with acute adipositas over 24 months. Participants: 52 premenopausal women (40 ±8 years, BMI 43.4) after RYGB and 38 premenopausal women (41±7 years, BMI 45.7) after SG. Main Outcome Measures: Prior to surgery and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after surgery sclerostin, DKK-1, CTX, P1NP levels and BMD were measured. Results: Sclerostin, CTX and (to a lesser extent) P1NP increased after surgery and remained elevated during the entire study period (p<0.001). DKK-1 declined during months 3 - 9 (p<0.005) and then remained unchanged, serum phosphate continuously increased (p<0.001), iPTH remained within the upper normal limit. Sclerostin increases were significantly positively correlated with CTX and P1NP increases and negatively correlated with BMD loss. BMD independently declined regardless of RYGB and SG. Elevations of sclerostin, CTX, P1NP and phosphate but not DKK-1 and iPTH, were significant discriminating factors for BMD loss (AUC 0.920). Conclusion: Rapid and sustained increases of sclerostin, CTX and - to a lesser extent - P1NP cause an increase in bone metabolism and result in BMD loss at all skeletal sites. PMID:25490275

Muschitz, Christian; Kocijan, Roland; Marterer, Christina; Rahbar Nia, Arastoo; Muschitz, Gabriela Katharina; Resch, Heinrich; Pietschmann, Peter

2014-12-01

61

Clear cell chondrosarcoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear cell chondrosarcoma is a rare cartilaginous tumour of low-grade malignancy. Although it has a characteristic histological appearance, its radiological features and clinical presentation often mimic a benign lesion. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with a clear cell chondrosarcoma of the right proximal femur that had an atypical appearance of chronic avascular necrosis on initial plain radiographs, which made preoperative diagnosis a challenge. In addition, the tumour also had extensive areas of aneurysmal bone cyst-like changes, which is not only a rare histologic phenomenon in clear cell chondrosarcoma, but also a confounding factor in the interpretation of the radiologic findings. PMID:24664395

Tay, Timothy; Wong, Steven Bak Siew; Sittampalam, Kesavan so; Lie, Denny Tjiauw Tjoen

2014-03-01

62

Differences in origin of reactive microglia in bone marrow chimeric mouse and rat after transient global ischemia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current understanding of microglial involvement in disease is influenced by the observation that recruited bone marrow (BM)-derived cells contribute to reactive microgliosis in BM-chimeric mice. In contrast, a similar phenomenon has not been reported for BM-chimeric rats. We investigated the recruitment and microglial transformation of BM-derived cells in radiation BM-chimeric mice and rats after transient global cerebral ischemia, which elicits a characteristic microglial reaction. Both species displayed microglial hyperplasia and rod cell transformation in the hippocampal CA1 region. In mice, a subpopulation of lesion-reactive microglia originated from transformed BM-derived cells. By contrast, no recruitment or microglial transformation of BM-derived cells was observed in BM-chimeric rats. These results suggest that reactive microglia in rats originate from resident microglia, whereas they have a mixed BM-derived and resident origin in mice, depending on the severity of ischemic tissue damage.

Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Deierborg, Tomas

2011-01-01

63

Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow: frequent medium change method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: MSCs have been isolated from a variety of mammals by the plastic adherence method. However, this method can be problematic due to the unwanted growth of hematopoietic cells and non-MSCs. The potential of MSCs to differentiate along multiple lineages is the key to the identification of stem cell populations in the absence of molecular markers. In the present study, we describe a homogeneous population of MSCs from mouse bone marrow isolated using an improved plastic adherence method that employs frequent medium change (FMC at the initial hours of harvested bone marrow cell culture."n"nMethods: Balb/c mice were sacrificed and whole bone marrow cells were aspirated from the femur and tibia and then cultivated in six-well plates. After 3-4 hours of culture, old medium was removed and fresh medium was added. FMC was performed every eight hours over a 72 hour period. When primary cultures became nearly confluent, the first passage was performed. These cells were then used for further examination. To investigate their mesenchymal nature, the cells were allowed to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages and examined at each passage up to the tenth passage for surface antigens by flow cytometry."n"nResults: We achieved purified populations of fibroblast-like cells in the two weeks after culture initiation. The cells were capable of differentiating into osteocytes and adipocytes. Isolated MSCs were reactive to the CD44, Sca-1, and CD90 cell surface markers. MSCs were negative for hematopoietic surface markers such as CD34, CD11b, CD45, CD31, CD106, CD117 and CD135."n"nConclusions: This protocol provides an efficient isolation of homogeneous populations of MSCs from mouse bone marrow.

Soleimani M, Nadri S, Izadpanah R

2008-07-01

64

Polyneuritic leprosy presenting with bone changes prior to the onset of florid skin manifestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of polyneuritic leprosy is reported. There were minimal changes on skin, but changes in the bones were predominant. It is emphasized that polyneuritic leprosy is an entity. It is also stressed that neuritic leprosy can produce changes in deeper structures like bones, with minimal changes on skin.

Kuravi Anandam

2001-01-01

65

Polyneuritic leprosy presenting with bone changes prior to the onset of florid skin manifestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of polyneuritic leprosy is reported. There were minimal changes on skin, but changes in the bones were predominant. It is emphasized that polyneuritic leprosy is an entity. It is also stressed that neuritic leprosy can produce changes in deeper structures like bones, with minimal changes on skin. PMID:17664697

Kuravi, A; Girish, K C; Ghatti, S; Stephen, T; Kumar, V A

2001-01-01

66

Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats we...

Xu Wen-shuo; Luo Wei; Shen Hong; Jiang Wei; Xu Mai; Li Kang-hua; Gao Shu-guang; Tian Jian; Lei Guang-hua

2011-01-01

67

Evaluation of temporal scintigraphic changes of bone fractures in rabbits using multiphase bone scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Familiarity with the temporal changes in the scintigraphic pattern of the healing fractures overtime on multiphase bone scan, can be useful to ascertain whether a fracture is of recent origin or long standing, and in improving the specificity for diagnosis of infection when suspected at the site of an old fracture. This could also be useful in avoiding additional imaging studies such as labelled leukocyte imaging, particularly when resources are limited as in many developing countries. The objective of this experimental study was to assess temporal changes of blood flow, blood pool activity and delayed uptake at the site of fracture using Tc-99m MDP and to determine the potential value of quantitation in differentiating non- infected from infected fractures. Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits of the same age and approximately same weight (2.2 kg each) were studied. Fractures were induced into one femur under general anaesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, and fixed with plaster. Imaging was performed every week for 3 months and every two weeks for another 3 months in all animals using 5 mCi (158 MBq) of Tc-99m MDP for each study. Flow studies for 1 second per frame for 1 minute, blood pool static image for 5 minutes and delayed images for 5 minutes each at 3 hours and at 24 hours post injection were acquired, each time using the same geometrical parameters. Temporal changes of flow and blood pool were determined over the period of the study by two experienced ne period of the study by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The time at which flow and blood pool returned to normal was determined. Ratio of radioactivity in the fractured site to normal bone was also determined on the delayed images (3 and 24 hours) and the factor of change in the ratios between 3 and 24 hours was determined in each study. At the end of the studies animals were sacrificed and histopathologic examinations of fracture sites were carried out to determine whether infection was present. In 17 animals with no evidence of infection, flow and blood pool activity returned to normal within 6 months (Range = 8 to 24 weeks). In the remaining four rabbits who had evidence of skeletal infection at the sites of fracture, flow and blood pool activity did not normalize by 6 months. The calculated ratios of radioactivity concentration at fractured site to normal bone at 3 and 24 hours for each animal during the entire period of the study revealed that the mean values of 24 hour to 3 hour ratio for non-infected group was persistently below one (p < 0.001), while in the infected group the mean value was above one(p < 0.05). Our preliminary data suggests that flow and blood pool activity normalize by 6 months at the site of non-infected fractures which also show persistently lower 24 hour fracture to normal bone ratio than the three hour ratio, contrary to that in infected fractures. This quantitative parameter could be potentially helpful in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis at fracture sites by bone scan. (author)

68

[Secondary osteoporosis UPDATE. Bone metabolic change and osteoporosis during pregnancy and lactation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium transfer from the mother to the infant during pregnancy and lactation plays an extremely important role in the bone health of the mother and neonate. Calcium aids in bone health through all ages but is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the structure and metabolism of bone during pregnancy and the early stage of postpartum are evaluated by investigating bone mineral density (BMD), bone histomorphometry and bone markers of human or animal models. The bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, and the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. Puerperal BMD remained static over the subsequent 5-10 years. If the women have a low BMD at this stage of their reproductive life, it tends not to improve over this time. Perhaps identification of this at-risk group may lead to effective interventions to reduce fracture risk in later life. PMID:20445278

Kurabayashi, Takumi; Tamura, Ryo; Hata, Yuki; Nishijima, Shota; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Yanase, Toru

2010-05-01

69

Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

2012-01-01

70

Prognostic Indicators of Changes in Bone Density Measures in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-II  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline predictors of temporal BMD changes (?BMD) in AN, including 1) gastrointestinal peptides regulating food intake and appetite that have been related to bone metabolism and 2) bone turnover markers, have not been well characterized. We hypothesized that baseline levels of nutritionally regulated hormones and of bone turnover markers would predict ?BMD overall.

Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

2007-01-01

71

The relationship between bone marrow edema and bone changes in the mandibular condyle. A longitudinal study with MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decreased signal intensity on T1 or proton-density weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2 weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the bone marrow space are considered to represent bone marrow edema (BME). The purpose of this study was to determine whether condyle BME is associated with condyle bone changes. The study group consisted of 65 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 57 patients with TMJ disorders showing condyle BME on initial MRI. Condyle bone changes were compared between TMJs that showed a persistent BME pattern (BME-persistent group; 43 TMJs of 40 patients) and TMJs that showed a normal bone marrow signal (BME-disappeared group; 21 TMJs of 22 patients) on follow-up MRI. In the TMJs which were normal shaped condyle on initial MRI, follow-up MRI showed that condyle bone changes had occurred in 53.9% of the BME-persistent group, whereas normal shaped condyle had continued in all of the BME-disappeared group. In the TMJs which showed condyle erosion on initial MRI, follow-up MRI showed that condyle erosion had continued in 35.7% of the BME-persistent group, whereas condyle erosion had disappeared in all of the BME-disappeared group. In the TMJs which were condyle osteophyte on initial MRI, follow-up MRI showed that condyle erosion had occurred in 22.2% of the BME-persistent group, whereas condyle osteophyte had continued in all of the BME-disappeared group. The longitudinal study showed that condyle BME was associated with condyle bone changesE was associated with condyle bone changes. Furthermore, it was suggested that condyle BME could cause condyle erosion. (author)

72

Galloping exercise induces regional changes in bone density within the third and radial carpal bones of Thoroughbred horses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to test the hypothesis that a localised bone hypertrophy could occur within the subchondral cancellous architecture of the third and radial carpal bones. Using 2 levels of controlled and defined exercise, it was observed that a high intensity treadmill exercise protocol resulted in functional adaptation of the carpal bones. The increase in trabecular thickening and density was seen to be localised to those regions underlying common sites of cartilage degradation, the interface of the thickened trabeculae with the normal architecture in the third carpal hone was coincident with a common site of clinical fractures. The bone changes were determined both qualitatively on examination of slab radiographs and quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The findings from this study are relevant to mechanical factors involved in the pathophysiology of joint degeneration. The potential clinical implications of this study are in relation to changes in the type and duration of exercise regimens used in training of equine athletes. The rapid response of bone to mechanical stimulation has implications in the longer term for localised cartilage degradation. Imaging techniques could be developed to monitor these early bone changes in the specific areas identified in this study and thus allow appropriate changes in training intensity to minimise subsequent damage to the articular surface

73

Dysplastic Bone Marrow Changes During Maintenance Therapy for Acute Leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the case of an 8-year-old girl with common precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with severe pancytopenia during maintenance therapy with methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. The bone marrow smear showed moderate hypocellularity and trilinear dysplastic changes consistent with a diagnosis of drug toxicity, with no evidence of lymphoblasts. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping was negative for leukemic cells. Blood cell counts normalized after treatment with folinic acid. Maintenance therapy was gradually restarted and she remained well at follow-up visits. Myelotoxicity from methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine may represent an unpredictable incident during an otherwise uneventful maintenance therapy, and may occur independently of other organ toxicities. PMID:25493456

Chinello, Matteo; Naviglio, Samuele; Shardlow, Alison; Severino, Alessandro; Ventura, Alessandro; Locasciulli, Anna

2014-12-01

74

Study of irradiated bone. Part II. Changes in Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone imaging was carried out in locally irradiated and control areas of New Zealand albino rabbits to determine the potential role of bone imaging in assessing the time course of radiation effects in bone and surrounding tissues. In vitro Tc-99m tissue assays, and serial radiographs, from the irradiated and contralateral limbs were obtained at regular intervals over the first 12 mo following irradiation for comparison with quantitative results from the camera studies. The autoradiographic localization of TcPPi was also studied in the x-irradiated and contralateral bones of the rabbits. The results show that TcPPi bone imaging is a sensitive in vivo indicator of early radiation effects upon vasculature and bone remodeling. The findings suggest that the quantitative bone-imaging technique may be useful in the evaluation of the effects of treatment modalities on the skeleton

75

Bone changes in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) is a clonal disorder of the haematopoietic stem cell which can be associated with marrow fibrosis and/or osteosclerosis. Because bone progenitors and mature bone cells are influenced by the marrow microenvironment, cellular and tissular changes were assessed by histomorphometry in MMM. Thirteen patients, with a clinical proven MMM, had a bone biopsy of the iliac crest with double tetracycline labelling and osteoclast count. Histomorphometry was done at the 2D level (bone volume, osteoid parameters, bone histodynamic parameters and osteoclast count) and 3D level by microcomputed tomography. All patients had clusters of abnormal megakaryocytes in bone marrow. Newly apposed bone packets were observed in 12 patients and corresponded to an increased thickness of some bone units with new lamellae or focal areas of woven bone anchored on the pre-existing trabeculae. Osteoid parameters were unchanged, only bone formation rate appeared considerably increased in seven patients. There was a net tendency for decrease in osteoclast number and conversion of trabecular pillars into plates. An uncoupling of bone remodelling was evidenced with an increased life-span of osteoblasts associated with a normal/reduced osteoclast activity. A very complex network of factors is candidate to explain bone changes observed in MMM. PMID:17419743

Schmidt, Aline; Blanchet, Odile; Dib, Mamoun; Baslé, Michel F; Ifrah, Norbert; Chappard, Daniel

2007-06-01

76

Calculation of reactivity changes due to bubble collapse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations based on Behrens' method indicate that a substantial increase in reactivity may accompany the collapse of a large number of small bubbles in an LMFBR core. More sophisticated transport approaches to this problem have encountered several difficulties: the large number of bubbles requires many mesh points; the desired effect can easily be masked by the movement of fuel to regions of greater (or lesser) importance; the reactivity is desired for a random distribution of spherical bubbles. This paper describes a transport approach to this problem which avoids the above difficulties by using the ''sub-group'' or ''probability table'' method

77

Restoring and maintaining bone in osteopenic female rat skeleton: I. Changes in bone mass and structure  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment contains the crucial data for the lose, restore, and maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses anabolic agents to restore bone mass and architecture (+ phase) and then switches to an agent with the established ability to maintain bone mass, to keep the new bone (+/- phase). The purpose of this study was to learn whether switching to an agent known chiefly for its ability to maintain existing bone mass preserves new bone induced by PGE2 in osteopenic, estrogen-depleted rats. The current study had three phases, the bone loss (-), restore (+), and maintain (+/-) phases. We ovariectomized (OX) or sham ovariectomized (sham-OX) 5.5-month-old female rats (- phase). The OX rats were treated 5 months postovariectomy with 1-6 mg PGE2 per kg/day for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (+ phase), and then PGE2 treatment was stopped and treatment began with 1 or 5 micrograms/kg of risedronate, a bisphosphonate, twice a week for 60 days (+/- phase). During the loss (-) phase, the cancellous bone volume of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the OX rat fell to 19% of initial and 30% of age-matched control levels. During the restore (+) phase, the cancellous bone volume in OX rats doubled. When PGE2 treatment was stopped, however, and no special maintenance efforts were made during the maintain (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone persisted when the PGE2 treatment was followed by either a 1 or 5 micrograms treatment of risedronate per kg given twice a week for 60 days during the maintain (+/-) phase. The tibial shaft demonstrated very little cortical bone loss during the loss (-) phase in OX rats. The tibial shaft cortical bone fell some 8%. During the restore (+) phase, new cortical bone in OX rats increased by 22%. When PGE2 treatment was stopped and nothing was given during the maintain (+/-) phase, however, all but the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone disappeared. In contrast, when PGE2 treatment was stopped and 1 micron risedronate per kg twice a week for 60 days was administered during the maintenance (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone and some of the subendocortical bone and marrow trabeculae persisted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Tang, L. Y.; Jee, W. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Kimmel, D. B.

1992-01-01

78

Bone Densitometric changes after bone marrow transplantation in 63 patients with leukemia and lymphoma  

OpenAIRE

  Background: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice for many patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Long-term complications such as osteoporosis should be considered, because it is directly associated with the morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to assess the bone mineral density after allogenic or autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with leukemia or lymphoma.Methods: We prospectively investigated 63 patients undergo...

Esfahani A; Iravani M; Khoshnyat M; Ghoreishi Z; Shamshiri A R; Moghadam Z; Jahani M "; Ghavamzadeh A

2007-01-01

79

Proliferative, reparative, and reactive benign bone lesions that may be confused diagnostically with true osseous neoplasms.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Diagnostic problems attending intraosseous and parosteal pseudoneoplastic lesions can be radiographic, or histological, or both. Proliferations in this category may contain cellular fibro-osseous or chondro-osseous tissues that are difficult to separate microscopically from those seen in various true neoplasms of the bones. This review considers the clinicopathologic features of fibrous dysplasia, benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, osteofibrous dysplasia, metaphyseal fibrous defect, giant-cell reparative granuloma, "brown tumor" of hyperparathyroidism, synovial chondrometaplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, tumefactive chronic osteomyelitis, proliferative Paget disease, and polyvinylpyrrolidone storage disease of bone.

Wick, Mark R

2014-01-01

80

Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment. INTRODUCTION: The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD) changes after 24 months of teriparatide. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-month study at 95 centers in 10 countries in 758 postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis (n?=?181 treatment-naïve) who had at least one post-baseline bone marker determination. Teriparatide (20 ?g/day) was administered for up to 24 months. We measured procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) at baseline, 1 and 6 months, and change in BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck from baseline to 24 months. RESULTS: Significant increases in formation markers occurred after 1 month of teriparatide regardless of prior osteoporosis therapy. The absolute increase at 1 month was lower in previously treated versus treatment-naïve patients, but after 6 months all groups reached similar levels. PINP showed the best signal-to-noise ratio. Baseline PINP correlated positively and significantly with BMD response at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the long-term responsiveness of bone formation markers to teriparatide is notaffected in subjects previously treated with antiresorptive drugs.

Blumsohn, A; Marin, F

2011-01-01

81

Techniques for computing reactivity changes caused by fuel axial expansion in LMR's  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation is made of the accuracy of methods used to compute reactivity changes caused by axial fuel relocation in fast reactors. Results are presented to demonstrate the validity of assumptions commonly made such as linearity of reactivity with fuel elongation, additivity of local reactivity contributions, and the adequacy of standard perturbation techniques. Accurate prediction of the reactivity loss caused by axial swelling of metallic fuel is shown to require proper representation of the burnup dependence of the expansion reactivity. Some accuracy limitations in the methods used in transient analyses, which are based on the use of fuel worth tables, are identified, and efficient ways to improve accuracy are described. Implementation of these corrections produced expansion reactivity estimates within 5% of higher-order method for a metal-fueled FFTF core representation. 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

82

Posttraumatic Reactive Fibrous Bone Neoformation of the Anterior Skull Base Mimicking Osteosarcoma  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Malignant bone tumors and fibro-osseous bone lesions of the skull base are uncommon, although fibrous dysplasia in this anatomic location is not a rare condition. In general, fibro-osseous lesions of the skull are often difficult to classify on either clinical presentation, radiological findings, or histological presentation alone. The objective of this article is to present a probably important differential in the management of bony neoformations of the skull and to highlight the...

Pfeiffer, Jens; Kayser, Gian; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Ridder, Gerd J.

2008-01-01

83

Medical baseline data collection on bone and muscle change with space flight.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been documented that astronauts suffer from a progressive and continuous negative calcium balance in space flight. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) discussed the experimental protocols with the National Aeronautics and Space Agency's (NASA's) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and has started a medical baseline collection on bone and calcium metabolism, and muscle changes with space flight. The subjects were two astronauts, a 42-year-old female and a 32-year-old male, who experienced real space flights. Fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) increased in both subjects just after the space flight. There was a negative calcium balance with urinary calcium leak even after a short flight. We also noticed a decrease (-3.0%) of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2-4), a weight bearing bone. These bone changes may be due to a negative calcium balance. However, the BMD of the skull, a nonweight bearing bone, increased after the flight. This indicates that the effect of weightlessness on bone is different in respective bones, depending on the weight loading. Our data of the bone metabolic marker clearly indicate that bone resorption is stimulated, shown by an elevation of urinary pyridinolinks and plasma tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRACP) activity. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, was elevated in both subjects, but not intact osteocalcin. Whether this pathophysiological phenomenon is due to an accelerated bone resorption or suppressed bone formation is still obscure. In addition, the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle in the legs greatly decreased (from - 10% to -15%) after the flight, and it took over a month to be recovered in both subjects. However, the muscle volume loss in the legs seemed to be reversible. To examine bone and muscle metabolism with space flight, further investigations and international standardization of experimental protocols are necessary. PMID:9600758

Miyamoto, A; Shigematsu, T; Fukunaga, T; Kawakami, K; Mukai, C; Sekiguchi, C

1998-05-01

84

Study of changes in antioxidant protective system activity in animal tissues in a bone defect model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work changes of the activity of antioxidant protective system in a bone defect model were studied by evaluation of endogenous tocopherols, antiradical activity, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. It has been shown that 1*0.5 sm shaft of femur defect model causes significant decrease of tissue antiradical activity values, the level of endogenous tocopherols, SOD and GPx in periosteum, bone marrow, liver and blood. This process occurs more drastically on the background of autoplastic substitution of the defect. In a bone defect the largest changes were observed in antiradical activity and GPx activity in periosteum and bone marrow. Analysis of obtained data unambiguously suggests the necessity of correction of tissue antioxidant activity disorders in bone defect for thye prevention of the lipid peroxidation that causes possible complications and reparative bone regeneration suppression

85

Glucocorticoid-Induced Changes in the Geometry of Osteoclast Resorption Cavities Affect Trabecular Bone Stiffness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities. Specifically, we found that in the presence of GC osteoclasts (OCs) cultured on bone slices make more trenchlike cavities, compared to rather round cavities in the absence of GCs, while the total eroded surface remained constant. For this study, we hypothesized that trenchlike cavities affect bone strength differently compared to round cavities. To test this hypothesis, we cultured OCs on bone slices in the presence and absence of GC and quantified their dimensions. These data were used to model the effects of OC resorption cavities on bone mechanical properties using a validated beam-shell finite element model of trabecular bone. We demonstrated that a change in the geometry of resorption cavities is sufficient toaffect bone competence. After correcting for the increased EV/BV with GCs, the difference to the control condition was no longer significant, indicating that the GC-induced increase in EV/BV, which is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures during GC treatment increases more than hip, forearm and other nonvertebral fractures.

Vanderoost, Jef; SØe, Kent

2012-01-01

86

Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2012-02-15

87

Cystic angiomatosis of bone with sclerotic changes mimicking osteoblastic metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five unusual cases of cystic angiomatosis of bone which presented with the radiologic appearance of osteoblastic lesions are reported. Three patients were female (ages 37, 41, and 65 years) and two were male (ages 24 and 66 years). Although cystic angiomatosis of bone usually produces widespread osteolytic lesions with a honeycombed appearance in the skeletal system, multiple osteoblastic lesions mimicking metastatic osteoblastic carcinoma are sometimes seen. This radiological presentation has not been well emphasized in previous reports. Histologically, in addition to the angiomatous lesions, both mature thickened lamellar bone trabeculae and immature trabeculae of woven bone were found. In one of our patients, increasing density of the osteoblastic lesions was noted over time. One previous study has suggested that the age of the lesions of cystic angiomatosis is related to radiographic density. It is important to recognize this uncommon variant of cystic angiomatosis and to include this entity among the radiologic differential diagnoses when multiple osteoblastic lesions are encountered. (orig.)

88

Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome. (orig.)

89

Semi-analytical models for stress change and fault reactivation induced by reservoir production and injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A change in fluid pressure within a porous reservoir will generally induce stress changes within the reservoir and the rocks that surround it. Amongst the potential hazards resulting from these induced stress changes is the reactivation of existing faults or fractures, which may breach the hydraulic integrity of the caprocks that bound the reservoir. Fluid production and injection-induced stress changes in poroelastic media can be modeled using the theory of inclusions. Semi-analytical solutions of this type are presented in this paper for horizontal and dipping reservoirs of finite depth with rectangular and elliptical cross-sections, under plane strain conditions. Stress change parameters calculated using these equations are charted for different reservoir geometries and depths using dimensionless parameters, to facilitate their application to a broad range of reservoir depths and dimensions. Equations are also presented to assess the fault reactivation tendency resulting from induced stress changes using the Coulomb Failure Stress Change method. Fault reactivation analyses conducted for a horizontal reservoir of rectangular cross-section show that, during depletion, there is a tendency towards fault reactivation in the rocks near the lateral flanks of the reservoir, and within the central portion of the reservoir, in a normal fault stress regime. For a similar case in a thrust fault stress regime, there is a tendency towards fault reactivation in the rocks above and below the reservoir, but there is no tendency towards fault reactivation anywhere within the reservoir during depletion. It is also shown that fault reactivation potential is dependent on reservoir geometry and dip angle. (author)

Soltanzadeh, Hamidreza; Hawkes, Christopher D. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

2008-02-15

90

[Morphologic changes in iliac crest trabecular bone in primary hyperparathyroidism and their significance for diagnosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Iliac crest bone biopsy specimens of 391 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were investigated. In 60 unselected cases quantitative analysis of trabecular bone changes was performed. The age of the patients ranged between 12 and 85 years. The observed morphological findings were divided into four stages. In a few cases no differences from normal bone tissue could be observed. In 46% occurrence of a nonspecific increase of osteoid seams, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts was observed. Of the cases 50% showed a specific, but very often mild endosteal fibrosis. Only in 4% was there a severe fibroosteoclasia with development of so-called brown tumors. The quantitative analysis showed an increase of trabecular bone mass as well as of remodeling surfaces. But there was an overlap of up to 25% with the normal controls. The results demonstrate the influence of parathyroid hormone peptides on bone morphology. However, the investigation of a bone biopsy specimen is not generally very useful for diagnostic purposes. PMID:3626431

Delling, G; Dreyer, T; Hesch, R D; Schulz, W; Ziegler, R; Bressel, M

1987-07-15

91

Prognostic significance of primary bone changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a period of 6.5 years, acute leukaemia was diagnosed in 140 children at our hospital: 137 children had long bone radiographs and 45 patients had bone lesions. Eleven of the 115 patients who had skull radiographs had osteolytic lesions and another four had wide sutures. No patients had bone changes at relapse or at cessation of 3 years' successful therapy. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the frequence of osseous lesions tended to be higher in patients in sub-groups with a more favourable prognosis. The duration of remission and survival times were higher in patients with ''leukemic'' long bones than in those without them (p<0.10 and <0.05, respectively). Changes in the skull could not be related to the outcome. We found no abnormalities in the bones of the eight patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. (orig.)

92

Immobilisation-induced changes in forearm bone quantity and quality: radiographic fourier image analysis vs bone densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Determinants of bone fracture risk include indices of bone 'quantity' such as bone mineral content (BMC, mineral mass per unit scanned bone length), plus 'environmental' (eg impact force) and 'quality' factors (Melton L.J. III et al, Bone and Min 2: 321, 1987). Bone 'quality' refers largely to the micro-geometry of bone (? 10-200?), but has been less well studied because of the need for bone slices from (invasive) bone biopsies. Such studies often compare the geometry of trabecular networks (eg trabecular bone volume, trabecular number) with clinical outcomes such as fracture rates. Another (invasive) approach is to examine the two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier transform (FT) of a high-resolution radiographic image of the bone slice, since structural information is in theory encoded in the 2-D spatial-frequency (?) spectrum. Additionally, the FT method can be applied to bone images obtained in-vivo, though superposition of information from the third dimension is a major confounding factor in their interpretation. Quantitative radiography of the ultradistal (UD) forearm permits determination of BMC (Price R et al; ACPSEM 6: 128- 137, 1983 and ACPSEM 11: 36-43, 1988), and (as a bonus) reveals a pattern (suitable for FT analysis) of the radiographic shadows of the 3-D trabecular network projected onto the image plane. Hemiplegia is associated with excessive bone loss in the paralysed (hemi) forearm, and is a model for the study of immobilisation osteoporosis. study of immobilisation osteoporosis. Thus, by comparing hemiplegia-induced changes in BMC and trabecular structure, derived from the same in vivo radiographic image, it is possible to compare directly the effects of disease on both bone quantity and quality, using the image of the non-paralysed (non-hemi) arm as a control. Seventy-four patients with hemiplegia of duration 3.6±3.6 (Mean±SD) years were studied cross-sectionally for radiographic BMC of their normal and paralysed UD forearms in AP view, each arm in duplicate. Methods (including water-immersion of the forearm, plus image calibration) and results of the bone densitometry study have been published (Prince RL et al, J Bone and Min Res, 3: 305-310, 1988). In the present study, the original radiographs from a subset of 30 patients (16M and 14F) were re-analysed by specifically-designed software (IMS). Radiographs were digitised and a square (128 x 128 pixels, 256 grey levels) was extracted centrally from the image of the UD radius, with its distal side perpendicular to the forearm long axis and lined up with the base of the ulnar styloid process, representing an area of 16x16 mm2 on the unmagnified image. Following thresholding using a value derived from sampling of the bone-free image, a 2-D FT was derived. It is reasonable to expect that there is (at least) a qualitative relationship between the sizes and orientations of the image elements identified by the FT and those of the trabeculae generating them by superposition. The general orientations (or sizes) of these periodic elements were analysed by dividing up the Fourier plane (described by polar coordinates ?, ?) into contiguous sectors (or annuli) and summing the normalised intensities within each sector (or annulus) (eg Lendaris GG et al, Proc IEEE 58: 198-216, 1970). Principal Components Analysis using all 8 annuli produced a complete separation of male and female non-hemi forearms, marked separation of male hemi and male non-hemi, and no separation in women. We conclude from this preliminary study that FT analysis of in-vivo forearm radiographs reveals gender dimorphism and detects immobilisation-induced changes in bone structure (ie 'quality') in males but not females. Thus the pattern of trabecular bone loss in males may differ from that of women, in a manner not discernible by conventional bone densitometry, which addresses bone 'quantity' only

93

Radiographic bone changes in multibacillary leprosy patients in Aburof mission clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leprosy is an infectious, chronic granulomatous disease, caused by M. leprae. It is one of the most seriously disabling and economically important disease. In Sudan it affects about 20 thousands people. In this study 60 patients of MB leprosy were included. Historry and physical examination were carried out for each patient. BI was done for all patients and were subjected to x-ray investigations of the paranasal sinuses, hands and feet. 85%(51) of these patients were found to have radiographic changes in paranasal sinuses, 35 patients with mucosal thickening and 16 with diffuse opacified sinuses. 86.7% (52) of those patients were found to have radiographic bone changes in their hand and feet. 23.6% and 75.4% were found with specific and non-specific bone changes in their hands and feet respectively. A spectrum of radiographic bone changes was found in the hands and feet including; destruction, fractures, phalangeal resoption, distal phalangeal tapering, flexion deformities, osteoarthritic changes, charcot's joints, osteoporosis cystic bone changes and enlarged nutrient bone foramina. The majority of patients with radiographic changes in the paranasal sinsuses, hands and feet, were found to have long duration of the disease and more bacterial load. The disability in hands and feet is the major risk factor in bone affection in MB leprosy. (Author)

94

Osseous changes in the foot bones in patients with arterial occlusion and simultaneous polyneuropathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article evaluates 26 cases with arterial occlusion and additional polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus or chronic alcohol addiction. For comparison, a group of 30 patients with arterial occlusion without neutrologically detectable polyneuropathy were also evaluated. It is pointed out that the osseous changes in the foot bone region are due to the additionally existing polyneuropathy and cannot be explained alone by an avascular bone necrosis in arterial vascular occlusion. Changes in the sense of an arthropathy occur in our group of patients even in case of unilateral arterial occlusion, these changes occurring bilaterally in the foot bones; after reconstruction measures in the arterial vascular system, these arthropathic changes in the foot bones continue to advance in case of persisting polyneuropathy. (orig.)

95

Reactive Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Attenuate Systemic Inflammation via sTNFR1  

OpenAIRE

Excessive systemic inflammation following trauma, sepsis, or burn could lead to distant organ damage. The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to be an effective treatment for several immune disorders by modulating the inflammatory response to injury. We hypothesized that MSCs can dynamically secrete systemic factors that can neutralize the activity of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we showed that cocultured MSCs are able to d...

Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-gutierrez, Alejandro; Navarro-alvarez, Nalu; Nahmias, Yaakov; Goldwasser, Yoni; Kitagawa, Yuko; Tilles, Arno W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Parekkadan, Biju; Yarmush, Martin L.

2010-01-01

96

Impacts of reactive nitrogen on climate change in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

China is mobilizing the largest anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the world due to agricultural, industrial and urban development. However, the climate effects related to Nr in China remain largely unclear. Here we comprehensively estimate that the net climate effects of Nr are -100 ± 414 and 322 ± 163?Tg CO2e on a GTP20 and a GTP100 basis, respectively. Agriculture contributes to warming at 187 ± 108 and 186 ± 56?Tg CO2e on a 20-y and 100-y basis, respectively, dominated by long-lived nitrous oxide (N2O) from fertilized soils. On a 20-y basis, industry contributes to cooling at -287 ± 306?Tg CO2e, largely owing to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) altering tropospheric ozone, methane and aerosol concentrations. However, these effects are short-lived. The effect of industry converts to warming at 136 ± 107?Tg CO2e on a 100-y basis, mainly as a result of the reduced carbon (C) sink from the NOx-induced ozone effect on plant damage. On balance, the warming effects of gaseous Nr are partly offset by the cooling effects of N-induced carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The large mitigation potentials through reductions in agricultural N2O and industrial NOx will accompany by a certain mitigation pressure from limited N-induced C sequestration in the future. PMID:25631557

Shi, Yalan; Cui, Shenghui; Ju, Xiaotang; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

2015-01-01

97

Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

98

Radiation-induced changes in bone perfusion and angiogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether blood flow of bone is altered by limb irradiation and whether bFGF, an angiogenic cytokine, might alleviate any flow or growth abnormality resulting from 30 Gy single fraction irradiation. Methods and Materials: C3H mice received whole right hind limb radiation at doses of 0 to 30 Gy. Additional groups received 30 Gy, and then beginning 1 or 5 weeks later received intravenous bFGF at a dose of 6 ?g/mouse, twice a week for 4 weeks. Serial X-ray films were taken to measure the tibias. At 33 weeks, laser Doppler flow (LDF) measurements were made of both limbs. Cytokine measurements were made using ELISA and RNase protection. Results: Bone growth was reduced following radiation in a dose dependent manner. bFGF improved bone growth after radiation even when begun 5 weeks after radiation, however, we detected no significant improvement in LDF of the irradiated bone or periosteum. Muscle tissue surrounding bone of the irradiated leg showed no increase in isoforms of TGF?, TNF, or IFN. There was also no difference in the circulating plasma TGF?1 in irradiated mice. In contrast, LDF increased significantly as a function of radiation dose in the nonirradiated tibia. Systemic delivery of bFGF appears to further enhance the increase in flow seen in the nonirradiated limb. Conclusion: Radiation induces a chronic antiangiogenic effect contributing to reduced limb growth. At 33 weeks the antiangiogenesis was not associated with local soft tissue elev associated with local soft tissue elevations of TNF, IFN, or TGF?. Radiation toxicity to bone is alleviated by bFGF therapy suggesting that powerful locally-acting antiangiogenic mechanisms are involved. We postulate that the increased LDF of the contralateral tibia is due to circulating angiogenesis factors that are elevated to compensate for the radiation-induced antiangiogenesis

99

Chronological histological changes during bone regeneration on a non-crosslinked atelocollagen matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cleavage of the antigenic telopeptide region from type I collagen yields atelocollagen, and this is widely used as a scaffold for bone regeneration combined with cells, growth factors, etc. However, neither the biological effect of atelocollagen alone or its contribution to bone regeneration has been well studied. We evaluated the chronological histological changes during bone regeneration following implantation of non-crosslinked atelocollagen (Koken Co., Ltd.) in rat calvarial defects. One week after implantation, osteogenic cells positive for runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were present in the atelocollagen implant in the absence of bone formation. The number of Runx2-positive osteogenic cells and Osterix-positive osteoblasts increased 2 weeks after implantation, and bone matrix proteins (osteopontin, OPN; osteocalcin, OC; dentin matrix protein 1, DMP1) were distributed in newly formed bone in a way comparable to normal bone. Some resorption cavities containing osteoclasts were also present. By 3 weeks after implantation, most of the implanted atelocollagen was replaced by new bone containing many resorption cavities, and OPN, OC, and DMP1 were deposited in the residual collagenous matrix. After 4 weeks, nearly all of the atelocollagen implant was replaced with new bone including hematopoietic marrow. Immunohistochemistry for the telopeptide region of type I collagen (TeloCOL1) during these processes demonstrated that the TeloCOL1-negative atelocollagen implant was replaced by TeloCOL1-positive collagenous matrix and new bone, indicating that new bone was mostly composed of endogenous type I collagen. These findings suggest that the atelocollagen itself can support bone regeneration by promoting osteoblast differentiation and type I collagen production. PMID:22864413

Kagawa, Ryosuke; Kishino, Mitsunobu; Sato, Sunao; Ishida, Ken; Ogawa, Yuzo; Ikebe, Kazunori; Oya, Kaori; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Komori, Toshihisa; Toyosawa, Satoru

2012-11-01

100

Relationships between changes in bone mineral density or bone turnover markers and vertebral fracture incidence in patients treated with bazedoxifene.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover marker (BTM) changes and vertebral fracture incidence in women treated with bazedoxifene using a post hoc analysis from a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of bazedoxifene (20 or 40 mg) on fracture risk reduction. BMD was assessed at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen were assessed at baseline and at 3, 12, and 36 months. Vertebral fractures were assessed with a semiquantitative visual assessment. Data were available for 5,244 women, of whom 3,476 were treated with bazedoxifene. Using a logistic regression analysis and the classical Li approach, the proportion of fracture incidence explained by BMD change after 3 years of bazedoxifene treatment was 29 % for the total hip and 44 % for the femoral neck. The proportion of treatment explained by lumbar BMD change could not be quantified accurately because of the significant interaction between treatment and change in BMD. With the same model, the 12-month BTM changes explained up to 29 % of the fracture risk reduction observed with the two forms of bazedoxifene. In women treated with bazedoxifene, changes in femoral neck BMD, hip BMD, or BTMs explained a moderate proportion of the fracture risk reduction observed during the 3 years of follow-up. However, BMD or BTM changes cannot be recommended for individual monitoring of women treated with bazedoxifene. PMID:22945761

Bruyère, Olivier; Detilleux, Johann; Chines, Arkadi; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2012-10-01

101

Reactivity changes effected by central samples in a thermally driven LWHCR lattice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first phase of LWHCR experiments in the zero-power reactor PROTEUS at EIR, Wuerenlingen, was completed towards the end of 1982. Apart from central reaction rate ratios and different reaction rate traverses across the LWHCR test zone, reactivity changes caused by various types of central samples were also measured. The current paper compares experiments and calculated values for some ratios of reactivity changes that were measured. Finally, the paper discusses the influence of the calculation model and the interpretability of the results as characteristics of a single-zone LWHCR

102

Reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements in hector experimental techniques and results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The techniques used in making reactivity change measurements on HECTOR are described and discussed. Pile period measurements were used in the majority of oases, though the pile oscillator technique was used occasionally. These two methods are compared. Flux determinations were made in the vicinity of the fuel element samples using manganese foils, and the techniques used are described and an error assessment made. Results of both reactivity change and flux measurements on 1.2 in. diameter uranium and plutonium-uranium alloy fuel elements are presented, these measurements being carried out in a variety of graphite moderated lattices at temperatures up to 450 deg. C. (author)

103

Reactivation of Immunological Response in Lethally X-Irradiated Mice Treated with Isogeneic Bone Marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male and female C57BL/H and CBA/H mice aged 10-12 weeks were used as recipients and donors, respectively. All recipient mice were given a lethal whole-body X-irradiation dose (850 R for C57BL and 950 R for CBA mice) followed by iv injection of 10 x 106 isogeneic eosin-negative bone-marrow cells suspended in 0.5 ml of Hank's solution. The number of eosin-positive cells was less than 10%. The state of immunological responsiveness of irradiated recipients was measured at different time intervals up to 86 days after irradiation. The immune response to bacterial antigen was measured with the titre of agglutinating antibodies in serum six days after iv antigenic stimulation with a suspension of 2 x 107 killed Salmonella typhimurium cells. The immune response to tissue antigens was evaluated by: (a) the effectiveness of the spleen cells from isologous radiation chimeric parental mice in preventing bone marrow from F1 (C57BL x CBA) hybrid donor from therapeutically affecting lethally irradiated F j recipient mice; (b) the effectiveness of the spleen cells in inducing splenom egaly in recipient F1 hybrid mice (Simonsen test). It was found that the responsiveness to bacterial antigens reappears much earlier and increases much faster than the immunological responsiveness to tissue antigens. (author)

104

The change of fast reactivity effects in the operation of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of the dependence of main fast reactivity effects of the IBR-2 pulsed reactor, i.e. isothermal effect, flow effect and effect of fast power feedback, on the energy production has been carried out. It has been shown that the main fluctuations of reactivity are correlated with the random change of the temperature of sodium. The absolute isothermal coefficient of reactivity weakly increases with the power production (by 20% during the whole operation time of the reactor). The fast power reactivity coefficient has decreased practically by a factor of 6 from -12?p/MW (in 1982, the start-up of the reactor) to -2 ?p/MW (in 2006, the stop of operation) and has a complicated dependence on the energy production. It has been shown that the flow fluctuation of coolant sodium through the core is small and influences weakly the random change of reactivity. The total sodium flow effect does not practically change with the power production

105

Structural changes in sheep tibia bone undergoing biomaterial scaffold implant  

OpenAIRE

Bone fracture is a common occurrence with most people having, or knowing someone who has experienced it. This thesis displays quantitative results on the growth and strength of new material formed in a fracture gap by analysing the density and volume of the implanted biomaterial scaffold and the new material formed alongside gait and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of external factors which can have an effect on the remodeling process. The main goal of this thesis is to present methods to provi...

Maxwell, Craig

2012-01-01

106

Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

1991-10-01

107

Comparative changes of morphology and lectin histochemistry characteristics of parathyroid glands and bone tissue.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was comparative analysis of guinea pig and human bone tissue due to postnatal changes of parathyroid glands morphology. The object of research were structural elements and cellular carbohydrate determinants of parathyroid glands and bone tissue with comparative characteristics of mineral exchange and parathyroid hormone levels. Were used morphometric, histochemistry, lectin histochemistry, biochemistry and immunology metods. Age- and sex-related morpho-functional and lectin histochemical peculiarities of parathyroid glands and bone tissue were investigated during postnatal ontogenesis in human and guinea pig. Correlations between DNA/RNA contents, nuclear volume of parathyrocytes, blood parathormone level with respect to Ca-, P-, and Mg- content in blood serum and bone tissue were estimated. We detected significant reduction of the width cortical layer and osseous trabecules, increased iliac bone mineralization, with simultaneous enhancement of nuclear volume and DNA/RNA content of parathyrocytes in females of groups III (aged 60-74 and IV (aged 75-90. We revealed age-related changes in lectin binding to cellular and stromal elements of parathyroid glands and bone tissue. The data extend our knowledge on the histochemical peculiarities of parathyroid glands and bone tissue during postnatal ontogenesis and under hyperparathyroidism, demonstrate possibilities of lectin application for selective labelling of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts.

Dzhura O.R.

2007-01-01

108

Radiologic assessment of alveolar and basal bone change of partially edentulous mandible  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to propose standard values for alveolar and basal bone in normal adult mandibles, and radiologically analyze the remodeling process of the edentulous mandible by examining molar areas and comparing them to the established normal values. Panoramic and CT scans of mandible were performed on 20 normal adults and 20 edentulous or partially edentulous adults. In both groups, arch half diameter and distance of alveolar bone were measured. Also the distance from the mandibular canal to the caudal edges, the buccal and lingual external borders of basal bone, were measured. A statistical comparison between the mean values of normal and edentulous mandibles was carried out in the selected areas. There was evidence of decreasing arch half diameter and distance in the edentulous mandible, but statistically no significant change was seen between the normal and edentulous alveolar bone. There was evidence of decreasing buccal basal bone and increasing in the lingual basal bone in the edentulous mandible. A statistically significant difference between normal and edentulous mandibles was noted in the buccal basal bone. There was an inward and forward atrophic change of the edentulous mandibular molar area compared to the control. CT scanning required the use of sophisticated and expensive procedures to analyze the remodeling process of edentulous mandibles. Consequently, the development and application of a more simplified and objective radiographic procedure for broad and long-term study of remodeling procedures of edentulous mandible was recommended.

Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog [Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-09-15

109

Post-Irradiation Changes in the Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of bone-marrow elements, and in particular of cells in the early stages of their development, remains an attractive subject for radiosensitivity studies as well as for its diagnostic value in practice. We studied the changes in the bone marrow in experimental animals and in humans following external irradiation and after the application.of radioisotopes with different physical and metabolic properties. In the evaluation of groups of all species there is a constant type of the response characteristic for individual cells of the bone marrow

110

Ultrastructural changes of bone marrow cells exposed for xenogenous cerebrospinal fluid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the scientifical investigations xenogenous cerebrospinal fluid was considered as possible substance for theproduction of powerful adaptogen of biological origin. One of the representative research in these field demonstrates morphologicaland functional changes of bone marrow as the central hemopoetic and immune organ. The article shows the ultramicroscopicchanges of bone marrow cells after the xenogenous cerebrospinal fluid exposure in Vistar rats of differentage. It was revealed the activation of synthetic processes in bone marrow cells of the first three age groups and exhaustion ofactivating mechanisms in the fourth age group, that was manifested in swelling and destruction of mytochondria, vacuolisationof cytoplasm, invagination of caryolemma.

Shaymardanova L.R.

2010-01-01

111

Changes in proximal femoral bone mineral density around a hydroxyapatite-coated hip joint arthroplasty.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To present the results of a prospective analysis of proximal femoral bone mineral density changes around a hydroxyapatite-coated total hip joint replacement. METHODS: 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were enrolled in the study and treated with an uncemented ABG prosthesis. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed in 9 patients preoperatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. An orthopaedic software program was used to determine the bone m...

Jc, Theis; Beadel G

2003-01-01

112

Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system) was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used w...

Sun-Jong Kim; Jaeyoung Yoo; Young-Soo Kim; Sang-Wan Shin

2010-01-01

113

Comparative changes of morphology and lectin histochemistry characteristics of parathyroid glands and bone tissue.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study was comparative analysis of guinea pig and human bone tissue due to postnatal changes of parathyroid glands morphology. The object of research were structural elements and cellular carbohydrate determinants of parathyroid glands and bone tissue with comparative characteristics of mineral exchange and parathyroid hormone levels. Were used morphometric, histochemistry, lectin histochemistry, biochemistry and immunology metods. Age- and sex-related morpho-functional and lect...

Dzhura O.R.; Yashchenko A.M.

2007-01-01

114

Bacteria-reactive immune response may induce RANKL-expressing T-cells in the mouse periapical bone loss lesion  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The present study investigated if T-cells infiltrating the periapical lesion produce RANKL and whether bacteria infecting the root canal can activate T-cells to produce RANKL. Methods Using a mouse model of periapical lesion induced by artificial dental pulp exposure, the presence of RANKL-positive T-cells and osteoclasts in the periapical lesion was examined by an immuno-histochemical approach. The bacteria colonizing the exposed root canal were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. The isolated endodontic bacteria were further immunized to normal mice, and sRANKL production by the T-cells isolated from the immunized mice was evaluated by ex vivo culture system. Results RANKL-positive T-cells, along with TARP+ osteoclasts, were identified in periapical bone resorption lesions. The Gram-negative bacterium Pasterurella pnumotropica (P. pnumotropica), which was most frequently detected from root canal of exposed pulp, showed remarkably elevated serum IgG antibody response in pulp-exposed mice compared to control non-treated mice. Immunization of mice with P. pneumotropica induced not only serum IgG antibody but also primed bacteria reactive T-cells that produced sRANKL in response to ex vivo exposure to P. pneumotropica. Conclusion T-cells infiltrating the periapical region express RANKL, and the endodontic bacteria colonizing the root canal appear to induce RANKL expression from bacteria-reactive T-cells, suggesting the possible pathogenic engagement of immune response to endodontic bacteria in the context of developing boneresorptive periapical lesions. PMID:22341072

Silva, Marcelo J.B.; Kajiya, Mikihito; AlShwaimi, Emad; Sasaki, Hajime; Hong, Jennifer; Ok, Peter; Rezende, Taia M.B.; Pagonis, Tom C.; White, Robert R.; Paster, Bruce J; Stashenko, Philip; Kawai, Toshihisa

2012-01-01

115

Bone Marrow Changes in Adolescent Girls With Anorexia Nervosa  

OpenAIRE

Early osteoporosis is common among adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and may result from premature conversion of red (RM) to yellow bone marrow. We performed right knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.0 T extremity scanner in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls, aged 16.2 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD). Coronal T1-weighted (T1W) images and T1 maps were generated from T1 relaxometry images. Blinded radiologists visually assessed RM in the distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphy...

Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Feldman, Henry A.; Buzney, Catherine D.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Gordon, Catherine M.

2009-01-01

116

Changes in blood coagulation and bone marrow due to thorotrast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Delayed effects after application of thorotrast are reported on. Two thorotrast carriers are examined with regard to the plasma clotting factors to the thrombocytopoiesis of the bone marrow, and the capillary resistance. Both patients have a strongly reduced resistance of the capillary walls; the ascorbic acid test in the urine is negative. Thrombopenia is seen in one of the patients, plasmatic coagulation disturbance is not found. Thorotrast crystals are found in the sternal puncture fluid of both patients, once with reduced megakaryocytes as thrombocytes and once without any disturbance of haematopoiesis. (GSC)

117

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01

118

Reactive Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Attenuate Systemic Inflammation via sTNFR1  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive systemic inflammation following trauma, sepsis, or burn could lead to distant organ damage. The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to be an effective treatment for several immune disorders by modulating the inflammatory response to injury. We hypothesized that MSCs can dynamically secrete systemic factors that can neutralize the activity of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we showed that cocultured MSCs are able to decrease nuclear factor ?-B (NF?B) activation in target epithelial cells incubated in inflammatory serum conditions. Proteomic screening revealed a responsive secretion of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (sTNFR1) when MSCs were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat serum. The responsive effect was eliminated when NF?B activation was blocked in MSCs. Intramuscular transplantation of MSCs in LPS-endotoxic rats decreased a panel of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in lung, kidney, and liver when compared to controls. These results suggest that improvements of inflammatory responses in animal models after local transplantation of MSCs are at least, in part, explained by the NF?B-dependent secretion of sTNFR1 by MSCs. PMID:20664529

Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Nahmias, Yaakov; Goldwasser, Yoni; Kitagawa, Yuko; Tilles, Arno W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Parekkadan, Biju; Yarmush, Martin L

2010-01-01

119

Reactive bone marrow stromal cells attenuate systemic inflammation via sTNFR1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive systemic inflammation following trauma, sepsis, or burn could lead to distant organ damage. The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to be an effective treatment for several immune disorders by modulating the inflammatory response to injury. We hypothesized that MSCs can dynamically secrete systemic factors that can neutralize the activity of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we showed that cocultured MSCs are able to decrease nuclear factor ?-B (NF?B) activation in target epithelial cells incubated in inflammatory serum conditions. Proteomic screening revealed a responsive secretion of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (sTNFR1) when MSCs were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat serum. The responsive effect was eliminated when NF?B activation was blocked in MSCs. Intramuscular transplantation of MSCs in LPS-endotoxic rats decreased a panel of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in lung, kidney, and liver when compared to controls. These results suggest that improvements of inflammatory responses in animal models after local transplantation of MSCs are at least, in part, explained by the NF?B-dependent secretion of sTNFR1 by MSCs. PMID:20664529

Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Nahmias, Yaakov; Goldwasser, Yoni; Kitagawa, Yuko; Tilles, Arno W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Parekkadan, Biju; Yarmush, Martin L

2010-10-01

120

Changes in Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Procollagen Type-1 C-Peptide after Static and Dynamic Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of two types of nonweight-bearing exercise on changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and pro-collagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P). BAP is a specific marker of bone synthesis, whereas P1P reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen in other organs as well as bone. Eight participants performed static and dynamic…

Kubo, Keitaro; Yuki, Kazuhito; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

2012-01-01

121

Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

Chan, Y.L.; Li, C.K.; Pang, L.M.; Chik, K.W

2000-08-01

122

Clinical study of bone changes after parathyroidectomy among patients maintained by hemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirteen patients maintained by hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism were mainly studied using Tc 99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and lamina dura index (LDI) which was judged by dental films. After parathyroidectomy (PTX), the most prominent change appeared on the calvaria, maxilla, and mandible in scintigrams. Intensity of Tc 99m-MDP accumulation was represented by using a quantitative method of bone-to-soft tissue uptake ratio (4 hr-B/St ratio). 4 hr-B/St ratio gradually decreased and became normal within one and a half years after PTX. The accumulation of Tc 99m-MDP on the calvaria may reveal the status of bone metabolism in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Also, LDIes gradually decreased during 4 through 6 months after PTX. However it was considered that these indexes might need a long term to return to normal range. We couldn't differenciate which method was superior in the diagnostic value for detecting early skeletal changes between roentogenograms and bone scintigraphy as a indicator of post-PTX bone improvement. However, bone scintigraphy should be added to conventional examinations for following the courses of patients that underwent PTX because this procedure has many other advantages. (author)

123

Reactivating memories during sleep by odors: odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memories are reactivated during sleep. Re-exposure to olfactory cues during sleep triggers this reactivation and improves later recall performance. Here, we tested if the effects of odor-induced memory reactivations are odor-specific, that is, requiring the same odor during learning and subsequent sleep. We also tested whether odor-induced memory reactivation affects oscillatory EEG activity during sleep, as a putative mechanism underlying memory processing during sleep. Participants learned a visuospatial memory task under the presence of an odor. During subsequent SWS, the same odor, a different odor, or an odorless vehicle was presented. We found that odor re-exposure during sleep significantly improves memory only when the same odor was presented again, whereas exposure to a new odor or the odorless vehicle had no effect. The memory-enhancing effect of the congruent odor was accompanied by significant increases in frontal delta (1.5-4.5 Hz) and parietal fast spindle (13.0-15.0 Hz) power as well as by an increased negative-to-positive slope of the frontal slow oscillation. Our results indicate that odor-induced memory reactivations are odor specific and trigger changes in slow-wave and spindle power possibly reflecting a bottom-up influence of hippocampal memory replay on cortical slow oscillations as well as thalamo-cortical sleep spindles. PMID:24456392

Rihm, Julia S; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

2014-08-01

124

Study of the effects of progressive changes in alkoxysilane structure on sol-gel reactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of the structure of an alkoxysilane on the early reaction kinetics of sol-gel polymerization are investigated in basic and acidic conditions. Six silanes, including tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane (BTMSE), bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane (BTMSH), and bis(trimethoxysilylpropyl)amine (BTMSPA), are selected to examine the effects of progressive changes in the silane's structure. In basic conditions, reactivities of the silanes follow the pairwise trends TEOS MTMS, MTMS BTMSH, and BTMSH BTMSE, BTMSE > BTMSH, and BTMSH > BTMSPA. The condensation rate coefficients of BTMSH and BTMPA are much smaller than the others. Theses relationships can be explained mainly on the basis of the expected inductive and steric factors of the silanes. Bulky organics attached to the silane lead to low reactivity in both acidic and basic conditions. A high electron density at silicon leads to a low reactivity in basic conditions but a high reactivity in acidic conditions (pH approximately 2.3). Only BTMSPA in basic conditions defies these trends, possibly because of the effects of solvation near the reactive silicon site. PMID:17091975

Tan, Bing; Rankin, Stephen E

2006-11-16

125

Time-course of exercise and its association with 12-month bone changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on bone density and strength. However, knowledge of the time-course of exercise and bone changes is scarce due to lack of methods to quantify and qualify daily physical activity in long-term. The aim was to evaluate the association between exercise intensity at 3, 6 and 12 month intervals and 12-month changes in upper femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD and mid-femur geometry in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer in 35 healthy women (35-40 years participating in progressive high-impact training. To describe exercise intensity, individual average daily numbers of impacts were calculated at five acceleration levels (range 0.3-9.2 g during time intervals of 0-3, 0-6, and 0-12 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry and mid-femur geometry was evaluated with quantitative computed tomography at the baseline and after 12 months. Physical activity data were correlated with yearly changes in bone density and geometry, and adjusted for confounding factors and impacts at later months of the trial using multivariate analysis. Results Femoral neck aBMD changes were significantly correlated with 6 and 12 months' impact activity at high intensity levels (> 3.9 g, r being up to 0.42. Trochanteric aBMD changes were associated even with first three months of exercise exceeding 1.1 g (r = 0.39-0.59, p r = 0.38-0.52, p Conclusion The number of high acceleration impacts during 6 months of training was positively associated with 12-month bone changes at the femoral neck, trochanter and mid-femur. These results can be utilized when designing feasible training programs to prevent bone loss in premenopausal women. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00697957

Vainionpää Aki

2009-11-01

126

THE INFLUENCE OF CaO AND P2O5 OF BONE ASH UPON THE REACTIVITY AND THE BURNABILITY OF CEMENT RAW MIXTURES  

OpenAIRE

The influence of CaO and P2O5 upon the reactivity of cement raw meal was investigated in this paper. Ash of bone meal containing Ca3(PO4)2 - 3CaO·P2O5 was used as the source of P2O5. Two series of samples with different content of the ash of bone meal were prepared. In the first series, the ash of bone was added into cement raw meal. The second series of samples were prepared by considering ash as one of CaO sources. Therefore, the total content of CaO in cement raw meal was kept constant, w...

TOMÁŠ IFKA; Palou, Martin T.; ZORA BAZELOVÁ

2012-01-01

127

Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 ?g/day subcutaneous) who had 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq 99mTc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for 99mTc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (Kbone). Regional Kbone differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton Kbone displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium Kbone changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all Kbone and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased 99mTc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM ine formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of 99mTc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

128

Comparative imaging study for soft tissue changes in osteomyelitis and malignant bone tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of the imaging findings of soft tissue abnormality in the differential diagnosis between osteomyelitis and malignant bone tumor. Methods: The CT and MRI findings of soft tissue changes in 57 cases of osteomyelitis and 70 cases of malignant bone tumor were retrospectively defined,observed, recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: In 57 cases of osteomyelitis, 54 cases were examined with CT, and soft tissue swelling was presented in 52 cases (degree I in 19 cases, degree II in 16 cases, degree III in 17 cases). Abscess-like cysts in soft tissue occurred in 6 cases, masses in 5, air in 1, fat-fluid level in 1 and sinus tract in 1. Among 14 cases examined with MR imaging, soft tissue swelling was presented in all cases (degree I in 2 cases, degree II in 6 cases and degree III in 6 cases). Abscess-like cysts appeared in 3 cases and showed high signal in diffusion weighted imaging, mass in 1 and fat-fluid level in 1. Among 54 cases examined with CT in 70 cases of malignant bone tumor, soft tissue swelling was presented in 44 cases (degree I in 29 cases, degree II in 12 cases, degree III in 3 cases). Soft tissue masses appeared in 49 cases, bone shell and shell-like calcification in 16 cases, and neoplastic bone and neoplastic calcified cartilage within soft tissue mass in 25 cases. Among 49 cases examined with MR imaging, soft tissue swelling was presented in 46 cases (degree I in 21 cases, degree II in 17 cases and degree III in 8 cegree II in 17 cases and degree III in 8 cases), and soft tissue masses appeared in 43 cases. The degree of soft tissue swelling and the occurrence of abscess-like cyst, mass, bone shell or shell-liked calcification in the rim of mass, neoplastic bone or neoplastic calcified cartilage in masses showed significant difference (P<0.05) between osteomyelitis group and malignant bone tumor group on CT examination. The degree of Soft tissue swelling and the occurrence frequency of abscess-like cysts and mass were significantly different (P<0.05) between osteomyelitis group and malignant bone tumor group on MR examination. Conclusion: The degree of soft tissue swelling and the presence of mass were valuable for the differential diagnosis. Bone shell or shell-liked calcification in the rim of mass and neoplastic bone or neoplastic calcified cartilage were specific imaging signs of malignant bone tumor. Abscess-like cysts, soft tissue air, fat-fluid level and sinus tract were specific signs of osteomyelitis. (authors)

129

Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, untreated bovine cortical bones (BCBs were exposed to a range of heat treatments in order to determine at which temperature the apatite develops an optimum morphology comprising porous nano hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp crystals. Rectangular specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 3–5 mm of BCB were prepared, being excised in normal to longitudinal and transverse directions. Specimens were sintered at up to 900 °C under ambient pressure in order to produce apatites by two steps sintering. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. For the first time, morphology of the HAp particles was predicted by XRD, and it was verified by SEM. The results show that an equiaxed polycrystalline HAp particle with uniform porosity was produced at 900 °C. It indicates that a porous nanoHAp achieved by sintering at 900 °C can be an ideal candidate as an in situ scaffold for load-bearing tissue applications.

Noor Azuan Abu Osman

2012-12-01

130

Bone marrow changes after localized acute and fractionated x irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These studies were performed to compare the effects of single and fractionated localized irradiation doses to bone marrow on depletion and recovery of various hemopoietic cell lines. Mice received radiation to right thighs while the rest of the body was shielded. Single exposures ranged from 1000 to 10,000 rad and fractionated exposures ranged from total doses of 1000 to 6000 rad. Animals were sacrificed from 1 to 84 days after exposures. Stained sections of femurs were studied for total cellularity, megakaryocytes, immature cells (pro- and basophilic erythroblasts, myeloblasts, and promyelocytes), and lymphoid cells (lymphocytes and monocytes). In general, a dose-time-dependent response depletion pattern was seen for various cellular elements examined irrespective of the mode of radiation exposure. With fractionated schedules, all hemopoietic cell lines with the exception of megakaryocytes attained essentially control values by 12 weeks after the last radiation exposure irrespective of the total radiation dose. Megakaryocytes appeared to be less efficient in regenerating in and/or repopulating the exposed marrow. With single exposures, all hemopoietic cell lines examined failed to regenerate at radiation doses above 5000 rad

131

Evaluation of Bone Change by Digital Subtraction Radiography After Implantation of Tooth ash-plaster Mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the methods for the clinical evaluation of the longitudinal bone changes after implantation of tooth ash-plaster mixture into the defect area of human jaws. Tooth ash-plaster mixtures were implanted into the defects of 8 human jaws. 48 intraoral radiograms taken with copper step wedge as reference at soon, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th week after implantation of mixture were used. X-ray taking was standardized by using Rinn XCP device customized directly to the individual dentition with resin bite block. The images inputted by Quick scanner were digitized and analyzed by NIH image program. Cu-equivalent values were measured at the implanted sites from the periodic digital images. Analysis was performed by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of resliced contiguous image. The obtained results by the two methods were compared with Cu-equivalent value changes. The average determination coefficient of Cu-equivalent equations was 0.9988 and the coefficient of variation of measured Cu values ranged from 0.08-0.10. The coefficient of variation of Cu-equivalent values measured at the areas of the mixture and the bone by the conversion equation ranged from 0.06-0.09. The analyzed results by the bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement were coincident with the changes of Cu-equivalent values. The surface plot of the resliced contiguous image showed the three dimensional view of the longitudinal bone changes on one image and also cdinal bone changes on one image and also coincident with Cu-equivalent value changes after implantation. The bidirectional subtraction with color enhancement and the surface plot of the resliced contiguous image was very effective and reasonable to analyze clinically and qualitatively the longitudinal bone change. These methods are expected to be applicable to the non-destructive test in other fields.

132

Chronological changes in the collagen-type composition at tendon–bone interface in rabbits  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate chronological changes in the collagen-type composition at tendon–bone interface during tendon–bone healing and to clarify the continuity between Sharpey-like fibres and inner fibres of the tendon. Methods Male white rabbits were used to create an extra-articular bone–tendon graft model by grafting the extensor digitorum longus into a bone tunnel. Three rabbits were killed at two, four, eight, 12 and 26 weeks post-operatively. Elastica van Gieson staining was used to colour 5 µm coronal sections, which were examined under optical and polarised light microscopy. Immunostaining for type I, II and III collagen was also performed. Results Sharpey-like fibres comprised of type III collagen in the early phase were gradually replaced by type I collagen from 12 weeks onwards, until continuity between the Sharpey-like fibres and inner fibres of the tendon was achieved by 26 weeks. Conclusions Even in rabbits, which heal faster than humans, an observation period of at least 12 to 26 weeks is required, because the collagen-type composition of the Sharpey-like fibre bone–tendon connection may have insufficient pullout strength during this period. These results suggest that caution is necessary when permitting post-operative activity in humans who have undergone intra-bone tunnel grafts. PMID:23610694

Tabuchi, K.; Soejima, T.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, K.; Nagata, K.

2012-01-01

133

Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing

134

Age-related changes in marmoset trabecular and cortical bone and response to alendronate therapy resemble human bone physiology and architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

In older humans, bone elongation ceases, periosteal expansion continues, and bone remodeling remains a dominant metabolic process. An appropriate animal model of type I and type II osteoporosis would be a species with sealed growth plates and persistence of bone remodeling. The rat is commonly used as a primary model, but due to delayed epiphyseal closure with continuous modeling and lack of Haversian remodeling, Food and Drug Administration guidelines recommend assessment of bone quality in an additional, non rodent, remodeling species. This study investigated the skeletal characteristics of senescent marmosets to evaluate their suitability as an osteoporosis model. Animals were randomized across three experimental groups; controls for both sexes and marmosets receiving alendronate for either 30 or 60 days (28 microg/kg, sc, twice per week). Outcome measures included serum chemistry and bone biomarkers, DEXA, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. Results showed that the adult marmoset skeleton has similar anatomical characteristics to the adult human, including the absence of growth plates, presence of Haversian system, and true remodeling of cancellous and cortical bone. Structural analyses of senescent marmoset cancellous bone demonstrated loss of trabecular mass and architecture similar to skeletal changes described for elderly men and women. Treatment with alendronate improved trabecular volume and number by reducing bone resorption, although bone formation was also reduced through coupling of bone remodeling. The common marmoset may provide a valuable model for research paradigms targeting human bone pathology and osteoporosis due to skeletal features that are similar to age-related changes and response to bisphosphonate therapy reported for humans. PMID:17610276

Bagi, Cedo M; Volberg, Marlo; Moalli, Maria; Shen, Victor; Olson, Ellen; Hanson, Nels; Berryman, Edwin; Andresen, Catharine J

2007-08-01

135

Design of chemical glycosyl donors: does changing ring conformation influence selectivity/reactivity?  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial review focuses on the design of glycosyl donors, especially on attempts to control selectivity/reactivity by employing bulky substituents, cyclic protecting groups, or bridged structures. These structural modifications are performed to change the conformational distributions of pyranoside/furanoside rings. We also briefly discuss this issue with regard to studies on furanosides and enzymatic glycosylation reactions. Readers will find that some of the designed glycosyl donors have been used to achieve total syntheses of natural products. PMID:23364773

Satoh, Hiroko; Manabe, Shino

2013-05-21

136

Comparative study of longitudinal changes in peri-implant bone microstructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The load applied to an implant is directly transmitted to the jaw and is considered to be one of the causes of remodeling of internal trabecular bones. However, the longitudinal changes during loading and the rearrangement of the trabecular bone structure are mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in internal jaw bone structure longitudinally during natural tooth eruption as well as tooth extraction and post-implantation periods in a dog model by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). Maxillae of 16 male beagle dogs were used in this study. First, 4 dogs with all maxillary molar teeth erupted were euthanized as a control group. Next, 6 teeth consisting of the bilateral maxillary fourth premolars, and first and second molars were extracted from each of the 12 dogs. Then, 4 dogs of the tooth-extracted group were euthanized 3 months after extraction of the teeth. At this time, three implants were inserted in the left side of the maxilla of the remaining 8 dogs, and the superstructures were placed after 3 months. Four of these 8 dogs with implants were euthanized at 3 months and the other 4 at 1 year after placement of the superstructure. Then, the maxillary bone was removed from each dog as a specimen and sequential micro-CT images were taken. After reconstruction of three-dimensional images, morphological and metrical observation of the jaw trabecular bone structure was performed. A decrease of the trabecular bone in the tooth-extracted group wacular bone in the tooth-extracted group was morphologically and morphometrically observed, whereas the implanted group showed thick, rich trabecular bone. Although a longitudinal decrease in the bone tissue volume was recognized both in the tooth-extracted and the implanted groups, the amount was smaller in the implanted group than in the tooth-extracted group. The results suggested that the application of load by implants in the case of tooth loss inhibits resorption of the alveolar bone and prevents thinning of the jaw. (author)

137

Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p = or <50 nmol/L (vitamin D adequate and inadequate, respectively) during late-winter, showed that Ur-Pyr and Ur-Dpyr in bothgroups were significantly (p <0.05) lower during late summer, and the magnitude of the reduction from winter to summer was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Seasonal changes in bone resorption markers appeared to be linked to seasonal changes in vitamin D status. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of these changes on risk of bone loss and fracture.

Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.

2007-01-01

138

Local changes in bone marrow at MRI after treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the prevalence and appearance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes that occur in local bone marrow after radiation therapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Seventy patients with primary STS at the level of a long bone who also had undergone pretreatment MRI and at least one post-treatment MRI of the tumor bed were identified. MRIs of each patient were retrospectively reviewed for new changes in marrow signal in the region of the tumor bed and for the morphology, relative signal intensities, heterogeneity, and progression or regression of changes over time. Focal signal changes in marrow were observed in 26/70 patients (37%) at a median of 9.5 months after RT and/or chemotherapy and diffuse changes in seven (10%) at a median of 8 months. Patients who received neither RT nor chemotherapy did not develop marrow changes. Mean RT doses in patients with changes and those without were 5,867 and 6,076 cGy, respectively. In most patients with focal changes, changes were seen in all sequences and were linear-curvilinear, patchy, or mixed at the level of the tumor bed. Predominant signal intensity of changes was between muscle and fat at T1WI and between muscle and fluid at fat-saturated T2WI or short tau inversion recovery. Most focal changes enhanced heterogeneously and increased or fluctuated in size over time. Changes in MRI appearance of long bone marrow frequently are evident after combined RT and chemotherapy forent after combined RT and chemotherapy for STS and most commonly increase or fluctuate in size over time. These changes have various non-mass-like configurations and often show signal intensities similar to those of red marrow and thus should not be mistaken for metastases. The marrow changes might represent an early stage of gelatinous transformation of marrow. (orig.)

139

Age determines longitudinal changes in body composition better than menopausal and bone status: the OFELY study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term body composition (BC) changes and their determinants have been rarely explored. We aimed to evaluate BC changes in French women from the Os des Femmes de Lyon (OFELY) cohort and to explore several determinants of those changes. At baseline, premenopausal (PreM) women (n = 145) had lower fat body mass (FM) and greater lean body mass (LM), relative skeletal muscle mass index (RASM), and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) compared with untreated postmenopausal (PostM) women (n = 412). During a 6-year follow-up, LM and RASM did not change, whereas a significant increase of FM and a decrease of TBBMC were observed in PreM (n = 88) and PeriM women (n = 44; women who became PostM during the follow-up). In untreated PostM women, FM increased, whereas LM, RASM, and TBBMC decreased (p < 0.0001). Age was a significant determinant of the changes in BC. After controlling for age, menopausal status was still a significant determinant only for changes in TBBMC. FM, LM, RASM, and TBBMC were higher in women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) compared with women with osteopenia or osteoporosis (p < 0.0001), but after adjusting for age, changes of BC were not significantly different according to the bone status. After controlling for age and menopausal status, levels of P1NP in the highest quartile were associated with a greater decrease of LM and RASM compared with lower levels. In conclusion, BC changes in French women over a 6-year follow-up showed a high interindividual variability. Aging may be the most important determinant of changes in body composition, rather than menopausal and bone status. PMID:22095542

Sornay-Rendu, Elisabeth; Karras-Guillibert, Caroline; Munoz, Francoise; Claustrat, Bruno; Chapurlat, Roland D

2012-03-01

140

Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study corrhanges identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

141

[Clinical and physiological evaluation of bone changes among astronauts after long-term space flights  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the joint Russian/US studies of the effect of microgravity on bone tissues in 18 cosmonauts on return from 4.5- to 14.5-month long missions are presented. Dual-energy x-ray gamma-absorbtiometry (QDR-1000 W, Hologic, USA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and mineral content (BMC, g) in the whole body, the scalp including cervical vertebra, arms, ribs, sternal and lumbar regions of the spinal column, pelvis and legs. A clearly defined dependence of topography of changes upon the position of a skeletal segment in the gravity vector was established. The greatest BMD losses have been observed in the skeleton of the lower body, i.e. in pelvic bones (-11.99 +/- 1.22%), lumbar vertebra (-5.63 +/- 0.817%), and in proximal femur, particularly in the femoral neck (-8.17 +/- 1.24%). Bones of the upper skeleton were either unchanged (insignificant) or showed a positive trend. Overall changes in bone mass of the whole skeleton of male cosmonauts during the period of about 6 months on mission made up -1.41 +/- 0.406% and suggest the mean balance of calcium over flight equal to -227 +/- 62.8 mg/day. Reasoning is given to qualify these states of cosmonauts' bone tissues as local osteopenia. On the literature and results of authors' clinical evidence, discussed is availability of the densitometric data for predicting risk of trauma. A biological nature of the changes under observation is hypothesized.

Grigoriev, A. I.; Oganov, V. S.; Bakulin, A. V.; Poliakov, V. V.; Voronin, L. I.; Morgun, V. V.; Shnaider, V. S.; Murashko, L. V.; Novikov, V. E.; LeBlank, A.; Shakleford, L.; Schneider, V. S. (Principal Investigator); Leblanc, A. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

142

Familial congenital bowing with short thick bones and metaphyseal changes, a distinct entity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe two siblings, a male and a female, with disproportionate short stature, rhizomelic-mesomelic shortening of the limb bones, marked bowing of the femora, moderate bowing of the humeri, radii and ulnae, straight tibiae and fibulae, normal hands, flared cupped metaphyses of the tibiae, ulnae, raddi and ribs, and narrow chest. There was some improvement of the bone changes with advancing age. These two patients are similar to five other cases from the literature and strongly support Hall and Spranger's view that this pseudocampomelic condition most likely represents a distinct familial bowing syndrome. The differential diagnosis and the hereditary aspects in the two patients, are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

143

Diet-induced (epigenetic) changes in bone marrow augment atherosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood leukocytes precede atherosclerotic lesion development in mouse models of atherosclerosis and have been linked to cardiovascular death in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term changes induced by WTD feeding on BM cells and the consequences for atherosclerosis susceptibility. Hereto, WTD BM or Chow BM was transplanted into LDLR KO mice on chow. BM from WTD BM recipient mice exhibited hypomethylation of CpG regions in the genes encoding Pu.1 and IRF8, key regulators of monocyte proliferation and macrophage differentiation. In agreement, in blood, the numbers of leukocytes were 40% (P<0.05) higher as a result of an increase in F4/80(+) monocytes (3.4-fold; P<0.01). An increase of CD11c(++) cells was also found (2.4-fold; P<0.05). Furthermore, spleens were enlarged, and the percentage of F4/80(+) cells expressing CD86 was induced (1.8-fold; P<0.01), indicating increased activation of splenic macrophages. Importantly, mice reconstituted with WTD BM showed a significant, 1.4-fold (P<0.05) increase in aortic root plaque size in the absence of changes in serum cholesterol. We conclude that WTD challenge induces transplantable epigenetic changes in BM, alterations in the hematopoietic system, and increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Manipulation of the epigenome, when used in conjunction with blood lipid reduction, could thus prove beneficial to treat cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25024399

van Kampen, Erik; Jaminon, Armand; van Berkel, Theo J C; Van Eck, Miranda

2014-11-01

144

Changing of bone resorption marker by treatment with infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate which clinical factors are associated with bone improvement by treatment with infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve cases using concise laboratory data were analyzed in terms of urinary N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) one year before and one year after treatment with infliximab. Urinary NTx changed from 41.55±13.5 (20.9-62.8) (nM BCE/mM Cr) to 40.77±16.34 (15-75.7) (nM BCE/mM Cr) and there was no significant difference between before and after treatment with infliximab (p=0.814). There was a significant correlation between improvement of urinary NTX and steroid or RAPA one year after treatment with infliximab (p=0.038 respectively). At less than 80 times RAPA, urinary NTx significantly decreased from 40.0±15.0 (nM BCE/mM Cr) to 29.98±8.65 (nM BCE/mM Cr) (p=0.043). Therefore, low RAPA and low dose of steroid was associated with improvement of urinary NTx after using infliximab. X-ray examination revealed that bone atrophy improved in 8 cases out of 12 (67%) and erosion improved in 1 case out of 12 (8.3%). MRI of the hand was assessed and synovium proliferation decreased in 1 case. Histological findings of the subchondral bone at the time of total elbow replacement during treatment with infliximab revealed newly formed fibrous woven bone, including osteoid material which filled the space of trabecular bone tissue. Therefore, the rheumatoid factor (RF) may be one of the points which indicates bone healing after using infliximates bone healing after using infliximab for RA. (author)

145

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Clivus and Its Age-Related Changes in the Bone Marrow  

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Full Text Available Background: The clivus is a bone region between dorsum cella and foramen magnum. It can be evaluated very clearly in routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI due to its central location.Objectives: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the clivus and its changes according to age in a group of healthy people.Patients and Methods: The transition of clival bone marrow to fatty marrow by the increase in age is examined by MRI in 105 men and 105 women who had no clival and bone marrow pathology on MRI. The clivus/pons, clivus/CSF intensity values and clival bone marrow imaging patterns according to age groups were prospectively evaluated using a 1.5 Tesla MR device.Results: When age groups were individually compared, there were meaningful statistical differences both in men and women in terms of clivus/CSF and clivus/pons intensity ratios (both Ps < 0.05. Clivus/pons and clivus/CSF intensity ratios were found to be increased with age in all cases. The distribution of age groups according to stages in all individuals was statistically meaningful (P < 0.05. When the appearance patterns of both genders in every ten-fold age were examined, stage III bone marrow was observed more in elder ages.Conclusions: As a result, besides the fact that standard ranges determined for clivus/CSF, clivus/pons intensity ratios according to age may be used in the assessment of potential pathological cases involving bone marrow; they can also be leading in the diagnosis of bone marrow diseases when taken into consideration together with clinical and laboratory data.

Ekrem Olcu

2011-12-01

146

Morphological changes of human mandibular bone during fetal periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardized photographs (lateral and basal view) of fetal mandibles (n = 80) were taken. Outline segments (from gnathion to condylion, on the coronoid process and from infradentale to gnathion in lateral view; and on the inferior margin in basal view) were analyzed into sine curves, according to Fourier series. Using the calculated Fourier coefficients, we statistically examined how mandibular shape changed with fetal growth. Materials were classified into four groups on the basis of the body length (BL): 100 decreased with increments in stature in the canonical disciminant analysis. On the outline from infradentale to gnathion, although the cumulative contributions of the first two terms were constant (about 85%) in all four groups, the relative contributions with growing stature decreased in the first term and increased in the second term. The mean of the phase in the first term indicated slightly more than -90 degrees in BL1, and was less than -90 degrees in BL2 to BL4. The averages of the second term phases presented little change from BL1 to BL3, and were close to -100 degrees. From the canonical discriminant analysis, the constant was great and the first term amplitude was small in BL1 and BL4, and the constant was small and the first term amplitude was great in BL2 and BL3. Also, the second term amplitude in BL4 indicated a significantly bigger volume than in BL3. The constant for the inferior margin manifested statistically significant increments in BL2 to BL4, as assessed by t-test. We interpret the results as follows: 1. On the outline from gnathion to condylion, anteroinferior shift occurs in BL4, resulting in an acute gonial angle. The change of angle during the prenatal period precedes the postnatal findings that bring about a progressive decrease in the gonial angle. 2. The tip of the coronoid process indicates a forward shift with increasing fetal body stature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7830992

Uchida, Y; Akiyoshi, T; Goto, M; Katsuki, T

1994-10-01

147

Changes in proximal femoral bone mineral density around a hydroxyapatite-coated hip joint arthroplasty.  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the results of a prospective analysis of proximal femoral bone mineral density changes around a hydroxyapatite-coated total hip joint replacement. METHODS: 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were enrolled in the study and treated with an uncemented ABG prosthesis. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed in 9 patients preoperatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. An orthopaedic software program was used to determine the bone mineral density in the proximal femur, expressed as a percentage of the preoperative value. RESULTS: The values of Gruen zones 1 to 6 averaged between 96.0% and 113.8% of the preoperative value by 24 months (overall average, 104.1%. In zone 7, however, there was a gradual decline in bone mineral density to an average of 72.1% of the preoperative value by 24 months. This represented ongoing loss of bone from the calcar; although this may not pose a problem to the prosthetic's short-term stability, it may render potential revision surgery more difficult. CONCLUSION: The initial outcome of uncemented total hip replacement appears to be promising. There was excellent maintenance of bone around the femoral component in all regions other than the calcar and lesser trochanter. Further scans are required to see if these trends continue in the long term.

Theis JC

2003-06-01

148

Chronological changes in the microstructure of bone during peri-implant healing: a microcomputed tomographic evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objectives were to examine the titanium-bone interfaces chronologically and to clarify the process of osseointegration using microcomputed tomography (microCT). The mandibular premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and 12 weeks later 2 Straumann dental implants were installed in each quadrant. The microstructural changes at the bone-implant interface at the first, fourth, and eighth weeks after installation were evaluated by microCT and a 3-dimensional image was constructed. The microstructural measurements at the bone-implant interface, including the trabecular number (Tb.N), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure model index (SMI), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and connectivity density (Conn.D), were measured. Experimental outcomes were analysed for correlations between time and microstructural variables of trabecular bone. Tb.N increased significantly during the eighth week compared with that during the first and fourth week (p=0.001, 0.002). BV/TV increased generally with time and there were significant differences (p=0.003) between each time group. While Tb.Sp decreased with time and changed significantly during the eighth week compared with that during the first week (p=0.021), differences in SMI, Tb.Th and Conn.D did not differ significantly according to time of implant. The significant increase in the Tb.N and BV/TV during the eighth week after insertion of implants indicates that the formation of new bone before the eighth week is the key to osseointegration. PMID:25131999

Fang, Liang; Ding, Xi; Wang, Hui-ming; Zhu, Xing-Hao

2014-11-01

149

Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats. Here we have investigated how the development and progression of this leukaemia affect oxygenation, pH and proliferation of normal and leukaemic cells in vivo. Bone marrow pH was measured by a needle electrode. Nitroimidazol-theophylline (NITP) was used to identify hypoxic cells, and we applied bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to identify DNA replicating cells. The leukaemia progressed slowly until day 27 after which a rapid deterioration could be observed leading to severe changes over the following 5 d. In whole blood there was evidence of progressing metabolic acidosis. In bone marrow the fraction of leukaemic cells increased to > 90% and the pH dropped to about 6.5. The fraction of NITP+ cells increased to > 80% in bone marrow and to about 40% in blood. The fraction of BrdUrd+ cells was unchanged in blood, but decreased in bone marrow both for normal cells (from about 20% to 5%), and for leukaemic cells (from about 45% to 25%), evidently as a result of the severely changed microenvironment. In this study we have demonstrated in vivo the development of an acidic and hypoxic bone marrow hampering normal haemopoiesis during leukaemic growth. Our data support the notion of BNML as a valuable tool for studying leukaemogenesis.

Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O

1998-01-01

150

Adipokines and C-reactive protein in relation to bone mineralization in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD in obese children with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; and the association between BMD and serum adipokines, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Cases were 44 obese children with NAFLD. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with high hepatic fat fraction (? 5%. Other causes of chronic liver disease were ruled out. Controls were selected from obese children with normal levels of aminotransferases, and without MRI evidence of fatty liver as well as of other causes of chronic liver diseases. Controls were matched (1- to 1-basis with the cases on age, gender, pubertal stage and as closely as possible on body mass index-SD score. All participants underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests, and whole body (WB and lumbar spine (LS BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD Z-scores were calculated using race and gender specific LMS curves. RESULTS: Obese children with NAFLD had a significantly lower LS BMD Z-score than those without NAFLD [mean, 0.55 (95%CI: 0.23-0.86 vs 1.29 (95%CI: 0.95-1.63; P < 0.01]. WB BMD Z-score was also decreased in obese children with NAFLD compared to obese children with no NAFLD, though borderline significance was observed [1.55 (95%CI: 1.23-1.87 vs 1.95 (95%CI: 1.67-2.10; P = 0.06]. Children with NAFLD had significantly higher HSCRP, lower adiponectin, but similar leptin levels. Thirty five of the 44 children with MRI-diagnosed NAFLD underwent liver biopsy. Among the children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 20 (57% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, while 15 (43% no NASH. Compared to children without NASH, those with NASH had a significantly lower LS BMD Z-score [mean, 0.27 (95%CI: -0.17-0.71 vs 0.75 (95%CI: 0.13-1.39; P < 0.05] as well as a significantly lower WB BMD Z-score [1.38 (95%CI: 0.89-1.17 vs 1.93 (95%CI: 1.32-2.36; P < 0.05]. In multiple regression analysis, NASH (standardized ? coefficient, -0.272; P < 0.01 and HSCRP (standardized ? coefficient, -0.192; P < 0.05 were significantly and independently associated with LS BMD Z-score. Similar results were obtained when NAFLD (instead of NASH was included in the model. WB BMD Z-scores were significantly and independently associated with NASH (standardized ? coefficient, -0.248; P < 0.05 and fat mass (standardized ? coefficient, -0.224; P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that NAFLD is associated with low BMD in obese children, and that systemic, low-grade inflammation may accelerate loss of bone mass in patients with NAFLD.

Lucia Pacifico

2013-01-01

151

Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2013-09-15

152

Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum : a controlled cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation

MØller, U K; við Streym, Susanna

2013-01-01

153

THE INFLUENCE OF CaO AND P2O5 OF BONE ASH UPON THE REACTIVITY AND THE BURNABILITY OF CEMENT RAW MIXTURES  

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Full Text Available The influence of CaO and P2O5 upon the reactivity of cement raw meal was investigated in this paper. Ash of bone meal containing Ca3(PO42 - 3CaO·P2O5 was used as the source of P2O5. Two series of samples with different content of the ash of bone meal were prepared. In the first series, the ash of bone was added into cement raw meal. The second series of samples were prepared by considering ash as one of CaO sources. Therefore, the total content of CaO in cement raw meal was kept constant, while the amount of P2O5 increased. These different series of samples were investigated by analyzing free lime content in the clinkers. The XRD analysis and Electron Micro Probe Analyzer analysis of the clinkers were also carried out. Two parameters were used to characterize the reactivity of cement raw meal: content of free lime and Burnability Index (BI calculated from free lime content in both series of samples burnt at 1350 ºC, 1400 ºC, 1450 ºC and 1500 ºC. According to the first parameter, P2O5 content that drastically makes worse the reactivity of cement raw meal was found at 1.11 wt.% in the first series, while this limit has reached 1.52 wt.% in the second one. According to the BI, the limit of P2O5 was found at 1.42 wt. % in the first series and 1, 61 wt.% in the second one. Furthermore, EPMA has demonstrated the presence of P2O5 in both calcium silicate phases forming thus solid solutions.

TOMÁŠ IFKA

2012-03-01

154

/ Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish Suplementación con calcio, densidad mineral ósea y contenido mineral óseo. Predictores de cambios en la masa ósea en madres adolescentes a los 6 meses postparto. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto de dos formas de suplementare calcio sobre la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y el contenido [...] mineral óseo (CMO), e identificar predictores de cambios en la masa ósea en madres adolescentes a los 6 meses postparto. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, analítico y clínico en madres adolescentes (?19 años; n=37) de la ciudad de La Plata, Argentina. A partir de los 15 días postparto, las adolescentes fueron distribuidas al azar en 2 grupos y comenzaron con la suplementación con calcio; un grupo recibió productos lácteos (932 mg Ca; n=19) y el otro citrato de calcio (1000 mg calcio/día; n=18). Se midió peso, altura y consumo de alimentos y se determinó la DMO por DEXA a los 15 días (línea de base) y a los 6 meses postparto. También se determinó CMO, DMO corporal total y DMO de columna lumbar, cuello femoral, trocánter y cadera total. Se usaron modelos de regresión para identificar relaciones entre DMO corporal total y CMO con variables independientes (tipo de suplementación, meses de lactancia, peso a los 6 meses, porcentaje de cambio de peso, masa magra a los 6 meses, porcentaje de cambio de masa magra, consumo total de calcio). Los resultados muestran que los cambios en DMO y CMO en los distintos sitios fueron similares en ambos grupos, y que los cambios en los porcentajes de peso corporal e ingesta total de calcio fueron los principales factores predictivos. En conclusión, el efecto del calcio fue similar tanto con productos lácteos como con comprimidos. Los cambios porcentuales en peso corporal e ingesta total de calcio resultaron factores predictivos de los cambios de la DMO corporal total y el CMO. Abstract in english We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (?19 years old; n=3 [...] 7) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n=19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n=18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes.

Agustina, Malpeli; María, Apezteguia; José L, Mansur; Alicia, Armanini; Melisa, acías Couret; Rosa, Villalobos; Marta, Kuzminczuk; Horacio F, Gonzalez.

2012-03-01

155

Progression and association with lameness and racing performance of radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones of young Standardbred trotters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiographic examination of the metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal joints was performed on 753 Standardbred trotters (6-21 months of age): 21 showed obvious changes in 26 proximal sesamoid bones on lateromedial projection. The radiographic changes were divided into 6 different types: (1) irregular abaxial margin (8 horses); (2) enlargement of the sesamoid bone (6 horses); (3) 'fracture' or separate centre of ossification of the apex (4 horses); (4) vertical, non-articular fracture of the plantar part of the sesamoid bone (1 horse); (5) a small bony fragment located in a defect in the apical part of the bone (2 horses); and (6) multiple areas of decreased radiodensity (1 horse). Each horse displayed only one type of radiographic change except for one which possessed those of types 3 and 5. Follow-up radiographic examination of 21 of the 26 affected proximal sesamoid bones at approximately 6-month intervals revealed a reduction in the changes in 13 bones and an unaltered condition in 8. Lameness examination was performed on 16 of the 21 horses at 3 years of age and 14 (87.5%) were observed to be lame, but detected lameness did not seem to be referrable to the sesamoid changes. Earnings after the racing season as 3- and 4-year-old horses showed no differences (P > 0.05) between horses with radiographic changes in the proximal sesamoid bones and those without such changes

156

Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

2009-01-01

157

Dynamic Change and Impact of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice  

OpenAIRE

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of myeloid cells comprised of hematopoietic progenitor cells, immature macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes, which accumulate in inflammatory diseases and various cancers. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes and effects of MDSCs in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) development and/or tumor relapse after syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We found that adding functional MDSCs in donor graft alleviated G...

Wang, Dapeng; Yu, Yu; Haarberg, Kelley; Fu, Jianing; Kaosaard, Kane; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Anasetti, Claudio; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Yu, Xue-zhong

2013-01-01

158

Change in haemopoiesis at fractionated large field irradiation of dogs, accompanied with autotransplantation of bone marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The right part of the chest of 36 mongrel dogs including the whole breast has been irradiated, the left part has been shielded. The irradiation has been performed twice a week. 9 Gy for each session, the integral dose constituted 54 Gy. Where upon irradiation 18 dogs have been subjected to automyelotransplantation from nonirradiated section of bone marrow (4-5x109 myelokaryocytes to each animal). The dynamics of changes in hemopoiesis in irradiated, shielded and nonirradiated sections of bone marrow has been traced by the data of paracentetic and histologic investigations in the early and late periods upon irradiation (up to 3 years). Under certain irradiation conditions when a considerable volume of bone marrow is affected, automyelotransplantation contributes to its faster recovery in the early periods affer irradiation. Compete recovery of blood formation in the irradiated bone marrow has been observed in a year and in animals with automyelotransplantation - in half a year and remained at this level during the whole observation period

159

Experimental studies of blood flow and metabolism changes in ?-ray induced bone injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate regional blood flow (RBF) and metabolism changes in the short-and long-term after bone irradiation injury. Methods: The tibia of the rabbits on the right side was irradiated with 60Co ? ray at a dose of 30 Gy. The tibia on the other side was taken as the control. RBF measurement, perfusion imaging and delayed bone imaging were respectively performed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th and 52nd week after the irradiation. Results: The RBF of injured side gradually increased after irradiation, and reached as two times as the level of the control at the 3rd week, and approached to the similar values on both sides at the 6th week, and then became only 27.8% of the value of the control at the 52nd week, the differences of RBF between two sides at all phases were significant or very significant (P 0.05), the ROI counts markedly decreased at the 12th week and very significantly declined at the 52nd week on irradiated side. Concat the 52nd week on irradiated side. Conclusions: The study shows that the RBF increases and bone metabolism is activated at irradiated side in the earlier stage after irradiation, and both regional microcirculation and bone metabolism significantly decrease in the medium and late stage

160

Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatory granulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequently occurring bone lesions (half of all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy.

Rohner, H.G.; Bartl, R.; Koischwitz, D.; Rodermund, O.E.

1982-12-01

161

Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatorygranulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequenctly occurring bone lesions (half on all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy. (orig.)

162

Composition and resistivity changes of reactively sputtered W-Si-N thin films under vacuum annealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

W-Si-N layers about 200 nm thick with different nitrogen content were reactively sputtered from a W5Si3 target on oxidized silicon substrates. The thermal stability of the films' composition and resistivity was studied with ion beam analysis and four-point probe measurements. Upon vacuum annealing from 600 to 980 deg. C for 1.5 h, a sample with an initial 56 at. % of nitrogen gradually loses nitrogen down to 36%. This composition lies close to the W-Si3N4 tie line. Concurrently, the room temperature resistivity decreases from 4.7 to about 2 m? cm. The composition changes only a little for a sample whose initial composition is near the W-Si3N4 tie line and the resistivity changes significantly less than for the nitrogen-rich film. Interpretations are discussed

163

Initial changes in the ultrastructure of bone marrow cells under ?- and neutron-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron-microscopy study of initial ?- and neutron-induced changes in ultrastructures of bone marrow cells has been carried out. These changes were shown to be qualitatively identical at both types of radiation and touch mainly the lipoproteid membranes of the nuclear membrane, mitochondrion cristae membrane and plasmatic membrane of the cell as well as the nucleoproteid structures of the nucleus. Their forms and dynamics in the interphase are described. The degree of manifesting and stability of cell damages vary with the radiation type and dose, and the type and developmental stage of the cell

164

Restoring and Maintaining Bone in Osteopenic Female Rat Skeleton. Part 1; Changes in Bone Mass and Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment contains the crucial data for the lose, restore, and maintain (LRM) concept, a practical approach for reversing existing osteoporosis. The LRM concept uses anabolic agents to restore bone mass and architecture (+ phase) and then switches to an agent with the established ability to maintain bone mass, to keep the new bone (+/- phase). The purpose of this study was to learn whether switching to an agent known chiefly for its ability to maintain existing bone mass preserves new bone induced by PGE2, in osteopenic,estrogen-depleted rats. The current study had three phases, the bone loss (-), restore (+), and maintain (+/-) phases. We ovariectomized (OX) or sham ovariectomized (sham-OX) 5.5 month-old female rats (- phase). The OX rats were treated 5 months postovariectomy with 1-6 mg PGE2, per kg/day for 75 days to restore lost cancellous bone mass (+ phase), and then PGE2, treatment was stopped and treatment began with 1 or 5 micro-g/kg of risedronate, a bisphosphonate, twice a week for 60 days (+/- phase). During the loss (-) phase, the cancellous bone volume of the proximal tibial metaphysis in the OX rat fell to 19% of initial and 30% of age-matched control levels. During the restore (+) phase, the cancellous bone volume in OX rats doubled. When PGE2 treatment was stopped, however, and no special maintenance efforts were made during the maintain (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone disappeared. In contrast, the PGE2-induced cancellous bone persisted when the PGE2 treatment was followed by either a 1 or 5 micro-g treatment of risedronate per kg given twice a week for 60 days during the maintain (+/-) phase. The tibial shaft demonstrated very little cortical bone loss during the loss (-) phase in OX rats. The tibial shaft cortical bone fell some 8%. During the restore (+) phase, new cortical bone in OX rats increased by 22%. When PGE2 treatment was stopped and nothing was given during the maintain (+/-) phase, however, all but the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone disappeared. In contrast, when PGE2 treatment was stopped and 1 micro-g risedronate per kg twice a week for 60 days was administered during the maintenance (+/-) phase, the PGE2-induced subperiosteal bone and some of the subendocortical bone and marrow trabeculae persisted. When 5 micro-g risedronate per kg was given twice a week, all the PGE2-induced bone persisted. The study shows that most of the new cancellous and cortical bone induced by PGE2, can be maintained for at least 60 days after discontinuing PGE2 by administering enough of the resorption inhibitor, risedronate. The lower dose of risedronate was not adequate to save most of the PGE2-induced endocortical bone.

Tang, Li Ya; Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kimmel, Donald B.

1992-01-01

165

MR tomography of bone marrow changes after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of MR standard imaging and short time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to assess changes in red bone marrow cellularity after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSCT). Results: STIR sequences demonstrated marked changes in signal intensity not only until the aplasia occurred but also during bone marrow repopulation. An increased signal intensity was observed after HDC in 13/15 patients (87%), followed by a decrease in signal intensity immediately after aplasia in 14/15 patients (93%). Signal intensity further changed parallel to marrow engraftment in 11/15 patients (73%). T2-TSE only showed clear changes during repopulation in 8/15 patients (53%). The individual course of the signal in T1-TSE was markedly inhomogeneous. Conclusions: STIR sequences show bone marrow edema during aplasia and marrow cellularity during reconstitution and are suitable for characterisation of red bone marrow after HDC and autologous PBSCT. (orig.)

166

Preleukemic change in the bone marrow of whole-body irradiated RFM/Up mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the whole-body irradiated mouse, various late effects of radiation are observed after the recovery from acute radiation injury. Some of these account for the familiar proneness of certain mouse strains to develop leukemias. The two experiments described below were designed to identify such preleukemic changes in blood-forming tissues and to find ways to manipulate them experimentally with the purpose of preventing leukemia. Preleukemic change of the bone marrow appears to be a mere quantitative departure from normal in a qualitatively non-malignant tissue. It entails increased proneness of immature cells to react with latent virus. The data, received are consistent with the assumption that this prononess is enhanced (or brought about) by removal of a controlling influence exerted by the mature cells over their precursors. Re-irradiation combined with intravenous bone marrow substitution offsets the leukemogenic influence of an earlier radiation exposure. The effect of re-irradiation on bone marrow displaying preleukemic lesions corroborates conclusions from earlier experiments on the nature of these lesions. (orig./MG)

167

Preleukemic change in the bone marrow of whole-body irradiated RFM/Up mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the whole-body irradiated mouse, various late effects of radiation are observed after the recovery from acute radiation injury. Some of these account for the familiar proneness of certain mouse strains to develop leukemias. The two experiments described below were designed to (a) identify such preleukemic changes in blood-forming tissues and (b) to find ways to manipulate them experimentally with the purpose of preventing leukemia. Preleukemic change of the bone marrow appears to be a mere quantitative departure from normal in a qualitatively non-malignant tissue. It entails increased proneness of immature (precursor) cells to react with latent virus. Our data are consistent with the assumption that this proneness is enhanced (or brought about) by removal of a controlling influence exerted by the mature cells over their precursors (feed-back inhibition). Re-irradiation combined with intravenous bone marrow substitution offsets the leukemogenic influence of an earlier radiation exposure. The effect of re-irradiation on bone marrow displaying preleukemic lesions corroborates conclusions from earlier experiments on the nature of these lesions. PMID:594502

Ludwig, F C; Smoke, M E; Schug, W G; Bostick, W L

1977-12-15

168

Neutrophil transcriptional profile changes during transit from bone marrow to sites of inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has recently been established that neutrophils, the most abundant leukocytes, are capable of changes in gene expression during inflammatory responses. However, changes in the transcriptome as the neutrophil leaves the bone marrow have yet to be described. We hypothesized that neutrophils are transcriptionally active cells that alter their gene expression profiles as they migrate into the vasculature and then into inflamed tissues. Our goal was to provide an overview of how the neutrophil's transcriptome changes as they migrate through different compartments using microarray and bio-informatic approaches. Our study demonstrates that neutrophils are highly plastic cells where normal environmental cues result in a site-specific neutrophil transcriptome. We demonstrate that neutrophil genes undergo one of four distinct expression change patterns as they move from bone marrow through the circulation to sites of inflammation: (i) continuously increasing; (ii) continuously decreasing; (iii) a down-up-down; and (iv) an up-down-up pattern. Additionally, we demonstrate that the neutrophil migration signaling network and the balance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic signaling are two of the main regulatory mechanisms that change as the neutrophil transits through compartments.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 9 June 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.37. PMID:24909740

Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Visser, Michelle B; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

2014-06-01

169

Trans fatty acids, HDL-cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk - Effects of dietary changes on vascular reactivity  

OpenAIRE

Intake of trans fatty acids increases the risk of coronary heart disease, even more so than saturated fatty acids. We wanted to investigate whether this higher risk was caused by the decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol by trans fatty acids. To do this, we studied the effect of diet-induced changes in HDL-cholesterol on vascular reactivity, a surrogate endpoint for coronary heart disease. Vascular reactivity was measured as flow-mediated vasodilation: the perc...

Roos, N. M.

2001-01-01

170

Multimodal imaging demonstrates concomitant changes in bone and cartilage after destabilisation of the medial meniscus and increased joint laxity.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Alterations in joint mechanics can cause osteoarthritis, which results in degeneration of both cartilage and bone tissue. The objective of this work is to measure changes in the laxity of the mouse knee joint after destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) and to visualise and quantify the resulting three-dimensional changes in the bone and cartilage. METHODS: Skeletally mature C57Bl6 male mice underwent DMM surgery in the right leg. Animals were sacrificed immediately 0 weeks (...

Moodie, Jp; Stok, Ks; Mu?ller, R.; Vincent, Tl; Shefelbine, Sj

2011-01-01

171

More than Meets the Eye: Functionally Salient Changes in Internal Bone Architecture Accompany Divergence in Cichlid Feeding Mode  

OpenAIRE

African cichlids have undergone extensive and repeated adaptive radiations in foraging habitat. While the external morphology of the cichlid craniofacial skeleton has been studied extensively, biomechanically relevant changes to internal bone architecture have been largely overlooked. Here we explore two fundamental questions: (1) Do changes in the internal architecture of bone accompany shifts in foraging mode? (2) What is the genetic basis for this trait? We focus on the maxilla, which is a...

Mann, Kenneth A.; James Cooper, W.; Craig Albertson, R.

2012-01-01

172

Bone mineral change during experimental calcination: an X-ray diffraction study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of calcination (400-1200°C) on pig bones have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary modifications, such as color change and weight loss. The characterisation by powder XRD confirmed the presence of the crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite, and comparison of the results obtained at different temperatures suggested that at 650°C, all the organic components and carbonate substitutions were completely removed. Accordingly, these samples were white. In addition, the crystallinity degree and the crystallite size progressively increased with the calcination temperature until 650°C, remaining stable until 1200°C. Below 650°C, bone samples presented organic compounds, resulting in background noise in the diffractogram and gray or black color. In addition, impurities in the lattice correspond to low crystallite sizes. PMID:24962811

Galeano, Sergio; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz

2014-11-01

173

Bone metabolism in obesity: changes related to severe overweight and dietary weight reduction.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A non-invasive evaluation of bone metabolism was performed in 44 morbidly obese patients before and after a mean weight loss of 22.4 kg (range 7.9-43.4 kg) after 2 months and a further weight loss of 7.3 kg after 8 months (0.8-20.0 kg). This weight reduction was obtained by a nutritionally adequate very-low-calorie diet. Before treatment the bone mineral content of the distal forearm was increased compared to normals (51.9 U vs. 43.7 U, p < 0.001). Bone formation was evaluated by serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin. Serum alkaline phosphatase was increased (187.8 U/l vs 147.4 U/l, p < 0.001) while serum osteocalcin was lower than in the controls (0.67 nmol/l vs 0.98 nmol/l, p < 0.01). Bone resorption, as measured by the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio, was not increased in the obese patients (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 16.7 molar ratio x 10(-3), NS). After 2 months, the bone mineral content had declined by 3.3%. Serum alkaline phosphatase remained unchanged (187.8 U/l vs 186.9 U/l, NS) but serum osteocalcin demonstrated a significant rise (3.94 nmol/l vs 10.53 nmol/l, p < 0.001), parallel to changes in the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (19.2 molar ratio x 10(-3) vs 25.2 molar ratio x 10(-3), p < 0.001). At 8 months, no further change in the bone mineral content was seen. The hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio did still increase (from 25.8 molar ratio x 10(-3) to 30.1 molar ratio x 10(-3), p < 0.05), while serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Hyldstrup, Lars; Andersen, T

1993-01-01

174

Cerebral vasomotor reactivity: steady-state versus transient changes in carbon dioxide tension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) is assessed during steady-state or transient changes in P aCO 2. This study tested the following two hypotheses: (i) that CVMR during steady-state changes differs from that during transient changes in P aCO 2; and (ii) that CVMR during rebreathing-induced hypercapnia would be blunted when preceded by a period of hyperventilation. For each hypothesis, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET , CO 2) middle cerebral artery blood velocity (CBFV), cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCI; CBFV/mean arterial pressure) and CVMR (slope of the linear regression between changes in CBFV and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2) were assessed in eight individuals. To address the first hypothesis, measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) steady-state increases in P ET , CO 2 of 5 and 10 Torr above baseline; and (ii) rebreathing-induced transient breath-by-breath increases in P ET , CO 2. The linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.65) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.44) was similar between methods; however, individual variability in CBFV or CVCI responses existed among subjects. To address the second hypothesis, the same measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) immediately following a brief period of hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation for 1 min followed by rebreathing; and (ii) during rebreathing only. The slope of the linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) was reduced during hyperventilation plus rebreathing relative to rebreathing only. These results indicate that cerebral vasomotor reactivity to changes in P aCO 2 is similar regardless of the employed methodology to induce changes in P aCO 2 and that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia attenuates the cerebral vasodilatory responses during a subsequent period of rebreathing-induced hypercapnia. PMID:25172891

Brothers, R Matthew; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Crandall, Craig G; Zhang, Rong

2014-11-01

175

Traumatic Bone Bruises in the Athlete’s Knee  

OpenAIRE

Context: Mobile water within the bone marrow is a physiological phenomenon that is identifiable on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and signal changes can result from blood pooling, reactive hyperemia, edema, and microfracture. When these MR lesions are associated with an acute traumatic event, the findings are referred to as bone bruises and so represent a unique manifestation of injury. This review discusses bone bruises in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, patella dislocations, occul...

Spindler, Kurt P.; Deangelis, Joseph

2010-01-01

176

Factors Predicting Bone Mineral Density (BMD Changes in Young Women over A One-year Study:Changes in Body Weight and Bone Metabolic Markers during the Menstrual Cycle and Their Effects on BMD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, 26% of Japanese women in their twenties are under weight, and therefore at risk of developing various metabolic abnormalities due to an inadequate nutrient intake, which in turn affects the acquisition of a peak bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of menstrual cycle-related changes in body weight and bone metabolic marker levels on the BMD changes. The subjects were 42 women (19.6±0.8 years. The levels of osteocalcin (OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD, and E2 in the menstrual and ovulatory phases were measured. The associations between dependent variables (BMD changes/year in the lumbar spine, femur, femoral neck and explanatory variables (body weight changes/year, the levels of OC, BAP, s-NTx, u-DPD were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the correlations between the changes in bone metabolic markers and changes in BMD showed a correlation between the OC level in the menstrual phase and changes in the BMD of the entire femur, suggesting that a high OC level protects against BMD reduction, probably by promoting osteoblast activity, and that bone formation activity suppresses the decrease in BMD. These results suggest that, to predict BMD changes from bone metabolic markers in young women, it is necessary to measure OC levels in the menstrual phase.

Iida,Tadayuki

2012-08-01

177

Energetic Ion Transport and Concomitant Change of the Fusion Reactivity during Reconnection Events in Spherical Tori  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of MHD reconnection events on the beam-plasma fusion reactivity and transport of the beam ions are studied. Based on the analysis of fusion reactivity changes induced by MHD events, the conclusion is drawn that the strong drops of the neutron yield during sawtooth crashes observed in the National Spherical Torus experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are associated with both a particle redistribution inside the plasma and a loss of the beam ions. Mechanisms of the energetic ion transport during sawtooth crashes are analyzed, in particular, with the use of the resonance adiabatic invariant derived in this paper. A numerical simulation of the particle motion during a sawtooth crash in NSTX is done with the code OFSEF [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1325 (2000)] extended for a better description of the particle precession. It is shown that the motion of toroidally passing particles in NSTX can become stochastic under the influence of a crash. This stochasticity, as well as the motion along the resonance island, leads to the escape of some particles from the plasma

178

On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as ''the code''). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed

179

Changes in bone geometry and microarchitecture caused by intermittent administration of PTH. Comparison with those by exercise load  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been several studies showing that periodical intermittent medication with parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increases in cancellous bone mass. However, there have been almost no reports comparing the effects of periodical intermittent PTH medication on bone microarchitecture with changes caused by physiological stimulation such as exercise load. In this study, we compared the effects of these two interventions on the microarchitecturural deterioration of femoral cancellous bone associated with unloading, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and the effects of PTH administration and motion loading on improvement of the deteriorated structure. In the study, 32 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group without tail suspension (CON), a control recovery group after suspension (S+C), a suspension/PTH group (S+P), and a suspension/jumping exercise group (S+J). Periodical intermittent human PTH (1-34) was given periodically to the S+P group rats at a dose of 75 ?g/kg/day five times a week for five weeks, after two weeks of exercise with suspension of the tail. The rats in the S+J group performed 40 cm-high jumping 10 times/day five times a week for five weeks. After this conditioning, upon examination, bilateral femurs were removed and the right distal metaphysis was scanned using micro-CT to obtain images of the cancellous bone region of the femur. Based on the tomographic data, indices of cancellous bone microarchitectundices of cancellous bone microarchitecture was the index of trabecular bone structure were determined by using three-dimensional image analysis system. In addition, to examine the geometric properties of the diaphysis, mid-portion images of the bone shaft of the left femur were obtained by micro-CT, and then the mechanical bone strength of the left femur was determined by performing a three-point bending test. Compared to the S+C group, the S+P and S+J groups showed significantly higher bone volume, bone surface mass values, superficial bone area, bone volume fraction rates, fractal dimensions, connectivity density, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone number and degrees of anisotropy. They conversely showed significantly lower bone volume ratio values, trabecular bone separation, trabecular bone pattern factors, and structural model indices. However, the area values, thickness, and strength of femoral diaphysis cortical bone in the S+J group were significantly higher than those in the S+C group. The S+P group showed no significant difference other than cortical bone thickness. These data suggest that periodical intermittent medication with PTH could cause changes in the fine structure of the femoral metaphysic cancellous bone microarchitecture that are similar to changes caused by jumping exercise, but the effects of PTH seem to be small on the geometric properties and bone strength of the cortical bone. (author)

180

Ion implantation induced structural changes in reactively sputtered Cr-N layers on Si substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study of the structure and composition of reactively sputtered Cr-N layers as a function of deposition parameters, and the effects of ion implantation on these structures. The layers were deposited on (1 0 0) Si substrates to a thickness of 240-280 nm, at different nitrogen partial pressure, and subsequently irradiated with 120 keV Ar ions. Structural characterisation of the samples was performed with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. We also measured their electrical resistivity with a four point probe. It was found that the layers grow in form of columnar structures, and their composition, Cr2N or CrN, strongly depends on the nitrogen partial pressure during deposition. Ion irradiation induces local micro-structural changes, formation of nano-particles and defects, which can be nicely correlated to the measured electrical resistivity

181

Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

Tallman, Tyler N.; Radel, Tracy E.; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Villa, Daniel L.; Smith, Brandon M. (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Radel, Ross F.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

2010-10-01

182

Reactivating memories during sleep by odors: odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations  

OpenAIRE

Memories are reactivated during sleep. Reexposure to olfactory cues during sleep triggers this reactivation and improves later recall performance. Here, we tested if the effects of odor-induced memory reactivations are odor specific, that is, requiring the same odor during learning and subsequent sleep. We also tested whether odor-induced memory reactivation affects oscillatory EEG activity during sleep, as a putative mechanism underlying memory processing during sleep. Participants learned a...

Rihm, Julia S.; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Bjo?rn

2014-01-01

183

Age-related changes in bone structure and strength in female and male BALB/c mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice may be useful for studies of skeletal aging, but there are limited data on changes in bone structure and strength over their life span. We obtained bones from female and male BALB/c mice at ages 2, 4, 7, 12, and 20 months and evaluated their structural, densitometric, and mechanical properties. MicroCT of the mid-diaphysis of the femur and radius indicated that during skeletal growth (2-7 months) bone cross-sectional size (area, moment of inertia) increased rapidly; during aging (7-20 months) cortical area was maintained, while moment of inertia continued to increase. Bones from females were smaller than those from males at young ages but not at later ages. Changes in whole-bone stiffness and strength reflected the changes in bone size, with a rapid increase from 2 to 7 months, followed by little or no change. In contrast, energy-to-fracture declined with aging. Cortical tissue mineral density increased during growth and was maintained with aging. MicroCT of trabecular bone revealed age-related changes that were site-dependent. The proximal tibia showed a clear pattern of age-related decline in trabecular BV/TV, with progressive decreases after 4 months in both sexes; lumbar vertebra L5 had more modest age-related declines; in contrast, caudal vertebra Ca7 had increasing BV/TV with aging. Overall, we found no evidence that females had more pronounced age-related deterioration than males. We conclude that bones from aging female and male BALB/c mice exhibit many of the changes seen in humans and are therefore a clinically relevant model for studies of skeletal aging. PMID:20405109

Willinghamm, Mark D; Brodt, Michael D; Lee, Kristen L; Stephens, Abby L; Ye, Jiaxin; Silva, Matthew J

2010-06-01

184

Region-specific sex-dependent pattern of age-related changes of proximal femoral cancellous bone and its implications on differential bone fragility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite evident interest in age-related bone changes, data on regional differences within the proximal femur are scarce. To date, there has been no comprehensive study on site-specific age-related changes in the trabecular architecture of three biomechanically important femoral subregions (medial neck, lateral neck, and intertrochanteric region) for both genders. In this study we investigated age-related deterioration in the trabecular architecture of those three subregions of the femoral neck for both genders. The research sample included 52 proximal femora (26 males, 26 females; age range, 26-96 years) from Forensic Department at University of Belgrade. Bone sections from the three regions of interest were scanned by micro-CT at University of Hamburg. The study revealed that proximal femoral microarchitecture cannot be perceived as homogeneous and, more importantly, that the aging process is not uniform. Besides the initial intersite differences, microarchitecture changed differently with increasing age, maintaining significant differences between the regions. In addition, we observed a different aging pattern between genders: deterioration was most significant in the intertrochanteric region in women, while the lateral neck was most affected in men. This finding supports epidemiological data about the differential occurrence of cervical vs. trochanteric fractures in aging males and females. In conclusion, the aging process in the proximal femur cannot be regarded as a simple function of quantitative bone loss but, rather, as an alteration of specific architecture that may degrade bone strength. PMID:20012269

Djuric, Marija; Djonic, Danijela; Milovanovic, Petar; Nikolic, Slobodan; Marshall, Robert; Marinkovic, Jelena; Hahn, Michael

2010-03-01

185

Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm, which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.. Baseline temperature was 31±1ºC. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Mean values (n=10 drill sequences for maximum recorded temperature (Max TºC, change in temperature (?TºC from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (?TºC were 1.57ºC and 2.46ºC for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05. No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47ºC, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation.

Sun-Jong Kim

2010-10-01

186

Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1, 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years apart. Results: In total, 134 (39% of the Study population) had a different SPT result at follow-up compared with baseline, based on a diagnostic criterion of 3 min for a positive test result 77 (22%) developed de novo sensitizations to I or more allergens, 45 (13%) had remission of 1 or more sensitizations, and 12 (4%) both gained and lost sensitizations. Female sex (odds ratio = 1.90 [1.02-3.57] P =.04) significantly predicted incidence of 1 or more sensitizations. Conclusions: Four of 10 adults with atopic disease will have changes in SPT status during a 3-year period, and most will gain new sensitizations. Women with atopic disease are at increased risk of developing new sensitizations compared with men Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11

Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.

2008-01-01

187

[Forensic medical implications of histomorphological changes in the bone and cartilage tissues under effect of radiation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present work was to study roentgenological, microscopic, and histomorphological changes in the bone and cartilage tissues under effect of different doses of gamma-ray radiation from Gammatron-2 (GUT Co 400) and betatron bremsstrahlung radiation (25 MeV). The total radiation dose varied from 9.6 Gy to 120 Gy per unit area during 5-8 weeks. The study included 210 patients at the age from 7 to 82 years (97 men and 113 women). Histomorphological studies were carried out using samples of bone and cartilage tissues taken from different body regions immediately after irradiation and throughout the follow-up period of up to 4 years 6 months. Control samples were the unexposed bone and cartilage tissues from the same subjects (n = 14). The tissues were stained either with eosin and hematoxylin or by Van Gieson's and Mallory's methods. Gomori's nonspecific staining was used to detect acid and alkaline phosphatase activities. Moreover, argyrophilic substance was identified in the cartilaginous tissue. Best's carmine was used for glycogen staining and Weigert's stain for elastic fibers. Metachromasia was revealed by toluidine blue staining and fat by the sudan III staining technique. In addition, the ultrastructure of cartilaginous tissue was investigated. Taken together, these methods made it possible to identify the signs of radiation-induced damage to the bone and cartilage tissues in conjunction with complications that are likely to develop at different periods after irradiation including such ones as spontaneous fractures, deforming arthrosis and radiation-induced tumours. PMID:24428051

Osipenkova-Vichtomova, T K

2013-01-01

188

Site-specific changes in bone microarchitecture, mineralization, and stiffness during lactation and after weaning in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the dramatic bone loss that occurs during lactation, bone mineral density rapidly recovers after offspring are weaned and milk production stops. The goal of this study is to quantify site-specific changes in bone quantity and quality during and after lactation in a mouse model. We used micro computed tomography (µCT), individual trabecula segmentation (ITS), digital topological analysis (DTA)-based tissue mineral density (TMD) analysis, and micro finite element analysis (µFEA) to quantify the effects of lactation and weaning on bone microarchitecture, mineralization, and stiffness at the spine, tibia, and femur. We found a significant decrease in trabecular plate microarchitecture, tissue mineralization of the trabecular surface, trabecular central skeleton, and intervening envelopes, and whole bone stiffness in lactating versus nulliparous mice at all three sites. In recovered mice, all these different aspects of bone quality were comparable to nulliparous mice at the spine. In contrast, trabecular plate microarchitecture and whole bone stiffness at the tibia and femur in recovered mice were lower than nulliparous mice, as were central trabecular tissue mineralization and cortical structure at the femur. These findings are consistent with clinical observations of partial recovery of femoral bone mineral density BMD after lactation in humans. The observed differences in trabecular surface tissue mineralization in nulliparous, lactating, and recovered mice are consistent with prior observations that maternal bone turnover shifts from resorption to formation at the time of pup weaning. The significant differences in trabecular central tissue mineralization during these three states suggest that osteocytes may contribute to the reversible loss of mineral during and after lactation. Future studies are necessary to determine whether differing functions of various bone cells at individual skeletal sites cause site-specific skeletal changes during and after lactation. PMID:22189918

Liu, X Sherry; Ardeshirpour, Laleh; VanHouten, Joshua N; Shane, Elizabeth; Wysolmerski, John J

2012-04-01

189

A case of necrotizing sialomataplasia: consideration on cause, bone change, and incidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a rare, benign, self-limiting lesion, but it mimics carcinoma both clinically and histologically. Authors present a case of NS on the right posterior hard palate in a 16-year-old boy. This case showed underlying erosive bone change on CT images. We supposed this lesion resulted from the local anesthesia for dental treatment. Presented NS is the only one case from approximately 1,500 oral and maxillofacial biopsies (0.07%) at Chonnam National University Hospital during the period from 1999 to 2004.

190

Changes of the radiological image of tuberculose of bones and joints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuberculosis of bones and joints still occurs in the Netherlands, although with a low incidence. Most patients in this country are natives of Mediterranean countries and of Surinam. The classical radiological image appears to be changing in that multiple lesions occur more often, lesions occur in localizations rare for tuberculosis in patients of Dutch origin, very large abscesses are formed and in case of vertebral tuberculosis, extensive sclerosis develops with early osseous bridging and complete or partial preservation of disc spaces. The findings in 12 personal patients are described. (Auth.)

191

X-ray studies on the change in bone formation in fractures following laser treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important problem, associated with the X-ray studies of the changes in bone formation in fractures following laser treatment, is dicussed. Results are reported on laser therapy of 30 patients with fractures of the radius in loco typico and compared with a control group of 30 patients, who were treated with ordinary (laboratory) lamp with a side light beam. It was found that laser biostimulation activated callus development in fractures and speeded their complete consolidation. In laser-treated patients osteoporosis occured more seldom and had predominantly limited and patchy appearance, while Sudek's osteoporosis was seen mainly in the control group

192

Age-Related Changes in Bone Structure and Strength in Female and Male BALB/c Mice  

OpenAIRE

Mice may be useful for studies of skeletal aging, but there are limited data on changes in bone structure and strength over their lifespan. We obtained bones from female and male BALB/c mice at ages 2, 4, 7, 12 and 20 months and evaluated their structural, densitometric and mechanical properties. MicroCT of the mid-diaphysis of the femur and radius indicated that during skeletal growth (2–7 months) bone cross-sectional size (area, moment of inertia) increased rapidly; during aging (7–20 m...

Willingham, Mark D.; Brodt, Michael D.; Lee, Kristen L.; Stephens, Abby L.; Ye, Jiaxin; Silva, Matthew J.

2010-01-01

193

Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland emissions add to this value. 7. If current patterns of N and water resource management continue, nitrogen loading to inland waters is expected to increase while the nitrogen retention efficiency within aquatic ecosystems will decline as a function of nitrogen saturation of biological demand. 8. Management that reduces N loss to the nation's water will reduce environmental and economic damage, reduce the risk to human health, and prevent the production of some N2O. Preventing the loss of N to aquatic systems is likely to be most effective at its point of origin. Reducing reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere, increasing N uptake efficiency of crops and greater N retention in soils, better animal management, and improved sewage treatment to remove N from urban waste waters will be increasingly important approaches for the provision of water resources and services in a warmer and highly populated world.

Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

2011-12-01

194

Unusual bone dysplasia featuring severe platyspondyly and vertebral 'coronal cleft' in infancy, and changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the report of a boy who presented at birth with severe generalized platyspondyly, a vertebral ''coronal cleft'', and an abnormal configuration of the pelvis with short and broad iliac and ischial bones and horizontal acetabular roofs. The rest of the skeleton was normal. In the ensuing years the vertebral bodies and pelvis assumed a near normal configuration, but the patient developed changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in the long bones of the lower limbs with progressive shortness of stature. (orig.)

195

Assessing joint effusion and bone changes of the head of the mandible in MR images of symptomatic patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between degenerative bone changes of the head of the mandible and the presence of joint effusion (JE. This study was based on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI reports of 148 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 74 patients complaining of pain and/or dysfunction in the TMJ area. The mandible heads were surveyed for osteoarthritis characteristics, which were classified as osteophytosis, sclerosis or erosion. The presence of JE was checked whenever high signal intensity was observed in the articular space. The results evidenced the presence of bone changes in 30% of the sample. Osteophytes and erosions were the changes most commonly observed. JE was reported in 10% of TMJs. The results from the statistical tests revealed that bone changes in the head of the mandible are associated with the presence of JE.

Jefferson Xavier de Oliveira

2013-02-01

196

Assessing joint effusion and bone changes of the head of the mandible in MR images of symptomatic patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between degenerative bone changes of the head of the mandible and the presence of joint effusion (JE). This study was based on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports of 148 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 74 patients comp [...] laining of pain and/or dysfunction in the TMJ area. The mandible heads were surveyed for osteoarthritis characteristics, which were classified as osteophytosis, sclerosis or erosion. The presence of JE was checked whenever high signal intensity was observed in the articular space. The results evidenced the presence of bone changes in 30% of the sample. Osteophytes and erosions were the changes most commonly observed. JE was reported in 10% of TMJs. The results from the statistical tests revealed that bone changes in the head of the mandible are associated with the presence of JE.

Jefferson Xavier de, Oliveira; Jucely Aparecida da, Rosa; Marcelo Eduardo Pereira, Dutra; Karina Cecilia Panelli, Santos; Cibelle, Gil.

2013-02-01

197

Myelodysplastic changes in three cases within 100 days after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three patients with severe aplastic anemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) and chronic myelogenous leukemia, developed myelodysplastic changes with trilineage morphological abnormalities in a few months following allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Morphologically dysplastic changes associated with moderate-severe anemia, leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia appeared on day 40, day 62 and day 68 after BMT. A ferrokinetics study clearly showed ineffective erythropoiesis in one patient. Hematopoietic cells were shown to be of donor-origin in all three cases. The levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were normal. Laboratory tests showed no signs of hemolysis or fragmentation of red blood cells. Although the cause of aberrant hematopoiesis compatible with MDS within 100 days post-BMT remains to be determined, cytomegalovirus infection, ganciclovir and/or graft-versus host disease (GVHD) might be associated with this myelodysplasia following allogeneic BMT. PMID:8867726

Okamoto, T; Kanamaru, A; Okada, M; Kawaguchi, K; Saheki, K; Takatsuka, H; Fujimori, Y; Takemoto, Y; Kohsaki, M; Kakishita, E

1996-02-01

198

Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplasstic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders. In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modifications of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points.

Seed, T.M.; Chubb, G.T.; Tolle, D.V.

1981-01-01

199

Viscoelastic and biological performance of low-modulus, reactive calcium phosphate-filled, degradable, polymeric bone adhesives  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate addition on the mechanical, surface free energy, degradation and cell compatibility properties of poly(lactide-co-propylene glycol-co-lactide) dimethacrylate (PPGLDMA) thin films. Dry composites containing up to 70 wt.% filler were in a flexible rubber state at body temperature. Filler addition increased the initial strength and Young's modulus and reduced the elastic and permanent deformation under...

Abou Neel, E. A.; Salih, V.; Revell, P. A.; Young, A. M.

2012-01-01

200

Oscillator measurements of the reactivity changes resulting from the irradiation of low enrichment particulate fuel in the Dragon reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Report describes a series of experiments carried out as a joint UKAEA/CEA/DRAGON project to determine the reactivity changes of low-enrichment particulate fuel samples following their irradiation in the DRAGON reactor to various levels up to approximately 60,000 MWD/Te. The samples are described, together with the method of measurement of reactivity in the Winfrith reactor HECTOR, which was an extension of the well-known Oscillator Technique to yield simultaneously overall reactivity changes and changes in macroscopic absorption cross-sections. Measurements were carried out at room temperature in two reactor spectra; a thermal spectrum and one typical of an HTR type reactor. The resultant reactivity changes are presented together with the relevant sample burn-ups as determined by #betta#-scanning methods and, in some cases, by rigorous chemical analysis. The results of supporting measurements are also reported, carried out to characterise the neutron spectra in which the oscillator measurements were made and to determine the neutron flux distributions in the HECTOR reactor. (author)

201

Seasonality of energetic functioning and reactive oxygen species production by lugworm (Arenicola marina) mitochondria exposed to acute temperature changes  

OpenAIRE

The influence of seasonal and acute temperature changes on mitochondrial functions were studied in isolated mitochondria of the eurythermal lugworm Arenicola marina (Polychaeta), with special emphasis on the interdependence of membrane potential and radical production. Acclimatisation to pre-spawning/ summer conditions is associated with rising mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, higher proton leakage rates, elevated membrane potentials, and increased production of reactive oxygen specie...

Keller, Martina; Sommer, Angela; Po?rtner, Hans-otto; Abele, Doris

2004-01-01

202

Biomechanical responses of tooth associated with different root lengths and alveolar bone heights: changes of stress distributions in the PDL.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the nature of stress distributions in the PDL varied by different root lengths and alveolar bone heights. A three-dimensional model of the upper central incisor was constructed for the finite element method (FEM). The model was modified to produce various root lengths and alveolar bone heights. A lingually directed 100 g horizontal force was applied at a point on the labial crown surface. Stress distributions were determined in the center of the PDL for various apicogingival levels. Stress levels in the PDL gradually decreased with a longer root. Rates of changes in stress levels to those with an original root length were approximately 1.5 at maximum and 0.8 at minimum. Patterns of stress distributions were varied by different alveolar bone heights in both the qualitative and quantitative aspects; i.e., apicogingival level of stress transition shifted more apical, and stress levels also increased following a reduction of the alveolar bone in the apicogingival direction, approaching about eight times with a half alveolar bone height as the original. It is found that the root length and alveolar bone height affect stress distributions in the PDL. Thus, it is shown that an orthodontic force application should be determined on the basis of anatomical variations in root length and alveolar bone height to induce an optimal stress level in the PDL, which is a key to desirable tooth movement. PMID:2489629

Tanne, K; Burstone, C J; Sakuda, M

1989-12-01

203

A role for subchondral bone changes in the process of osteoarthritis; a micro-CT study of two canine models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates changes in peri-articular bone in two canine models for osteoarthritis: the groove model and the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT model. Methods Evaluation was performed at 10 and 20 weeks post-surgery and in addition a 3-weeks time point was studied for the groove model. Cartilage was analysed, and architecture of the subchondral plate and trabecular bone of epiphyses was quantified using micro-CT. Results At 10 and 20 weeks cartilage histology and biochemistry demonstrated characteristic features of osteoarthritis in both models (very mild changes at 3 weeks. The groove model presented osteophytes only at 20 weeks, whereas the ACLT model showed osteophytes already at 10 weeks. Trabecular bone changes in the groove model were small and not consistent. This contrasts the ACLT model in which bone volume fraction was clearly reduced at 10 and 20 weeks (15–20%. However, changes in metaphyseal bone indicate unloading in the ACLT model, not in the groove model. For both models the subchondral plate thickness was strongly reduced (25–40% and plate porosity was strongly increased (25–85% at all time points studied. Conclusion These findings show differential regulation of subchondral trabecular bone in the groove and ACLT model, with mild changes in the groove model and more severe changes in the ACLT model. In the ACLT model, part of these changes may be explained by unloading of the treated leg. In contrast, subchondral plate thinning and increased porosity were very consistent in both models, independent of loading conditions, indicating that this thinning is an early response in the osteoarthritis process.

van Osch Gerjo JVM

2008-02-01

204

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, September 1987--January 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01

205

Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)s previously unreported. (author)

206

Comparative reproducibility of dermal microvascular blood flow changes in response to acetylcholine iontophoresis, hyperthermia and reactive hyperaemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) can non-invasively measure skin microvascular changes in response to acetylcholine (ACh), local heating of the skin and reactive hyperaemia following arterial occlusion. Various studies have used microvascular changes in response to these stimuli, especially ACh iontophoresis and local heating, as a surrogate marker of endothelial function. There are few data in the literature regarding the comparative reproducibility of microvascular perfusion changes induced by the three stimuli. The aim of this study was to systematically assess and compare the reproducibility of skin microcirculatory function in response to each of these challenges. Ten healthy non-smoking subjects (seven males) median age 36 years (range 23–46), with no history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease or any connective tissue disorder, were studied. Changes in skin microcirculation in response to ACh iontophoresis, local heating of the skin and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia, on two separate days (median 31, range 11–42 days), were assessed in all subjects. We measured three parameters: the change in perfusion from baseline perfusion (peak minus baseline perfusion), the relative percentage change in perfusion from baseline (peak ? baseline)/baseline × 100 (%) and also the time-to-peak perfusion. The reproducibility of the change in perfusion had coefficients of variation (CV) of 9.3% for local skin heating, 19.4% for reactive hyperaemia and 25.5% for ACh iontophoresis. The relative percentage change in perfusion from baseline was more variable with CVs ranging from 23% to 39%. The coefficient of variation of time-to-peak perfusion was 7.0% for heating, 15.1% for reactive hyperaemia and 10.4% for ACh iontophoresis. We have shown that microcirculatory changes measured by the change in perfusion from baseline and time-to-peak perfusion in response to ACh, post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia and local skin heating had good reproducibility when carried out in a controlled environment with a standardized protocol. Relative change in perfusion had relatively poor reproducibility. The change in perfusion and time-to-peak perfusion for local skin heating were the most reproducible overall

207

Zone-dependent changes in human vertebral trabecular bone: clinical implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have previously shown that there are pronounced age-related changes in human vertebral cancellous bone density and microarchitecture. However, the magnitude of these changes seemed to be dependent on zone location in the vertebral body-the central third vs. the areas adjacent to the endplates. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate whether such zone-specific differences could be identified by static histomorphometric measures. The material comprised 48 individuals (24 women aged 19-97 years, and 24 men aged 23-95 years). Three of the women had a known fracture of the L-2. From each L-2, thick frontal sections of half of the vertebra were embedded undecalcified in methylmethacrylate, cut into 10-microm-thick sections, and stained with aniline blue. The sections were scanned into a computer, and classic static histomorphometry was performed on the images. The histomorphometry was performed on both the whole section and on the separate zones (central and sub-endplate zone). The results showed that trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density decreased significantly faster with age, whereas marrow space star volume increased significantly faster with age in the zones adjacent to the endplates than in the central zone. The other histomorphometric measures showed no zone specificity in relation to aging. However, trabecular thickness and trabecular separation were both higher at all ages in the central zone than in the sub-endplate zone, although this was significant only for trabecular separation. The described differences might have significant clinical implications concerning quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scanning, X-ray analyses, and assessment of fracture liability in the human spine, but the underlying pathogenesis is still not known. This study shows that the human vertebral body can be described as two distinct zones with very specific age-related changes in density and microstructure. This zone-specificity is important for the correct interpretation of clinical data.

Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils

2002-01-01

208

The role of reactive oxygen species in membrane potential changes in macrophages and astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in changes of the plasma membrane potential of mouse peritoneal macrophages and astrocytes (U118 cell line) under the action of different agents has been studied. Membrane potential was measured using the voltage-dependent fluorescent oxonol dye DiBAC4(3). Agonists which stimulate macrophages to release ROS (the fMLP peptide and platelet activating factor) caused prolonged hyperpolarization. Experiments with the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate have shown that astrocytes release ROS upon the action of C5a complement anaphylatoxin (but not C3a). The effect of C5a was accompanied with hyperpolarization of the astrocyte plasma membrane. Treatment of the cells with agents which do not induce ROS generation (C3a, lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma) depolarized the plasma membrane. Hyperpolarization of both cell types was significantly decreased in the presence of superoxide dismutase (but not catalase). Moreover, the O2- -generating system caused a marked hyperpolarization of both cell types. The data obtained suggest that O2- is involved in the macrophage and astrocyte hyperpolarization response. PMID:10926373

Klyubin, I V; Kirpichnikova, K M; Ischenko, A M; Zhakhov, A V; Gamaley, I A

2000-01-01

209

Reactive hyperemia during short-term blood flow and pressure changes in the hypertensive forearm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to further validate our method for the determination of minimal forearm vascular resistance after ischemia (13 min arterial occlusion and 1 min hand exercise) in patients with hypertension. This parameter, calculated as the ratio of mean blood pressure (intra-arterial recordings on the experimental side) to forearm blood flow (strain-gauge venous plethysmography), was measured basally and after either increasing (through unrelated vasodilators such as sodium nitroprusside or the calcium antagonist nicardipine in six mild-to-moderate uncomplicated hypertensives) or decreasing (norepinephrine, n = 4) flow without changes in systemic pressure. In spite of the divergent starting flow values, minimal postischemic forearm vascular resistance was unchanged, indicating a lack of relationship with functional arteriolar tone and the achievement of maximal dilatation. In two additional groups of patients, systemic arterial pressure was decreased by approximately equipotent oral doses of either nifedipine, a calcium antagonist (n = 6), or captopril, an angiotension converting enzyme inhibitor (n = 5). Under these conditions, minimal forearm vascular resistance was unchanged from pretreatment values, suggesting that local autoregulatory mechanisms were overridden during the reactive hyperemia, and that the vessel lumen was dependent on the distending pressure. Overall, the data show that our experimental conditions are suitable for measuring minimal forearm vascular resistance as a functional correlate of the morphological status of systemic arterioles in arterial hypertension. PMID:2163422

Pedrinelli, R; Spessot, M; Salvetti, A

1990-05-01

210

Analysis of the results of reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactivity change measurements have been carried out in the graphite-moderated reactor HECTOR on plutonium-uranium fuel elements with a low Pu240 content. The aim of the work was to develop a method in which measurements on small fuel samples (typically 18 in. long) could be used to check the validity of proposed methods of calculation for plutonium-bearing lattices. The experiments were carried out in a variety of lattices and demonstrated that, at a lattice pitch of 8.5 in. which was used for the majority of the measurements, the results were not significantly affected by the lattice environment. In particular, the results showed that it is not necessary to use plutonium-uranium fuel in the lattice surrounding the sample but that uranium fuel with similar properties is adequate. The accuracy obtained corresponded to an error of 0.5% in k? for a lattice containing the plutonium-uranium fuel. The results of the measurements were compared with the predictions of the TRACER method of lattice calculation. It was found that, at room temperature, there was no significant difference between the measured and calculated values of k? but that, at temperatures in the range 400-450 deg. C, the calculated value of k? was about 1 1/2% lower than the measured value. (author)

211

Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate changes in BMD and BC during and following a pregnancy. METHODS: We measured BMD and BC in 153 women planning pregnancy (n?=?92 conceived), once in each trimester during pregnancy and 15, 129, and 280 days postpartum. Moreover, BMD was measured 19 months postpartum (n?=?31). Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. RESULTS: Compared with controls, BMD decreased significantly during pregnancy by 1.8?±?0.5% at the lumbar spine, 3.2?±?0.5% at the total hip, 2.4?±?0.3% at the whole body, and 4.2?±?0.7% at the ultra distal forearm. Postpartum, BMD decreased further with an effect of breastfeeding. At 9 months postpartum, women who had breastfed for

MØller, U K; Við Streym, S

2012-01-01

212

Are alveolar bone changes a determinant factor for "cara inchada" in cattle?  

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Full Text Available In order to study possible alterations of the skeleton which might play a role in the pathogenesis of the periodontitis of "cara inchada" in young cattle, ribs from 20 affected calves, 2 to 10 months old, were examined. Electrolytically decalcified longitudinal sections of the costochondral junction and cross sections through the corpus costae, stained with Haematoxylin-Eosin, were studied. In five calves, longitudinal sections of the proximal humerus were examined as well. The status of mineralization was checked by microradiograms. Systemic alteration of the skeleton due to disturbances of mineral metabolism could not be shown in any of the animals. In seven 2 to 4 months old calves, no bone changes were found. The reduced osteogenesis in six 3 to 5 months old calves and the reduced osteogenesis and diminished chondral growth in seven 5 to 10 months old calves are therefore a consequence of the disease. The results show that the development of the alveolar bone was not defective, so this cannot be a determinant factor for the development of the periodontitis of "cara inchada" in cattle.

Döbereiner Jürgen

1997-01-01

213

Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy sieceiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

214

Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results  

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Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

Poll, L.W.; Koch, J.A.; Scherer, A.; Boerner, D.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom; Niederau, C.; Haeussinger, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rechenzentrum

2001-09-01

215

Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

Yassaei S

2007-01-01

216

MRI manifestations of bone marrow changes after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor was subcutaneous for healthy adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate MRI manifestations of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changes before and after recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was subcutaneous injected for healthy adults. Methods: Twenty healthy blood stem cell donors without hematologic disease were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent lumbar sagittal and proximal femur coronal MRI examination with spin echo T1WI and fat-suppressed T2WI. The first examination were performed before subcutaneous injection of rhG-CSF for comparison. In 4-7 days and 30-60 days after injection, the other two examinations were performed. The signal changes of lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow were investigated by reading pictures and calculating the contrasted noise ratio (CNR). Results: Before rhG-CSF injection, all patients presented normal signal intensity of bone marrow. In 4- 7 days after injection, all the 20 cases presented homogeneous signal decrease in lumbar vertebral bodies on T1WI, accompanied by reduced fatty signal. In proximal femur, patchy or stripped hypointensity areas were found in intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric areas on T1WI. On fat-suppressed T2WI images, the signal of' lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow changed to equal or slightly-high signal intensity. In all cases, abnormal signal areas presented in lumbar and proximal femoral bone marrow occurred simultaneously in the same case. In the 10 cases received the third MRI during 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection, signal intensity of lumbar bone marrow turned to normal in all sequence, but abnormal signal intensity areas were still existed and extended to distal part in femoral bone marrow, which appeared as symmetric stripped or patchy equal or slightly-low signal intensity on T1WI and equal or slightly-high signal intensity on T2WI. The CNR of lumbar bone marrow to subcutaneous fat before rhG-CSF injection, in 4-7 days and 30-60 days after rhG-CSF injection were 114.11±15.11, 71.04±12.25 and 91.64±11.68, respectively. Significant difference was found between before rhG-CSF injection and 4-7 days after injection (P0.05). Conclusion: After injection of rhG-CSF, the short- term changes of hematopoietic cells and fat content in bone marrow can be displayed on MRI, which provided non-invasive information for bone marrow transplantation. (authors)

217

Changes of porous poly(?-caprolactone) bone grafts resulted from e-beam sterilization process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important mechanical feature of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) foams applied in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold, has been investigated as a function of irradiation dose. Radiation is proposed for the sterilization of the polymer before the implantation. Polycaprolactone scaffold foams were obtained by combination of compression molding and particulate leaching techniques. The porogen was changed in the range 74-96 w% and the irradiation dose was varied from 25 to 150 kGy. Our results show that yield strength is not a function of radiation dose, but is rather influenced by the porosity, while the critical strain is mainly dependent on the dose. All these together mean that the modulus of the elasticity of PCL foams is dependent on both the porosity and the dose

218

Changes of porous poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) bone grafts resulted from e-beam sterilization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most important mechanical feature of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) foams applied in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold, has been investigated as a function of irradiation dose. Radiation is proposed for the sterilization of the polymer before the implantation. Polycaprolactone scaffold foams were obtained by combination of compression molding and particulate leaching techniques. The porogen was changed in the range 74-96 w% and the irradiation dose was varied from 25 to 150 kGy. Our results show that yield strength is not a function of radiation dose, but is rather influenced by the porosity, while the critical strain is mainly dependent on the dose. All these together mean that the modulus of the elasticity of PCL foams is dependent on both the porosity and the dose.

Olah, L. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary) and Research Center for Biomechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary)]. E-mail: olah@pt.bme.hu; Filipczak, K. [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, 93-590 Lodz, Wroblewskiego 15 (Poland); Czvikovszky, T. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary); Czigany, T. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary); Borbas, L. [Research Center for Biomechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem Rakpart 3 (Hungary)

2007-08-15

219

Reactivity changes in hybrid thermal-fast reactor systems during fast core flooding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new space-dependent kinetic model in adiabatic approximation with local feedback reactivity parameters for reactivity determination in the coupled systems is proposed in this thesis. It is applied in the accident calculation of the 'HERBE' fast-thermal reactor system and compared to usual point kinetics model with core-averaged parameters. Advantages of the new model - more realistic picture of the reactor kinetics and dynamics during local large reactivity perturbation, under the same heat transfer conditions, are underlined. Calculated reactivity parameters of the new model are verified in the experiments performed at the 'HERBE' coupled core. The model has shown that the 'HERBE' safety system can shutdown reactor safely and fast even in the case of highly set power trip and even under conditions of big partial failure of the reactor safety system (author)

220

Morphological study of the human hyoid bone with three-dimensional CT images -Gender difference and age-related changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human hyoid bone supports the base of the tongue and is involved in breathing, chewing, and swallowing as well as in the muscle movements associated with articulation. Accordingly it plays an important bone for a human to live. It is a very interesting organ also in multiple special area, including anatomy, mastication, swallowing, articulation, and also forensic medicine. In the morphological study of the human hyoid bone, there is a comparative anthropological research early in 1900, whereas the metrological research has been little reported later. We first used MDCT, and recorded each organic hyoid locus with a three-dimensional image for three-dimensional morphometry of gender differences, age-related changes, and the morphologic characters of the hyoid bone, and compared them with the results of our predecessors. By measuring the volume of the human hyoid bone, we identified gender difference at high rates, and estimated a certain level of ages based on the ossification at the junction area of the hyoid body and greater horns observed. Our results can be applied in the forensic medicine. By examining 600 cases, atypical horseshoes-shapes were found and the existence of the hyoid bone protrusion was demonstrated at high rates. PMID:23429053

Ito, Kyoichi; Ando, Satoshi; Akiba, Norihiko; Watanabe, Yuichi; Okuyama, Yasuo; Moriguchi, Hisamoto; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Shimada, Morio

2012-01-01

221

Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106; intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions. PMID:25422634

Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

2014-01-01

222

Anatomic changes in the macroscopic morphology and microarchitecture of denervated long bone tissue after spinal cord injury in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS) and electrical stimulation (ES). The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n = 10/group): (1) Sham, (2) SCI, (3) SCI + PS, and (4) SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy. PMID:25136632

Zamarioli, Ariane; Maranho, Daniel A; Butezloff, Mariana M; Moura, Patrícia A; Volpon, José Batista; Shimano, Antônio C

2014-01-01

223

Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplastic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders (Seed et al., 1977). In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modification of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. The more prominent of these changes include the following. (i) In developing aplastic anemia: severe vascular sinus and parenchymal cord compression, and focally degenerate endosteal surfaces. (ii) In developing myelofibrosis: hyperplasia of endosteal and reticular stomal elements. (iii) In developing leukemia: hypertrophy of reticular and endothelial elements in the initial restructuring of the stromal matrix and the subsequent aberrant hemopoietic repopulation of the initially depleted stromal matrix. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points

224

Sequential changes in bone marrow architecture during continuous low dose gamma irradiation  

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Beagles continuously exposed to low daily doses (10 R) of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation are prone to develop either early occurring aplastic anemia or late occurring myeloproliferative disorders (Seed et al., 1977). In this study, we have examined by a combination of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy the sequential changes in the morphology of biopsied rib bone marrow of continuously irradiated dogs that developed either aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, or myelogenous leukemia. Characteristic modification of key elements of marrow architecture have been observed during preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopathological conditions. The more prominent of these changes include the following. (i) In developing aplastic anemia: severe vascular sinus and parenchymal cord compression, and focally degenerate endosteal surfaces. (ii) In developing myelofibrosis: hyperplasia of endosteal and reticular stomal elements. (iii) In developing leukemia: hypertrophy of reticular and endothelial elements in the initial restructuring of the stromal matrix and the subsequent aberrant hemopoietic repopulation of the initially depleted stromal matrix. These architectural changes during preclinical phases appear to be related to the pathological progression to each of the radiation-induced hemopathological end points.

Seed, T.M.; Chubb, G.T.; Tolle, D.V.

1981-01-01

225

Early bone changes after incorporation of low quantities of alpha emitters in male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work shows the early effects of cancergenic doses of alpha emitters in long bones of rats. The investigations were based on radiographic, morphologic, angiographic, histologic and electronmicroscopic methods. A special method for bone angiography in the rat was elaborated and a new method was developed for measurement of the femur neck-head angle. Numerous disturbances in bone growth and bone structure, in the blood supply of bone and also of the bone building cells were observed. There was a correlation between the severity of the damage and the radiation dose, the spacial distribution of the nuclide and partially the age of the rats. The bone injury due to plutonium was markedly reduced by administration of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.)

226

An Investigation of the Efficacy of Cuttlefish Bone Powder in the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium and Isotherm Studies  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge of textile wastewater causes the reduction of sunlight penetration, interferes with the receiving waters ecology and damage the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the removal efficiency of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions by cuttlefish bone powder. Materials & Methods: This study was performed experimentally and in laboratory scale. In this research, the effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration and pH was evaluated. Dye concentration in unknown samples was determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. In order to better understand the adsorption process, the experimental data were analysed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Results: Results showed that increasing the adsorbent dose up to 0.4 gr/100ml and increasing of contact time, led to an increase in the efficiency of dye removal. Increasing the initial pH had no effect on the adsorption efficiency and increasing the initial concentration of dye decreased the removal efficiency. The Removal efficacy of the dye was found to be 60%, 45%, 37.5% and 31.9% at the time interval of 3h and the initial dye concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l, respectively. The experimental data were in good concordance with Langmuir isotherm model (R2=0.993. Conclusion: Cuttlefish bone powder is a natural and inexpensive adsorbent that can be used for the removal of environmental contaminations. The adsorption process is affected by sorbent dose, initial dye concentration and contact time but pH had no significant effect on removal efficiency

Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

2012-12-01

227

Age-related changes in vertebral and iliac crest 3D bone microstructure-differences and similarities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Age-related changes of vertebra and iliac crest 3D microstructure were investigated, and we showed that they were in general similar. The 95th percentile of vertebral trabecular thickness distribution increased with age for women. Surprisingly, vertebral and iliac crest bone microstructure was only weakly correlated (r?=?0.38 to 0.75), despite the overall similar age-related changes. INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the study were to determine the age-related changes in iliac and vertebral bone microstructure for women and men over a large age range and to investigate the relationship between the bone microstructure at these skeletal sites. METHODS: Matched sets of transiliac crest bone biopsies and lumbar vertebral body (L2) specimens from 41 women (19-96 years) and 39 men (23-95 years) were micro-computed tomography (?CT) scanned, and the 3D microstructure was quantified. RESULTS: For both women and men, bone volume per total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (CD), and trabecular number (Tb.N) decreased significantly, while structure model index (SMI) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) increased significantly with age at either skeletal site. Vertebral trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) was independent of age for both women and men, while iliac Tb.Th decreased significantly with age for men, but not for women. In general, the vertebral and iliac age-related changes were similar. The 95th percentile of the Tb.Th distribution increased significantly with age for women but was independent of age for men at the vertebral body, while it was independent of age for either sex at the iliac crest. The Tb.Th probability density functions at the two skeletal sites became significantly more similar with age for women, but not for men. The microstructural parameters at the iliac crest and the vertebral bodies were only moderately correlated from r?=?0.38 for SMI in women to r?=?0.75 for Tb.Sp in men. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in vertebral and iliac bone microstructure were in general similar. The iliac and vertebral Tb.Th distributions became more similar with age for women. Despite the overall similar age-related changes in trabecular bone microstructure, the vertebral and iliac bone microstructural measures were only weakly correlated (r?=?0.38 to 0.75).

Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Jensen, Michael Vinkel

2015-01-01

228

MicroRNA miR-155 Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Signaling and BMP-Mediated Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation? †  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNA miR-155 is expressed at elevated levels in human cancers including cancers of the lung, breast, colon, and a subset of lymphoid malignancies. In B cells, miR-155 is induced by the oncogenic latency gene expression program of the human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Two other oncogenic herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Marek's disease virus, encode functional homologues of miR-155, suggesting a role for this microRNA in the biology and pathogenesis of these viruses. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is involved in an array of cellular processes, including differentiation, growth inhibition, and senescence, through context-dependent interactions with multiple signaling pathways. Alteration of this pathway contributes to a number of disease states including cancer. Here, we show that miR-155 targets the 3? untranslated region of multiple components of the BMP signaling cascade, including SMAD1, SMAD5, HIVEP2, CEBPB, RUNX2, and MYO10. Targeting of these mediators results in the inhibition of BMP2-, BMP6-, and BMP7-induced ID3 expression as well as BMP-mediated EBV reactivation in the EBV-positive B-cell line, Mutu I. Further, miR-155 inhibits SMAD1 and SMAD5 expression in the lung epithelial cell line A549, it inhibits BMP-mediated induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, and it reverses BMP-mediated cell growth inhibition. These results suggest a role for miR-155 in controlling BMP-mediated cellular processes, in regulating BMP-induced EBV reactivation, and in the inhibition of antitumor effects of BMP signaling in normal and virus-infected cells. PMID:20427544

Yin, Qinyan; Wang, Xia; Fewell, Claire; Cameron, Jennifer; Zhu, Hanqing; Baddoo, Melody; Lin, Zhen; Flemington, Erik K.

2010-01-01

229

Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal® Consta®-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RISPERDAL® CONSTA® is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL® CONSTA® by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as “osteodystrophy” were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL® CONSTA®-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.

230

Paracrine interactions between LNCaP prostate cancer cells and bioengineered bone in 3D in vitro culture reflect molecular changes during bone metastasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

As microenvironmental factors such as three-dimensionality and cell-matrix interactions are increasingly being acknowledged by cancer biologists, more complex 3D in vitro models are being developed to study tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To better understand the pathophysiology of bone metastasis, we have established and validated a 3D indirect co-culture model to investigate the paracrine interactions between prostate cancer (PCa) cells and human osteoblasts. Co-culture of the human PCa, LNCaP cells embedded within polyethylene glycol hydrogels with human osteoblasts in the form of a tissue engineered bone construct (TEB), resulted in reduced proliferation of LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells in both monoculture and co-culture were responsive to the androgen analog, R1881, as indicated by an increase in the expression (mRNA and/or protein induction) of androgen-regulated genes including prostate specific antigen and fatty acid synthase. Microarray gene expression analysis further revealed an up-regulation of bone markers and other genes associated with skeletal and vasculature development and a significant activation of transforming growth factor ?1 downstream genes in LNCaP cells after co-culture with TEB. LNCaP cells co-cultured with TEB also unexpectedly showed similar changes in classical androgen-responsive genes under androgen-deprived conditions not seen in LNCaP monocultures. The molecular changes of LNCaP cells after co-culturing with TEBs suggest that osteoblasts exert a paracrine effect that may promote osteomimicry and modulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Taken together, we have presented a novel 3D in vitro model that allows the study of cellular and molecular changes occurring in PCa cells and osteoblasts that are relevant to metastatic colonization of bone. This unique in vitro model could also facilitate cancer biologists to dissect specific biological hypotheses via extensive genomic or proteomic assessments to further our understanding of the PCa-bone crosstalk. PMID:24530694

Sieh, Shirly; Taubenberger, Anna V; Lehman, Melanie L; Clements, Judith A; Nelson, Colleen C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

2014-06-01

231

Signal changes of bone marrow in MRI under long-term treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Recurrent infections in patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type lb resulting from an associated neutropenia are frequently treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in bone marrow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients. Material and Methods: The distal femoral and tibial bones of six patients with GSD lb were evaluated by MRI. Four of these patients were treated with G-CSF for at least 3.9 to a maximum of 8.2 years (mean 5.8 years). The imaging sequences encompassed spin-echo as well as short-time inversion recovery sequences. 4 of the 6 patients had bone marrow aspirations. Results: The patients who had undergone therapy with G-CSF showed a marked increase in signal strength in STIR sequences which encompassed the entire medullar cavity. In T1-weighted images these areas were hypointense. Biopsies obtained from these patients showed a bone marrow hypercellularity. The patients without G-CSF therapy showed the same signal intensity changes but with a more discrete and localized pattern in the metaphyseal cavities. Conclusion: In subjects with GSD lb, an increased myelopoetic activity of the bone marrow which is intensified under long-term treatment with G-CSF can be demonstrated by MRI. (orig.)

232

Diagnostic accuracy of the detection of bone change using panoramic TMJ projection. Comparative study with limited cone-beam CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Panoramic temporoman joint (TMJ) projection is one of the alternative methods of conventional radiography, such as transcranial projection, for diagnosing temporomandibular joint disorder. There have been a few reports describing the diagnostic ability of this method. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting bone change with panoramic TMJ projection. Fifty TMJs in 25 patients were examined. All TMJs were examined by panoramic TMJ projection (Hyper XF) and limited cone-beam CT (3D Accuitomo FPD; 3DX). Two observers evaluated the presence of bone change in the TMJ region using panoramic TMJ projection. One other observer evaluated the limited cone-beam CT for the presence and the pattern of bone changes in the TMJ region as the gold standard. Panoramic TMJ findings were evaluated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the panoramic TMJ projection were 0.86, 0.76, and 0.82, respectively. These results and those of previous reports on other radiographic methods for TMJ suggest that panoramic TMJ projection is a useful method of screening for bone change due to TMJ disorder. (author)

233

MRI signal changes in the skull base bone after endoscopic nasopharyngectomy for recurrent NPC: A serial study of 9 patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was focused on the serial changes in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the skull-base bone that occur after endoscopic nasopharyngectomy in patients with local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC). Materials and methods: Nine patients with histologically proven rNPC were enrolled in this study. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed all presurgical and postsurgical MR images for each patient. Results: At 36 sites on the skull base, the MRI signal underwent a change after surgery, which took the form of a heterogeneous pattern of hypointense regions with moderate contrast enhancement on T1WI. The onset of changes ranged between 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. For 21 of the sites, the changes subsided over the course of follow-up, while in 6 they remained stable. At 9 sites, the alteration MRI signal became more pronounced with time. Changes were more common on the homolateral side of the skull base with respect to the recurrent tumor (P < 0.05). The skull-base bone adjacent to the resection boundary had a higher incidence of signal change than nonadjacent areas (P < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI changes in the skull base bone, having a number of distinguishing characteristics, appear to be a common sequel to endoscopic nasopharyngectomy for rNPC

234

Multidetector Computed Tomography-Based Microstructural Analysis Reveals Reduced Bone Mineral Content and Trabecular Bone Changes in the Lumbar Spine after Transarterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose It is well recognized that therapeutic irradiation can result in bone damage. However, long-term bone toxicity associated with computed tomography (CT) performed during interventional angiography has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and trabecular microstructural changes in patients after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy using an interventional-CT system. Materials and Methods Spinal microarchitecture was examined by 64-detector CT in 81 patients who underwent TACE, 35 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 79 controls. For each patient, the volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv) during TACE (CTDIv (TACE)), the dose-length product (DLP) during TACE (DLP (TACE)), and CTDIv and DLP of routine dynamic CT scans (CTDIv (CT) and DLP (CT), respectively), were calculated as the sum since 2008. Using a three dimensional (3D) image analysis system, the tissue bone mineral density (tBMD) and trabecular parameters of the 12th thoracic vertebra were calculated. Using tBMD at a reported cutoff value of 68 mg/cm3, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly greater in the TACE vs. the control group (39.6% vs. 18.2% for males, PTACE patients than in control subjects. The cumulative radiation dose related to routine dynamic CT studies was a significant contributor to the prevalence of osteoporosis. PMID:25329933

Takasu, Miyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuko; Komoto, Daisuke; Kaichi, Yoko; Tani, Chihiro; Date, Shuji; Kiguchi, Masao; Awai, Kazuo

2014-01-01

235

Plain film and CT observations in prostaglandin-induced bone changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prostaglandin E1 intravenous infusion is used in infants with ductal-dependent cogenital heart disease to maintain ductal patency and prolong life until palliative or corrective surgery is feasible. Complications of prostaglandin administration include fever, diarrhoea, hypotension, apnoea, bradycardia, pseudowidening of the cranial sutures, underossification of the calvarial bones, periostitis, and skin edema. This paper presents dramatic plain radiographic features of prostaglandin-induced bone disease, inlcuding periosteal proliferation and the unusual bone-within-bone apperance, and provides the previously unpublished CT correlation. (orig.)

236

Regional and hormone-dependent effects of apolipoprotein E genotype on changes in bone mineral in perimenopausal women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We studied 479 perimenopausal Danish women aged 45-58 years to examine differences between APOE genotypes with respect to (1) baseline total body bone mineral density (BMD) and densities measured in five different regions (ultradistal forearm, proximal forearm, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip region); (2) serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and urine hydroxyproline/creatinine excretion ratio; and (3) changes in bone mineral during 5 years of follow-up. Baseline BMDs were identical, whereas serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and its bone isoenzyme were higher in women with APOE 2-2 and APOE 2-3 than in women with APOE 3-3 and APOE 3-4 and lower in women with APOE 4-4. Among women not receiving hormonal-replacement therapy (HRT; n = 262), those with APOE 2-2 and APOE 2-3 had 30-40% lower rates of femoral neck and total hip bone mineral loss than women with APOE 3-3 and APOE 3-4, whereas the rates of mineral loss in other skeletal regions did not differ between these APOE genotypes. Women with APOE 4-4 appeared to have lower rates of bone mineral loss in all regions. Women treated with hormones throughout the follow-up period (n = 113) gained bone mineral, and women with APOE 3-4 and APOE 4-4 gained relatively more mineral than other women. A comparison of untreated and treated women with APOE 2-3, APOE 3-3, and APOE 3-4 suggests a possible modification of the effect of APOE genotype by HRT. In conclusion, the common APOE polymorphism has a complex effect on bone metabolism in perimenopausal Danish women including possible modification by hormone use: (1) among women not receiving HRT, those with APOE*2 have lower bone mineral losses in the femoral neck and hip region than other women, and (2) among women receiving HRT, those with APOE*4 gain more bone mineral than other women.

Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Vestergaard, P

2001-01-01

237

Change in CANDU-6 reactivity following a power reduction at low PHT purity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effect of a power reduction in CANDU-6 is examined using a three-dimensional, steady-state, coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics methodology, starting from a global irradiation distribution matched to site data. The power reduction is sufficient to suppress coolant boiling in the fuel channels, and thus the significant parameters affecting reactivity are an increase in coolant density and a decrease in fuel temperature. These individual components are estimated using infinite-lattice-cell methodology. The effect of using newer methodology, particularly for the thermalhydraulic analysis, is examined by comparison with previous simulations. (author). 10 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

238

Some peculiarities of ultrastructural changes of bone marrow myeloid and erythroid sprouts of rats in acute radiation injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in rat bone marrow tissue in 3,7,14,21 and 28 days after 750 R irradiation have been studied by electron microscopy. Deep injuries in ultrastructure of cells of myeloid and erythroid sprouts of bone marrow have been established. A more intensive macrophage reaction leading to the bone marrow cleaning from destructing cells results from the reconstruction of reticular cells. Myeloid cells are destructed due to their ultrastructures disintegration, while erythroid cells - due to pyknosis. Maximum injury of erythroid sprout cells is noted during the period of the most pronounced recovery in a myeloid sprout. These regularities point to the necessity of special measures to stimulate red hematopoiesis during the period of its greatest injury

239

Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1  

OpenAIRE

Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone densi...

Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K.; Klibanski, Anne

2007-01-01

240

The changes of bone mineral density in patients with multiple myeloma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of change of the bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with multiple myeloma ( MM), and evaluate the use of Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure BMD in MM patients. Methods: Using a dual energy osteo-densitometer Hologic QDR-2000, the BMD was examined on the whole body, vertebrate L2 to L4 in the antero-posterior and lateral position and the proximal left femur in both 34 MM patients and 24 normal individuals. The BMD of type IgG and unclassified patients were dynamically studied before and after chemotherapy, and the study also included serum immunoprotein, protein electrophoresis, blood calcium and phosphorus. Results: (1) Decrease of BMD of the whole body, vertebrate L2 to L4 in the antero-posterior and lateral position and the proximal left femur was significantly lower in MM patients compared with normal individuals (P < 0.05); (2) The BMD of stage III patients of type IgG was less than that of stage II patients' (P < 0.05); (3) Lumbar BMD of IgG type had negative correlation with IgG change but without any association with the whole body and the proximal left femur BMD (P < 0.05); (4) After regular chemotherapy, the lumbar BMD increased rapidly, but the BMD of whole body and the proximal left femur decreased. Conclusion: DXA is a sensitive way to quantitatively study the BMD changes of MM patients and evaluate therapeutic effect. The BMD fall in MM patients can be reversed by effective therapy, but the be reversed by effective therapy, but the osteal damage and restoration are not equivalent in the lumbar and proximal femur

241

Changes of lymphocyte subsets in leukemia patients who received allogenic bone marrow transplantation.  

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Full Text Available Proportional changes of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were monitored by two-color flow-cytometry in seven leukemia patients who had received allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT. Lymphocyte counts, and proportions of T and B-cells returned to normal ranges between the 2nd and 12th months after BMT. Activated T-cells prominently increased after BMT, and the values gradually returned toward normal. As to lymphocyte subsets, the proportions of CD 4+ cells had remained low, while those of CD 8+ cells high for a whole observation period after BMT. The changes of CD 4+ cells were caused by the decrease of suppressor-inducer T-cells (CD 4+ Leu 8+. High proportion of CD 8+ cells was mainly associated with increased suppressor T-cells (CD 8+ CD 11+. Among natural killer (NK cells, highly active NK cells (CD 16+ CD 57- markedly increased shortly after BMT, and gradually returned to normal. CD 16 -CD 57+ NK cells increased beyond normal ranges after the 2nd month. The incidence or degree of acute and chronic graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD did not correlate with the changes of any lymphocyte subsets. The present results suggest that the increase of activated T-cells shortly after BMT reflects lymphocyte reconstitution. The prolonged immune deficiency after BMT might be related to either deficient expression of homing receptor (Leu 8 antigen on CD 4+ cells or increased suppressor T-cells (CD 8+ CD 11+. In addition, the early increase of NK cells after BMT may compensate for the immune deficiency in BMT patients.

Komatsuda,Mitsumoto

1991-08-01

242

Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy ?-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

243

Evaluation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To prospectively investigate the role of MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in assessing vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 ± 3.5 years; range 55-81 years), who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the spine, were divided into three bone density groups (24 with normal, 25 with osteopaenic, and 29 with osteoporotic) based on T score. Both MRS and DWI of the L3 vertebral body were performed to calculate the marrow fat content and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The results were compared between three groups and correlated with BMD. Results: Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group (59.97 ± 5.78%), when compared with that of the osteopaenic group (53.04 ± 7.66%, p = 0.001) and the normal bone density group (48.79 ± 7.1%, p -3 mm2/s, 0.41 ± 0.02 x 10-3 mm2/s, and 0.47 ± 0.03 x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation between T scores and ADC existed (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). The vertebral marrow fat content was negatively correlated to the bone density (r = -0.639, p < 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.5 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.554, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibited a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreased. Marrow fat content and ADC were related to the bone density. MRS and DWI are helpful in evaluating the bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

244

Anodic reactivity of ferrous sulfide precipitates changing over time due to particulate speciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The disposal of ferric phosphate (FePO4) sludge, routinely generated in wastewater and drinking water treatment, has a major impact on the overall treatment cost. Iron sulfide (FeSx) precipitation via sulfide addition to ferric phosphate (FePO4) sludge has been proven to be an effective method for phosphate recovery. Electrochemical oxidation of FeSx can then be utilized to recover ferric iron for reuse back in the phosphate removal process. In this study, the reactivity of FeSx particles for anodic oxidation at pH 4 was studied as a function of time after FeSx precipitate generation at a S/Fe molar ratio of 1.75. Cyclic voltammetry showed high reactivity for fresh FeSx particles, but the reactivity diminished significantly over a period of 1 month. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that this reduced reactivity with time is a consequence of the transformation of the FeSx particles in suspension from mackinawite (FeS) to pyrite (FeS2). PMID:24093133

Mejia Likosova, Elena; Collins, Richard N; Keller, Jurg; Freguia, Stefano

2013-11-01

245

Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

A Shirani

2010-06-01

246

The imaging features of surrounding changes caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the imaging features of bone marrow edema (BME) and soft tissue edema (STE) caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. Methods: Ninety nine patients with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions which were proved by surgical pathology were reviewed. The patients were divided into benign and malignant groups. Evaluation parameters included the size and signal intensity of BME and STE, the features of enhancement, the bone sclerosis and its relation with BME, and joint effusion, et al. The data of two groups were analyzed by ?2 test. Results: There were 40 patients in benign group and 59 patients belonged to malignant group. BME and STE demonstrated low signal on T1-weighted images and high signal on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. Some BMEs demonstrated low signal on T2- weighted images, which corresponded to sclerosis on X-ray film and (or) CT. Both BME and STE demonstrated uniform enhancement. There were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant groups including the frequency of BME, sclerosis, the median of the size of the BME and STE (P0.05). Conclusions: Both benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions and malignant bone tumors can be accompanied by BME and STE. The size of BME in the benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions is bigger than those in malignant ones, and the size of STE in malignant bone tumors is bigger than benign ones. (authors)

247

Assessment of global morphological and topological changes in trabecular structure under the bone resorption process  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis is a frequent skeletal disease characterised both by loss of bone mineral mass and deterioration of cancellous bone micro-architecture. It can be caused by mechanical disuse, estrogen deficiency or natural age-related resorption process. Numerical analysis of high-resolution images of the trabecular network is recognised as a powerful tool for assessment of structural characteristics. Using ?CT images of 73 thoracic and 78 lumbar human vertebral specimens in vitro with isotropic resolution of 26?m we simulate bone atrophy as random resorption of bone surface voxels. Global morphological and topological characteristics provided by four Minkowski Functionals (MF) are calculated for two numerical resorption models with and without conservation of global topological connectivity of the trabecular network, which simulates different types of bone loss in osteoporosis, as it has been described in males and females. Diagnostic performance of morphological and topological characteristics as a function of relative bone loss is evaluated by a correlation analysis with respect to experimentally measured Maximum Compressive Strength (MCS). In both resorption models the second MF, which coincides with bone surface fraction BS/TV, demonstrates almost constant value of Pearson's correlation coefficient with respect to the relative bone loss ?BV/TV. This morphological characteristic does not vary considerably under age-related random resorption and can be used for predicting bone strength in the elderly. The third and fourth MF demonstrate an increasing correlation coefficients with MCS after applying random bone surface thinning without preserving topological connectivity, what can be used for improvement of evaluation of the current state of the structure.

Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Baum, Thomas; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmueller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Raeth, Christoph W.

2012-03-01

248

Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (2 before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm2 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P2 before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm2 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD

249

Age-related changes in rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell plasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of adult stem cells is known to be compromised as a function of age. This therefore raises questions about the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy in elderly patients. Results We demonstrated that the expression profile of stemness markers was altered in BM-MSCs derived from old rats. BM-MSCs from young rats (4 months expressed Oct-4, Sox-2 and NANOG, but we failed to detect Sox-2 and NANOG in BM-MSCs from older animals (15 months. Chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic potential is compromised in old BM-MSCs. Stimulation with a cocktail mixture of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 induced cardiomyogenesis in young BM-MSCs but not old BM-MSCs. Significant differences in the expression of gap junction protein connexin-43 were observed between young and old BM-MSCs. Young and old BM-MSCs fused with neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes in co-culture and expressed key cardiac transcription factors and structural proteins. Cells from old animals expressed significantly lower levels of VEGF, IGF, EGF, and G-CSF. Significantly higher levels of DNA double strand break marker ?-H2AX and diminished levels of telomerase activity were observed in old BM-MSCs. Conclusion The results suggest age related differences in the differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs. These changes may affect the efficacy of BM-MSCs for use in stem cell therapy.

Chase P Bryant

2011-10-01

250

Late bone marrow changes in Hodgkin's disease patients: a characterization with proton chemical shift imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our aim was to measure, by quantitative chemical shift imaging (CSI), the late therapy-induced changes in bone marrow (BM) of Hodgkin's disease (HD) patients. Fifteen HD patients treated with radiotherapy alone and radiochemotherapy (age at treatment between 11 and 50 years; post-treatment interval between 15 and 127 months; applied dose 25.5 to 50 Gy), were studied with a 1.5 T MR imager. For the fat-water separation in-phase and opposed-phase (SE 1200/22) images were generated according to the Dixon method, with a modified post-processing. Long-term fatty replacement was seen in the irradiated BM only. The radiation fields were visualized as areas of high signal intensity in the T1-weighted images. There was a marked increase of the relative fat signal fraction in quantitative CSI without time, dose and age dependent recovery within the investigated ranges. Fatty replacement of the irradiated BM is a long-term effect in HD patients, probably induced by an obliteration of the microvasculature with consecutive fatty metaplasia. (orig.)

251

A Trimodality Comparison of Volumetric Bone Imaging Technologies. Part II: 1-Yr Change, Long-Term Precision, and Least Significant Change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The previous article in this 3-part series demonstrated short-term precision and validity for volumetric bone outcome quantification using in vivo peripheral (p) quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities at resolutions 200?m or higher. However, 1-yr precision error and clinically significant references are yet to be reported for these modalities. This study examined 59 women with mean age of 75±9yr and body mass index of 26.84±4.77kg/m(2), demonstrating the lowest 1-yr precision error, standard errors of the estimate, and least significant change values for high-resolution (hr) pQCT followed by pQCT, and 1.0-T pMRI for all volumetric bone outcomes except trabecular number. Like short-term precision, 1-yr statistics for trabecular separation were similar across modalities. Excluding individuals with a previous history of fragility fractures, or who were current users of antiresorptives reduced 1-yr change for bone outcomes derived from pQCT and pMR images, but not hr-pQCT images. In Part II of this 3-part series focused on trimodality comparisons of 1-yr changes, hr-pQCT was recommended to be the prime candidate for quantifying change where smaller effect sizes are expected, but pQCT was identified as a feasible alternative for studies expecting larger changes. PMID:25129406

Wong, Andy K O; Beattie, Karen A; Min, Kevin K H; Merali, Zamir; Webber, Colin E; Gordon, Christopher L; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M W; Adachi, Jonathan D

2014-08-13

252

Clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells at the early stage of T cell development in thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sequential appearance of T cell subpopulations occurs in the thymocytes of irradiated C3H/He mice (H-2k, Mls-1b2a, Thy-1.2) after transplantation with bone marrow cells of AKR/J mice (H-2k, Mls-1a2b, Thy-1.1) (AKR----C3H chimeras). The donor-derived thymocytes of AKR----C3H chimeras on day 14 after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) contained a large number of blastlike CD4+CD8+ cells which represent relatively immature thymocytes, whereas those on day 21 after BMT consisted of small sized CD4+,CD8+ cells which represent a great part in normal thymocytes. To define the developmental stage at which clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells occurs in adult thymus, we followed the fate of V beta 6- or V beta 11-bearing T cells in the donor-derived thymocytes at the early stage of AKR----C3H chimeras. Mature thymocytes expressing high intensity of V beta 6 or V beta 11, which are involved in recognition of Mls-1a or MHC I-E gene products, respectively, were deleted from the donor-derived thymocytes on day 21. Immature thymocytes expressing low intensity of V beta 6 in CD3low thymocyte fraction decreased in proportion, whereas those expressing low intensity of V beta 11 rather increased in proportion in the donor-derived thymocytes of AKR----C3H chimeras from day 14 to day 21 after BMT. These results suggest that the clonal deletion of V beta 6-positive cells occurs just at the stage of immature CD3lowCD4+CD8+ cells, whereas the clonal deletion of V beta 11-positive cells maal deletion of V beta 11-positive cells may begin at the transitional stage from CD3lowCD4+CD8+ cells to CD3high single positive cells. Timing of negative selection of thymocytes may vary in distinct T cells capable of recognizing different self-Ag

253

Changes of the intensity of morphogenetic process in the bone skeleton under lowering of gravitational loading  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of long skeleton bones and reconstruction of bone structures in ontogenesis during adaptive remodeling are performed due to a combination of the bone apposition and bone resorption processes. With the use of radioactive markers of specific biosyntheses -3H- thymidine and 3H-glycine we studied the dynamics and peculiarities of these processes under modeling microgravity conditions by unloading the hind limbs of young white rats (tail suspension method) during 28 days. The radionuclides were administered in a single dose at the end of the experiment and the biomaterial was taken 1, 24, 48, 120 and 192 h. after injection. In histoautographs the counts were made of a nuclei labeling index (3H-thymidine), of the number of silver grains over the cells and in the forming bone matrix in growth and remodeling zones of the femoral bone (3H-glycine). The tendency for a reduction of a labeling index in the 3H-thymidine-labeled osteogenic cells in the periost and endost has been established. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. 3H-glycine is assimilated by osteogenic cells 30 min after the radionuclide injection and following 24 h. it is already incorporated into the forming bone matrix. As a result an appositional bone addition by 192 h. the silver grains are registered in the bone matrix as "labeling lines". A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia, particulary in the periost. At the same time the resorption and remodeling bone zones reveal regions of an intensive 3H-glycine uptake after 1 and 24 h. We associate this latter fact with an activation of collagen proteins in the differentiating fibroblasts (instead of osteoblasts) in these locations. This is confirmed by our previous electron microscopic investigations. The study has been performed of the dynamics and intensity of the nuclei labeling of the osteoclasts both in the control and experiment. Our findings obtained show that a continuous support unloading influences the morphogenetic processes in long bones, lowering a bone mass increase and necessitating readaptation during subsequent renewal of support functions.

Vasilievna Rodionova, Natalia; Zolotova-Haidamaka, Nadezhda

254

Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone t 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

255

Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and varianc compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric correction and density compensation could abbreviate the standardized intraoral radiographic technique prepared for subtraction. (author)

256

Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric correction and density compensation could abbreviate the standardized intraoral radiographic technique prepared for subtraction. (author)

Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Shigenobu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Dental Science; Tanaka, Takemasa [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dental Hospital

2002-12-01

257

Pulmonary function changes in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term pulmonary function changes in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), to assess their clinical significance, and to identify factors influencing these changes. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were evaluated before and after BMT in 111 adult patients undergoing BMT between 1985 and 1991. Forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity (DLCO), and total lung capacity (TLC) were evaluated. One hundred and three patients (92.8%) received total body irradiation (TBI) to a total dose of 14 Gy in nine equal fractions. The lung dose was restricted to 1, FVC, and TLC were lower than pre transplant values (p 1 did not fall significantly in patients without acute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier ute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier than in patients without post transplant pulmonary infection. Recovery of FVC, TLC, and DLCO was also delayed in patients with acute and chronic GVHD and post transplant pulmonary infection. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between a higher radiation dose to the lungs, and decreased FVC at 2 years (p = 0.01). Progressive obstructive pulmonary disease was not observed. Conclusions: An initial decline in PFTs with subsequent recovery was observed. Factors associated with delayed recovery and incomplete recovery of PFTs were GVHD, post transplant pulmonary infection, and higher radiation dose to the lungs. The conditioning regimen used at Medical College of Wisconsin, including relatively high TBI doses with partial transmission pulmonary shielding, appears to be well tolerated by the lungs in long-term survivors. No progressive decline in PFTs or symptomatic decline in pulmonary function was observed during the time interval studied

258

Directions of chemical change: experimental characterization of the stereodynamics of photodissociation and reactive processes.  

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This perspective article aims at accounting for the versatility of some current experimental investigations for exploring novel paths in chemical reactions. It updates a previous one [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 5, 291] and is limited to work by the authors. The use of advanced molecular beam techniques together with a combination of modern tools for specific preparation, selection and detection permits us to discover new trends in reactivity in the gas phase as well as at interfaces. We specifically discuss new facets of stereodynamics, namely the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive and photodissociation processes. Further topics involve roaming paths and triple fragmentation in photodissociation probed by imaging techniques, chirality effects in collisions and deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions. PMID:24788949

Kasai, Toshio; Che, Dock-Chil; Okada, Michio; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

2014-06-01

259

Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

2009-12-15

260

Change in bone mineral density as a function of age in women and men and association with the use of antiresorptive agents  

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Background Measurement of bone mineral density is the most common method of diagnosing and assessing osteoporosis. We sought to estimate the average rate of change in bone mineral density as a function of age among Canadians aged 25–85, stratified by sex and use of antiresorptive agents. Methods We examined a longitudinal cohort of 9423 participants. We measured the bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck at baseline in 1995–1997, and at 3-year (participants aged 40–60 years only) and 5-year follow-up visits. We used the measurements to compute individual rates of change. Results Bone loss in all 3 skeletal sites began among women at age 40–44. Bone loss was particularly rapid in the total hip and was greatest among women aged 50–54 who were transitioning from premenopause to postmenopause, with a change from baseline of –6.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] –7.5% to –4.9%) over 5 years. The rate of decline, particularly in the total hip, increased again among women older than 70 years. Bone loss in all 3 skeletal sites began at an earlier age (25–39) among men than among women. The rate of decline of bone density in the total hip was nearly constant among men 35 and older and then increased among men older than 65. Use of antiresorptive agents was associated with attenuated bone loss in both sexes among participants aged 50–79. Interpretation The period of accelerated loss of bone mineral density in the hip bones occurring among women and men older than 65 may be an important contributor to the increased incidence of hip fracture among patients in that age group. The extent of bone loss that we observed in both sexes indicates that, in the absence of additional risk factors or therapy, repeat testing of bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis could be delayed to every 5 years. PMID:18559803

Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Joseph, Lawrence; Hanley, David A.; Davison, K. Shawn; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Goltzman, David

2008-01-01

261

Sex- and age-related changes of trabecular bone of tibia in growing domestic geese (Anser domesticus).  

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An analysis of radiological images of the spongious substance of the tibiotarsal bones in domestic goose (120 individuals) was performed for the first time. Based on radiographs obtained from radiological examinations conducted in the region of interest (80 x 90 mm2) of the proximal metaphysis, an analysis of the spongious substance of the tibia was performed with the Trabecula programme in order to construct a map of trabeculae and identify their number, volume and density. The results were evaluated statistically using two-way ANOVA. Changes in the number, volume and density of radiological trabeculae of the tibiotarsal bone (TB) in geese from 4 to 16 weeks old were observed. The lowest number (6.34 per mm2), volume (1.50% mm) and density (33.73%) of radiological trabeculae in the proximal metaphysis of TB was reported in male geese at the age of 6 weeks. Similar tendencies were observed in females as well. It should be noted that the volume and density of radiological trabeculae of the tibiotarsal bone achieved a maximum value in males 12 weeks of age, whereas in females at 8 weeks of age. An inverse relationship between body weight and the number of trabeculae in domestic geese (r = - 0.28; P weight and the volume of radiological trabeculae in domestic geese (r = 0.43; P slaughter maturity, a decrease in relative bone mass was observed. Negative changes in the trabecular structure combined with high weight gain could lead to bone deformities and locomotor problems in the studied geese. PMID:23342918

Charuta, Anna; Dzierzecka, Ma?gorzata; Czerwi?ski, Edward; Cooper, Ross Gordon; Horba?czuk, Jaros?aw Olav

2012-01-01

262

Late-onset persistent retinal microvascular changes after bone marrow transplantation: 3-year follow-up  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of persistent retinopathy after bone marrow transplantation in the absence of radiation therapy. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 42 year-old man developed bilateral visual loss 15 months after receiving a bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia. The patient was treated with a high dose of cyclosporin A and oral corticosteroids. No radiation therapy was given. Late-onset, multiple, bilateral cotton-wool spots developed 15 months after the bone marrow transplantation and still persist. After three years other cotton-wool spots arose in the absence of any immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusions: Bone marrow transplantation microvasculopathy of the retina may be related to certain combinations of chemotherapy drugs or immunosuppression itself and may persist in the absence of these immunosuppressive drugs.

Muccioli Cristina

2002-01-01

263

Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT) imaging using 3D reformations (3DR) with shaded surface display (SSD) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR) images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 22 patients with RA were used. Images...

Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira; Luciano Engelmann Morais; Daniela Nascimento Silva; Helena Willhelm Oliveira; Cláiton Heitz; Lêonilson Gaião

2009-01-01

264

Characterization of knee osteoarthritis-related changes in trabecular bone using texture parameters at various levels of spatial resolution-a simulation study.  

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Articular cartilage and subchondral bone are the key tissues in osteoarthritis (OA). The role of the cancellous bone increasingly attracts attention in OA research. Because of its fast adaptation to changes in the loading distribution across joints, its quantification is expected to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of OA. In this study, we simulated OA progression-related changes of trabecular structure in a series of digital bone models and then characterized the potential of texture parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) as surrogate measures to quantify trabecular bone structure. Five texture parameters were studied: entropy, global and local inhomogeneity, anisotropy and variogram slope. Their dependence on OA relevant structural changes was investigated for three spatial resolutions typically used in micro computed tomography (CT; 10??m), high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) (90??m) and clinical whole-body CT equipment (250??m). At all resolutions, OA-related changes in trabecular bone architecture can be quantified using a specific (resolution dependent) combination of three texture parameters. BMD alone is inadequate for this purpose but if available reduces the required texture parameter combination to anisotropy and global inhomogeneity. The results are summarized in a comprehensive analysis guide for the detection of structural changes in OA knees. In conclusion, texture parameters can be used to characterize trabecular bone architecture even at spatial resolutions below the dimensions of a single trabecula and are essential for a detailed classification of relevant OA changes that cannot be achieved with a measurement of BMD alone. PMID:25512855

Lowitz, Torsten; Museyko, Oleg; Bousson, Valerie; Kalender, Willi A; Laredo, Jean Denis; Engelke, Klaus

2014-01-01

265

The changes of the immunological indexes in the patients with bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the influence of 89SrCl2 on the immunological functions in the patients with bone metastases. Methods: Forty-two patients with proved bone metastases were treated with 89SrCl2 and according to the final therapeutic efficiency for the metastatic lesions, the patients were divided into efficacious and inefficacious group. Twenty untreated healthy adults served as control group. The T lymphocyte subsets CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ were analyzed before and after 89SrCl2 treatment. Results: The immunological indexes were not significantly different between the two patient groups before the therapy of 89SrCl2. The indexes between the controls and patients before and after the therapy were different significantly (P89SrCl2, 37 (88.10%) patients' immunological functions were improved, 33 patients (78.57%) stated that their pain were effectively relieved, 29 (69.05%) patients' bone metastatic lesions reduced. Conclusions: The immunological functions in the patients with bone metastases were inhibited obviously. Treating with 89SrCl2 can improve their immunological functions to a certain extent. The recovery level of t a certain extent. The recovery level of the inefficacious patients was lower than that of the efficacious patients. The changes of immunological functions can reflect the therapeutical effectiveness. (authors)

266

Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OHD and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. Methods We measured cord serum 25(OHD levels, bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and their changes over 3 months of life with 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplementation. Results Cord serum 25(OHD was significantly lower in Hispanic than non-Hispanic Caucasian infants (16.4 ± 6.5 ng/mL, n = 27, vs 22.3 ± 9.4 n = 22, p = 0.013. Among 38 infants who completed a 3 month vitamin D supplementation intervention, provision of 400 IU/day of vitamin D increased final 25(OHD to a higher level in non-Hispanic Caucasian compared to Hispanic infants. There was no significant relationship between cord serum 25(OHD and BMC or BMD in the first week of life (n = 49 or after 3 months of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion Low cord 25(OHD levels are seen in Hispanic infants, but their functional significance is uncertain related to bone health in a southern US setting. Daily vitamin D intake of 400 IU during the first months of life appears adequate to increase serum 25(OHD and support BMC increases despite low initial 25(OHD levels in some infants. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00697294

Abrams Steven A

2012-01-01

267

Patterns of magnetic resonance imaging bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis - which bones are most frequently involved and show the most change?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which bones in wrists and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints most frequently show bone erosions, and which most frequently demonstrate erosive progression, in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Ostergaard, Mikkel; MØller DØhn, Uffe

2011-01-01

268

Patterns of magnetic resonance imaging bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis--which bones are most frequently involved and show the most change?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which bones in wrists and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints most frequently show bone erosions, and which most frequently demonstrate erosive progression, in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Østergaard, Mikkel; MØller DØhn, Uffe

2011-01-01

269

Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy  

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Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (<40 pg/mL) and premenopausal (?40 pg/mL). Results: The mean BMDs within the irradiation field (lumbar vertebra 5) in the postmenopausal and the premenopausal groups were 0.825 and 0.910 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). In addition, in the premenopausal group the mean BMDs of the nonirradiated regions at thoracic vertebrae 9-12 and lumbar vertebrae 2-4 were 0.753 and 0.958 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD.

Okonogi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: syoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Oike, Takahiro; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Nakano, Takashi

2013-12-01

270

Changes of pulmonary function in patients treated with bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes of pulmonary functions were studied with time in 10 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI, total lung dose, 3 to 12 Gy; dose rate, 5.3 to 10.0 cGy/min). Regardless of the total lung dose and the dose rate of irradiation or the period after BMT, the percent vital capacity (%VC) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1.0%) were kept within normal limits, whereas the diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (%DLco) tended to decrease within 100 days after BMT in all of our patients. From the possibility that respiratory insufficiency will rapidly occur due to infection, it seems unfavorable for the patients to return to routine life during this period after BMT, even if in states without any clinical manifestations. It was found that the %DLco began to decrease prior to the onset of interstitial pneumonia (IP) and that the degree was more marked in patients who progressed to IP than in those who did not. Therefore, it is possible to predict the occurrence of IP by frequently measuring pulmonary function. In patients with IP, the %DLco rapidly improved with steroid administration, and it tended to improve gradually even after discontinuing the administration of the drug. But regardless of the total lung dose and dose rate of irradiation, the %DLco in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) did not recover completely when compared with that in pat completely when compared with that in patients without chronic GVHD. Thus, it is considered that this persistant pulmonary dysfunction is caused mainly by chronic GVHD rather than by irradiation. (author)

271

Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Women Initiating Proton Pump Inhibitors or H2 Receptor Antagonists: A SWAN Cohort Study.  

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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with diminished bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fracture; however, prior studies have not yielded consistent results, and many have suboptimal ascertainment of both PPI use and BMD. We used data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multicenter, multi-ethnic, community-based longitudinal cohort study of women across the menopause transition to examine the association between annualized BMD changes and new use of PPIs. We compared changes in BMD in new PPI users with changes in BMD in new users of histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and with changes in BMD in subjects who did not use either class of medications. Mixed linear regression models included recognized risk factors for osteoporosis, including demographics, menopausal transition stage, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle factors, as well as comorbidities and concomitant medications. To provide further evidence for the validity of our analytic approach, we also examined the effects of hormone-replacement therapy (HT), a class of medications that should reduce bone loss, on changes in BMD as an internal positive control group. We identified 207 new users of PPIs, 185 new users of H2RAs, and 1,676 non-users. Study subjects had a mean age of 50 years and were followed for a median of 9.9 years. Adjusted models found no difference in the annualized BMD change at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total hip in PPI users compared with H2RA users or non-users. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. BMD increased as expected in HT users, supporting the validity of our study design. These longitudinal analyses plus similar prior studies argue against an association between PPI use and BMD loss. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25156141

Solomon, Daniel H; Diem, Susan J; Ruppert, Kristine; Lian, Yin Juan; Liu, Chih-Chin; Wohlfart, Alyssa; Greendale, Gail A; Finkelstein, Joel S

2015-02-01

272

The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty  

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Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-? and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-? have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-?-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-?-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-?-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-?-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-? represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

Divya Singh

2010-12-01

273

Nanoscale changes in collagen are reflected in physical and mechanical properties of bone at the microscale in diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes detrimentally affects the musculoskeletal system by stiffening the collagen matrix due to increased advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this study, tibiae and tendon from Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) rats were compared to Sprague-Dawley derived controls (CD) using Atomic Force Microscopy. ZDSD and CD tibiae were compared using Raman Spectroscopy and Reference Point Indentation (RPI). ZDSD bone had a significantly different distribution of collagen D-spacing than CD (p=0.015; ZDSD n=294 fibrils; CD n=274 fibrils) which was more variable and shifted to higher values. This shift between ZDSD and CD D-spacing distribution was more pronounced in tendon (pwag p=0.047; n=5 per group) despite lower bone mineral density (aBMD) and ash fraction indicating diabetes may preferentially reduce the Raman signature of collagen. Decreased indentation distance increase (p=0.010) and creep indentation distance (p=0.040) measured by RPI (n=9 per group) in ZDSD rats suggest a matrix more resistant to indentation under the high stresses associated with RPI at this length scale. There were significant correlations between Raman and RPI measurements in the ZDSD population (n=18 locations) but not the CD population (n=16 locations) indicating that while RPI is relatively unaffected by biological noise, it is sensitive to disease-induced compositional changes. In conclusion, diabetes in the ZDSD rat causes changes to the nanoscale morphology of collagen that result in compositional and mechanical effects in bone at the microscale. PMID:24269519

Hammond, Max A; Gallant, Maxime A; Burr, David B; Wallace, Joseph M

2014-03-01

274

Reactivation in post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis: ultrasonographic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe the ultrasound (US) features of reactivation in post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Twelve patients with clinical suspicion of reactivation of chronic osteomyelitis, secondary to trauma, surgery, and who were investigated with US were selected for the study. The following US features were assessed: periosseous fluid collection, bone changes (periosteal reactions, cortical irregularity, callus, sequestrum and cloaca) and soft-tissue changes (cellulitis and sinus tracts). US findings were correlated with plain radiography (n = 11), computed tomography (n = 3) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2). US detected fluid collections in all patients (12 periosseous and 3 in soft tissues), bone changes in 10 and sinus tracts and cellulitis in 5 patients each. Bone changes detected were cortical irregularity (n = 10), discontinuity of cortex (n = 7), sequestrum (n = 2), callus (n = 2), periosteal reaction (n = 1) and cloaca (n = 1). Cellulitis was seen in 5 patients and sinus tracts in 5. Reactivation was confirmed at surgery in all patients. US is a reliable noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of reactivation of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis in adults. (author)

Venkatesh, S.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, National Univ. Hospital (Singapore); Riederer, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Sainte Foy, Quebec (Canada); Chhem, R.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Cardinal, E. [Dept. of Diagnostic, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hospital St. Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wang, S.C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, National Univ. Hospital (Singapore)

2003-06-01

275

X-ray evaluation of changes occurring in the bone under the influence of Gentamicin-Septopal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of several-year experience it was acknowledged that in treatment of chronic blood-derived and traumatic inflammations of bones the introduction of chains of Septopal to treatment was an obvious progress. The changes occurring in the bones of the patients for whom Septopal was left for good in the marrow cavity under the influence of antibiotic were evaluated. The observation included 89 patients for whom X-ray examinations were made many times in various intervals. Initially the chains of antibiotic were surrounded with a thin layer of connective tissue, and after several new-generating osseous tissue grow into them. In none of the observed cases any reaction indicating recoil of the carrier of the antibiotic was noticed. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

276

Evaluation of spinal bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure by CT and MR imaging with pathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate bone changes in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), bone mineral density (BMD) and T1 relaxation times were measured with CT and MR imaging and the results were correlated to histology. Excised lumbar vertebrae from 25 autopsy cases of CRF (18 males and 7 females), including 12 cases in which the patients had been receiving hemodialysis were examined. BMD and T1 relaxation times values were associated with specific histologic findings for cellularity, trabeculae, and peritrabecular fibrosis. Three vertebrae with low BMD showed incresed hematopoietic marrow content, a finding not observed in primary osteoporosis. The vertebrae with osteosclerosis showed prolonged T1 relaxation time, which was due to increased amount of hematopoietic marrow, and the presence of thickened or many small irregular trabeculae or perirabecular fibrosis. (orig.)

277

Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?  

OpenAIRE

The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response,...

Ashwin Swaminathan; Lucas, Robyn M.; David Harley; Mcmichael, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

278

Age related histomorphometric changes in bone in normal British men and women.  

OpenAIRE

AIMS--To define the iliac crest histomorphometry of static variables in 234 individuals aged 16-100 years (91 men, 143 women) and of dynamic variables in 84 individuals aged 19-94 years (33 men, 51 women) from the North West of England. METHODS--Iliac crest biopsy specimens were sectioned, undecalcified, and examined using image analysis. RESULTS--The decrease in the quantity of cortical and trabecular bone and the connectivity of trabecular bone was more pronounced in women than men. This wa...

Rehman, M. T.; Hoyland, J. A.; Denton, J.; Freemont, A. J.

1994-01-01

279

Reactive Arthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

... About Reactive Arthritis? Key Words What Is Reactive Arthritis? Reactive arthritis is a form of arthritis, or joint ... a small percentage of people. What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Reactive arthritis typically begins within 2 to 4 weeks ...

280

[Changes in bone density of the femur after cement-free implantation of a modular hip prosthesis with a long shaft].  

Science.gov (United States)

Until now, no reports exist on the existence of femoral bone loss after hip arthroplasty using long-stem cementless prostheses in elderly patients. In a prospective evaluation the amount of bone loss (stress-shielding) after implantation of a long stem hip prosthesis in patients with femoral neck fractures (group A) or pertrochanteric femoral fractures (group B) was examined. Eleven patients (five from group A and six from group B) were treated with a long-stem modular hip prosthesis (MHP). Change of bone mass was evaluated using quantitative computed tomographie (QCT) immediately following and at six months (group A and B) and twelve months (group A) after implantation of the prosthesis. Clinical results, expressed with the modified Harris Hip Score, and relative changes of bone mass were compared with mean periprosthetic bone mass of the femur after operation. After implantation of the MHP, the maximum decrease of mean femoral bone mass was 19.1% at six months and 20.2% at twelve months for group A and 29.5% at six months for group B. Bone loss in the proximal periprosthetic area was higher than in the distal part. There was no correlation between baseline values of bone mass and the amount of stress-shielding or clinical outcome. PMID:11490955

Andress, H J; von Rückmann, B; Zwönitzer, R; Kahl, S; Ringling, M; Lob, G

2001-07-01

281

Candidate Electrophysiological Endophenotypes of Hyper-Reactivity to Change in Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

Although resistance to change is a main feature of autism, the brain processes underlying this aspect of the disorder remain poorly understood. The aims of this study were to examine neural basis of auditory change-detection in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 27) through electrophysiological patterns (MMN, P3a) and to test…

Gomot, Marie; Blanc, Romuald; Clery, Helen; Roux, Sylvie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Bruneau, Nicole

2011-01-01

282

Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420{degrees}C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs.

Inazumi, T.; Bell, G.E.C.; Kenik, E.A.; Kiuchi, K.

1993-01-01

283

Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420 degrees C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs

284

Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420[degrees]C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs.

Inazumi, T.; Bell, G.E.C.; Kenik, E.A.; Kiuchi, K.

1993-01-01

285

Pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: To examine the incidence of pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and to determine what constitutes a meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases. Patients and methods: Patients with bone metastases treated with external beam radiotherapy were asked to score their pain on a scale of 0-10 before the treatment (baseline), daily during the treatment and for 10 days after completion of external beam radiation. Pain flare was defined as a two-point increase from baseline pain in the pain scale of 0-10 with no decrease in analgesic intake or a 25% increase in analgesic intake employing daily oral morphine equivalent with no decrease in pain score. To distinguish pain flare from progression of pain, we required the pain score and analgesic intake to return back to baseline levels after the increase/flare. They were also asked to indicate if their pain changed during that time compared to pre-treatment level. The change in pain score was compared with patient perception. Results: Eighty-eight patients were evaluated in this study. There were 49 male and 39 female patients with the median age of 70 years. Twelve of 88 patients (14%) had pain flare on day 1. The overall incidence of pain flare during the study period ranged from 2 to 16%. A total of 797 pain scorings were obtained. Patients perceived an improvement in pain when their self-reported pain score decreased by at least two points. Conclusions: Our study confit two points. Conclusions: Our study confirms the occurrence of pain flare following the external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of bone metastases. Further studies are required to predict who are at risk for flare. Appropriate measures can be taken to alleviate the pain flare. The finding in the meaningful change in pain scores supports the investigator-defined partial response used in some clinical trials

286

MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor.

Pierre-Jerome, Claude, E-mail: cpierr3@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Reyes, Emmanuel J.; Moncayo, Valeria; Chen, Zhengjia Nelson; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Musculoskeletal Division, Orthopaedics and Spine Center, 59, Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States)

2012-10-15

287

MRI of the cuboid bone: Analysis of changes in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and their clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: (1) To investigate the association between diabetes and marrow changes in the cuboid; and (2) to evaluate the influence of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and use of insulin in the occurrence of marrow changes in the cuboid. Research design and methods: MR and X-ray foot examinations of 237 patients [94 males, 143 females; mean age, 47.1 years (range 16–93 years)], five of whom underwent bilateral examinations, were reviewed. MR and radiographic studies were analyzed for the presence of marrow edema and fractures in the cuboid. Findings were correlated with demographic data (age, gender) and clinical information (BMI and use of insulin). Results: Two hundred and forty two feet – 69 diabetic and 173 non-diabetic – were retrospectively evaluated. There was a higher prevalence of marrow edema and fractures in the diabetic cuboid (n = 31, 45%) compared to non-diabetic cuboid (n = 25, 14%, p = 0.02). A fracture line was seen in fourteen (20%) diabetic cuboid bones compared to 4 (2%) in non-diabetic cuboid bones (p < 0.0001). Eleven (79%) cases of cuboid fractures in the diabetic population were radiographically occult. Multivariate data analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio of 4.416 (95% CI; 2.307, 8.454) for the relationship between marrow changes (edema and fractures) in the cuboid and diabetes. For each year of age, the odds of changes in the cuboid increased by 2.2% (95% CI; 1.001, 1.044). Conclusion: Despite not bearing weight, the cuboid bone is more vulnerable to marrow edema and fractures in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Age seems to be an influential factor

288

Changes of the proliferation kinetics of human bone marrow in vivo through hydroxyurea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 10-hour oral continuous infusion with hydroxyurea (HU) at a non-toxic concentration was performed in 20 malignoma patients with undisturbed bone marrow. Bone marrow taken before, during and after HU-administration was examined for 3H-TdR incorporation by means of autoradiography and liquid scintimetry, for cell phase distribution by means of flow cytophotometry, morphologically and by means of CFUc. 3H-TdR incorporation into bone marrow cells dropped to 16% of the initial value under HU and rose to 156% 10 h after HU-effect terminated. Cytophotometry did not furnish any proof of a decrease of S-phase cells or increase of cells in G1-to-S-transition during HU. S-cells rise to 129% of the initial value 10 h after having fallen below minimum inhibition concentration. Under HU, there is an equal number of cells in S which incorporate much less 3H-thymidine; after HU more S-cells incorporate more 3H-thymidine than before HU. During HU action, DNA synthesis activity is reduced to 17% and reaches the initial value with 105% afterwards. In human bone marrow, hydroxyurea in non-toxic concentration causes a temporary DNA synthesis inhibition in terms of activity reduction and partial arrest in S. A stop-and-go of the cell cycle effected by HU does not occur; the effect is rather a slow-down of DNA synthesis. (orig./MG)

289

Changes in Bone Density after Cancer Treatment in Patients with Cervical and Endometrial Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine (LS) and femur in the postmenopausal women with cervical or endometrial cancer without bone metastasis compared to normal control postmenopausal women. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the BMD data in the LS, femur neck (FN) and trochanter (FT) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and laboratory data of bone turnover markers at baseline and after one year in 130 patients with cervical cancer, 68 patients with endometrial cancer, and 225 healthy controls. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the T-scores of basal BMD in LS and femur between patients with endometrial cancer and controls, and only T-score of basal BMD at the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) was significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer compared to controls. One year later, T-scores of BMD at all LS sites and FN in patients with cervical cancer and T-scores of BMD at L3, L4, FN, and FT in those with endometrial cancer after cancer treatment were significantly lower compared to controls. Lower proportions of normal BMD at all skeletal sites except L2 in patients with endometrial cancer and those at L1, L4, and FN in patients with cervical cancer were observed compared to controls after cancer treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cancer treatment increase bone loss in postmenopausal women with cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:25553092

Oh, Young Lim; Yoon, Man Soo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ari; Kim, Min Joung; Lee, Ji Young; Song, Yong Jung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyung; Chun, Sungwook

2015-01-01

290

Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. PMID:24689513

Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

2014-06-01

291

RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF OSTEOPOROSIS THROUGH DETECTION OF JAW BONE CHANGES: A SIMPLIFIED EARLY OSTEOPOROSIS DETECTION EFFORT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis has become a worldwide problem and has been known as a silence disease. Nowadays, there are a lot of diagnostic tools for detecting osteoporosis. Eighty eight postmenopausal were included and underwent digital panoramic, digital periapical, and conventional radiography. Ultrasound bone densitometry of os calcis used as gold standard. Correlation between stiffness index (SI with a digital dental, digital panoramic and conventional dental radiography are 0.170 (p = 0.11, -0382 (p = 0.001 and 0.246 (p = 0.021 respectively. Significant relationship was found between the SI only with digital panoramic and conventional dental. The highest correlation was found between SI values with mandibular Inferior Cortex on digital panoramic (-0.382, Pearson Correlation Tests. Correlation between digital panoramic radiographs and the SI values was the highest of the three radiographic modalities in this study. This indicates that evaluation of cortical bone is more accurate than cancellous bone. Bone quality evaluation in patients at high risk for osteoporosis using panoramic and dental conventional radiograph by dentist, contributes in preventing further occurrence of osteoporosis which in turn could reduce mortality and morbidity of osteoporosis in Indonesia.

Menik Priminiarti

2010-12-01

292

Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations—particularly for children—to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

Ashwin Swaminathan

2014-11-01

293

Physeal Change after Tuberculous Osteomyelitis of the Long Bone in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the long bone in children is often neglected,and established transphyseal bone lesions are common. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these patients.Methods: Between January 1990 and December 2008, 19 patients (10 boys and 9 girlswith sustained tuberculous osteomyelitis of the long bone accompanied byphyseal involvement were treated at our institute. The average age was 23.8months (range, 10-58 months. All patients received surgical treatment andantituberculosis therapy for at least 6 months. The final radiographic andfunctional results were analyzed.Results: All patients were followed up for an average of 61.8 months (range, 14-123months. The most common site of infection was the distal femur (8 patients,42.1%, followed by the proximal tibia (5 patients, 26.3% and the distaltibia (3 patients, 15.8%. Most of the lesions were osteolytic, round to oval inshape, and showed marginal sclerosis. Some lesions were expanding or multiloculated.The periosteal reaction was minimal. Even in cases with extensivesurgical curettage through the physis, the growth plate maintained itsfunction and gradually remodeled. Clinical symptoms improved within 4-6weeks. All bone lesions decreased in size in 3-6 months. Further, physeal barformation was observed, but the extent was minimal. All transphyseal lesionshealed gradually over a period of several years. Good remodeling of skeletallesions was noted.Conclusions: The diagnosis of tuberculous osteomyelitis of the long bone should be consideredin every child with unexplained chronic limb pain or swollen limbs.The lesions are usually located in the metaphysis and easily cross the growthplate to the epiphysis. Surgical debridement is beneficial in both diagnosisand treatment. In patients with growth plate involvement, careful surgicaldebridement is recommended to eradicate infection since the risk of permanentphyseal damage is minimal. The physis can heal gradually, and fullrange of motion of the adjacent joints can be maintained.

Hsuan-Kai Kao

2010-08-01

294

Age-related changes in skull uptake on bone scintigraphy: a quantitative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: '' Hot skull '', or diffuse increased activity of bone seeking radiotracers, is frequently seen in the bone scans of some patients, especially elderly women. This finding has been attributed to enhanced bone metabolism in old age. Material and Methods: We semi-quantitatively studied 342 normal bone scans (161 male and 181 female within the age range 12 to 82 years). We divided the patients into 7 age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 and above. The geometric means of the anterior and posterior background corrected skull and mid-femoral ROI values were used for calculation of the skull to femoral ratio (SFR). Results: The skull to femoral ratio was significantly higher in female patients in the age groups 30-39 and above. In females, the five upper age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 and above) had significantly higher SFR than the lower age groups. In males, the two upper age groups (60-69, 70 and above) had significantly higher SFR than the lower age groups. The findings in males were not concordant with the previous studies addressing this issue, which could be explained by different bone mineral density in the Iranian population. Conclusion: Our data showed that 'hot skull' is not necessarily an abnormal finding, especially in elderly women. We suggest that every nuclear medicine department uses its own normal values and reference samples for quantitative evaluation, due to ethnic or socio-economical variations. (authoric or socio-economical variations. (authors)

295

Comparison of radiographic subchondral bone changes with arthroscopic findings in the equine femoropatellar and femorotibial joints: a retrospective study of 72 joints (50 horses)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiographs of 72 femoropatellar and femorotibial joints from 50 horses were evaluated. Ninety four arthroscopically evaluated areas were graded according to a predetermined system. The radiographic grade was then compared to arthroscopic findings in the same location. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between the radiographic subchondral bone changes and arthroscopic findings. Radiographically normal areas in the femoropatellar joint were arthroscopically positive for cartilaginous changes in 40% of the femoropatellar joints. Areas of mild subchondral bone flattening (grade I) in the lateral trochlear ridge were arthroscopically positive for cartilage changes 78% of the time. Ninety six percent of moderate to severe subchondral bone changes (grades II-V) were arthroscopically positive for cartilage damage. This research demonstrates that (1) a significant number of radiographically normal joints will have cartilage changes, (2) areas of mild subchondral bone flattening have cartilage changes present in the majority of cases and (3) areas of moderate to severe subchondral bone changes have arthroscopically detectable cartilage changes present

296

Framework for reactive mass transport : Phase change modeling of concrete by a coupled mass transport and chemical equilibrium model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reactive transport modeling is applicable for a range of porous materials. Here the modeling framework is focused on cement-based materials, where ion diffusion and migration are described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation system. A two phase vapor/liquid flow model, with a sorption hysteresis description is coupled to the system. The mass transport is solved by using the finite element method where the chemical equilibrium is solved explicitly by an operator splitting method. The IPHREEQC library is used as chemical equilibrium solver. The equation system, solved by IPHREEQC, is explained for aqueous, pure phase and solid solution reactions. Numerical examples, with cement-based materials, are constructed to demonstrate transient phase change modeling. A simulation of pure multi-species leaching from the material, showing deterioration of the solid phases is described and calculated. A second simulation, showing multi-species ingress with formation of new solid phases in the domain is described and calculated. It is shown that the numerical solution method is capable of solving the reactive mass transport system for the examples considered. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jensen, Mads MØnster; Johannesson, Björn

2014-01-01

297

TCDD decreases ATP levels and increases reactive oxygen production through changes in mitochondrial F F1-ATP synthase and ubiquinone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitochondria generate ATP and participate in signal transduction and cellular pathology and/or cell death. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) decreases hepatic ATP levels and generates mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage, which is exacerbated by increasing mitochondrial glutathione redox state and by inner membrane hyperpolarization. This study identifies mitochondrial targets of TCDD that initiate and sustain reactive oxygen production and decreased ATP levels. One week after treating mice with TCDD, liver ubiquinone (Q) levels were significantly decreased, while rates of succinoxidase and Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities were increased. However, the expected increase in Q reduction state following TCDD treatment did not occur; instead, Q was more oxidized. These results could be explained by an ATP synthase defect, a premise supported by the unusual finding that TCDD lowers ATP/O ratios without concomitant changes in respiratory control ratios. Such results suggest either a futile cycle in ATP synthesis, or hydrolysis of newly synthesized ATP prior to release. The TCDD-mediated decrease in Q, concomitant with an increase in respiration, increases complex 3 redox cycling. This acts in concert with glutathione to increase membrane potential and reactive oxygen production. The proposed defect in ATP synthase explains both the greater respiratory rates and the lower tissue ATP levels

298

Changes in some parameters on immunological reactivity of irradiated and vaccinated pigs against Aujeszky's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was performed on ten two-month-old pigs irradiated with a dose rate of 2.2 Gy. The vaccination with a standard Aujeszky MK 35 vaccine was done on days 3 and 10, and re-vaccination - on day 17 after irradiation. The following parameters, reflecting the status of the immuno-biological reactivity, were estimated: total leucocyte count (Lc), differential WBC count (NTR, Lm), E-RFC and AEC-RFC, total T- and B-cell count, bacterial activity; phagocytic activity (PhA), antibody titer with RPHA. All parameters were measured before irradiation and on days 3, 7, 10, 17, 24 and 31 after vaccination. The analysis of the results showed that all parameters were influenced by irradiation and the values of most of them remained lower than initial values during the entire experimental period. Lc decreased in both groups, especially because the count of NTR and Lm decreased. That was supported by the E-, EAC-RFC, T- and B-cell count. The phagocyte count, phagocyte index and BA were negatively influenced at a greater extent in animals vaccinated on tenth day. The specific immune response was stronger and earlier manifested in animals vaccinated on the third day. The effect of vaccination, performed on the third day after irradiation, was an earlier activation of compensatory mechanisms in the experimental animals and resulted in a better specific immune response. (author)

299

Age-related changes in bone mineral density, cross-sectional area and the strength of long bones in the hind limbs and first lumbar vertebra in female Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Age-related changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional area and bone strength index (SSI) of the femur, tibia, humerus, and first lumbar vertebra in female Wistar (WM/MsNrs) rats were examined by a quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) method. One hundred and sixteen virgin female Wistar (WM/MsNrs) rats aged 2-33 months were used. The data indicate that the total BMD values of metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones increased until 12 months, then decreased to a varying degree depending on the bone after 15-24 months, but the values of cortical and trabecular BMD with age were not always similar to the total BMD value. Nevertheless, the values for cross-sectional area and SSI in the long bones increased regardless of the total BMD decrease with age, indicating that this increase might have been due to a characteristic of the modeling pattern in rats. The total and cortical BMD values in the first lumbar vertebra decreased after 18 months, and SSI did after 15 months. The data obtained in this study were compared with those obtained from males in a previous study. In conclusion, it was indicated that in this strain the rats over 12 months with the highest total BMD values in the femur and tibia, and before the onset of various tumors, are useful as a model animal for osteoporosis experiments and observation of senile bone change. PMID:15297744

Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo

2004-07-01

300

Age-related changes in bone mineral density, cross-sectional area and the strength of long bones in the hind limbs and first lumbar vertebra in female wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Age-related changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional area and bone strength index (SSI) of the femur, tibia, humerus. and first lumbar vertebra in female Wistar (WM/MsNrs) rats were examined by a quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) method. One hundred and sixteen virgin female Wistar (WM/MsNrs) rats aged 2-33 months were used. The data indicate that the total BMD values of metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones increased until 12 months, then decreased to a varying degree depending on the bone after 15-24 months, but the values of cortical and trabecular BMD with age were not always similar to the total BMD value. Nevertheless, the values for cross-sectional area and SSI in the long bones increased regardless of the total BMD decrease with age, indicating that this increase might have been due to a characteristic of the modeling pattern in rats. The total and cortical BMD values in the first lumbar vertebra decreased after 18 months, and SSI did after 15 months. The data obtained in this study were compared with those obtained from males in a previous study. In conclusion, it was indicated that in this strain the rats over 12 months with the highest total BMD values in the femur and tibia, and before the onset of various tumors, are useful as a model animal for osteoporosis experiments and observation of senile bone change

301

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation

302

Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation

303

Early changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levelsand bone markers after monthly risedronatewith cholecalciferol in Korean patients with osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ho Yeon Chung,1 Jawon Koo,1 Su Kyoung Kwon,2 Moo-IL Kang,3 Seong-Hwan Moon,4 Jin-Young Park,5 Chan Soo Shin,6 Byung-Koo Yoon,7 Hyun-Koo Yoon,8 Jae-Suk Chang,9 Yoon-Sok Chung,10 Hyoung-Moo Park111Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 2Department of Statistics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 4Department of Orthopedics, Yonsei University, 5Department of Orthopedics, Konkuk University, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sungkyunkwan University, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Kwandong University, 9Department of Orthopedics, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea; 10Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea; 11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South KoreaPurpose: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of monthly risedronate, with and without cholecalciferol, on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and bone markers in Korean patients with osteoporosis.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, prospective, 16-week clinical trial was conducted in ten hospitals. A total of 150 subjects with osteoporosis were randomized to one of the two treatment groups: RSDM+ (monthly risedronate 150 mg and cholecalciferol 30,000 IU combined in a single pill, n = 74 or RSDM (monthly risedronate 150 mg alone, n = 76. We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and bone markers, as well as performing muscle-function tests at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment.Results: After 16 weeks, serum 25(OHD levels significantly increased from 17.8 to 26.8 ng/mL in the RSDM+ group, but did not change in the RSDM group. The RSDM+ group exhibited significantly decreased serum PTH from 46 to 36.7 pg/mL, while the RSDM group showed a tendency for PTH to increase from 38 to 40.6 pg/mL. In both groups, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide rapidly declined, with significance at 16 weeks; there were no significant differences between the groups.Conclusion: A once-monthly pill of risedronate and cholecalciferol provided equivalent antiresorptive efficacy to risedronate alone in terms of bone turnover and improved 25(OHD levels over the 16-week treatment period without significant adverse events in Korean patients with osteoporosis. Keywords: bisphosphonate, cholecalciferol, bone markers, 25(OHD

Chung HY

2013-05-01

304

Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features  

OpenAIRE

It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43–76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR...

Kornaat, Peter R.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Sharma, Ruby; Botha-scheepers, Stella A.; Le Graverand, Marie-pierre Hellio; Coene, L. Napoleon J. E. M.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain

2007-01-01

305

Investigate methods for measuring muscle and bone mass changes in astronauts and animals which occur during space flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium-22 is being used as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism studies. Dogs are being grown from puppies to adulthood on a diet containing a constant level of sodium-22 in order to uniformly tag the entire skeleton with a long lived radionuclide. This study is still in progress and the dogs are still growing. Potassium-40 measurements were made on people, who are replacing muscle mass lost due to leg injuries, in a second study. It appears that potassium-40 measurements provide an accurate and convenient method for determining relative changes in the muscle content of the leg.

Palmer, H. E.

1977-01-01

306

Effect of irradiation on early enzymatic changes in healing mandibular periosteum and bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of irradiation was studied histochemically in healing mandibular periosteum and bone. After a cut line had been made on both sides of the mandible the rats were exposed to roentgen ray irradiation. The single doses were 15, 20, 30, 35 or 40 Gy. The animals were killed 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 hours after irradiation, for histochemical analysis. All enzymes, acid phosphatase, cytochrome oxidase, lactate, isocitrate, glucose-6-phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase, showed a greater increase in enzyme staining in the irradiated cut lines than in the non-irradiated control lines. The intensity of the staining increased with time and dose over 24 hours. The observation time included an inflammatory phase with vascular, enzymatic and cellular responses to periosteal and bone injury. The increase in staining was dependent on the time after surgical trauma and radiation dose. The increase in enzyme staining probably represents the initial cell damage after irradiation. (orig.)

307

Bone marrow cytomorphological changes in patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe systemic infectious disease.(1) It has been recognized as an opportunistic disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).(2,3) The analysis of the bone marrow of patients co-infected with VL and HIV showed dysplasia of erythroid, granulo [...] cytic and megakaryocytic lineages (Figure 1), besides the presence of plasmacytosis, cytoplasmic bodies, hemophagocytosis, granuloma and intracellular and extracellular leishmania amastigotes (Figure 2). These findings are found in the analysis of bone marrow of patients co-infected with HIV and VL; knowledge of these findings may be useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients.

Alana Jocelina Montenegro de, Castro; Romelia Pinheiro, Gonçalves; Maria Helena da Silva, Pitombeira.

2011-12-01

308

Reactive Kripke semantics  

CERN Document Server

This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

Gabbay, Dov M

2013-01-01

309

Dietary and Urinary Sulfur can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort. Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest. In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. The final three subjects' inflight samples are awaiting return from the International Space Station via Space-X. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses show that urinary excretion of sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is a significant predictor of urinary n-telopeptide (NTX). Dietary sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is also a significant predictor of urinary NTX. The results from this study, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

2015-01-01

310

Bone level changes at implants supporting crowns or fixed partial dentures with or without cantilevers  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether or not a cantilever extension on a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) supported by implants increased the amount of peri-implant bone loss or technical complications compared with reconstructions without cantilevers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four partially dentate patients with a total of 54 FDPs supported by 78 implants were enrolled in the study. Twenty-seven FDPs were with cantilever and 27 FDPs were without cantilever (control group)....

Ha?lg, G. A.; Schmid, J.; Ha?mmerle, C. H. F.

2008-01-01

311

Bone marrow edema - premonitory sign in malignant hemopathies or nonspecific change?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone marrow edema (BME) is defined as an excess of fluids that builds up in the bone marrow (BM), commonly found because of osteoporosis, trauma, infections, ischemia or neoplasia. Histologically, BME is characterized by accumulation of extracellular eosinophilic fluid. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the only method that highlights the presence of BME caused by various diseases, including the one associated with hematological malignancies. The classic MRI protocol for the study of BM and BME includes T1- and T2-weighted sequences, the STIR sequence, and in some cases, the administration of intravenous contrast agents in T1-weighted sequences. Fifty-four patients were investigated; there were identified 30 patients with MRI features of BME. Out of the 30 patients with BME, 24 were known to have a malignant hematological disease (multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma); for the remaining subjects, imagistic findings and other laboratory investigations led to multiple myeloma diagnosis. Of the 30 patients, six showed characteristic lesions of the underlying disease as well as BME; four patients had only BME. BM is a structure that is commonly investigated using MRI scans, regardless of the examined bone segment. T1-weighted images and T2-weighted with fat suppression are essential for BME evaluation. Moreover, MRI allows monitoring disease progression and treatment response in patients with malignant hemopathies. PMID:25607388

S?lcianu, Iulia Alecsandra; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Bondari, Simona; Dobrea, Camelia; Coli??, Andrei; Zaharia, Constantin; Bondari, Dan

2014-01-01

312

Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, pprotein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

2011-01-01

313

Arsenic induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by reactive oxygen species generation rather than glutathione depletion in Chang human hepatocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to evaluate the possible involvement of mitochondrial pathway in NaAsO{sub 2}-induced apoptosis and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the apoptotic effect in Chang human hepatocytes. The MTT assay demonstrated that sodium arsenite (NaAsO{sub 2}) treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. NaAsO{sub 2} treatment (0-30{mu}M) was also found to induce phosphatidylserine externalization, a hallmark of apoptosis; to disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}); to cause the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and to trigger cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a dose-dependent manner. All these changes were accompanied with the enhanced generation of intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA). Increase of intracellular GSH also coincided unexpectedly. Moreover, the extracellular addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) effectively reduced the generation of ROS and MDA, and rescued the cells from NaAsO{sub 2} induced apoptosis and related alteration of mitochondria. These data suggest that the arsenic-induced cell apoptosis occurs though the mitochondrial pathway, and is mostly dependent on generation of ROS rather than GSH depletion in Chang human hepatocytes. (orig.)

Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huihui; Xue, Peng; Li, Xin; Li, Bing; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang (China)

2009-10-15

314

Seasonality of energetic functioning and production of reactive oxygen species by lugworm (Arenicola marina) mitochondria exposed to acute temperature changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of seasonal and acute temperature changes on mitochondrial functions were studied in isolated mitochondria of the eurythermal lugworm Arenicola marina (Polychaeta), with special emphasis on the interdependence of membrane potential and radical production. Acclimatisation of lugworms to pre-spawning/summer conditions is associated with rising mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, higher proton leakage rates, elevated membrane potentials, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in isolated mitochondria, compared with mitochondria from winter animals. However, a high ROS production was compensated for by higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, as well as lower mitochondrial densities in summer compared with winter animals. In summer animals, a higher sensitivity of the proton leakage rate to changes of membrane potential will confer better flexibility for metabolic regulation (mild uncoupling) in response to temperature change. These seasonal alterations in mitochondrial functions suggest modifications of energy metabolism in eurythermal and euryoxic organisms on intertidal mudflats during summer. In winter, low and less changeable temperatures in intertidal sedimentary environments permit higher respiratory efficiency at low aerobic metabolic rates and lower membrane potentials in A. marina mitochondria. PMID:15184524

Keller, Martina; Sommer, Angela Maria; Pörtner, Hans O; Abele, Doris

2004-06-01

315

3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of muscle mass and the improved quality of the muscle tissue was observed and measured on whole muscle volume. The 3-dimensional approach proposed in this work allows the geometrical changes in denervated muscle to be measured. Central lines in rectus femoris are calculated during the treatment and the relative curvature indexes are used to quantify differences between data sets. The result shows a correlation between degeneration status and changes in shape; the differences in curvature between control and denervated muscle diminish with the growth. Furthermore, bone mineral density is measured on the femur to monitor the structural changes induced by the current flow and to evaluate the effect on the patella bone density due to the quadriceps contraction. Though the evidences aren’t yet statistically relevant a kind of structural change in the femur is measured as secondary effect from the muscle stimulation. Beside, the force applied on the patella through the elicited contraction seems also to have a beneficial effect on bone density. Indeed the mineral loss in the patella is remarkably slowed down.

Paolo Gargiulo

2011-03-01

316

Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, [B10----AKR], against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of [B10----AKR] chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype

317

Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios : a radiographic study in minipigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The objective of the present study was to learn about the volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone from the iliac crest or the mandible in different ratios in minipigs. Material and methods: Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 minipigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, and (E) 100% Bio-Oss. The autogenous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and expressed as mean percentage with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean volume of the graft was reduced by (A) 65% (95% CI: 60-70%), (B) 38% (95% CI: 35-41%), (C) 23% (95% CI: 21-25%), (D) 16% (95% CI: 12-21%), and (E) 6% (95% CI: 4-8%). The volumetric reduction was significantly influenced by the ratio of Bio-Oss and autogenous bone (P

Jensen, Thomas; Schou, SØren

2012-01-01

318

Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios: a radiographic study in minipigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The objective of the present study was to learn about the volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone from the iliac crest or the mandible in different ratios in minipigs. Material and methods: Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 minipigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, and (E) 100% Bio-Oss. The autogenous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and expressed as mean percentage with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The mean volume of the graft was reduced by (A) 65% (95% CI: 60-70%), (B) 38% (95% CI: 35-41%), (C) 23% (95% CI: 21-25%), (D) 16% (95% CI: 12-21%), and (E) 6% (95% CI: 4-8%). The volumetric reduction was significantly influenced by the ratio of Bio-Oss and autogenous bone (P

Jensen, Thomas; Schou, SØren

2012-01-01

319

Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) of bone and cartilage transplants in the knee. Transplant morphology and an attempt at a quantitative evaluation of cartilage changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MRT control examinations were carried out on 15 patients with allogenic bone-cartilage transplants in the knee. Spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences were obtained by using a flat surface coil. The results were compared with arthroscopic and operative findings. In 8 symptom-free patients, there was inclusion of the bone implant with narrow, but smooth, cartilage. 7 patients with recurrence of symptoms showed various complications such as oedema of the marrow, exudative synovitis, cartilage oedema, degenerative cartilagenous changes with regeneration of fibro-cartilage and localised cartilage defects. Spin-echo sequences were useful for showing bone, whereas gradient-echo sequences proved better for showing changes in the cartilage. MRT can be recommended as the method of choice for the non-invasive control of bone-cartilage transplants.

Koenig, H.; Skalej, M.; Hoentzsch, D.; Aicher, K.

1988-02-01

320

Immediate periodontal bone plate changes induced by rapid maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition: CT findings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar alterações das tábuas ósseas vestibulares e linguais decorrentes da expansão rápida da maxila (ERM), em pacientes na dentição mista, por meio de tomografia computadorizada (TC). MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por exames de TC helicoidal [...] , realizados de 22 pacientes com dentição mista, dos 6 aos 9 anos de idade (média de 8,1 anos), com atresia maxilar, tratados com expansores do tipo Haas. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada helicoidal antes da expansão e após o período de ativação de parafuso expansor, com 30 dias de intervalo entre as fases T1 e T2. A reconstrução multiplanar foi usada para medir a espessura da tábua óssea vestibular e lingual e a altura da crista óssea alveolar dos dentes posteriores decíduos e dos dentes permanentes. As alterações induzidas pela expansão foram avaliadas usando o teste t pareado (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating buccal and lingual bone plate changes caused by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the mixed dentition by means of computed tomography (CT). METHODS: The sample comprised spiral CT exams taken from 22 mixed dentition patients from 6 to 9 years of age ( [...] mean age of 8.1 years) presenting constricted maxillary arch treated with Haas-type expanders. Patients were submitted to spiral CT scan before expansion and after the screw activation period with a 30-day interval between T1 and T2. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to measure buccal and lingual bone plate thickness and buccal bone crest level of maxillary posterior deciduous and permanent teeth. Changes induced by expansion were evaluated using paired t test (p

Daniela Gamba, Garib; Maria Helena Ocké, Menezes; Omar Gabriel da, Silva Filho; Patricia Bittencourt Dutra dos, Santos.

2014-06-01

321

{sup 99m}Tc-HDP Bone Scintigraphy Finding of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Bone Lesion Changed from Hot to Cold Lesion: Comparing with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 26-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy for detecting bony metastasis after left total nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy showed small hot lesion in the first lumbar spine. About 12 months later, he underwent spinal MRI for lower back pain. A large mass was seen around spinous process of the first lumbar spine (L1) on spinal MRI and confirmed as metastatic renal cell carcinoma by bone biopsy. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were underwent for further evaluation. {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy showed cold lesion in the first lumbar spine which was initially hot and newly developed hot lesion in the twelfth thoracic spine, and which were shown as hypermetabolic lesions in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. We report a case of bony metastasis from renal cell carcinoma which is changed from hot lesion to cold lesion in {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scintigraphy and compare with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

Seo, Young Duk; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Kun Ho [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

322

Changes in the vitamin D endocrine system and bone turnover after oral vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: results of a randomised trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is uncertainty as to which intake of vitamin D is needed to suppress PTH and maintain normal bone metabolism throughout winter at northern latitudes. We aimed to investigate whether four weeks’ daily supplementation with 10??g vitamin D3 from fish oil produced a greater change in serum vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover in healthy adults compared with solid multivitamin tablets. Furthermore, it was studied whether age,...

Holvik Kristin; Madar Ahmed A; Meyer Haakon E; Lofthus Cathrine M; Stene Lars C

2012-01-01

323

Time-Resolved Dehydration-Induced Structural Changes in an Intact Bovine Cortical Bone Revealed by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the structure and structural changes of bone, a highly heterogeneous material with a complex hierarchical architecture, continues to be a significant challenge even for high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy. While it is known that dehydration affects mechanical properties of bone by decreasing its strength and toughness, the underlying structural mechanism at atomic-level is unknown. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy, controlled dehydration, and H/D exchange are used for the f...

Zhu, Peizhi; Xu, Jiadi; Sahar, Nadder; Morris, Michael D.; Kohn, David H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2009-01-01

324

Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging: relationship to spinal osteoporosis.  

OpenAIRE

Patterns of bone loss in the axial and the appendicular skeleton were studied in 185 normal volunteers (105 women and 82 men; age range, 20--89 yr) and in 76 women and 9 men with vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was measured in vivo at the lumbar spine (predominantly trabecular bone) by dual photon absorptiometry and at the midradius (greater than 95% cortical bone) and distal radius (75% cortical and 25% trabecular bone) by single photon absorptiometry. In normal...

Riggs, B. L.; Wahner, H. W.; Dunn, W. L.; Mazess, R. B.; Offord, K. P.; Melton, L. J.

1981-01-01

325

Fatty acids binding to human serum albumin: Changes of reactivity and glycation level of Cysteine-34 free thiol group with methylglyoxal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids (FAs) binding to human serum albumin (HSA) could lead to the changes of Cys-34 thiol group accessibility and reactivity, i.e. its scavenger capacity and antioxidant property. The influence of saturated, mono and poly unsaturated, and fish oil FAs binding to HSA on the carbonylation level and the reactivity of HSA-SH and HSA modified with methylglyoxal (MG-HSA-SH) was investigated. Changes of thiol group reactivity were followed by determination of pseudo first order rate constant (k') for thiols reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). HSA changes were monitored using native PAG electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy. For FA/HSA molar ratios screening, qTLC and GC were used. FAs increase thiol group carbonylation levels from 8% to 20%. The k' values obtained for FAs-free HSA-SH and FAs-free MG-HSA-SH are almost equal (7.5×10(-3) and 7.7×10(-3)s(-1), resp.). Binding of all FAs amplify the reactivity (k' values from 14.6×10(-3) to 26.0×10(-3)s(-1)) of HSA-SH group for 2-3.5times in the order: palmitic, docosahexaenoic, fish oil extract, stearic, oleic, myristic and eicosapentaenoic acid, due to HSA conformational changes. FAs-bound MG-HSA-SH samples follow that pattern, but their k' values (from 9.8×10(-3) to 14.3×10(-3)s(-1)) were lower compared to unmodified HSA due to additional conformation changes of HSA molecules during carbonylation. Carbonylation level and reactivity of Cys34 thiol group of unmodified and carbonylated HSA depend on type of FAs bound to HSA, which implies the possibility for modulation of -SH reactivity (scavenger capacity and antioxidant property) by FAs as a supplement. PMID:25451573

Pavi?evi?, Ivan D; Jovanovi?, Vesna B; Taki?, Marija M; Penezi?, Ana Z; A?imovi?, Jelena M; Mandi?, Ljuba M

2014-10-17

326

Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT) imaging using 3D reformations (3DR) with shaded surface display (SSD) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared fin [...] dings with multiplanar reformation (MPR) images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ). Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374) was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

Marília Gerhardt de, Oliveira; Luciano Engelmann, Morais; Daniela Nascimento, Silva; Helena Willhelm de, Oliveira; Cláiton, Heitz; Lêonilson, Gaião.

2009-06-01

327

Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT imaging using 3D reformations (3DR with shaded surface display (SSD and maximum intensity projection (MIP in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ. Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374 was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

2009-06-01

328

Intracranial meningioma with abnormal localization of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical: Correlation with gross and microscopic pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meningioma is one of the neoplasms in which there may be extraosseous localization of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor calcification, calvarial erosion, and the formation of reactive bone have been proposed as the cause of this abnormal tracer localization. We present a patient with a frontal meningioma that was evaluated using sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy, head computed tomography, and skull radiography; the homogeneous density seen in the radiographic studies corresponding to the area of bone-seeking-agent localization shown in the scintigram. At autopsy, bony tissue and a few psammoma bodies were found in the meningioma, and apparently accounted for the bone-tracer localization. There was no calvarial erosion and no formation of reactive bone. If skull-radiographic studies show a homogeneous, radio-opaque lesion with no reactive changes in the adjacent skull, a meningioma showing a localization of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical may be predicted to have bone-tissue formation with or without psammoma bodies. (orig.)

329

Histomorphometric analysis of the temporal bone after change of direction of force vector of mandible: an experimental study in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at performing a histological evaluation of the response of temporal bone tissue to a change of direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the base of the skull. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult rabbits were assigned into four groups with two control a [...] nd four experimental animals in each group. experimental animals underwent surgery, which resulted in a change of direction of the force vector on the right temporomandibular joint. Samples were collected after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days for histological analysis. RESULTS: In the two-way analysis of variance, the effect of group and time was statistically significant (p

Edela, Puricelli; Deise, Ponzoni; Jéssica Cerioli, Munaretto; Adriana, Corsetti; Mauro Gomes Trein, Leite.

2012-10-01

330

Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author)

331

Tomographic Analysis of Reactive Flow Induced Pore Structure Changes in Column Experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We utilize synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography to capture and quantify snapshots in time of dissolution and secondary precipitation in the microstructure of Hanford sediments exposed to simulated caustic waste in flow-column experiments. The experiment is complicated somewhat as logistics dictated that the column spent significant amounts of time in a sealed state (acting as a batch reactor). Changes accompanying a net reduction in porosity of 4% were quantified including: (1) a 25% net decrease in pores resulting from a 38% loss in the number of pores less than < 10-4 MM3 in volume and a 13% increase in the number of pores of larger size; and (2) a 38% decrease in the number of throats. The loss of throats resulted in decreased coordination number for pores of all sizes and significant reduction in the number of pore pathways

332

Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

333

Reactive potential for the study of phase-change materials: GeTe  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a classical potential to model phase-change materials based on the binary chalcogenide alloy of GeTe that are currently exploited for memory applications. Our potential is based on the recently proposed extension of the Tersoff potential plus additional terms to better reproduce the structure of the amorphous and the crystalline phases of GeTe. The parameters defining the potential reported in this work were fitted to reproduce the energies and forces of a database of reference structures obtained via density-functional theory molecular-dynamics simulations. This paper reports on the method used to construct the potential and on its validation against first-principles calculations either available in literature or part of this work. We found that the structural properties of amorphous GeTe were well reproduced. The advantage of the current implementation toward more flexible neural network-based methods is that most of the parameters can be reconnected to physical properties. Moreover, the relatively small number of parameters results in a simple implementation and facilitates the introductions of further interactions among additional species.

Zipoli, Federico; Curioni, Alessandro

2013-12-01

334

Radiation-induced changes in the patterns of free ninhydrin-reactive substances of meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of minced lean beef and pork, breast muscle of chicken, and white meat of carp packed in polyethylene/Hostaphan bags were irradiated in the presence of air at about 250C with 10-MeV electrons. The doses applied were for beef 0.5-20 Mrad, and for other meat samples 10 Mrad. In the dose range of 0-5 Mrad, no statistically significant changes in the composition of the free amino acids and similar compounds usually present in beef were found. In the dose range between 10 and 20 Mrad a tendency towards small losses in such components became obvious. In beef samples irradiated at doses >= 0.5 Mrad a new substance (Y) appeared distinctly in the zone of the basic amino-acids. This compound was detected by two independent methods, column chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. The yellow colour of the band appearing above carnosine in the pherogram was striking. Substance Y was also found after irradiation of pork and chicken meat. At a dose of 10 Mrad the concentration of Y in white chicken meat was nearly three times higher than in beef and pork. After irradiation of white carp muscle no Y, but another new basic compound (X) was observed. In the pherograms it appeared as a brwonish-red band above ?-alanine. (orig./AJ)

335

A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

336

Tendon to bone tunnel healing-A study on the time-dependent changes in biomechanics, bone remodeling, and histology in a rat model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tendons and ligaments attach to bone through a transitional connective tissue with complex biomechanical properties. This unique tissue is not regenerated during healing, and surgical reattachment therefore often fails. The present study was designed to evaluate tendon healing in a bone tunnel and to evaluate the utilized rat model. Wistar rats (n?=?61) were operated with the Achilles tendon through a bone tunnel in the distal tibia. Healing was evaluated at 2, 3, 4, and 12 weeks by biomechanical testing, bone mineral density and histology. After 2 weeks median (interquartile range) pull-out force was 2.2?N (1.9). The pull-out force increased chronologically, by 12 weeks fivefold to 11.2?N (11.4). Energy absorption, stiffness, and bone mineral density increased similarly. The histological analyses showed inflammation at early stages with increasing callus by time. Our data showed a slow healing response the first 4 weeks followed by an accelerated healing period, favoring that most of the gain in mechanical strength occurred later than 4 weeks postoperatively. These findings support the concern of a vulnerable tendon bone tunnel interface in the early stages of healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:216-223, 2015. PMID:25367445

Hjorthaug, Geir Aasmund; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars; Reinholt, Finn P; Steen, Harald; Dimmen, Sigbjorn

2015-02-01

337

Radiation-induced changes in the patterns of free ninhydrin-reactive substances of meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of minced lean beef and pork, breast muscle of chicken, and white meat of carp packed in polyethylene/Hostaphan bags were irradiated in the presence of air at about 250C with 10-MeV electrons. The doses applied were for beef 0.5-20 Mrad, and for other meat samples 10 Mrad. In the dose range of 0-5 Mrad, no statistically significant changes in the composition of the free amino acids and similar compounds usually present in beef were found. In the dose range between 10 and 20 Mrad a tendency towards small losses in such components became obvious. In beef samples irradiated at doses >= 0.5 Mrad a new substance (Y) appeared distinctly in the zone of the basic amino-acids. This compound was detected by two independent methods, column chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. The yellow colour of the band appearing above carnosine in the pherogram was striking. Substance Y was also found after irradiation of pork and chicken meat. At a dose of 10 Mrad the concentration of Y in white chicken meat was nearly three times higher than in beef and pork. After irradiation of white carp muscle no Y, but another new basic compound (X) was observed. In the pherograms it appeared as a brownish-red band above ?-alanine. The irradiation products X and Y may be used to find out whether meat of animals as used in this investigation had been exposed to radiation, if doses of 0.5 Mrad or higher were applied. (orig.)

338

Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 ±6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P?0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CTTOTFEM and CTTROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip s integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by volumetric QCT may be suggested

339

Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes. We also show that applying 4000 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG) prevents impedance increases in vitro, and reduces the percent change in impedance in vivo following implantation. Our results highlight the importance of considering the contributions of non-cellular components to the decline in neural microelectrode performance, and present a proof of concept for using a simple dip-coated PEG film to modulate changes in microelectrode impedance. PMID:25136315

Sommakia, Salah; Gaire, Janak; Rickus, Jenna L; Otto, Kevin J

2014-01-01

340

Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes. We also show that applying 4000 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG prevents impedance increases in vitro, and reduces the percent change in impedance in vivo following implantation. Our results highlight the importance of considering the contributions of non-cellular components to the decline in neural microelectrode performance, and present a proof of concept for using a simple dip-coated PEG film to modulate changes in microelectrode impedance.

Salah Sommakia

2014-08-01

341

Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43-76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR images were made at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. BME lesions in 2 years were associated with clinical features assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scores. A total of 327 BME lesions were recorded. Total size of BME lesions changed in 90 patients (66%). Size of individual lesions changed in 147 foci (45%): new lesions appeared in 69 (21%), existing lesions disappeared in 32 (10%), increased in size in 26 (8%) and decreased in size in 20 (6%) lesions. Increase or decrease of BME lesions, over a 2-year time period, was not associated with severity of WOMAC scores. BME lesions fluctuated in the majority of patients with OA over a 2-year time period. These changes were not associated with severity of WOMAC scores at the study end point. (orig.)

Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet; Botha-Scheepers, Stella A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Groton, Groton, CT (United States); Coene, L.N.J.E.M. [Haga Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands)

2007-12-15

342

Bone marrow edema-like lesions change in volume in the majority of patients with osteoarthritis; associations with clinical features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been suggested that bone marrow edema-like (BME) lesions in the knee are associated with progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of our study in patients with OA was to evaluate prospectively changes of BME lesions over 2 years and their relationship with clinical features. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained from 182 patients (20% male; aged 43-76 years; mean age 59 years) who had been diagnosed with familial symptomatic OA at multiple joint sites. MR images were made at baseline and at 2 years follow-up. BME lesions in 2 years were associated with clinical features assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scores. A total of 327 BME lesions were recorded. Total size of BME lesions changed in 90 patients (66%). Size of individual lesions changed in 147 foci (45%): new lesions appeared in 69 (21%), existing lesions disappeared in 32 (10%), increased in size in 26 (8%) and decreased in size in 20 (6%) lesions. Increase or decrease of BME lesions, over a 2-year time period, was not associated with severity of WOMAC scores. BME lesions fluctuated in the majority of patients with OA over a 2-year time period. These changes were not associated with severity of WOMAC scores at the study end point. (orig.)

343

Comparison of a second with a first generation digital subtraction radiography system in the detection of subtle alveolar bone changes: An in vitro study  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: (1) To compare the diagnostic validity of a 2nd and a 1st generation DSR system in the detection of periodontal bone changes (2) to compare the shape and size of corresponding alveolar bone changes in the subtraction images from the two DSR systems. Methods: Periodontal lesions of varying sizes were created on a human dry skull. Standardized and non-standardized radiographs were acquired and subtracted with a 1st and a 2nd generation DSR system. Six oral radiologists evaluated the...

Panagiotis Tzoutzoukos, Kety Nicopoulou-karayianni

2011-01-01

344

A Bayesian path analysis to estimate causal effects of bazedoxifene acetate on incidence of vertebral fractures, either directly or through non-linear changes in bone mass density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims: Bone mass density values have been related with risk of vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. However, bone mass density is not perfectly accurate in predicting risk of fracture, which decreases its usefulness as a surrogate in clinical trials. We propose a modeling framework with three interconnected parts to improve the evaluation of bone mass density accuracy in forecasting fractures after treatment.Methods: The modeling framework includes: (1) a piecewise regression to describe non-linear temporal BMD changes more accurately than crude percent changes, (2) a structural equation model to analyze interdependencies among vertebral fractures and their potential risk factors in preference to regression techniques that consider only directional associations, and (3) a counterfactual causal interpretation of the direct and indirect relationships between treatment and occurrence of vertebral fractures. We apply the methods to BMD repeated measurements from a study of the effect of bazedoxifene acetate on incident vertebral fractures in three different geographical regions.Results: We made four observations: (1) bone mass density changes varied largely across participants, (2) baseline age and body mass index influenced baseline bone mass density that, in turn, had an effect on prevalent fractures, (3) direct and/or indirect effects of bazedoxifene acetate on incident fractures were different across regions, and (4) estimates of indirect effects were sensible to the presence of post-treatment unmeasured confounders. In one region, around 40% of the bazedoxifene acetate effect on the occurrence of fracture is explained by its effect on bone mass density. Under the counterfactual approach, these 40% represent the average difference in the occurrence of fracture observed for untreated individuals when their bone mass density values are set at the value under bazedoxifene acetate versus under placebo.Conclusions: Computational methods are available to evaluate and interpret the surrogacytic capability of a biomarker of a primary outcome. PMID:22967963

Detilleux, J; Reginster, J-Y; Chines, A; Bruyère, O

2012-09-11

345

Reactive nitrogen species contribute to the rapid onset of redox changes induced by acute immobilization stress in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Acute stress leads to the rapid secretion of glucocorticoids, which accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. Although the nitrergic system has been implicated in numerous stress-related diseases, the time course and extent of nitrosative changes during acute stress have not been characterized. Outbred male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into control (n?=?9) or 120?min acute immobilization stress (n?=?9) groups. Serial blood samples were collected at 0 (baseline), 60, 90, and 120?min. Plasma corticosterone concentrations increased by approximately 350% at 60, 90, and 120 (p?changes of both oxidative and nitrosative status sufficient to induce oxidative damage in peripheral tissues. PMID:25238022

Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Spiers, Jereme G; Sernia, Conrad; Anderson, Stephen T; Lavidis, Nickolas A

2014-12-01

346

Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. PMID:24582246

Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

2014-04-01

347

Small Animal Bone Biomechanics  

OpenAIRE

Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small anima...

Vashishth, Deepak

2008-01-01

348

Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman microspectroscopy was used to examine the biochemical composition and molecular structure of extracellular matrix in spongy and subchondral bone collected from patients with clinical and radiological evidence of idiopathic osteoarthritis of the hip and from patients who underwent a femoral neck fracture, as a result of trauma, without previous clinical and radiological evidence of osteoarthritis. The objectives of the study were to determine the levels of mineralization, carbonate accumulation and collagen quality in bone tissue. The subchondral bone from osteoarthritis patients in comparison with control subject is less mineralized due to a decrease in the hydroxyapatite concentration. However, the extent of carbonate accumulation in the apatite crystal lattice increases, most likely due to deficient mineralization. The alpha helix to random coil band area ratio reveals that collagen matrix in subchondral bone is more ordered in osteoarthritis disease. The hydroxyapatite to collagen, carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite and alpha helix to random coil band area ratios are not significantly changed in the differently loaded sites of femoral head. The significant differences also are not visible in mineral and organic constituents' content in spongy bone beneath the subchondral bone in osteoarthritis disease.

Buchwald, Tomasz; Niciejewski, Krzysztof; Kozielski, Marek; Szybowicz, Miros?aw; Siatkowski, Marcin; Krauss, Hanna

2012-01-01

349

Age-related changes in osteometry, bone mineral density and osteophytosis of the lumbar vertebrae in Japanese macaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The age-related changes in lumbar vertebrae were studied in 77 young/full adult Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) (40 females, 37 males), in terms of their morphometry, density and osteophytosis, and the interrelationship between these three aspects. The most common age-related pattern of morphometric changes was an initial increase during young adulthood until reaching the peak and then a subsequent decrease with age. Most of the peaks were in the age group 15-20 and 10-15 years in females and males, respectively. In both sexes, the age-related decrease in the vertebral body depth (ventro-dorsal) was greater than in the height and width. The ventral height of the vertebral body relative to the dorsal height continuously decreased with age. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) continuously decreased after young adulthood. However, the magnitude of the decreased trabecular BMD with age was greater in females than in males, especially in the older age groups. Osteophytosis clearly increased with age in both sexes, but males showed an earlier appearance of osteophytes and females tended to have more severe osteophytes from 15 years old upwards. A correlation between the osteometry, density, and osteophytosis severity appeared in all vertebrae, but not all of these reached statistical significance after controlling for the influence of age. Although Japanese macaques showed the higher prevalence and rapid increase of osteophytosis, a similar age change profile was observed in the lumbar vertebrae of Japanese macaques and humans. PMID:25248843

Pomchote, Porrawee

2015-01-01

350

Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low-back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes and LBP at 14 months follow-up (n = 37) were invited to participate in this subsequent antibiotic trial but five did not meet the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: 29 patients completed the treatment, as three patients dropped out due to severe diarrhoea. At the end of treatment and at long-term follow-up (mean 10.8 months) there was both clinically important and statistically significant (p

Albert, HB; Manniche, C

2008-01-01

351

Changes in the activity of bone and intestinal isoenzymes of serum alkaline phosphatases in irradiated rabbits treated with radioprotective substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of radioprotective substances on post-irradiation changes of the activity of total alkaline phosphatase (AP, E.C. 3.1.3.1.) and its bone and intestine isoenzymes in the blood serum was studied in rabbits. After whole-body exposure to 8 Gy (800 R), a marked decrease of the AP activity occurred (both total and isoenzyme activity) as early as the 1st day, and persists over the entire period investigated (from the 1st to the 21st day). 5-methoxytryptamine given i.p. or s.c. administration of cystamine caused only a moderate effect on the radiation-induced changes in AP levels. However, a slow i.v. infusion of cystamine reversed the decrease more effectively and the activity values were similar to the irradiated controls. The results indicate that the investigation of the activity changes in isoenzymes of serum AP may serve not only as an indicator of radiation damage, but also as a biochemical criterion of the radioprotective efficiency. (author)

352

Bone fragility: current reviews and clinical features  

OpenAIRE

Bone strength is determined by a number of important factors, including bone mass and bone shape. A reduction in bone strength is clearly related to fracture. Bone fragility results from a reduction in bone mass and density. If there is a reduction in the connectivity of bone and impact from a mechanical load occurs, bone will fracture. Rather than considering bone fragility as being the result of a reduced amount of bone, we recognize that bone fragility is the result of changes in the mater...

Tranquilli Leali, Paolo; Doria, Carlo; Zachos, Alexandros; Ruggiu, Adriano; Milia, Fabio; Barca, Francesca

2009-01-01

353

The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.

Lee, Yun Hong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medicine Physics, The Graduate School of Biomedical Science Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

354

Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density / Enfermedad hepática alcohólica y alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La osteoporosis y la osteopenia son alteraciones de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) que se desarrollan frecuentemente en la enfermedad hepática crónica (EHC). Dichas alteraciones han sido estudiadas predominantemente en la enfermedad colestásica crónica y en la cirrosis hepática. El consumo de alcoho [...] l es un factor de riesgo independiente para la aparición de osteoporosis, cuya prevalencia estimada en pacientes con enfermedad hepática por alcohol (EHA) varía entre un 5 % y un 40 %. La pérdida de DMO en la EHA se produce por un disbalance entre formación y resorción ósea. Su etiopatogenia es multifactorial y comprende la toxicidad del alcohol sobre el hueso, las alteraciones endocrinológicas y nutricionales secundarias al alcoholismo y el déficit de osteocalcina, vitamina D e IGF-1, entre otras. El diagnóstico de las alteraciones de la DMO en la EHA se basa en su medición mediante densitometría ósea. El tratamiento incluye el abandono del alcohol y medidas generales de tipo nutricional, abandono del tabaco y ejercicio físico. La suplementación con calcio y vitamina D se recomienda en todos los pacientes con EHA y osteoporosis. Los bisfosfonatos son los principales fármacos para el tratamiento específico de esta entidad. Otras alternativas son el raloxifeno, el tratamiento hormonal sustitutivo y la calcitonina. La presente revisión abordará los aspectos más relevantes para el manejo clínico de las alteraciones de la DMO en el contexto de la EHA, incluyendo su prevalencia, etiopatogenia y diagnóstico. Por otra parte, se efectuará una revisión del tratamiento de la osteoporosis en la EHC en general, incidiendo en los aspectos específicos relacionados con la pérdida de masa ósea en la EHA. Abstract in english Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD). These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk facto [...] r for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

Germán, López-Larramona; Alfredo J., Lucendo; Laura, González-Delgado.

2013-12-01

355

Longitudinal changes in C-reactive protein, proform of eosinophil major basic protein, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A during weight changes in obese children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is associated with several complications, including cardiovascular comorbidity. Several biomarkers, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), proform of eosinophil major basic protein (Pro-MBP) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), have equally been linked to increased cardiovascular susceptibility. This study investigates these biomarkers during weight loss and regain in obese children. Materials and methods: A longitudinal study during a 12-week weight loss program with a 28 months follow-up was conducted. Anthropometrics and plasma concentrations of hs-CRP, Pro-MBP, and PAPP-A were measured at baseline; at days 14, 33 and 82 during weight loss; and at months 10, 16, and 28 during follow-up. Results: Fifty-three boys and 62 girls aged 8-15 years with a median body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at baseline of 2.78 (boys), and 2.70 (girls) were included. Ninety children completed the weight loss program and 68 children entered the follow-up program. Pro-MBP and PAPP-A, but not hs-CRP, exhibited individual-specific levels (tracking) during weight loss and regain. The PAPP-A/Pro-MBP correlation was strong, whereas the hs-CRP/PAPP-A correlation was weak during weight fluctuations. Conclusion: Hs-CRP changes reflect weight changes. PAPP-A and Pro-MBP exhibited tracking during weight perturbations and may contribute as early risk markers of cardiovascular susceptibility. PMID:25460282

Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Gamborg, Michael; Bøjsøe, Christine; Hedley, Paula L; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Holm, Jens-Christian

2014-12-01

356

Antibiotic treatment in patients with low back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n=166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes and LBP at 14 months follow-up (n=37) were invited to participate in this subsequent antibiotic trial but five did not meet the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients completed the treatment, as three patients dropped out due to severe diarrhoea. At the end of treatment and at long-term follow-up (mean 10.8 months) there was both a clinically important and statistically significant (p< 0.001) improvement in all OUTCOME MEASURES: LBP intensity, number of days with pain, disease- and patient-specific function, and global perceived effect. CONCLUSIONS: In this uncontrolled trial, the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment was large in a group of patients with Modic changes suffering from persistent LBP following a disc herniation. These results provide tentative support for a hypothesis that bacterial infection may play a role in LBP with Modic changes and indicate the need for randomised controlled trials to test this hypothesis.

Albert, Hanne B.; Manniche, Claus

2008-01-01

357

Changes in Bone Mineral Density through 96 Weeks in Antiretroviral-Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients Receiving Abacavir/Lamivudine and Raltegravir in the SHIELD Trial  

OpenAIRE

Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures are areas of increasing concern among HIV-infected persons. Particular concern is the rapid decline in BMD after initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This report describes DEXA-assessed changes in BMD and body fat in a study of fifteen antiretroviral-na?ve adults initi...

Linda Battalora; Amy Thomas; Brian Wine; Belinda Ha; Benjamin Young

2014-01-01

358

Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

Peter J. Rogers

2011-11-01

359

Decreased oxygen tension lowers reactive oxygen species and apoptosis and inhibits osteoblast matrix mineralization through changes in early osteoblast differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating data show that oxygen tension can have an important effect on cell function and fate. We used the human pre-osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO, which forms a mineralizing extracellular matrix, to study the effect of low oxygen tension (2%) on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Mineralization was significantly reduced by 60-70% under 2% oxygen, which was paralleled by lower intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Following this reduction in ROS the cells switched to a lower level of protection by down-regulating their antioxidant enzyme expression. The downside of this is that it left the cells more vulnerable to a subsequent oxidative challenge. Total collagen content was reduced in the 2% oxygen cultures and expression of matrix genes and matrix-metabolizing enzymes was significantly affected. Alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA expression as well as RUNX2 expression were significantly reduced under 2% oxygen. Time phase studies showed that high oxygen in the first phase of osteoblast differentiation and prior to mineralization is crucial for optimal differentiation and mineralization. Switching to 2% or 20% oxygen only during mineralization phase did not change the eventual level of mineralization. In conclusion, this study shows the significance of oxygen tension for proper osteoblast differentiation, extra cellular matrix (ECM) formation, and eventual mineralization. We demonstrated that the major impact of oxygen tension is in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation. Low oxygen in this phase leaves the cells in a premature differentiation state that cannot provide the correct signals for matrix maturation and mineralization. PMID:21604266

Nicolaije, Claudia; Koedam, Marijke; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

2012-04-01

360

Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 {+-}6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P{approx_equal}0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CT{sub T}OT{sub F}EM and CT{sub T}ROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by volumetric QCT may be suggested.

Guglielmi, G. [Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Floriani, I.; Torri, V.; Li, J.; Kuijk, C. van; Genant, H.K.; Lang, T.F. [Scientific Inst. ' Mario Negri' , Milan (Italy). Biometry and Data Management Unit

2005-05-01

361

Does Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) Change the Operative Nonunion Rates in Spine Fusions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Design. A retrospective cohort study with chart reviewObjective. To determine if there is difference in the operative nonunion rates with and without the use of Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) after spinal fusions by analyzing data from an integrated healthcare system's spine registry.Summary of Background Data. BMP was first approved in 2002 for use in single-level anterior lumbar fusions. Follow-up studies have advocated its use in reducing the need for reoperations for nonunions. Recent studies, however, have questioned these conclusions and the usefulness of BMP in spinal fusions has been highly debated.Methods. We identified 9425 spinal fusion cases between 2009 and 2011 from a spine registry in a large integrated healthcare organization. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, operative times, length of stay, and re-operations were extracted from the registry. Re-operations for nonunions were adjudicated via chart review. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the risk of re-operation while adjusting for confounders.Results. In our cohort, there were 5,456 BMP cases and 3,969 Non-BMP cases. The mean age was 60.4 years (SD = 12.9), with the majority being females (53%). The median follow-up time was 1.2 years (IQR: 0.6-2.0). Re-operation rates for BMP vs Non-BMP nonunions for all fusions cases with ? 1-year (1.9% vs 2.2%) and ? 2-years follow-up (2.3% vs 2.6%) were not statistically significantly different. Operative nonunion rates did not reach statistical significance for different spine regions and for different fused columns (anterior only, posterior only or combined).After controlling for differences in patient characteristics, operative times, levels fused, and spinal regions, the risk of re-operation in the BMP versus the Non-BMP group was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.42-1.06).Conclusion. In this large cohort of spinal fusions at all spine regions involving all fused columns with and without BMP we found no statistically significant difference in operative nonunion rates. PMID:25077912

Guppy, Kern; Paxton, Liz; Harris, Jessica; Alvarez, Julie; Bernbeck, Johannes

2014-07-30

362

Changes in cellularity, CFU-S number and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow and blood of rats after neutron and continuous gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the hematopoietic bone marrow of rats were observed after single whole-body neutron dose of 2 Gy and combined single neutron (2 Gy) and continuous gamma (6 Gy, daily dose rate of 0.5742 Gy) irradiation. Neutron irradiation significantly reduces the number of karyocytes in the bone marrow including CFU-S and induces the extensive cytogenetic damage. The following continuous gamma irradiation does not intensify the primary damage, but maintains the CFU-S and cellularity values at a decreased level for the whole time of irradiation. Recovery of the damage begins only after the termination of continuous irradiation; its course is similar to that after single neutron irradiation. The influence of combined effect of neutrons and gamma rays is nevertheless manifested in later periods after the irradiation by reduction in the total CFU-S number in the bone marrow. (author)

363

System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone  

Science.gov (United States)

Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

2011-01-01

364

Bone fragility: current reviews and clinical features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone strength is determined by a number of important factors, including bone mass and bone shape. A reduction in bone strength is clearly related to fracture. Bone fragility results from a reduction in bone mass and density. If there is a reduction in the connectivity of bone and impact from a mechanical load occurs, bone will fracture. Rather than considering bone fragility as being the result of a reduced amount of bone, we recognize that bone fragility is the result of changes in the material and structural properties of bone. A better understanding of the contribution of each component of the material composition and structure, and how these interact to maintain whole bone strength is obtained by the study of metabolic bone diseases. Disorders of collagen, of mineral content composition and distribution, disorders of remodelling and other diseases produce abnormalities in the material composition and structure that lead to bone fragility. PMID:22461157

Tranquilli Leali, Paolo; Doria, Carlo; Zachos, Alexandros; Ruggiu, Adriano; Milia, Fabio; Barca, Francesca

2009-05-01

365

Clinical application of changes of serum cytokines and hypersensitive C-reactive protein in patients with coronary heart disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study clinical application of the changes of serum cytokines and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: The levels of interleukin-1?(IL-1?), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-8(IL-8), hs-CRP (with high-sensitive enzyme immunoassay) and tumor necrosis factor ?(TNF-?) (with radioimmunoassay) in blood serum were determined in 124 patients with coronary heart disease (including 41 patients with stable angina pectoris (SA), 38 patients with unstable angina (USA) and 45 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)) and 54 normal controls, and then comparatively analysed all the data. Results: The levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in 124 patients with coronary heart disease were significantly higher than those in 54 normal controls (tIL-1?=3.145, tIL-6=3.627, tIL-8=3.054, tTNF-?=3.301, PIL-1?= 1.431, tIL-6= 1.587, tIL-8= 1.745, tTNF-?=1.461, P>0.05). The levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in 38 patients with USA and in 45 patients with AMI were significantly higher than those of in 54 normal controls (USA: tIL-1?=2.871, tIL-6=2.748, tIL-8=2.687, tTNF-?=3.145, PIL-1?=2.776, tIL-6=2.874, tIL-6=2.874, tIL-8=2.689, tTNF-?=3.212, PSA=2.617, PUSA=3.018, PAMI=3.189, P<0.01). The levels of IL-1?, IL-6,IL-8, TNF-? and hs-CRP had increasing tendency follow up the severity degree of patients with SA or USA or AMI and the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and hs-CRP in patients with AMI were highest in 124 patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: In the diagnosis of the patients with SA, USA and AMI, the determination of the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and hs-CRP in blood serum were important index, and they were references for cardiovascular happened. (authors)

366

Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were ?CT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory hypertrophy of vertical trabeculae in women, but not in men.

Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, A.S

2013-01-01

367

Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were ?CT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory hypertrophy of vertical trabeculae in women, but not in men. PMID:23899636

Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, Annemarie

2013-11-01

368

1. modification of the proliferative capacity of transplanted bone marrow colony forming units by changes in the host environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulation of the proliferation of transplanted colony forming units (CFUs) was investigated in lethally irradiated mice, pretreated by methods known to accelerate hemopoietic recovery after sublethal irradiation. Prospective recipients were exposed to either hypoxia, vinblastine or priming irradiation and at different intervals thereafter lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow. Repopulation of CFUs was determined by counting the number of splenic colonies in primary recipients or by retransplantation. Regeneration of grafted CFUs was greatly accelerated and their self-renewal capacity increased in mice grafted within 2 days after hypoxia. Also the number of splenic colonies formed by grafted syngeneic CFUs as well as by C57B1 parent CFUs growing in BC3F1 hosts was significantly increased. The effect was not dependent on the seeding efficiency of CFUs and apparently resulted from hypoxia induced changes in the hosts' physiological environment. Proliferative capacity of grafted CFUs increased remarkably in hosts receiving vinblastine 2 or 4 days prior to irradiation. Priming irradiation given 6 days before main irradiation accelerated, given 2 days before impaired regeneration of CFUs. The increased rate of regeneration was not related to the cellularity of hemopoietic organs at the time of transplantation. The growth of CFUs in diffusion chambers implanted into posthypoxic mice was only slightly improved which does indicate that the accelerated regeneration of CFUs in posthypoxic mice is mainly due to the changes in the hemopoietic microenvironment. A short conditioning of transplanted CFUs by host factor(s) was sufficient to improve regeneration. The results might suggest that the speed of hemopoietic regeneration depends on the number of CFUs being induced to proliferate shortly after irradiation, rather than on the absolute numbers of CFUs available to the organism. (author)

369

ASPECTS OF BONE TISSUE IN OSTEOPOROSIS  

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Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and its prevalence is increasing as the population grows older. The aim of this study is to highlight changes of the bone tissue which occur in osteoporosis and which affect bone quality. We identified several aspects of the bone tissue in osteoporosis such as abundant cement lines, endosteal bone resorption, the presence of thinned bone trabeculae, the presence of trabecular microfractures, the disruption of intertrabecular connectivity and marked cortical porosity. These changes influence bone quality and may contribute to increased bone fragility in osteoporosis. We also revealed periosteal apposition, which in contrast with the aspects mentioned above, has a beneficial effect on bone strength due to the addition of bone material. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and its prevalence is increasing as the population grows older. The aim of this study is to highlight changes of the bone tissue which occur in osteoporosis and which affect bone quality. We identified several aspects of the bone tissue in osteoporosis such as abundant cement lines, endosteal bone resorption, the presence of thinned bone trabeculae, the presence of trabecular microfractures, the disruption of intertrabecular connectivity and marked cortical porosity. These changes influence bone quality and may contribute to increased bone fragility in osteoporosis. We also revealed periosteal apposition, which in contrast with the aspects mentioned above, has a beneficial effect on bone strength due to the addition of bone material.

Rodica TÖRÖK-OANCE

2014-12-01

370

Bone marrow edema of the knee joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.)

371

Bone X-Ray (Radiography)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

372

Diabetes and Change in Bone Mineral Density at the Hip, Calcaneus, Spine, and Radius in Older Women  

OpenAIRE

Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have higher bone mineral density (BMD) but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S....

AnnV.Schwartz; StevenR.Cummings; TeresaA.Hillier; KristineE.Ensrud; DeborahE.Sellmeyer; HelaineE.Resnick

2013-01-01

373

Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support the application of PDT to the treatment of primary or metastatic lesions within bone. Secondly, that ALA-PDT may be useful as a treatment for osteomyelitis. Further studies aim to optimize the parameters of delivering PDT into bone and explore imaging technologies that can be used for clinical PDT.

Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

2005-08-01

374

Blood and bone marrow findings in tuberculosis in adults -A cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India. Hematolgical changes have been studied with variable results. Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of blood and bone marrow changes in tuberculosis. Methods: The peripheral blood and bone marrow changes were evaluated in hundred adult patients with tuberculosis, admitted at District Hospital, Belgaum and KLES Hospital and MRC were. Results: The peripheral blood findings seen were anemia, raised ESR, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, leucopenia, thrombocytosis and thrombocytope-nia. The bone marrow changes seen were hypercellularity , myeloid hyperplasia , erythroid hyperplasia with megaloblastic changes and reactive plasmacytosis. Another interesting finding in bonemarrow was presence of granulomas which were seen in 5% of cases of which 1 case showed positivity for acid fast bacilli on Zeihl –Neelsen stain. Conclusion: The varied hematological findings observed in tuberculosis should prompt us to consider tuberculosis as one of the differential diagnosis in patients with hematological findings.

S.R. Dafale

2012-10-01

375

Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

OpenAIRE

Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) following the treatment with individual ROS,...

Rogers, Peter J.; Bailey, Trevor D.; Victoria Lyons; Murphy, Patricia A.; O’doherty, Patrick J.; Melinda Christophersen; Higgins, Vincent J.; Wu, Ming J.

2011-01-01